Page 1



3 Linglie Mill, Level Crossing Rood, Selkirk, TDZ sEQ, www.


I i

ghtsof uk

O l99B Deryck Henley. All Rights



Pf,mkmflffi P&arytmgrap&ey Who would have thought that

We'd'also like to introduce you

in the twenty first cenfury we

to the development which led

would be cclebrating

to the present day camera.


Pinhole Camera?

Since the earliest stages of the'Camera Obscura', to the

This progression over the centuries, pays homage to the philosophers, scientisls,

high-tech modern

scholars, mathematicians

35mm camer-


as, the basics

and showmen who all contributed to


are much the

prcsent dair pho-



Here we in-

ln an era

troduce you to

whcre the digital age

the simplestform

of photography,

is taking oveq

where the lens is a basic pin-

we must nevef forget the sim-

hole. Not that

pler ways of

the results

pro jecting and capturing a moment in time, to cherish and


be in


inferior. Many pinhole photographs are exhibited in g,alleries rurd


keep forever.

museums around the world, and

You never know, in years to

sland up'4ainst more contempo-

come your photographs could


be hanging in

With this camela and some


our galleries and

guidelines described in thls book,

as'lvorls of afi'. Good luck and we hope

you can create your own photo-

this brings you

gaphs tirne and time again,

hours offun.


fire Beginning

wrote in 1637 abontision and

The hand shadow must be one of

image and it appears upside down

the Camera Obscura saying the

the simplest and earliest


ways of projecting

an ima4e. Although

we take this for granted,

Rene Descartes (1596-1650) the eye, He compared the eye to

retinais the screen of the camera.

illustrated by Frisius.

These earlier Camera obscuras wcrc rnainly usecl

On the left are various drawings

lirr astr<lnomi-

was primarily known for his workin perspective and drawing. He gave a full description of the


showing this.


czil llurposes.

ablythe first step which

Onc intcresting

led to manyscienfific experiments

leading to simple photography.

This Jamous drawing by Friseius shows clearly a Camera Obst'ura.

illustration takcn lrom a lgth cen-

Niceron wanted to show that the image size had to do with the distance

a portahle (;uncra Obscura from

the subject was away


from the lens.



used by Thomas

Keplcr ( I 57


163(D to observe the



the planet Mercury.


l(r19, Ohristopher Scheiner ( I575-

1650) demonstrated

Although these scientists and mathematicians are too numer-

in tlrc lirrm of acute. 'l'his rilso used a lens

give a simple account of the

landmarls which led to pho-

Canera Obscura and its use.

tury English lincyclopcdia, depicts

it rrxlnr-tylc Camera Obscura

ous to mention here, we will

co r le

The top drawing below shows the pyramid closer to the lens and the inverted image larger, The bottom drawing shows the

pyramid further away and the projected image on the


ct the inverted

sheet much smaller.


Athanasius Kircher (1602-1630)

tography as we know it today,

Lrlt it Kcpler's portable

We start

('ttntru Oltscura,

in t544, vtherc

1652, Jean-Francois Niceron

u,hilr ltclrtu,is

shows us in his 1646'Ars Magra lucis Et Umbra' (The GreafArt of

matician and physician called

tight and Shadow) experiments using a room-size Camera ObscuraA student of Kircher,

Gemma Frisius. He observed and

Gaspar Schott

illustrated the eclipse ofJanuary

1666) published his

24th, t544 using a Camera

'Mrgia Universalis Naturae Et Artis'

there was a Dutch mathe-


The'Camera obscura'

(min for

dark room), is where a real life

image is projected onto a flat surface through a small hole or apertnre.

This projection, as in your pinhole camera, inverts the 2



in a

r' s rlntu'in g


(Wonders of Universal Nature and Art)


1557. He clearly shows on the right here the image from outside the room inverl-



[rom the eighteenth century onwards, the Camera

Many famous artists are thought

During the nineteenth century,

to have used aCamera Obscurato

several large Camera Obscuras

Obscura became more of

cr eate an image. The s evente enth

were built as places of enter-

drawing aid. Wittr the

century Dutch painter 'Vermeer'


tainment and education.

