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Editorial Message from the EST President EST Activities · · · · ·

EST Congress 2001 Our Website: Questionnaire Report on the Working Group ``Cognition, Process Studies and TAPs" Doctoral dissertations in Translation Studies – what do we expect? Reflections on the links between theory and ...

Discussion forum Est Directory Forthcoming events Membership fee

Editorial Over these past few years, globalization has become a central, and often polemical topic in the news. In scientific research, if the term is taken to mean access to information and to exchanges for all, not only is it uncontroversial, but it represents an objective worthy of specific efforts. And yet, it seems that individual universities, research institutions and national authorities do not consider it a priority item. In Translation Studies, in particular, many translation scholars in universities worldwide have little access to international research output, be it in the form of books and journals, or funds for participation in TS conferences. Time and again, when traveling, one meets capable and motivated colleagues who cannot cover their research topic adequately because of this isolation. One of EST's fundamental aims is to held develop research. Our financial resources do not allow us to fund 'research aid', but thanks to the internet, which is increasingly available to scholars in all countries, we may be able to help significantly by offering both web space and content. Some suggestions are made in a separate contribution to this issue. The President's questionnaire about our web site comes at the right moment and may help us think about this important topic. Electronic publication of the EST Newsletter also makes it possible to make it 'thicker'. While maintaining the present editorial line which focuses on EST activities and excludes full papers, we should be able to give members more: may we suggest in particular short methodological guidance notes and comments for beginners (see one contribution in this issue), summaries and reviews of unpublished theses and dissertations (reviews of the published ones

will be published by existing journals), notes on particularly interesting papers published recently? Contributions are more than welcome. With our best wishes to all, and looking forward to seeing you in Copenhagen at the end of the summer for a pleasant and productive Congress. The Editors

Message from the EST President Dear EST members, EST will soon be in its tenth year of existence (September 2002). During this period, we have slowly developed into a real European Society with more than 200 members from 34 countries. While looking back over these ten past years, we are also looking forward into the future. Are we still going the right way, are we using the media appropriately (see below), are we dealing with the most burning subjects? Or can we go in other ways to stimulate more discussion, more networking among ourselves, to have new relations with related associations, to approach business and the language industry to renew our fields of research? I would like to encourage all of you to offer thoughts, comments, dreams for our next congress. Together we have to face various challenges which are rapidly changing the scope of our professions, as well as the needs and the focus of our research. I am looking forward to welcoming you all to Copenhagen. Yves Gambier

EST Activities: EST Congress The third EST Congress will take place from 30 August to 1 September 2001 in Copenhagen. Its topic is Claims, Changes and Challenges in Translation Studies Congress address: EST Congress 2001 The Copenhagen Business School Dalgas Have 15 DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark Phone: +45 38 15 32 50

Fax: +45 38 15 38 60 E-mail: For updates and programme visit:

Invitation You are invited to attend the EST General Meeting scheduled on Friday 31 August 2001, at 3.00 pm at the Copenhagen Business School (room SC 033) The draft agenda is the following: 1. Adoption of the agenda 2. Adoption of the Minutes of the last General Meeting in Granada (September 1998, published in Newsletter no. 13) 3. Report of Executive Board: a. President's report b. Secretary General's report c. Treasurer's report 4. Report of the Newsletter editors 5. EST working Groups (reports) 6. Young Scholar Award 2001 (will be moved up before item 1 to start the General Meeting if the quorum of 50% has not been reached) 7. Amendments to the Constitution 8. Proposals for EST activities; appointment of EST working groups and chairpersons 9. Membership fee 10. Election of new Executive Board (presentation of candidates and vote) 11. Date and venue of next Congress 12. Any other business Right to vote Please remember that the right to vote in the General Meeting (and the right to hold office) extend only to members who have paid their membership fees. Vote by proxy Each member has one vote, which may be delegated by proxy in writing to another member. The maximum number of proxy votes that a member may hold is three. Call for nominations Nominations of candidates for the Executive Board (submitted in writing to the Secretariat) are invited by 30 July 2001. Nominees should be paid-up members who have indicated their willingness to sit on the EST Board for the next three years. Date and venue for EST Congress 2004 Proposals are also invited for a venue to hold the 2004 Congress (to be submitted in writing to the Secretariat by 30 July 2001). Proposals

Other proposals (amendments of the Constitution, new Working Groups, future activities, etc.) are also invited by 30 July 2001.

