2013 43 est nl

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NEWSLETTER Edited by Łucja Biel (Warsaw) and Kyriaki Kourouni (Thessaloniki) European Society for Translation Studies


Of special interest Minutes of the EST GM

Dear EST members,

New committee members 2016 EST Congress in Aarhus New EST committee - Glossary Committee International Doctorate in TS Hot topics - Accessibility

Contents Word from the President


Initiatives by the Board


EST Activities


Hot Topics in TS




Recent TS Events: Personal Reports


TS initiatives


New Publications


Membership Information


We are happy to present the November 2013 issue of the EST Newsletter. This issue was prepared by members of the EST Executive Board: Łucja Biel, Kyriaki Kourouni and Anthony Pym. We would like to express our extreme gratitude to Aline Remael, the Newsletter co-editor from 2010 to 2013, for her excellent work. We also warmly welcome Matilde Nisbeth Jensen of Aarhus University, who will be co-editor starting from the next issue. The Newsletter brings you the latest news on EST activities, TS initiatives and publications. The highlights of EST activities and initiatives are presented in the Word from our President, which includes special thanks for Gyde Hansen and the organisers of the EST symposium in Germersheim — Dilek Dizdar, Silvia Hansen-Schirra and Michael Schreiber. More details can be found in the “Initiatives by the Board” section, which covers the updated composition of the Executive Board and EST Committees, minutes of our last General Meeting, a summary and photos of the Germersheim congress, and announcement of the next congress in Aarhus in 2016. The section on EST Activities bears testament to the ongoing work of our committees, including news about our brand new Glossary committee, chaired by Maria Teresa Musacchio, and the 2013 winners of the Young Scholar Prize and the Translation Prize. We also include calls for the 2014 grants: the Summer School Grant, the Event Grant and the Book Purchase Grant. Finally, you will find a report from the Doctoral Studies Committee on its new structure and its proposal for an International Doctorate in Translation Studies. The Hot Topics section is devoted to “accessibility”. It comprises four reports on exciting audio-description projects: “Translating Music” by Lucile Desblache,

November 2013 No. 43 “Audio Description: Lifelong Access for the Blind (Adlab)” by Iwona Mazur and Christopher Taylor, “Feasibility of audio description scripts” by Anna Jankowska and Agnieszka Szarkowska, and “The Joining the Dots project on accessible filmmaking” by Pablo Romero Fresco. The section on recent TS events comprises two personal reports: one by Jonathan Downie on the Germersheim Congress, which focuses on the panel on Translation and Interpreting in Religious Settings, and the other by Maria Piotrowska on the Krakow MCCTE conference on translator training. The main highlight of the TS initiatives section is the call for papers for the EST-endorsed conference Translation

Research for Industry and Governance TRIG, which will take place 11-12 December 2014 in Leuven. The final sections contain abstracts of TS books and special issues of TS journals. Thanks are due to all the EST members who have contributed to this Newsletter. We invite you to submit your ideas, suggestions, comments and contributions for the May 2014 Newsletter via secretarygeneralEST@gmail.com.

Łucja and Kyriaki Łucja Biel

University of Warsaw

Kyriaki Kourouni

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki


Word from the President Just in case you who were not there, the 7th EST Congress in Germersheim was big, and fun, and had superb plenary speakers, numerous great workshops, with hundreds of occasions for networking – which is part of what big congresses are for. On behalf of the EST, I can only extend our hearty congratulations and sincere thanks to the entire organizing committee, especially the co-chairs Dilek Dizdar and Silvia HansenSchirra, and not forgetting our contact person for the past three years, Michael Schreiber. During the congress, we had our EST General Meeting, the minutes of which are included in this volume of the Newsletter. The meeting elected a new Executive Board, comprising Alexandra Assis Rosa (Vice President), Łucja Biel (Secretary General), Isabelle Robert (Treasurer), Iwona Mazur, Kyriaki Kourouni, Michael Boyden, Carol O’Sullivan, and Helle V. Dam (representing the next congress), with myself as President, for which I am truly grateful. Among the main decisions taken at the congress was the nomination of the University of Aarhus as the venue for our next congress, on 15-17 September 2016. The extremely professional presentation made by Helle Dam at the Germersheim meeting promises a superbly organized event. Other initiatives have been taken by the current Executive Board since its election. The Doctoral Studies Committee has been extended to include a very international Advisory Committee, with a view to establishing the network for an International Doctorate in Translation Studies. And a new Glossary Committee has been set up, charged with developing an online glossary of Translation Studies terms, hopefully with the participation of all EST members. A full list of all the current committee members is included in this newsletter. We are also seeking to standardize the selection criteria used for our various prizes and awards, and we are working on ways to restructure our fees so as to encourage more members among young researchers, doctoral students and scholars in low-income countries. The main policy aim for the next three years will be to encourage greater participation by members. We are growing, we are giving out grants and prizes, we

have cash in the bank, but our general members do not really participate in our activities, except perhaps some Liking and Tagging on Facebook (yes please: if you were at the Germersheim congress, please tag some photos here: https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set =a.653966914638277.1073741827.153592 488009058&type=3). We are hoping that greater member involvement will come from initiatives like the collaborative glossary of Translation Studies terms, the network for promoting excellence in doctoral training, and new awards like our annual grant for the translation of research. If you have ideas about how we can further stimulate grassroots interaction, please let us know.

Anthony Pym

Our special thanks to Gyde Hansen

One of the members to step down from our regular committees this year is Professor Gyde Hansen of the Copenhagen Business School, who has been serving on the Young Scholar Award Committee. This is a very significant changing of the guard, and should not go without due recognition. Gyde was Vice President of the EST from 2004 to 2010, a member of the EST Executive Board from 1998 to 2010 (that makes twelve years!), and served on our Summer School Committee and Literature Grant Committee. She was organizer of the third EST congress in Copenhagen in 2001 (and co-editor of the proceedings), Chair of the Scientific Committee of the 5th ESTCongress in Ljubljana in 2007 (and coeditor of the proceedings), and Chair of the Scientific Committee of the 6th ESTCongress in Leuven in 2010. We are extremely grateful for those long years of service and dedication, laying the foundations of the work we are doing now. Professor Hansen continues as a member of our Advisory Board.

Anthony Pym


Initiatives by the Board Executive Board 2013-2016

Anthony Pym President BA Hons in Comparative Literature (Murdoch), PhD in Sociology (EHESS, Paris) Professor of Translation and Intercultural Studies, Universitat Rovira i Virgiili, Tarragona.

Alexandra Assis Rosa Vice-President BA in English and German Studies, MA in German Literature, PhD in Translation Studies (Lisbon) Assistant Professor, Faculty of Letters, University of Lisbon.

Łucja Biel Secretary General MA in English/Translation (UJ Kraków), PhD in Linguistics (Gdańsk) Assistant Professor, Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw Visiting Lecturer, MA in Legal Translation, City University London.

Isabelle Robert Treasurer MA in English-Dutch-French Translation (Mons), PhD in Translations Studies (Antwerp). Lecturer, University of Antwerp.

Iwona Mazur MA and PhD in English (Translation Studies) (Adam Mickiewicz University) Assistant Professor, Department of Translation Studies, Faculty of English (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland) Head of Postgraduate Studies in Specialised Translation.

Carol O'Sullivan BA Hons in Italian and French (Trinity Dublin), MPhil in European Literature (Cambridge), PhD in Modern and Medieval Languages (Cambridge) Senior Lecturer in Translation Studies, University of Bristol.

Kyriaki Kourouni BA Hons in English (Thessaloniki), MA in Translation (Surrey), DEAandPhD in Translation and Intercultural Studies (Universitat Rovira i Virgili) Senior Teaching Fellow in Translation, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

Michael Boyden BA (Leuven), MA (Leuven) PhD in Language and Literature Studies (Leuven) Senior lecturer, Department of English, Uppsala University, Sweden.