A lot of these were built in

is thought to have worked this way. Also the German artist 'Durer' made wood cuts showing'aicls to clrawing', These methods were very helpfrrl with perspective.

places ofgreat altraction such as sea-side resorts or places Here we have examples

of some of the old Cam-

era Obscuras, most of which have long gone. Some though, still remain and are still open

help from a lens it would allow

artists and draughtsmen to accurately sketch any image they required.

to the public such as the


This meant that to achieve the required image, alandscape or

Mile, Edinburgh,

WS&rl:rif ;:,':-'t'

building for instance, they had to become more portable.

'llf.1@S$W .-.r


sign on tbe side ofthe buikling


By the end of the nineteenth


Miniature Yiew s of tbis lrne Iy Cwden Shouing all the People & Cbildren Mouing lihe Faries. Boats, Foliage,

Here left and below we have a

Flying Birds. Catlle. Horses & Car iages, aauing Flags Elc. Friends can

picture advertised in 1897 as 'Deans Solar Sketchette'. You

be Recognized altboagb so remarh-

ably small as to a.ppear extremeb) Iaughable. It Sbous eaerything on

simply put the drawing paper into

tbe Garden as

the base of the camera and inserted your hand through the cloth sleeve and



the great union callrr"u^^t

commercial Camera Obscuras avzilable. These were simple boxes with a sliding lens for

Douglas in the Isle of Man,

focusing. Many ingenious ways

Agiant cameradfte Cliff

the Clifton Observalory in

Bristol all in the IIK

were adapted to draw the image

House in San Francisco and one

you could see.

in Santa Monicain the USA



great beauty.



The First Cameras

The First images Tbe earliest known photograPh is credited to a wealthy French callc d. Jo sep h N i cep h ore Nie|cs (1765-1839. He crcated this image called 'View from

Ian cnr ner

the window at Gras'in 1826, The photograPb was nnde on top ofNiepce's bome using a peutet plate sensitise d u i tb Judea. Takenfrom a Camera Obscura, the exposure was eigbt hours long.

William Henry Fox Talbot, be-

With the

tvteen 1844 and 1860 was instru-


mental in advancing the process


sensitive material' during the early


nineteenth century this

Talbot madc nnny exPuiments.

was to change the Camera Obscura

In kte 1835 at his home in England, he produced tbis phongraph ofanindan at his

into the simple

The first cameras

plate cameras. kr 1900, Eastnan


infoduced fte now farnous 'Box

with the

Brovmie u'hich was sold for $1 in the USA and five shillings in


opment of pho-

England It sold over 100,000 in

tography. Early


camefas wefe


fairly crude

This was to become the demise of


pinhole photograpfur

These improved

using beautiful timber such as teak and mahogany

with finely engineered brass fittings.

Betrly cameras kke tbese ex-

arnples uere band-made.

Although cameraswere

picture aboue is tbe'tr[ot$etrap' camera


home tahen ui,tb a Cmnera

cunetL. Earlylight sensitive

or photographic materials were very

slow to react to light.


To compensate for this a

from \ W

lens was added to the camera to

increase the 'aperture' or hole size. This helpedto shorten the time

it took taking a picture without los-

Sir William

ing the picture darityor focus,

Crookes, John Spiller

This was to mean tha pure pin-

and Villiam de Wiveleslie

hole photography took more of a back seat while photography


using a lens progressed.


There were a few pinhole camera

Probably one of the oldest was an English Archaeologist called

pioneers though. Sir David Brews-


all in England were

early pioneers

to try pinhole

ter, an English scientist, was one of the first to make pinhole photo

Flinders Petrie (1853 -1942).

grapts in the 1850's. He was dre one

in the 1880's, he produced many pinhole photograhs.

to create the



During his excavations in Egypt


prodaced Kodah

and a'Komhi'

S"i***x$u.$ L*


ffiffi#:&% \ re


hlmaddnpfiltedcrn-' w:Sllr azsilnwwdesignedto "'-:--#

it. Eastrnan's Kodak pocket camera was the use

fust mass-produced version and was inexpensive c ompared with

\Pubtisbed in an Amuican







The Principles

With a camera,

In a darkened

the brighter the

Having shown you the history of

for this is that the optical image

room, it is diffi-

the camera, here we show you

is made up of tiny 'circles of

cult to see objects

the exposure.

simply how it works.