Our Website: Questionnaire I am trying to draw some conclusions from the experience of the past for the near future. And I ask you to kindly help us find an optimum solution to improve our website. Less than three years ago we agreed that a website would be welcomed by most of our members. We have implemented the site, with two distinct sections: one open to all (visited by more than 10 000 people between December 1998 and April 2001) and the other accessible only to paid up members. Our Newsletter is now in electronic form. I believe it is time to update the site to a format which best meets the wishes of most of us. Therefore, we need to know your ideas and preferences. Please take a few minutes of your time to complete the questionnaire , add your proposals and comments and return it in the coming weeks (before July 6). You may answer only some of the questions. You may answer by e-mail (to: or by mail (to: Yves Gambier, Tykistökatu 4, FIN-20520 TURKU) by mentioning the number of the question and your reply e.g. 1. never; 2. 10 times month; 3.i) d.e..3.ii) b.c... Thank you for your cooperation. Looking forward to receiving your replies. Go to questionnaire. Yves Gambier

EST Working Group Report Report on the Working Group "Cognition, Process Studies and TAPs" Studies in this field seem to have got well off the ground since I last reported about research in the EST Newsletter No. 8, May 1996. It appears that apart from individual research a number of groups have been formed. I shall briefly report about recent developments moving from north to south in Europe. I shall also mention books that have been published, but – for reasons of space - no articles. In Savonlinna Sonja Tirkkonen-Condit and Riitta Jääskeläinen have edited Tapping and Mapping the Processes of Translation and Interpreting. Outlooks on Empirical Research. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins 2000. The book includes not only Finnish research but also that of colleagues all over the world, most of them EST-members. The focus is on methodology and multidisciplinary approaches. The topics discussed range from simultaneous interpreting, subtitling, translating in pairs, the sub-skills involved in translating and interpreting, to expertise and managerial issues of task performance. Three major challenges emerge from the research as it is portrayed in this book: (1) How to maintain a clear vision of the object of the study; (2) How to ensure methodological sobriety; (3) How to transfer the emerging knowledge of expertise to translation pedagogy. In Oslo Antin Fougner-Rydning has started co-ordinating research on the translation of rhetorical figures and culturally-embedded concepts. She and her