Helle V. Dam Chair of 2016 EST Congress in Aarhus MA in Spanish for specialized purposes, translation and interpreting (Aarhus), PhD in Interpreting Studies (Aarhus) Professor in Interpreting and Translation Aarhus University.


EST Committees 2013-2016

Book Purchase Grant Committee

Doctoral Studies Committee Steering Committee

Ágnes Somló (chair) MA in History, MA in English Language and Literature, and in Teaching (Eötvös Loránd University) Assistant professor, head of translation programmes, Pázmány Péter Catholic University, Hungary Writer, literary translator, editor.

Rachel Weissbrod BA in Comparative and English Literature (Tel Aviv University) MA in English Literature (Tel Aviv University) PhD in Translation Studies (Tel Aviv University) Senior Lecturer in the Department of Translation and Interpreting Studies, Bar Ilan University.

Ton Naaijkens PhD in German Literature, professor of German Literature and Translation Studies, Universiteit Utrecht, head of the Dutch-Flemish Centre of Expertise in Literary Translation.

Iwona Mazur MA and PhD in English (Translation Studies) (Adam Mickiewicz University) Assistant Professor, Department of Translation Studies, Faculty of English (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland) Head of Postgraduate Studies in Specialised Translation.

Reine Meylaerts (chair) MA in French and Italian Linguistics and Literature, PhD in Translation Studies (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven) Professor of Comparative Literature, Director of CETRA Center for Translation Studies, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

Müge Isiklar Kocak MA in Translation Studies (Warwick), PhD in Translation Studies (Bogazici) Assistant Professor, Department of Translation and Interpreting, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey. Yves Gambier PhD in Linguistics (Rouen) Professor and Head of the Centre for Translation and Interpreting, University of Turku, Finland.

Christina Schäffner MA in Foreign Language Teaching for Adults, English and Russian (Leipzig), PhD in Philology (Leipzig) Professor of Translation Studies, Aston University, United Kingdom.


Helle V. Dam MA in Spanish for specialized purposes, translation and interpreting (Aarhus), PhD in Interpreting Studies (Aarhus) Professor in Interpreting and Translation, Aarhus University, Denmark

Deborah Folaron MA, PhD, Translation (Binghamton, New York) Professeure agrégée, Département d'Études françaises, Concordia University, Canada. Advisory Committee

Dilek Dizdar BA in Translation and Interpreting, MA in General Linguistics (Boğaziçi), PhD in Translation Studies (Heidelberg) Professor of Intercultural German Studies and Translation Studies, University of Mainz, Germany.

Łucja Biel Secretary General, EST MA in English/Translation (UJ Kraków), PhD in Linguistics (Gdańsk) Assistant Professor, Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw Visiting Lecturer, MA in Legal Translation, City University London.

Nike K. Pokorn PhD Literary studies (Ljubljana) Professor and Head of the Department of Translation Studies, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Daniel Dejica-Cartis PhD in Translation Studies, Politehnica University of Timisoara, Romania.

Brian James Baer PhD (Yale) Professor of Russian Translation, Kent State University, United States.

Birgitta Englund Dimitrova PhD in Slavic linguistics, Associate Professor in Bilingualism, Professor in Translation Studies at Stockholm University, Sweden.

Sandra Hale BA (Interpreting & Translation), Dip. Translation, Dip. Ed. (Spanish & Italian), Master of Applied Linguistics, PhD (court interpreting / forensic linguisitcs), NAATI interpreter and translator. Professor of Interpreting and Translation Studies at the University of New South Wales, Australia.

Ji-Hae Kang MA in Translation and Interpreting (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies), PhD in Linguistics (Hankuk University of Foreign Studies) Associate Professor in Translation Studies, Department of English Language and Literature, Ajou University, South Korea.

Kaisa Koskinen MA, Lic. Phil and PhD in English translation, University of Tampere, Finland Professor of Translation Studies, University of Eastern Finland.

Pilar Sánchez-Gijón MA and PhD in Translation Theory (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) Lecturer in Translation Technologies, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.


Translation Studies Event Grant Committee

Glossary Committee

Reine Meylaerts MA in French and Italian Linguistics and Literature PhD in Translation Studies (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven) Professor of Comparative Literature, Director of CETRA Center for Translation Studies, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Maria Teresa Musacchio (chair) Degree in translation (Trieste) Associate Professor of English linguistics and translation, University of Padova.

Magdalena Bartlomiejczyk, chair MA in English (Silesia), PhD in Linguistics (Silesia). Assistant professor, Institute of English, University of Silesia, Poland.

Carol O'Sullivan BA Hons in Italian and French (Trinity Dublin), MPhil in European Literature (Cambridge), PhD in Modern and Medieval Languages (Cambridge) Senior Lecturer in Translation Studies, University of Bristol.

Michaela Albl-Mikasa Dipl.-Dolm. (Heidelberg), M. Phil. (International Relations, Cambridge), Dr. phil. (Applied Linguistics, T端bingen) Professor of Interpreting Studies, ZHAW Zurich University of Applied Sciences.

Agnieszka Chmiel MA in English, PhD in Linguistics ( Adam Mickiewicz University) Assistant Professor, Department of Translation Studies, Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland.

Sergio Viaggio MA in Russian Language and Literature, Moscow Peoples' Friendship University, Former Chief of Interpreting, UN, Vienna, Foundation Vice-president, European Society for Translation Studies. Professor Emeritus, Universitat de Vic, Doctor Honoris Causa, Bath University.

Kyriaki Kourouni BA Hons in English (Thessaloniki), MA in Translation (Surrey), DEA andPhD in Translation and Intercultural Studies (Universitat Rovira i Virgili) Senior Teaching Fellow in Translation, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

Sylvia Kalina Diplomdolmetscherin (Heidelberg), Dr. phil. (Translation, Interpreting, Education Science) Professor of Multilingual Communication and Translation, University of Cologne. David Orrego-Carmona BA in English-French-Spanish Translation (Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia), MA in Translation and Intercultural Studies (Universitat Rovira i Virgili). PhD Candidate in Translation and Intercultural Studies, Universitat Rovira i Virgili.


Research Committee

Hanna Pięta MA in Portuguese Studies / Translation (Krakow), Postgraduate Diploma in Translation Studies (Lisbon), PhD candidate in Translation Studies (Lisbon). Researcher at ULICES Research Group 6: Translation and Reception Studies, Lisbon.

Arnt Lykke Jakobsen (chair) BA, MA in Translation (Copenhagen) Professor, Department of International Language Studies and Computational Linguistics, Copenhagen Business School.

Michael Boyden BA (Leuven), MA (Leuven) PhD in Language and Literature Studies (Leuven) Senior lecturer, Department of English, Uppsala University.

David Katan BA Hons (Bradford), Full Professor in Translation and English Language, University of Salento (Lecce).

Jorge Diaz Cintas BA, PhD (Valencia), DPSI (IoL, London) Senior Lecturer in Audiovisual Translation, Imperial College, London.

Silvia Hansen-Schirra Diplomübersetzerin (Saarland), PhD (Saarland), Full Professor in English and Translation Studies, University of Mainz at Germersheim.

Ignacio García MA (Sydney), PhD (UNSW) Senior Lecturer in Languages, Interpreting and Translation, University of Western Sydney, Australia.


Summer School Scholarship Committee

Iwona Mazur, chair MA and PhD in English (Translation Studies) (Adam Mickiewicz University) Assistant Professor, Department of Translation Studies, Faculty of English (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland) Head of Postgraduate Studies in Specialised Translation.

Franz Pöchhacker MA in Conference Interpreting, PhD in Interpreting Studies (University of Vienna) Associate Professor, Center for Translation Studies, University of Vienna.

Barbara Ahrens Graduate in conference interpreting (Heidelberg University), PhD in Translation Studies (University of Mainz/Germersheim), Full Professor for Interpreting and Interpreting Studies (Cologne University of Applied Sciences) Head of MA programme in Conference Interpreting.