confusion'. When the circles of

clearly. In fact in a


confusion are small enough, they

All light travels in straight lines,

light, the shorter

rflera, unlike a

are called 'points' and the optical

cafircrawith a lens, has an 'infi-

image is considered to be in

completely dark room you can Sun ralts trauelling i.n straight lines. rays travelling wave your arms in front of your outwards from a light source

nite' depth offocus.

focus. Therfore, points offocus.

faceandsee nothing!

the'pinhole' with the right size hole will keep all the

A pinhole

image in focus.

pinhole creates areas of confu-

i'"-_" ,I " r,;-]'..-

You will probably notice if you take a photograph of a person

sion the same size as the pinhole

i !

close up, the background becomes blurued. A clear or sharp image is known as'in focus'and

These little circles of confusion

blurred image is known as 'out

Experiment by constructing the

The pinhole


This means


c mera has infinite depth of field because the

lines through the



I da II ":,'"'-.";.:c,--, I




all over the inside of the camera. ..*

are small enough to be regarded as points of focus.

camera in this kit and leave off the

of focus'.

whether it is the sun, a light bulb

Iight rays trauel in strai,ght



or candle. When these rays hit an

same way

object they are reflected again in

our eyes are

straight lines. What we see with


designed to see, a camera needs

our eyes is the object illuminated

fight to work. Any form of white llght is alright, but like your eyes,

with reflecedlight.

the brighter the light the easier you see.

When you create a pinhole in

clmetl, the light rays diverge from a light source. They continue to diverge aft er passing

Experiment shotaing how the pinhole ueates an inf,nate depth offeld.

To experiment with this, poke pinhole in a thin sheet of




fingers a few inches in front the pinhole. You should see


The smaller the hole, the longer the

exposure time is needed, but the sharper the image will be. likewise

over the back of the cafircra,.

In a darkened room point

the larger the hole, the shorter the


exposure and the image

carflera towards a light source

catled (inverted). All the



less sharp.


proiected ttrough the camera will

A simple scientific explanation be in focus. 8



and put a sheet of semi{ranspar-

your both and the image will appear upside the same clarity, therefore both down and back to front infinite depth of field.


back plate. Insert the black card

finger and the background

will be 'in focus'. This is


pinhole until theyhit the backplate

mateial and hold this close to ent paper such as tracngpaper one eye (if you wear glasses, or household greaseproofpaper take them off). Hold one of


With tracingpaper ouer the back ofthe open camera

lou uill

see the image.

It is important to get the hole as round and as clean as possible to allow the light rays to pass through the hole as straight as possible.

The Processing

Recording the Image

Modern photographic chemicals


have progressed

incredibly since

What actually records the image

silver and this area of the

in a currcra is a piece of pho-

be almost transparent.

the first stages ofphotography.

tographic film or paper. This is

This explains why the first part

All photographic chemicals

coaed with chemicals which are

of a black and white photograph

sensitive to light.

you have when you do your own

must be used with care and we strongly advise you to follow the

Black and white and colour film

developing is a negative.

safety instructions on page 18.

differ considerablyin their make-

A negative is where all the black parts of an image appear white

To achieve animage onto pho-

up so we will con-

tograhic paper once the film has been exposed to light, it is helful to understand the chemistry of de-

developer is less effective. To prevent this from happening a

solution, usually sodium sulphite is added.

Restrainer: To prevent the developer converting the halides which have not been effected by the light, a restrainer is added. This is called potassium bromide.




black and


white being the simpler


per that

veloping film.

of the two.

the final



the light.To remove

One side of




blackandwhite film is coated with gelatin, this

made on,

developer con-

just like the film, is

is called the onthetefiistbe emUlSiOn.


negatiue alongside the positiue.

light. This is

Agent: A,chemical

To make a print from a negative,

silver bromide and silver iodide.

light has to pass through the

These are all called silver halides.

negative onto apiece

When natural light falls on these

sitive paper. This is usually done

crptals they are altered byit. The more light tha falls on them, the

by projecting light through the negative, but a simpler method

more they are affected.

is by contacting the negative

Vften a film is taken out of a

directly onto the paper.

cmnerl and put into developing liquid, all the crystals on which the light fell turn into metallic silver. So where a lot of light appea$ on the film (for example