colleagues (a PhD thesis is in progress) use Translog (see below) as a tool. Methodologically they rely on contrastive stylistics, text linguistics and cognitive linguistics. At the universities in Stockholm and Uppsala the research group TRAPROS (Translation Processes group in Sweden) has been established. It is coordinated by Birgitta Englund Dimitrova. The group focuses both on comprehension and production processes, and for their experiments they use subjects with different degrees of competence. For a theoretical background use is made of cognition, psychology, psycholinguistics and translation studies. Three PhD theses are in progress in this group. The Copenhagen group TRAP (Translation Process, at the Copenhagen Business School) have also published a book edited by Gyde Hansen: Probing the process in translation: methods and results. Copenhagen Studies in language 24. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur 1999. They use Translog, a computer program, developed by Arnt Lykke Jakobsen and Lasse Schou, that measures all pauses when a translation is typed into a computer and saves whatever has been typed thus enabling the researcher to closely follow the production of a translation. In the Copenhagen research Translog is combined with TAPs and retrospection. The articles in the book deal with a variety of topics, such as general methodological problems, critical awareness, legal texts, metaphors, time pressure, translating into the foreign language, use of dictionaries, and Translog documentation. A link has been developed between Copenhagen and Mainz/Germersheim. Gyde Hansen and Hans Hönig have studied the effect of time pressure on translation using Translog and its documentation of various types of pauses in combination with retrospective interviews. They compared the strategies and results of students of different cultural (Danish and German) environments. Presentación Padilla in Granada is involved in a National Research Project in the Department of Cognitive Psychology of the University of Granada. For the last few years they have focused on comprehension and working memory in professional interpreters comparing professionals with bilinguals and novices. An international group has formed in Oslo, co-ordinated by Antin Fougner Rydning, with the name EPERTISE (Expert Probing through Empirical Research on TranslatIon procesSEs). Its goal is to identify strategies that lead to quality translations, thus finding out about expertise in human translation. Its members (most of them belong to EST) are Birgitta Englund Dimitrova (Stockholm), Arnt Lykke Jakobsen (Copenhagen), Kerstin Jonasson (Uppsala), Paul Kussmaul (Mainz/Germersheim), Antin Fougner Rydning (Oslo), Bård Sandvei (Oslo), Sonja Tirkkonen-Condit (Savonlinna), Beate Trandem (Oslo). Apart from research groups there are still a number of "lone wolfs". In Tampere there is Jürgen Schopp who tries to find out in which phase of the translation process typography becomes a relevant aspect. In Moscow there is Valentin Shevchuk who focuses on the comprehension process making use for methods of cognitive linguistics. In Mainz/Germersheim there is Paul Kussmaul who has been investigating creative problem solving in translation making use of TAPs. This has resulted in a book: Kreatives Übersetzen. Tübingen Stauffenburg 2000. Louise Brunette from Montreal wrote to me saying she is desperately looking for someone interested in working with TAPs applied to the revision of translations. I have written this report on the basis of the answers I received on my e-mail request in September 2000 for which I made use of the EST directory subject index. If there are any EST members whom I have failed to contact or

members who recently found they are interested in process studies, please contact me, so that I can add an addendum in the next Newsletter. Paul Kussmaul

Doctoral dissertations in Translation Studies - what do we expect? As this Newsletter appears, the final referees' assessments are coming in for the EST Young Scholar Award. The winner will be announced at the Copenhagen Congress. Reading these assessments, I am struck by something that would deserve a wider discussion. There seems to be quite a divergence of opinions and traditions, in different countries, about what a PhD in Translation Studies should look like, about what is expected and required. In particular, there are differences concerning the extent to which a doctorate should include a very extensive, general survey of the literature, or just a selection of previous research that is relevant to a given argument or hypothesis. Should a thesis just show that the student is familiar with the field ( - a demonstration of knowledge), or should it contain something new ( - a demonstration of creative thinking)? Some universities seem to take a PhD to be an indication of what the student has read, and value breadth; others stress the importance of making an original contribution, and value depth. Some expect about 500 pages, others may accept less than 200. These differences obviously go beyond our own field, and have to do with higher education systems in general. Would it be good for Translation Studies if we could arrive at more of a consensus within our own field, I wonder, about what a doctorate is expected to be? Andrew Chesterman

Reflections on the links between theory and empirical components in doctoral dissertations* * The following is an example of a short methodological contribution intended for young scholars. Similar contributions on other topics are invited. When reading doctoral dissertations with a theoretical and an empirical part in TS, I am struck by the fact that the links between the two components are generally of three different types as set out below, but that authors often seem to be uneasy about it. The 'canonical' link Theory can be used strictly in order to develop hypotheses which are tested in the empirical part. This seems to be considered the canonical link, and in the eyes of some, the 'noblest', or even the only legitimate standard, just as experimental hypothesis-testing seems to be considered by some the 'noblest' or only 'truly scientific' type of empirical research. The neighborhood link Theory is sometimes used as a background on the topic, and the empirical part has a 'neighborhood relationship' with it, not a functional relationship: it could