Translation Committee

Sonia Vandepitte MA in Dutch and English (Ghent), MA in Linguistics (University College London), PhD in English (Ghent). Lecturer, University College Ghent Translation Studies. Head of English department, member of the Corpus-Based Translation Studies Research Group. FormerEST Treasurer.

Aline Remael MA in Germanic Languages & Literature, major English Literature (Antwerp), PhD in Germanic Languages and Literature (Louvain), Certificate in interpreting French & English (Lessius), Chief Editor of Linguistica Antverpiensia New Series Themes in Translation Studies , member of the TransMedia Research Group.

Alexandra Assis Rosa EST General Secretary BA, MA, PhD in Translation Studies (Lisbon) Head of the research group Reception Studies and Descriptive Translation Studies, ULICES, member of the international research group Voice in Translation Auxiliary Professor, University of Lisbon.

Maria Piotrowska MA in English Studies, PhD and Habilitation in Applied Linguistics/Translation Studies. Professor at Pedagogical University (UP) Krakow and UNESCO Chair for Translation Studies and Intercultural Communication at Jagiellonian University, sworn translator of English.

Isabelle Robert MA in English-Dutch-French Translation (Mons), PhD in Translations Studies (Antwerp). Assistant professor of French at Artesis University College, Antwerp. Member of the Editorial Board of Linguistica Antverpiensa.

Riitta Jääskeläinen Professor of English (Translation and Interpreting), University of Joensuu.


Young Scholar Prize Commitee

Douglas Robinson PhD University of Washington, Seattle Chair Professor of English and Dean of the Arts Faculty at Hong Kong Baptist University A "critical theorist interested in human communication as grounded in human social interaction".

Birgitta Englund Dimitrova PhD in Slavic linguistics, Associate Professor in Bilingualism, Professor in Translation Studies at Stockholm University from 2006. Research interests include cognitive aspects of the translation process and the interaction of interpreted encounters.

Andrew Chesterman BA in French, German and Spanish (Cambridge), M.Litt. in Applied Linguistics (Edinburgh), PhD in Linguistics (Reading). Professor of Multilingual Communication, Department of Modern Languages, University of Helsinki (retired).

Defeng Li (external advisor) PhD (Alberta), Reader in Translation Studies, Chair of Centre for Translation Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Heidrun Gerzymisch (chair) MA (Translation and Interpreting) Heidelberg, PhD (Germersheim), Habilitation (Heidelberg) Professor of Linguistics and Translation Science (Saarbrücken) Head of the Advanced Translation Research Center (Saarbrücken).

Jeremy Munday (external advisor) BA (Cambridge), PGCE (Sheffield), Dip Trans (Institute of Linguists), M Ed. (Liverpool), PhD (Bradford). Senior Lecturer in Spanish, University of Leeds. Author of the best-selling book Introducing Translation Studies. Jorge Diaz Cintas BA, PhD (Valencia) Senior Lecturer in Audiovisual Translation University College London.

Daniel Gile PhD in Japanese (Université Paris 3 Sorbonne Nouvelle), PhD in Linguistics (Université de la Sorbonne Nouvelle) EST President 2004-2010 Professor, ESIT, Université Paris 3 – Sorbonne Nouvelle, France.


Minutes of the EST General Meeting Germersheim, 30 August 2013, 18.00 – 20.00 Agenda 1. Information 2. Adoption of the agenda 3. Adoption of the Minutes of the General Meeting held in Leuven on 27 September 2010 4. Report of the Executive Board 4a. President's report (Anthony Pym) 4b. Secretary General's Report (Alexandra Assis Rosa) 4c. Treasurer's Report (Sonia Vandepitte) 5. Report on the EST Newsletter (Aline Remael, Łucja Biel) 6. Report on the 2012 Vienna Symposium (Michael Boyden) 7. Reports by Committee chairs 7a. Young Scholar Prize Committee (Heidrun Gerzymisch): presentation of the prizes 7b. Summer School Scholarship Committee (Iwona Mazur) 7c. Event Grant Committee (Magdalena Bartolomiejczyk) 7d. Book Purchase Grant Committee (Agnes Somló) 7e. Doctoral Studies Committee (Reine Meylaerts) 7f. Research Committee (Michael Boyden) 7g. Translation Committee (Aline Remael, Isabelle Robert) 8. Membership fees 9. Proceedings of the 2013 Congress 10. Date and venue of the next congress 11. Election of the new Executive Board 12. Other business List of (62) Members present at the General Meeting: Barbara Ahrens, Michaela Albl-Mikasa, Łucja Biel, Petra Bös, Kristine Bundgaard, Mary Carroll, Tina Paulsen Christensen, Helle V. Dam, Helle Dam-Jensen, Daniel Dejica, Lucile Desblache, Lieven D’hulst, Dilek Dizdar, Jonathan Downie, Ilse Feinauer, Yves Gambier, Gyde Hansen, Rikke Haugaard, Carmen Heine, Aage Hill-Madsen, Matilde Nisbeth Jensen, Francine Kaufmann, Kyriaki Kourouni, Haidee Kruger, Yvonne Lindquist, Kirsten Malmkjaer, John Milton, Reine Meylaerts, Iwona Mazur, Beatriz Cerezo, Judit Mudriczki, Almana Mukabenova, Maria Teresa Musacchio, Jeffersson David Orrego-Carmona, Carol M. O’Sullivan, Daniel Pedersen, Esa Pentti Tapio Penttilä, Outi Paloposki, Magdalena Perdek, Nike Kocijancic Pokorn, Anthony Pym, Sara Ramos-Pinto, Aline Remael, Alexandra Assis Rosa, Anne Schjoldager, Michael Schreiber, Adriana Serban, Vilelmini Sosoni, Jaroslav Spirk, Radegundis Stolze, Christina Schäffner, René Sehested Thomsen, Elisabet Tiselius, Malgorzata Tryuk, Carmen Valero-Garces, Sonia Vandepitte, Rachel Weissbrod, Boguslawa Whyatt, Karen Korning Zethsen, Catherine Way, Hana Risku, David Katan.

List of (14) Proxies received from EST Members: Cecilia Alvstad, Magdalena Bartlomiejczyk, Agnieska Chmiel, Emilia Di Martino, Birgitta Englund-Dimitrova, Justyna Giczela-Pastwa, Sabien Hanoulle, Ewa Koscialkowska-Okonska, David Le Roux, Katrien Lievois, Nina Reviers, Isabelle Robert, Ágnes Somló, Kristiina TaivalkoskiShilov. 1. Information The meeting started with 76 members present and represented at 18h40 to meet the requirement of half an hour’s delay if there is no quorum of 50% of the members at the official starting time of the GM. The president made a short opening statement to thank the presence of all members and asked present if there were additional candidacies for the Executive Board. Once verified that there were no additional candidacies from the floor, the meeting proceeded. 2. Adoption of the agenda Anthony Pym informed that, following announcement of the General Meeting in the EST Newsletter 42 (May 2013), no further items had been proposed by members. The Agenda for the General Meeting in Germersheim was unanimously adopted. 3. Adoption of the Minutes of the General Meeting held in Leuven on 27 September 2010 (see Appendix 1) The Minutes for the previous General Meeting, held in Leuven (27 September 2010), were unanimously adopted. 4. Report of the Executive Board 4a. President's report (Anthony Pym) Anthony Pym summarized the following written report which circulated previously to the General Meeting: “In the period from 2010 to 2013, the European Society for Translation Studies has seen its paying membership grow by about 30%; it has created a new website and established new networks on social media; and thanks to the efforts of Aline Remael and Łucja Biel, it has made its Newsletter a place for discussion as well as information. Our website now has some 3 500 visitors a month; our Twitter feed has just under 700 followers; our Facebook reaches over 5 000 readers a week. This information network feeds the news bulletins that members receive every fortnight or so. Thanks largely to the efforts of Michael Boyden, the EST organized the symposium Same Place, Different Times in Vienna in 2012, to mark the 20th anniversary of our founding. The Executive Board has set in place two new committees: the Translation Committee has given its first award (special thanks are due to Aline Remael and