Like the process in creating


light reflecting on water), there

oflight sen-

a negative, by projecting light

through this onto the second p^per, the light areas of the negative are allowed to hit the silver halides. Here we are creating another nega-

little or no conversion to metallic

is called a'positive'.


tive of a negalive, but as you can't have a double nega.tive,

halides which can


be affectedby

film is put into a soution of sodium

the halides, *re

compound capable of chang-

ammonium) This is called the fixer and may also

ing the exposed grains of silver halide into black metalic silver.

have potassium metabisulphate

There are a few chemicals which

ing action and prevent any

will do this, but the most suitable for our use are hydroquinone and metol or phenidone. Alhali Accelorafor: Developing


added to to stop the develop-

Washing The film is finally washed in

in an alkali

water to remove unwanted silver

solution. The degree of alkalinity

halides and any chemicals remaining in it. The image is now minute grains of silver.

agents work best

controls the quality of the negalive,

Preseruatiue: A solution containing the developer and alkali tends to go brown through oxidtzation. When this happens the

will be a dense patch of metallic silver. Where a little or no light has struck the film there will be

and untouched silver

main agents.


also trealed wittr silver halides.

holds amixture of metalic silver

sists of four

sensitive to

in this are salt crystals made up of silver chloride, pended

After the stop bath, the emulsion

These appear black because they are so small they do not reflect the light.


The Cannsra

tale one of &e lss two pieces {they shouldbethesffie) and glue onia lhs

alh,E'&sdrr&rcowrs b*scrwedon. Taks cne sf the *i*e piece* and

workwithrpt gtrue

) tn. *"irri

drill hole *hcr:ld be * lh* npleftafthe luge hdf to

Ihe esmsr* lncludsal in dd$ box bes be€{r dsrigrsd t0


n*ils, and of

b*se. Ifyon {f,e rCIt gluing, danl warrg

iusmmtihe eideson

frrefulh, lock the gfooves into the




front piece s{

ligbr fighr,

tlrc cffaer*"





mmerass*&er), There is nothkg to $top y*u

{Saiil lr}rki{rts &e dd*

thcu$ fom ghitrg {rs sids and



yon wa*l

somelhing rnorc permnn*nt. Take the honl piect of the (tfte piece with




tlin vpare

will rllaw th* phslopur

graphic p{per to sltde kio

eamwa*sily, lf you have som*

enclod snts the $urer




the blackcard andfold

it along the crcas€s. Fold the


back fl*p* *s ilfu& trated.


itvill hdp if you dek

tee fixpsdawn.

OSlide the black paper


Ointo the camera with the opmhgbfubtr;kdihetus€*n AThe last piece of wood

snoufi uasity lock in ro com-

tn. hd) should simply drop ontc the c*mera and



I ***o

the fuole cut in


the *sslera. $tick the iabel


piw d

tnally the last side

the small

the bole and scren rhis

into the pilothole ontl*e&u*of


llrc mmera {t&e gm*wn will be *re wneasfufront$md ffnd


bc*e togetler

ihe ba.x,


keep the elaSic


nalrc it li$t {S1!Fnt both 0f ths slartic bands *rcnrd the

it] " Ihe snall

$des, the base and t&e CIp of lhe casrcra" Ifyou haven't used Sl$e tlth

qill hold it

all*ryethm"Ifyouhme used glue, you



lo hsld &e lid

$llh knepirlishrsghll

Sluingastrip of paper on top of the


card box will help when


unlmding the phnhgrrphic pqer from *recarnera Use

&is to sirnply to prll the blaek baxout, csp*cially

if tlm base of thecarnera ts glued-


*ac&rdll*c* *e; 13

Ihe Darkroom Essentials: Safelight, whitelight, J

In thewinter, almostanyroom can he used at

Non Essentials (but nice)

closed. During the lighter months,

Music (but no Telwision)



Before you can proceed with the

Developer, Fixer, Small acetate

first task of 'loading' the camera

Sheet, rilflater, Photographic Paper

to take your first picture, you need

ond finally a'Darft troom'.

a darlaoom and a safelight.


A word of caution; no safelight is totally safe for light sensitive

Tongs, a Clock or Wach *rat shows

Seconds. Measuring Container, Pegs or Clips.

materials. Some light sensitive malerials are only safe wi*r a red to orange light for only a few minutes. This should be sfficient

time to load the paper in the cameta and develop it. Though with the photographic paper enclosed you should have a bit


extra time if you need it.