well be undertaken without any reference to the theoretical part. The framework link Theory may also serve as a general framework for hypotheses which are tested, but findings do not have implications on the status of the theory by strengthening or weakening it. This seems to be the most problematic case to some scholars, who insist that in the empirical part, they test the theory. One very simple way to see that this is not the case is to check whether the hypotheses which are tested are actually a logical extension of this theory, or whether they could clearly stand alone (without it), or be based on a different theory. In the latter case, by claiming that their empirical endeavor tests their theory, authors make a reasoning error, and this may have a deleterious effect on how they are assessed as scholars. The source of the problem often lies in the excessive awe inspired by canonical views of science, which are not always in line with reality. While the canonical link is indeed respectable, it is not the only legitimate one. In many empirical disciplines, much research is done on the basis of simple implicit theory, so simple or well known that it needs not be re-explained in every text reporting empirical research. It is also legitimate and useful to explain the theoretical framework which guides an empirical endeavor, without there being a canonical link between the two. Finally, since in most university departments where doctoral dissertations on Translation are done, a theoretical part is required by convention, it is also legitimate to write it as a peaceful neighbor of the empirical component. The scientific nature of an empirical investigation is essentially dependent on rigorous thinking. As long as this is not jeopardized, non-canonical relationships between the theoretical and empirical components of the dissertation are legitimate and should not cause uneasiness. Daniel Gile

Discussion forum Using the Web to help isolated translation scholars - suggestions and questions As explained in the editorial, many translation scholars do not have access to the literature and to other scholars worldwide. What can we do for them? The good news is that most of them seem to have access to the Internet, either through their university or individually. It therefore makes sense to use the Web, more specifically the EST Web site, to offer them both content they may find useful, and space for content they may wish to offer the community to make their existence and activities known. On the other hand, such content has to be produced and/or managed in such a way that it can meet quality and convenience requirements, and human resources have to be used sparingly if the project is to be viable in the long run. Which means that content to be offered on the Web has to be selected, and that certain rules will have to be followed. With respect to content, ideally, I would see the following new sections on our Web site:

1. A "Recent Publications" section, with full references and microsummaries of up to several lines of texts only. "Recent" could mean up to 5 years of age. The items could be divided up into "Books", "Papers", "Theses and Dissertations", "Reviews", in a classification similar to that of the IRN Bulletin (see 2. A "Text Review" section, reviewing noteworthy theses, dissertations, papers, and occasionally books. Some reviews could possibly be published in the Newsletter first, and then archived in the "Text Review" section. 3. A "Bibliographical links" section, hooked up to personal and institutional Web pages of translation scholars and institutions providing bibliographical information. This would allow colleagues and institutions worldwide to present their own bibliographical information according to their own standards, which may differ from those of the EST Web site. 4. A "Personal Introduction" section, where colleagues could briefly introduce themselves, their organizations and their requirements. This section could include links to these colleagues' own Web sites for more information. 5. An "Events" section, where conferences, congresses etc. would be announced, and possibly reviewed by participants, again with links. Ideally, content and links would be provided both from within EST and from without, including those isolated scholars, once they are told about EST and the space which is available for them. However, in order for the project to be viable, a number of conditions must be met, in particular the following: a. These sections should be dynamic, with periodical updates. b. Volunteers should be found to provide content for the updates c. A webmaster should be found to upload the content and manage the site d. The amount of content should not exceed the available space, nor the webmaster's capacity. Do we have any volunteers to act as webmasters, and to provide content for individual sections? Any further comments and suggestions? Daniel Gile

EST Directory The Directory is available on the EST homepage at Please inform the Secretariat of any changes your address. New EST members The following colleagues have joined EST since January 2001: Marta Abuin, Madrid, Spain Valentina Aldegheri, Florence, Italy