Isabelle Robert), and the Research Committee has begun to produce its first research summaries (special thanks to Michael Boyden). Since 2010 we have signed agreements with the European Association for Studies in Screen Translation (ESIST), the American Translation and Interpreting Studies Association (ATISA), Javier Franco Aixelá (BITRA), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Übersetzungs- und Dolmetsch– wissenschaft (DGÜD), and the Asociación Ibérica de Estudios de Traducción e Interpretación (AIETI). Through the newsfeed known as the Translation Studies Federation, we now have informal relations with a further seven research groups. Since 2010 the EST has been a partner in two research projects financed by the Directorate General for Translation, and we have been represented in the open meetings of the European Masters in Translation. The proceedings of the Leuven congress have been published. Our thanks go to John Benjamins and the entire editorial board, especially for the editing work done by Catherine Way. Anthony Pym also took the occasion to extend his personal thanks to the members of the Executive Board for its dedicated work over these three years. Special thanks were expressed for the treasurer Sonia Vandepitte, who stepped down, having been EST Treasurer since 2008, and whose meticulous and selfless contribution were very much appreciated. Further thanks were also expressed to Michael Schreiber, who at all times provided a splendid channel of communication with the organizers of the Germersheim congress. Anthony Pym ended his report expressing his regret for the passing away of several leading researchers in T&I Studies and made a special mention to Miriam Shlesinger, whose untiring committed and generous contribution to the EST should, according to his recommendation, be acknowledged by creating a Miriam Shlesinger Young Scholar Award, to distinguish leading research in Interpreting Studies. 4b. Secretary General's Report (Alexandra Assis Rosa) Alexandra Assis Rosa pointed out the main tasks of the Secretary-General. First, Membership matters include enrolling members and creating an EST-members database (which now has 600 contacts of would-be-EST-members). Upon enrollment, each would-be-member receives a message with fee payment possibilities; and, once payment of the fee is confirmed by the Treasurer, new members receive a welcome letter with information about how to access the EST website intranet, Twitter and Facebook profiles, and are invited to

11 contribute with information to circulate among EST members. Second, keeping, updating and producing the EST directory. The directory is made available at EST’s website internet, to EST members only. Hard copies are no longer produced. Third, receiving and sending information to EST members: by producing regular email digests. Initially weekly, these digests became monthly, following suggestions received during the Vienna EST symposium. Finally, the SG functions also include Receiving and publishing openaccess information on T&I news, events, calls for papers and contributions, scholarships, prizes, etc. by feeding into the Facebook, and Twitter EST profiles, which are also embedded into the open access pages of the EST website. In these functions, the SG has received the welcome help of Anthony Pym and Carol O’Sullivan, whose contributions she warmly thanked. She added that the EST membership privileges include: Receiving regular Email Digests; Special registration fees for EST initiatives; and access to all intranet resources, (including: Special offer of discount prices on publications from John Benjamins, Multilingual Matters, Rodopi and Routledge; Research reports; Membership directory (including name, contact and areas of interest for each member); The EST Constitution; Minutes of meetings (both meetings by the Executive Board and General Meeting); back issues of the EST newsletter (since 1 November 1992), Past news announcements; an EST publicity flyer for use by members; as well as information on membership per country, and agreements with other organizations.). As for the EST membership profile, she mentioned that according to enrollment forms received, the EST now has 348 members from 46 different countries, including 6 honorary members: Daniel Gile, Gideon Toury, Gyde Hansen, Zuzana Jettmarová, Mary Snell-Hornby and Yves Gambier. She added that this means the number of EST members has continued to grow (from 213 in 2010 to 348 in 2013) and so has the number of nationalities (from 36 to 46 since 2010). Despite a strongly European core (with Germany, the UK, Spain, Italy and Poland more represented), membership is becoming more international. In terms of increased visibility and outreach for the EST, additional endeavours also included, besides sending EST members regular Email Digests on news and events, to start using both Twitter (25 September 2010) and Facebook (19 July 2011) to reach a wider readership. She added the EST Twitter feed had transmitted 1,018 tweets and currently has 752 followers (more than double the current number of EST members). As for the Facebook page, in 2013 some posts were read by over 2,700 people (mostly free books, online videos or job posts, but also calls for papers for several conferences; e.g. the publication on the online book of abstracts for the 2013 Congress was read by 2,712

people); others reached at least over 1,200 people. This means Facebook visibility grew and promises to continue growing steadily, now reaching over 5,000 readers per week. The Facebook page currently has a total of 4,796 Likes. The traditional EST website receives about 3,500 visitors each month. The order of countries with the most visitors is: Spain, UK, Greece, US, Germany, Iran, Poland, Portugal, Italy and China (source: Google Analytics). Feedback received from members tended to be very positive and encouraging: with reference to the email digests, the teamwork behind Twitter and Facebook feeds, and the resources currently available. Requests received focused mainly on selected/recommended bibliography for a given topic, or a list of M.A. or Ph.D. programmes in European Universities. Announcements were regularly received from EST members and non-members, and disseminated through Twitter, Facebook and by email. Announcements not directly related to the EST's goals have not been disseminated and once informed of this decision by the Executive Board, this option has not been a problem. Event organizers were sent the EST flyer with the suggestion to include it in the event’s documentation. In the end she stated that the EST database now has over 600 contacts of researchers in Translation and Interpreting Studies who have expressed their wish to enroll so it is to be expected that the EST will continue to grow in the future. .

12 4c. Treasurer's Report (Sonia Vandepitte) The treasurer Sonia Vandepitte then presented her report. As EST Treasurer since September 2010 (continuing a mandate initiated in January 2008), she stated that EST’s financial status is still healthy. Asset development EST asset development (data included also come from R. Stolze) presented by Sonia Vandepitte was as follows:

2000 – € 8,549.01

2005 – € 19,006.83

2010 - € 13,663.08

2001 – € 8,833.71

2006 – € 14,347.31

2011 – € 16,690.21

2002 – € 13,819.07

2007 – € 13,544.97

2012 – € 24,845.67

2003 – € 19,306.56

2008 – € 14,142.36

2013 - € 30,048.84

2004 – € 19,010.28

2009 - € 11,210.81

Sonia Vandepitte pointed out that EST assets have more than doubled since September 2010 (cp. € 13,663.08 in September 2010). Belgian Dexia current account Belgian Dexia savings account Austrian PSK account Paypal Total

€ 2,698.66 (dd 26/08/2013) € 13,333.87 (dd 26/08/2013) € 6,786.16 (dd 26/08/2013) € 7,230.15 (dd 26/08/2013) € 30,048.84

This sum includes € 3,740 membership payments for 2014-2016. To be debited are reimbursements amounting to about € 2,000 for the Executive Board meeting of 2013. OUT since the last report: 1) Reimbursement Germersheim 2011: 2) Vienna Symposium IN Registration




7) No money has been spent on images or a professional website designer or anything on the research or translation committee. 8) There are no costs for the EST Newsletter. IN since the last report The EST has received: 1) 4000 € from TST project (7 May 2013) 2) Membership: Sonia Vandepitte stated that to date paying membership total was 348 (313 members in 2012) with more members still paying fees. This is thirty-five more members than in 2012 and 171 more members than at the beginning of Anthony Pym’s presidency in 2010, when membership had stagnated around 180 members who had paid their fees since 2004. These numbers include 6 honorary members: Y. Gambier, D. Gile, G. Hansen, Z. Jettmarová, M. Snell-Hornby and G. Toury. Sonia Vandepitte added that EST membership has remained individual and the number of supporting members in 2013 stands at 3: Isja Conen, Dino Bressan and Crina Vasile (supporting members in preceding two years : Lydia I. Jeansalle, Catalina Anca Iliescu Gheorgiu and Valerie Henitiuk). Seventy-six members have already paid for 2014, forty-nine for 2015 and one member for 2016 (our present President). EST membership has continued to change as was previously reported and, she added, many members also need various payment reminders. She also stated that the number of members asking for payment receipts and invoices is still on the increase. The new payment method Paypal is the most popular payment method (174). There are 6 other payment methods: VISA, Mastercard (55 both), bank transfer to Belgium (101) or Vienna (for 11 Austrians), and Western Union (2) or cash. Forecast for the next financial year (after Board meeting 28 August 2013)