The Darkroom This sinplyis aroomyou

can completely darken whidr no w{rite ligfrt can perleft?Ie.

bulb inside (the recom-

mended maximum is only



room with a small window which

Be careful that the plastic is red

easilybe'blacked' out, such

and notjust painted as this is usu-


Waterproof Gloves, theezers or

nightwith the curtains


as a bathroom which is ideal as


ally not safe enough.

there is usually a cellar or base-

will need to get used to working in a low red light and it may

ment or a cupboard under the

take a minute or two for your

stairs which may be suitable.


Please ensure though that the

selves to the dark.

darkroom is completely dark as the slightest light wil spoil your



runningwater. In older houses

photographic paper.

The Safelight As

we mentioned before, a safe-

li$t can be red to orange which will generally protect the


to acclimatise


A bedside light or desk lamp are

idealwith a 60 waft bulb. A ceiling light would also work but it is better to take off the shade.

photographic paper while

loading the camera and developing the imIfyou are using a room with a small hole, you can age.

put red cellophane over

it to create a safelight. Other easy methods are covering a torch which is eqpecially usefirl in areas without electricity Also a red bicycle lamp or red tajl light from a car would work but


needs a very low


switching on the whitelight.

from the hole to the photograhic paper), the ratio is 1:3, or F/3.

Nowyou're ready to shoot!

For example, a number

Thking a Photograph

needle is .18" and if used with a

its time to make the'pinhole'and

Before you take your photograph,

5" focal length, then:

loading the camera for your first

you need to determine how long


you need to expose the paper to

Taking a Photograph Now you should have


a Darkroom and Safelight. Now

photographic paper pack before

Loading the Light Sensitive Material

get a good

Creating the Pinhole You shouldnowhaveyour

camera completed with the black

Make sure your eyes become acclimatised to working in this light,

You need

card insert in place. Now you

to have the

need to find the


needle from the

ready with


the opening of the black box to the

Nowpush the pin through the black


to the centre

shown on

of *re hole

page 13.

asyou can.

Open the

Make as



Technically there is



the correct

exposufe. The focal length is the distance

from the pinhole to the photographic paper. So if the hole is one inch in diameter and the focal length is 3 inches (distance

these sort of calculations, so we have created some approximate

guidelines depending on bright

sun, sunlight, overcast, dull dayltght and interior roomlight. Remember, these are onlyguide-

lines and experimentation is encouraged, particularly with your pinhole size.

there will


be a black bag

to'round'the hole without


and inside

the needle and as cleanly

making it any



containing the light sensitive paper. Pull one sheet

fully down the

bigger thantheneedle.

out and slide it

If your hole becomes ragged or you need to $e te a smaller hole, don't worry. A little strip of insulation tape (electricians black vinyl) is good.

back of the camera. Make sure the shiny side (emulsion) is facing the front of the camera. Put back the camera lid and replace the fwo elastic bands

make sure thal the mate-

around the camerato hold the lid

rial for the hole is not too thick

on firmly. Don't forget to close the


is called an'Aperture',

bui don't worrv! We don't expect you to make










back of the

card as close

clean a

.018 - tntt Complicated isn't it,

The pinhole in photographic terms

for determining


In the darkroom, load the paper with the shiny side towards the front of the camera.The safelight should not be closer than4-5 feetfromthe light sensitive paper.


Exposure guidelines based on size 10 needle (pin).

What to Photograph


Whatever takes your fancywithin reason, but there are afewthings

to remember,

We must first outline that the dJveloping agent is an

irritant, fiust like many household chemicals) and must alwals be handled with caution and kept out of children's reach.

Pets are favourite subjects for some budding photographers,

Ifyou follow these safety guidelines, you will experience hours of fun instead of possible hours at the doctors!

but with long exposure times it

is dfficult expecting your pet to 'pose' for 30 seconds without moving. Likewise moving racing cars are definitely out!