Etilvia Arjona, Miami, USA Frans De Laet, Brussels, Belgium Jorge Diaz Cintas, London, UK Ritva Hartama-Heinonen, Kouvola, Finland Bente Jacobsen, Aarhus, Denmark Hanne Jansen, Copenhagen, Denmark Jarmo Harri Jantunen, Savonlinna, Finland Hilary Keller, Oulu, Finland Orieb Masa'deh, Durham, UK Damian Pajnkiher, Markovci, Slovenia Sona Preloznikova, Nitra, Slovakia Leena Salmi, Helsinki, Finland Thorsten Schröter, Karlstad, Sweden Etienne Sita, Oudtshoorn, South Africa Beate Trandem, Oslo, Norway David Wilmsen, Cairo, Egypt

Forthcoming events CETRA summer session 2001 From 10 to 26 September, the XIIIth CETRA summer session will take place at the Scuola Superiore Traduttori Interpreti San Pellegrino (Misano Adriatico, Italy). Mona BAKER (UMIST, UK) is the 2001 CETRA Professor, and the team of CETRA supervisors ( with several previous CETRA-professors will again support the research activities and research planning of a international group of young researchers who prepare their Ph.D. or Post-Ph.D. projects under international supervision. For all information about application, enrolment, detailed programmes, watch the (updated) CETRA website, and/or write to: José Lambert

Saarbrücker Symposium 2001 Saarbrücker Symposium 2001 as Euroconference, 15-17 March 2001, Saarbrücken, Germany Translation and Interpretation in Science and Technology: Models, Methodology and Machine Support Organized by the Advanced Translation Research Center (ATRC) - Prof. Dr. Heidrun Gerzymisch-Arbogast, co-ordination: Stella Neumann. Further information available from: Universität des Saarlandes, FR 4.6 Stella Neumann, Postfach 15 11 50 D-66041 Saarbrücken Telephone +49/681/302-4133 or -4248 Fax +49/681/302-4850 E-mail:


The Second Dublin International Conference on Translation Studies Dublin City University, Ireland, 9-11 May 2002 Brave New Words: Translation and the New Economy The organisers of the Second Dublin International Conference on Translation Studies invite papers under the subject headings (i) Translator training, (ii) Translation and Technology, (iii) Interpreting, (iv) English as a World Language, (v) World Literature, (vi) Translation, Interpreting and Multimedia. Abstracts of 300 words should be sent by e-mail to before 31 August 2001. Abstracts should include name, affiliation and current e-mail address of the contributor. All postal correspondence should be sent to: Dr Eithne O'Connell, School of Applied Language and Intercultural Studies, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland.

Membership fee for 2001 The membership fee for 2001 is DM 40,- (= 20 Euro) for ORDINARY MEMBERS, and DM 145,- for SUPPORTING MEMBERS (sponsors). The fee is due by 31 March each year. In case you have not yet paid your fee, please do so at your earliest convenience! Please make your payment to the EST Treasurer, Radegundis STOLZE by Euro-cheque to the order of: EST c/o Ms R. Stolze EST Treasurer Prinz-Christians-Weg 11 D-64287 Darmstadt Germany (Please send cheques to the TREASURER, NOT to the EST Secretariat!!)

or: by Bank transfer to Sparkasse Darmstadt (Bank code: 508 501 50) Account no. 500-2990 ("EST") (Please make sure that bank charges "on your side" are covered!)

or: by international money order (where still available) to

Radegundis Stolze, EST Treasurer (see address above)

=> On any payment, please indicate your name and the membership year! In Austria only (!): Bank transfer to P.S.K. (Ă–sterr. Postsparkasse) (Bank code: 60 000) Account no. 79.058.588 ("EST")

=> For payment by VISA credit card via the EST Treasurer, please contact the EST Treasurer, Radegundis Stolze (see address above), or use the form in the printed version of the EST Newsletter.

Est newsletter 18 2001  
Est newsletter 18 2001