Hotel Arkadenhof


Hotel Kaiser…


Travel speaker








Reimbursement for the EST Board meeting in Vienna


6) Two scholars for the Young Scholar Prize (Kruger and Cerezo Merchán €3,045,98)


(Work as a board member is voluntary, there is no payment for the time invested.) 3) One book purchase grant: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences (Filozofski fakultet Osijek - FFOS) Croatia (to date: € 777.55) 4) One EST summer school grant (€ 1,000): Alenka Morel (University of Ljubljana, Slovenia) 5) Two EST Event Grants:  Ivan Franko National University of Lviv for the event “Translation and Cinema” via Europcity institut fur kulturellen kompetenzen (€ 1,000)  Croatian Association of Audiovisual Translators, Transmedia Research Group, and the University of Zagreb for the “Media for All 5” conference (€ 1,033.88) .


76 members have already paid Other paying members 280x30 Sponsoring from Benjamins for Young Scholar Prize

€ 8 400 € 1 000

Out: Book Purchase Grant Summer School Scholarship TS Event grant Young Scholar Award (towards the triannual €2,000 + 1,000 from Benjamins?) Honorary payment for Translation of TS research Reimbursement for the EST Board meeting Germersheim (travel, accommodation and congress registration minus dinner).

€ 1,000 € 1,000 € 1,000 € 666

(to be added) (to be added)

Both the Budget for 2010-2013 and the Draft Budget for 2013-2016 were unanimously adopted.

13 5. Report on the EST Newsletter (Aline Remael, Łucja Biel) Aline Remael and Łucja Biel took the floor and stated that six issues of the EST Newsletter have been issued for the period from 2010 to 2013, respecting the established publication rhythm. They added that the Newsletter has grown in size and developed in format: number 37 (November 2010) was 28 pages long and in black-and-white; number 42 (May 2013) is 48 pages long, with color photographs and a more professional format. It is now available in an online reading format suitable for mobile devices (http://issuu.com/est.newsletter/docs/est.n ewsletter_42_2013). With this growth, the Newsletter now includes a regular “Hot topics” section and presentations of new publications. Its cost to the EST is still zero. 6. Report on the 2012 Vienna Symposium (Report received from Michael Boyden) Anthony Pym summarized the following written report received from Michael Boyden: “The EST’s twentieth anniversary symposium “Same Place, Different Times” was held on 27 and 28 September 2012 at the University of Vienna, the place where it all started in 1992. The program included plenary lectures by Anthony Pym, Dilek Dizdar and Michaela Wolf as well as a roundtable with short interventions by honorary EST Presidents Mary SnellHornby, Daniel Gile and Yves Gambier. About thirty researchers and research teams presented their research at a poster session. Reworked versions of some of the papers are scheduled to appear in a special issue of Target in Spring 2014, and the speeches can be seen on You Tube (http://www.youtube.com/user/Transsfed). The EST is thankful to the local organizing committee at the Vienna Center for Translation Studies (including an impressive battalion of volunteers) for ensuring a smoothly run event, which received additional financial support from John Benjamins and the DG Translation. At the symposium, founding EST president Mary Snell-Hornby was fêted for her pioneering work in Translation Studies and for putting our “interdiscipline” on the map.” 7. Reports by Committee chairs 7a. Young Scholar Prize Committee (Heidrun Gerzymisch): presentation of the prizes Anthony Pym thanked Heidrun Gerzymisch for chairing this Committee and gave her the floor. Heidrun Gerzymish reminded that the EST Young Scholar Prize, of 2 500 euros, is awarded once every three years. It is generously sponsored by John Benjamins Publishing, to whom she expressed the EST’s many thanks. She then announced that the 2013 prize had been awarded to two candidates whose dissertations received the same score: Haidee Kruger of the North-West

University, South Africa, was co-winner for her doctoral dissertation Postcolonial

Polysystems: The Production and Reception of Translating Children’s Literature in South Africa (Benjamins 2012); and Beatriz

Cerezo Merchán of Universitat Jaume I (Castelló, Spain) presented her winning dissertation on La didáctica de la traducción

audiovisual en España: Un estudio de caso empírico-descriptivo (The Didactics of Audiovisual Translation in Spain: An Empirical and Descriptive Case Study) (2012).

She also added that a total of 34 applications were received from 17 countries including Japan, South Africa and the United States, for doctoral dissertations written in six different languages. More than 10,000 pages were reviewed by 53 independent reviewers from all over the world on the basis of a grading format that the Young Scholar Award Committee had set up and distributed. All of the applications showed strong scholarly work in the field of Translation Studies, along with enthusiasm, dedication and discipline. She finished by thanking all members of the committee who with her were in charge of the assessment procedure: Jorge Diaz Cintas, Daniel Gile and Gyde Hansen. 7b. Summer School Scholarship Committee (Iwona Mazur) Iwona Mazur took the floor and stated that the Summer School Scholarship is awarded each year. It provides 1 000 euros to help a young scholar attend a summer school in Translation Studies. The members of the committee are Iwona Mazur (chair), Barbara Ahrens, Alexandra Assis Rosa, Gyde Hansen, Franz Pöchhacker and Sonia Vandepitte. The 2011 scholarship was awarded to Kyriaki Kourouni of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, to attend the 1st PhD Course in Translation Process Research organized by the Centre for Research and Innovation in Translation and Translation Technology (CRITT) at the Copenhagen Business School. Her research project was on Translating Under Time Pressure: A Study of Translation Students . The 2012 scholarship went to David Orrego-Carmona of the Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Spain, in order to attend the CETRA Summer School in Leuven, Belgium. His research project was An Empirical

Study of the Quality of Non-Professional Subtitling.

The 2013 scholarship was won by Alenka Morel of the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, to attend the Edinburgh Interpreting Research Summer School. Her research project was A Critical Discourse

Analysis of Community Interpreting in Slovenia.

As for changes in the procedure, she added that in 2012 the Scholarship Committee and the EST Executive Board were concerned by the low number of applications received (five in 2011, three in

2012). In consequence, they decided to allow applications from candidates who were not EST members (although insisting that the winner be an EST member). In 2013 the committee then received 38 applications, including candidates from non-European countries such as India, Malaysia, Australia or Argentina. She ended her report mentioning that change to the application requirements is currently under review and expressing her gratefulness for the work of all committee members. 7c. Event Grant Committee (Magdalena Bartłomiejczyk) Anthony Pym took the floor to summarize the following written report submitted by the Translation Studies Event Grant chair, Magdalena Bartłomiejczyk: “The Translation Studies Event Grant, of up to 1 000 euros, is awarded annually to help finance Translation Studies events (conferences, symposia, guest lectures, courses, exhibitions). It may be used to cover a wide range of documented expenses such as bursaries, travel, accommodation, or preparation of conference materials. The committee comprises Magdalena Bartłomiejczyk (chair), Agnieszka Chmiel, Sylvia Kalina, Reine Meylaerts and Sergio Viaggio. The 2011 grant was awarded to the Fachhochschule Köln (in Cologne, Germany), represented by John Stanley, for the organization of the conference “Hermeneutics and Translation Studies”. The 2012 grant was won by the University of Portsmouth, for the organization of their conference “'Those Who Can, Teach': Translation, Interpreting and Training” . The University of Portsmouth declared they would use the grant to cover the expenses of two keynote speakers (Dorothy Kelly of the University of Granada and Daniel Toudic of the University of Rennes II) and to cover five bursaries for postgraduate speakers who might have greater difficulty obtaining funding from their institutions to attend. The 2013 grant went to two outstanding candidates, who were awarded 1 000 euros each: the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv for the event “Translation and Cinema”, and the Croatian Association of Audiovisual Translators, Transmedia Research Group, and the University of Zagreb for the “Media for All 5” conference. The numbers of candidates have risen over the years: four in 2011, seven in 2012, and eight in 2013. Many candidates are very strong, and the committee’s votes are usually distributed over a few events. Our sincere thanks go to all members of the committee, and to all the candidates over the years.”