Family and friends are good subjects as long as they can stay

Do you remember the bit about

'circles of confusion'? The smaller the pinhole with lets

lease read it all so nothing is

The simplest thing is to choose a

left to chance.



should bewelllit andwellwrtilated.

is longer.

results if the subject is of'high

The bigger the pinhole with for

contrast' which you will get in full sun. A dull daywill generally

The'Shoot' Never try to hold the camera in

your hands when you are exposing the paper, Rest

it on a

wall, table, ground or arything that is solid and won't move. Vhen you're ready, put a finger

will find you get better

dull photograph. Try standing still in front of the carnenand quickly move out of the way half way through the exposure and you will appear on grve a

the photo as a ghost!

Have Fun!


instructions and don't rush.

f)unning water should be I\close to hand for cleaning and safety.

lobstacles to work on uhich

lwavs clean work areas and


with water after

use and keep all animals from any activi!/ arca.

A nlv commence developing f)rotect vour eyes with glasses (rl*t.n you have everything l. and use the gloves and you need ready to hand and you

tweezers povided when handling

have read all the instructions.

chemicals. Always wash your


hands after use.

kit is suitable for children


12. Adults should

exercise discretion on which activities are safe and suitable for any child to do.

A Ll i..

pen all containers with


and never store them

ff andle your chemicals with Ilr.spect and care at all times.



are now ready to embark

on the exciting science of

producing your



In the case of eye contact'. wasb the eye uitb plenfi of clean wa' terfor at least 15 minutes and imnrcdiatelit seek medical afiiice' kr case of skin contacf wasb area uith smp and waterfor 5 minuta'

When the desired time is up, close the shutter and keep the carnera shut until you get back

aim your cnmeraat the subject.

1n ive yourself plenty o f \fti*e to follow the

Ifan accident should occur please follow these guidelines.

steady and open the shutter.

to the darkroom. It may help if you draw an arrow on the lid so you can accurately

a solid sudace, clcar of

near food or drink and chemicals

on top of the camera to hold



must not be put near the mouth.


'still' subject. Be artistic and experiment with different You

exposure time.


rulesareobvioustomostreaders, there will probably be something below which you didn'tthinkof(odrerwisethere would be frr fewer accidents).

still long enough,

say a number 7, the finer the definition but the exposure time

instance a number 16 needle, you will need to shorten the

Although some of these

If Chemicals are swallowed: wash the mouth and, drinkfresh water. Do not induce uomiting and seek medical ad'aice. In case of Inhalation: ntoue outdoors turtesh air. Here we show the 'ghost ffict' as described above

In cases of Iniury: seek medical aduice


Developing the Image

Make sure you have your gloves <rn

and the tweezers athand.

move it back and forth to remove any trapped bubbles.

will look slightly darker than it actually is due to

Once you have determined the

Holding the photographic paper

The negative

image on your photographic

dilufion, take off ttre seal under

paper. Before you can process

the bottle cap. Then use the cap

with the tweezers, slide it into the developer emulsion (shiny side)

the red light. Allow a few seconds

it you will need to mix the

to put the desired amount of 'capfuls'into

down and look at the time.

more to compensate for this.

After 10 seconds, turn the nega-

Generally it will take between

tive over to watch it develop. While in the developer, gently

and 2 minutes for this to develop.

Now you have 'exposed'your


It is not neces-


sary to mix the

Start off with

chemicals with

the water and

the safelight, these will not

addthe chemi-


cal. This is much safer if

ately. However,

the chemicals

the developer and fixer is


most effective

enough liquid


in each tray to allow the pho-

at a

Remember how long it took.

start to splash.

room tempera-

ture. Too cold


Mixing chemicals in whitelight


tographic pa-

and the chemicals react slowly, too hot and the chemicals 'go off' quickly.

perto submerge. Don't forget to replace the cap on the bottle, we don't wmt arry

Always wear gloves when handling chemicals.


Both developer and fixer are in

at one end, the fixer tray in the middle and the water ffay atthe

concentrated form. Different manufacturers recommend

their own ratio of dilution, so it is always advisable to

Start off with the developer tray

other end.

Developing the negative with the safelight. Put into the mixf(tce down for ten seconds and turn over and watch the image appear. The image will appear darker as you are working under a safelight.

Fixing the Negative

the the

10 seconds anda$tnteagainfor Once you think you have about 2 minutes before putting desired negative, lift it out of developer and put into the fixer, the whitelight on to check the

agunface down. Titrn over



Usually you work from the left,

check the instructions on the

but it really doesn't matter as long as you remember which


is which.