14 7d. Book Purchase Grant Committee (Ágnes Somló) Anthony Pym again took the floor to present a brief summary of the report submitted by the Chair of the Book Purchase Grant Committee, Ágnes Somló: “The Book Purchase Grant (previously known as the “Translation Studies Literature Grant”) was launched at the initiative of Daniel Gile in 2005 in order to promote the study of translation and interpreting in situations where Translation Studies books and journals are lacking. In the initial years the number of applicants was low and there were slightly pessimistic opinions concerning the usefulness of the grant. The present committee started work in October 2010 and suggested changing the name to make the aim of the grant clear. There was a considerable increase in the number of applications – 18 applicants over the past three years –, which demonstrates the usefulness of it in promoting the study of translation and interpreting in situations where Translation Studies books (e-books) and journals (e-journals) as well as research software are lacking. In 2011 out of six strong applicants a slightly increased amount was split between the University American College Skopje and the School of Foreign Languages and Department of Translation and Interpreting Studies, Institute of Philology and Language Communication, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk. In 2012 we had five applications and the winner was Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Arts and Letters, Department of Translation and Interpreting, Izmir. In 2013 we had a record number of seven applicants, of which four were so strong that any of them could have been possible winners any other time. The committee finally agreed on the Chair for Translator Education at the Institute of Modern Languages, Pedagogical University of Kraków, Poland. One of the causes of having so many applications during the past three years was our keeping in touch with previous, less successful applicants urging them to reapply: the winners in 2012 and 2013 were both re-applicants. It was also our task to make the grant as well as EST more visible, thus we tried our best and found that one of the possible ways of advertising the EST Book Purchase Grant, and thus EST, was to ask our grantees to announce their winning is using our logo on their site. Also publishing some photos of our happy winners in the Newsletter helped. I would like to take this opportunity again to urge all previous applicants to follow the example of our re-applying winners and apply again for the grant next year. Finally, I would like to suggest some possible ways of advancing the grant further. In future, we should try to

convince other TS publishers to follow the example of John Benjamins’ generous discount on their books purchased under the terms of this award. Also, on a wider scale, institutions and organizations aware of the importance of Translation Studies might increase the amount of our grant. I would like to thank the members of the committee and wish good luck and fruitful work to the new EST Book Purchase Grant committee.” 7e. Doctoral Studies Committee (Reine Meylaerts) Reine Meylaerts took the floor to present her report as chair of the Doctoral Studies Committee. She stated that in 2010-13 the Doctoral Studies Committee has supported and participated in ongoing discussions on cooperation between doctoral programs in Translation Studies. They have also linked the EST website to the database of doctoral programs compiled by the TS-doc group and to materials from the conferences and symposia on this topic held in 2008. Thanks to the work by Yves Gambier, she added that the Committee has compiled a set of notes on the competencies that students should have at the end of a doctoral program in Translation Studies, and a series of options for organizing cooperation between the programs (see EST Newsletter 42, 2103). These notes formed the basis for a round table on doctoral programs in Leuven on 21 August 2013, bringing together representatives of the EST, CETRA and the Intensive Training Network TIME. She ended by stating that a follow-up open seminar has been organized as part of the EST Congress in Germersheim. 7f. Research Committee (Michael Boyden) Anthony Pym took the floor to present a summary of the written report submitted by Michael Boyden, Chair of the Research Committee: “The research committee was created by the incumbent EST board in 2010. It was agreed that its remit would be “to commission reports on the state on knowledge with respect to key questions in Translation Studies.” Over the last three years, a number of reports have been submitted by EST members on such topics as self-translation, corpora, machine translation and intercultural communication. These reports were evaluated and edited by the committee and are now available on the EST intranet. Eventually shortened, unsigned versions will find their way to Wikipedia (which at present is sadly lacking in decent entries on translation). The overall aim is to contribute to greater conceptual clarity and agreement in Translation Studies and to make our commonly shared ideas more widely available among scholars in neighboring fields and in society at large. For the coming three years (2013-2016), the research committee would like to continue work along these lines, experimenting further with the possibilities offered by social media to actively engage

EST members as prosumers of term entries. EST members are encouraged to submit reports (ideally about 3000 words long) and thus contribute to the synchronization of knowledge production in our discipline. Authors retain the copyright to the full version of their reports. In exchange for their efforts, they receive a three-year free EST membership. How about that?” 7g. Translation Committee (Aline Remael, Isabelle Robert) Aline Remale presented the report jointly prepared by her, who coordinated the committee and Isabelle Robert, as Secretary. The Translation Committee also included Andrew Chesterman, Birgitta Englund Dimitrova, Riitta Jääskeläinen and Douglas Robinson as members, and Defeng Li and Jeremy Munday as external advisors. She stated that the Translation Prize, of 2 000 euros, is awarded annually for the most deserving project to translate key texts in Translation Studies (including research on interpreting and localization). The prize was set up following a suggestion by Riitta Jääskeläinen in 2010. There were numerous discussions about how the prize should be organized, and it was not until 2013 that the first prize was awarded. She informed that the team of Alojz Keníž, Lucia Kozákóva, Xenia Liashuk and Katarína Koreňová had been awarded the inaugural prize for the translation of Anton Popovič’s Teória umeleckého prekladu (Theory of Literary Translation) from Slovak into English. The project was ranked first by all members of the Translation Committee, who considered that it would have a major impact on international Translation Studies, making the work accessible to a wider audience. The proposal followed all the EST guidelines, had the backing of a major publisher (John Benjamins), and was clearly thought-through, feasible, and presented by a high-quality translation team. She further added that a total of seven projects had been received and assessed. The committee had discussed in detail the three strongest proposals, of which two involved translations of Antoine Berman. A proposal to translate Berman's L'Âge de la traduction (2008) into English was found to be very solid and feasible, but less attractive than the Popovič project because it involves two major European languages, whereas Slovak is a minority language. The third proposal, to translate Berman's L'épreuve de l'étranger (1984) into Armenian, had also been considered highly attractive, especially since it would show that EST supports the translation of a major TS work into a minor language. The idea of awarding two prizes, one for a translation into a major language and one for the translation into a minor language, was proposed and discussed; however, the idea was abandoned because it would seriously reduce the financial incentive. However, as she pointed out, this is a point to remember for the future. She ended her

15 presentation expressing her sincere thanks to all the committee members and candidates. 8. Membership fees Anthony Pym reported the Treasurer’s and the Board’s suggestion that fees should not be raised, since EST finances were healthy and there was no further activity planned which required additional financing. 9. Proceedings of the 2013 Congress Anthony Pym announced that the proceedings of the Leuven congress had just been published, and thanked John Benjamins and the entire editorial board, especially for the editing work done by Catherine Way. 10. Date and venue of the next congress Anthony Pym took the floor to remind members that three initial expressions of interest to organize the next EST congress had been received from the universities of Leicester, Granada and Aarhus. However, given that Granada and Leicester had withdrawn their initial proposals, the choice of the Executive Board had been Aarhus, the well-deserving, though sole candidate. He introduced Helle Dam both as representative of the Local Organizing Committee of the 2016 EST congress, and as coming Executive Board member. Helle Dam then took the floor to make a brief introduction to Aarhus and its university. Anthony Pym informed that the title, theme and exact dates of the next Congress would be decided by the new Executive Board. 11. Election of the new Executive Board Nike Pokorn and Reine Meylaerts were invited to coordinate the election of the new Executive Board. Accordingly, Nike Pokorn asked for the discharge of the outgoing Board, which was voted unanimously. All positions within the Board only had one candidate, which was elected: Anthony Pym (President), Alexandra Assis Rosa (Vice-President), Łucja Biel (SecretaryGeneral), Isabelle Robert (Treasurer) and Helle Dam (representative of the Local Organizing Committee of EST 2016); the remaining Board Members also elected were: Michael Boyden, Carol O’Sullivan, Iwona Mazur and Kyriaki Kourouni. 12. Other business The president asked whether there was any other business to discuss. There was none, and the meeting was closed at 20:30 after the president renewed his thanks to all and expressed his good wishes to the newly elected Board.

7th EST CONGRESS – GERMERSHEIM 2013 29 August – 1 September 2013 Translation Studies: Centres and Peripheries

413 registered participants 112 helping hands (organized in 5 teams: conference office, coffee team, technical team, reception, assembly staff) 24 panels 91 posters 286 talks 27 talks in German 3 talks with German-English interpretation 20 bus shuttles 700 lunches 3000 cups of coffee uncountable bottles of wine The EST wishes to thank the Scientific Committee and Local Organising Committee for all their hard work and for organising a hugely successful conference. Scientific committee: Dilek Dizdar (Chair), Silvia Hansen-Schirra (Chair), Fabio Alves, Şebnem Bahadır, Andreas Kelletat, Camilla Miglio, Carol O’Sullivan, Franz Pöchhacker, Nike Pokorn, Anthony Pym, Aline Remael, Pilar Sánchez-Gijón, Michael Schreiber Local organizing committee: Şebnem Bahadır, Dilek Dizdar, Silvia HansenSchirra, Lavinia Heller, Sascha Hofmann, Saskia Jünemann, Andreas Kelletat, Bernd Meyer, Tomasz Rozmyslowicz, Zahra Samareh, Michael Schreiber

Local organizing committee

16 Keynote speaker Brian James Baer

Keynote speaker Naoki Sakai

Keynote speaker Brigitta Busch

Poster session



Conference dinner

Young translation scholars


The 2016 EST congress to take place in Aarhus, Denmark The University of Aarhus wins the 2016 EST Congress, announced at the General Meeting in Germersheim. At the EST General Meeting on August 30, 2013, it was announced that the 8th EST congress will take place in Aarhus, Denmark. Professor Helle V. Dam, representing the Aarhus organizing committee, presented the superb venue and arrangements for the congress. The congress will take place on 15-17 September 2016. Aarhus is an ideal location for the congress. As the world's "smallest big city", it offers a full range of facilities within walking distance, including a number of hotel rooms that can easily accommodate a congress of 400 participants. The Department of Business Communication at Aarhus University is home to a large and expanding group of active scholars who cover most areas of Translation Studies. The department has a long record of hosting international conferences and counts a number of experienced conference organizers among both its scholars and administrative staff. The EST Executive Board has expressed a desire that the congress be limited to three days. A large number of participants can be catered for if shorter presentation formats are adopted, incorporating a number of pecha kucha presentations and posters. The organizers will encourage these shorter formats, with all participants receiving a certificate noting their “presentation”, without specification, so that they can seek reimbursement from their institutions.

The EST writes in support of translation programs in the United Kingdom In reponse to threats to close translation programs at Imperial and Salford, the Society has written to express its concern. The University of Salford in the United Kingdom is moving to phase out its Modern and Foreign Language teaching. This will involve closing some strong translation and interpreting programs. The European Society for Translation studies has written to the Vice Chancellor, Professor Martin Hall, expressing its concern over the “institutional disrespect for translation and interpreting as legitimate objects of study, and thus of the key role that they play in the development of multicultural societies and the provision of linguistic rights”. Professor Hall’s very full reply outlines the commercial logic behind the Salford decision. At last report, his decision is being reconsidered. In January 2013, similar threats were made to the Translation Studies Unit at Imperial College London, and the EST wrote similarly expressed its concern. The Unit has since relocated to University College London. These two cases are part of a general threat to language study at universities in the United Kingdom, a country where student enrollments in language programs in higher education has fallen by between 30 and 60 per cent since 2000, depending on the language. EST letter to Salford Petition to support Translation Studies at the University of Salford Reply from Professor Hall, Vice Chancellor of Salford EST letter to Imperial Petition against the transferral or closure of the Translation Studies Unit Reply from Professor Richardson, Deputy Rector of Imperial College London


EST Activities EST Glossary Committee A project to create a collaborative and permanently evolving glossary of Translation Studies terms The EST Glossary Committee was set up during the 7th EST Congress in Germersheim. The lists of terms were initially compiled by the panels held during the congress. The Committee is charged with defining the mechanisms for the creation of the glossary, coordinating the discussions of the terms and definitions to be included, and communicating the results to the Executive Board. The glossary is intended to be a set of recommendations rather than prescriptions. All members are invited to contribute to its updating. The glossary is designed not only as a support tool for members of EST but also as an instrument of presenting EST and making Translation Studies more widely accessible.

The EST awards its Young Scholar Prize to candidates from South Africa and Spain (2013) The 2013 EST Young Scholar Prize has been awarded to two candidates whose dissertations received the same score. Haidee Kruger of the North-West University, South Africa, was co-winner for her doctoral dissertation Postcolonial

Beatriz Cerezo Merchán of Universitat Jaume I (Castelló, Spain) presented her winning dissertation on La didáctica de la

traducción audiovisual en España: Un estudio de caso empírico-descriptivo (The Didactics of Audiovisual Translation in Spain: An Empirical and Descriptive Case Study) (2012).

A total of 34 applications were received from 17 countries, including Japan, South Africa and the United States, for doctoral dissertations written in six different languages. More than 10,000 pages were reviewed by 53 independent reviewers from all over the world, on the basis of a grading format that the Young Scholar Award Committee had set up and distributed. All of the applications showed strong scholarly work in the field of Translation Studies, along with enthusiasm, dedication and discipline. The assessment procedure was coordinated by a Young Scholar Award Committee, consisting of Jorge Diaz Cintas, Heidrun Gerzymisch (Chair), Daniel Gile and Gyde Hansen.

Polysystems: The Production and Reception of Translating Children’s Literature in South Africa (Benjamins 2012).

Heidrun Gerzymisch (Chair)

The EST awards its inaugural Translation Prize for Popovič into English The first EST Translation Prize, of 2 000 euros, has been awarded to the team of Alojz Keníž, Lucia Kozákóva, Xenia Liashuk and Katarína Koreňová for the translation of Anton Popovič’s Teória umeleckého prekladu (Theory of Literary Translation) from Slovak into English. The project was ranked first by all members of the Translation Committee, who considered that it would have a major impact on international Translation Studies, making the work accessible to a wider audience. The proposal followed all the EST guidelines, had the backing of a major publisher (John Benjamins), and was clearly thought-through, feasible, and presented by a high-quality translation team. A total of seven projects were received and assessed on the following criteria: 1.

Publication in the field of Translation Studies


Submission rules applied


Impact on international Translation Studies


Feasibility of the project


Pertinent experience of the translators.

The committee discussed in detail the three strongest proposals, of which two involved translations of Antoine Berman. A proposal to translate Berman's L'Âge de la traduction (2008) into English was found to be very solid and feasible, but less attractive than the Popovič project because it involves two major European languages, whereas Slovak is a minority language. The third proposal, to translate Berman's L'épreuve de l'étranger (1984) into Armenian, was also highly attractive, especially since it would show that EST supports the translation of a major TS work into a minor language. The idea of awarding two prizes, one for a translation into a major language and one for the translation into a minor language, was proposed and discussed; however, the idea was abandoned because it would seriously reduce the financial incentive. However, this is a point to remember for the future.