Developing the Negative strip of paper on the card box, simply pull the box up. If you didn't, you will need to Camera at hand, remove the pho-

tographic paper. Ifyou followed

the suggestion about gluing a 20

take the base off the carnera to push the box up and remove the photographic paper.

Fixing the negdtive with the safelight. Again put into the mix face down for ten seconds and turn ovet and gently agitate for about 2 minutes.


Wash Lift again and rcpett


in the water for between



terpieceuptodry.Ifyouhaven't got a line and pegs, just lay

Do not overwash as the


graphic paper will deteriorate washed too

Well done! Now hang your mas-




Switch on the whitelight (or ask a friend to do it) for only 2-3 seconds.

0runt 1001, 1002 and switch

on a surface to dry naturally

the whiretght off.

or carefully use a hair dryer or awarm rudiator.

You can also expose the contact print by opening the

d'arkroom door. If it is not a bright light outside you will need to extend the time to 4-5 seconds. Repeat exactly what you did

to create the negative


develop, fix and wash.

Tips and Problems Wash the negative in water for between I and 2 minutes. Do not ovenyash as the photographic paper will deteriorate

Contact Printing You now have a dry negalive. Now

you have to create a positive or

'print' using the negative. easiest way is to make


a' contatt'


facing down directly onto the photographic paper (emulsion to emulsion). Take the sheet of clear acrylic and

place this on top and use the two elastic bands to hold everything

in place. Make sure the

Take out a new sheet of



Developer once mixed will last

from a slightly underexposed

only one day in normal tempera-

(pale) negative,

ture. Once it starts to 'go off', it

The old saying goes, 'the

will turn from a 'pale straw'


colourto brown. Thisis causedby

is learned by experience'.

oxidisation and the chemical has become srhausted (unumble).

So be

will go from clear to pale yellow when it goes off, L very

so you shouldn't make the same

subtle change. This will usually last a few days in normal room

COMMONEXPOSURE PROBLEMS If the paper rernains white or the image is very faint

The ftrer

bands are not covering the back


of the negaive or this will show in your print. The negative and new

A slightly

Tips under exposed negative






well exposed negalive

patient and experiment, but

keep a record ofrdratyou've done

mistake twice.

Ihe gaperwas loaded in the camera


photographic pa-

will result

liglnt got


per needs to have as good a contact

negative is very pale, you will need

to increase exposure time.

The exposure was far too short.

Place this

as possible.

A slightly over exposed negative

You forgot to open the shutter.

Hold this towards your 50 watt light,

will result in a denser image. If the negative is too dark or dense,

If tlre inrye is very dak or bhk The camera has a light leak

nonearer than 1.5


will need to reduce


The paper has been exposed to


exposure time.

sureyourfingers are

You can always adjust the

light by mistake. Your exposure was far too long.

clear of the top.

contrast of your finished print


paper and close the

new sheet

on top of the camera lid emulsion (shiny side) up. Place the negative, image 22

pale image.


the u'rong way round andrery


to the emulsion.

luck 23

Further Informatian wt*trs YOu


mlT u$s$ tlptk'rluR ptrsTt){;aApr$e rapxlttso et{{$11$1"*, }'*fR tfi*Tor;&r?rff $rirmme $nOum sg a8m T0 RmL,lc& Tftst{.

Ilh*topnphle pqxr genenrlly is oniy:**il*bk i* l*rger size*" ynu will ner:d to {tif it kt tiiac }$iltg sci*$ns urder the rafill'ight" itlterilndyeh thE ehemie*l$ *an be ab*ri$ed fft$nl ft)tryislJlr!$l*xr*rlrl, fir'rv:ipl*m*i llrulir:ti{trlr{xnr.$iklilil}:i9IS ft* {}lll5,1i$5$$ **.*: h:miil$$ fh${, {ory, 15 X'rrlfu $t. Yonk*n, }iY ti}?gg :tl: gl't g$t ,{8g*






*n lmh $ritognphy ltnd pinhdeplr*i*gnrphlr Sb

ret*mmntlyou check*ith pur loeal libmry or b**lctore. Many $kneums

xnl gnlleries ktve colie*li$n-c of {dd cfrstexs and exhibits


pho*graph*rs nrldr ll&

rw**meridp*** mr#ln$ tisrt**wsr






{n rlrc Lnit*qt,Kingdsn

ilatisu{t llrwcum nf PlntopphX fi}m & }elevisi.}l

Blll l$Q, }b* $l??4 ;01 030 Outkrck Tox*r & (ar*ers Ob${ura e*stl{lri{, Sdinburs!, [fitr ?X$. ?*l: 0l3l i?6 '}?ry krynl fhttogrnphic $odety The Set*gon, $likon $1, llath, SAI UlN. Tsl CI12?5 ,i6l 8,il Thc Sox tnlbai *{*seffr l*cock, Chippirgh:ux, $'iftshire, $Nl5 ][ti. &l t]l?49 7]$ 4i9 Sr*dford. lVe*t Yl;rk*htre,


Yi*tori*&xl *Ib*rt


$*rth lk*si*gtan, londnn. $\T] ?RI" lbt {}]{}? 94il

In the United$t Ceory

f$n{n 9{X}

llomeo lnlierrrdmul





&*s;bmue, lt0.fue$$ l{Y l,l&}?. lb|:

Flxrtog$ry }?1 3j{il




hfernatisnfll {entre of Fhor*grxphy 1t3{ fifth ivens*,

$ew Y*rh SYlil.l tS. lbl: ?t? Ed0 l?7? *Iu*euru of Plrotogtnpbie Artr 1$99 lil Prailo, $albo* Pnrk, &an *i**{}. *\ S'Il0t. lbl: 61Jl :}* :t51} The{B

*r'r *l$i} * numb* *f gr:r:d *'eh*lt*s on th* hisrorl of phr*ogrrrphli {x&er*1 pinhcte photogr*ph1'{tc, fix loo ouroer\}ur !n rnenlion. Pletrs cleckm:rlleb hlnq..*n"sut* as eoogie fur *pecific l*funrxitkx.

Stlptxght O lt){}{} l}eryck }lenley. Ali ftight$ Sc*erry*d Wth




to rl*r{reiv Thomnr firr his hdp

xith &e proces*ing informn{ion.





3 linglie Mill, levelCrossing Rood, Selkirk, TD7 sEQ, www.


I i


htsof fo ncy. co. u k

@ 1998 Deryck Henley.

All Rights Reserved.

Stick this on the wall in your work area

We must

firsfly oufline dnt the developing agent is an

initant, (iust like many household chemicals) and rnust alwap be handled widr caulion and kept out ofchildrens reach.

Ifyou follow these safety guidelines, you will experience hours offun instead ofpossible hours at the doctors! f)lease


read it all so nothing


left to chance.

ffroe a solid surface, clgar of L lobstacles

to work on udrich

Sould be well lit and well wdlaed"

instructions and don't rush.

R:,:::"f,xffi'';I#l; and safety.

A lwavs clean work arcas and with water after use and keep all animals from


nlv corilnence developing (,1*t .n you have everything


you need ready to hand and you


hurercad all the instructions.

Drotect your eyes with glasses -l and use the gloves and

lTlhis ht

is suitable for children

I ou.. 12. Adults should exercise discretion on which activities are safe and suitable for any child to do.

A \,1.*.

pen all containers with great

and never store them

near food or drinkand chemicals must not be put near the mouth.

ive yourself plenty of time to follow the

acffity nea.

tweezers provided when handling

chemicals. Always wash your hands after use.

TTandle vour chemicals


reipect and care


all times.



are now ready to embark

on the exciting science of

producing your



If an accident should occur please follow these guidelines. In tlre case of eye contact:ua,sh theeJ)ewithplenty of cbanwater


at least 15 minutes and, immediately seek medical aduice.

Incasedskin conlacl;uash areawith soap ard,waterfu 5 minutes. If Chemicals are swallowed: wash the moutb and drinkfresh water. Do not induce uomiting and seek medical adaice.

In case of Inhalation'. mu)e outdoors to fresh In cases of Iniury; seek medical aduice


If you seek medical advice regarding any chemicals, plzue take the bottle with


Pinhole (Estenopeic) Photography - History and instructions  

Pinhole (Estenopeic) Photography - History and instructions - Manual

Pinhole (Estenopeic) Photography - History and instructions  

Pinhole (Estenopeic) Photography - History and instructions - Manual