20 The Translation Committee was chaired by Aline Remael, with Isabelle Robert as Secretary, Andrew Chesterman, Birgitta Englund Dimitrova, Riitta Jääskeläinen and Douglas Robinson as members, and Defeng Li and Jeremy Munday as external advisors. For more information: EST Translation Prize

http://www.esttranslationstudies.org/committees/summer _school/ss_grant.htm Previous scholarship holders: 2006: Cristina Valentini (Forlì) 2007: Seyda Eraslan (Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey) 2008: Elisabet Tiselius (Stockholm), Alberto Fernández Costales (Oviedo) 2009: Hanna Pięta (Lisbon), Maria Tymczyńska (Poznań), Alice Leal (Vienna) 2010: Sabina Tcaciuc (Aston) 2011: Kyriaki Kourouni (Thessaloniki) 2012: David Orrego-Carmona (URV) 2013: Alenka Morel (Ljubljana).

Aline Remael (Chair)

2014 EST Summer School Scholarship Ever since it was founded in September 1992, the EST has focused on drawing attention to new research in Translation Studies and encouraging young scholars. Since 2003 the Executive Board has sponsored one participant per year to attend a summer school in Translation Studies.

awarded in 2014 for the sixth time. If you would like to apply for funding (up to 1 000 euros), please note that at least one member of the organizing committee or the scientific committee has to be a paid-up EST member. The grant may be used to cover a wide range of documented expenses such as travel, accommodation and preparation of conference materials. Rules 1. The funds have to support a TS event. This may include symposia, courses, visits of TS lecturers, etc. 2. Applications should explain the circumstances under which the request is made and include details about the specific use of the sum requested. 3. Members of the TS Event Grant Committee will conduct an evaluation of each application on the basis of:

The committee would like to take this opportunity to thank Gyde Hansen for all the time and effort she put into the committee’s work in the years 2003-2013. At the same time, we would like to welcome a new member – Maria Piotrowska – who will replace Gyde.

- the needs demonstrated in the application, - the importance of the TS event for the TS community, - compliance of the event with EST’s general philosophy of advancing TS with access to all. 4. The sum granted will be transferred to the applicant’s account after invoices and/or receipts have been received.

In 2014 the EST will again sponsor one EST member to attend a Summer School. The scholarship will be for 1 000 euros.

5. Applications should be sent by email to the Chair of the EST TS Event Grant Committee, Magdalena Bartłomiejczyk: magdalenabartlomiejczyk@hotmail.com. Reception will be acknowledged.

Students preparing a doctoral dissertation in the field of Translation Studies and who are paid-up EST members are invited to apply for the scholarship. The deadline for submitting applications for the 2014 Summer School Scholarship is May 1st, 2014.

6. The deadline for submitting applications for the sixth edition of the grant is January 31, 2014. The decision of the TS Event Grant Committee will be announced at the beginning of March. The grant may be requested for events that are planned for March 2014 or later.

The applications will be scrutinized by the committee, who will base their judgment on the application as a whole, taking into account all information asked for: the technical quality of the application, description of the project and its methodology, the applicant’s competences and needs, and the relationship between the project and the summer school programme intended to follow. The name of the scholarship recipient will be announced on the EST website in June 2014. For details on how to apply for the scholarship please visit the EST website at

Iwona Mazur (Chair) Barbara Ahrens Alexandra Assis Rosa Maria Piotrowska Franz Pöchhacker Sonia Vandepitte

EST TRANSLATION STUDIES EVENT GRANT We would like to draw the attention of organizers of various Translation Studies events (conferences, symposia, guest lectures, courses, exhibitions) to our Translation Studies Event Grant, to be

Magdalena Bartłomiejczyk (Chair)


EST Book Purchase Grant, 2014

Doctoral Studies Committee

The time has come again to announce the annual EST Book Purchase Grant. We invite all members to inform universities and TS research centres that they may apply if at least one of their teaching staff, researchers or graduate students is a paidup EST member. The aim of the grant is to promote the study of translation and interpreting in situations where Translation Studies books (e-books) and journals (ejournals) as well as research software are lacking for different reasons (see http://www.esttranslationstudies.org/committees/literature _grant/literature_grant.html).

The Doctoral Studies Committee 2013-2016 consists of two sub-groups: (1) Steering Committee, with the following members:

(2) Advisory Board with Łucja Biel, Daniel Dejica-Cartis, Birgitta Englund Dimitrova, Sandra Hale, Ji-Hae Kang, Kaisa Koskinen, Pilar Sánchez-Gijón.

Provisional program: - agreeing on a constitutive text

Chair for Translator Education at the Institute of Modern Languages, Pedagogical University of Kraków, Poland (see the photo of our happy winners). Deadline for applications: March 31, 2014 – we look forward to reviewing them.

A proposal prepared for the EST September 2013 Version 3

Brian Baer, Helle Dam, Dilek Dizdar, Debbie Folaron, Yves Gambier, Reine Meylaerts (Chair), Nike Pokorn, Christina Schäffner.

In 2014 the Committee will be working on an International Doctorate in Translation Studies, envisaged as a network of stakeholders. This is based on the principles as proposed in the draft document below. The Committee is currently preparing a meeting to be held at KU Leuven on August 27-29, to which representatives of doctoral programs will be invited.

The 2013 Book Purchase Grant went to the

International Doctorate in Translation Studies

- determining the foundation members of the network - providing a two-day course in doctoral supervision techniques, issuing a certificate endorsed by the EST. More news will follow soon.

Ágnes Somló (Chair)

Reine Meylaerts (Chair)

Document presented to a meeting at the 7th EST Congress in Germersheim on 31 August 2013 and revised in view of that discussion. The international community of translation scholars recognizes that doctoral programs are one of the main means by which it reproduces itself, affirming and developing its academic identity. The precedents for EST involvement in this field include Article 2.2 of the EST Constitution, the aim to set up a register of research supervisors (from EST Newsletter 1, 1992), the detailed proposal written by Yves Gambier on behalf of the TS-Doc Working Group (EST Newsletter 42, 2013) and the ongoing work of the EST Doctoral Committee. A further precedent is the European ITN project TIME (2011-2014), which has developed a model of industryrelevant doctoral training. In view of this interest and precedents, it is proposed to establish an International Doctorate in Translation Studies, initially as a network of interested stakeholders, based on the following principles: 1. The aims of the network are: a. To provide a support structure for cooperation between existing doctoral programs b. To build up a database of online course materials, including copyrightcleared readings, video lectures, presentation slides and model syllabi c. To compile a register of supervisors who are prepared to assist in supervision or co-supervision in particular areas d. To assist in the location of training partners in industry, NGOs, and governmental institutions e. To provide training for research supervisors in the field of Translation Studies f. To provide a reference framework for joint doctorates, particularly those that involve different countries g. To assist in making contacts for the mobility of students

22 h.

i. j. k.

To organize an annual graduate conference for students in member programs To organize an annual meeting of representatives of member programs To attract external funding for the activities of the network To agree on a set of minimal objectives and skills for a doctoral program working in Translation Studies, and to periodically review the set.

2. The network may function as a label of quality that can be accorded to existing programs that agree to participate and that meet certain minimal criteria. 3. The network may include any program that meets these conditions, independently of the name of the program (the term “Translation Studies” is not required in the name of programs, and programs in more general fields may still be members of the network). 4. “Translation Studies” is taken in a broad sense, including research on written translation, interpreting, audiovisual translation, localization and adaptation. 5. The minimal requirements for member programs may concern teaching content (minimal objectives and skills), training processes (particularly supervision practices) and products (publications by doctoral students). Interim indices may be used until the program is in full operation. 6. A doctoral program may benefit from network membership for cycles of five years. At the end of each cycle, the program must meet the minimal criteria in order to renew membership. 7. The membership fee for each program might be of the order of 2 000 euros per five-year period, calculated on the basis of the number of doctoral students working in Translation Studies and the income level of the country concerned.

Program profiles The minimal components required for a doctoral program, as expressed in various documents at the national and European levels, comprise lists of training objectives and skills to be acquired. Annex 1 gives the list of objectives and skills compiled by Yves Gambier (EST Newsletter 42, 2013). Member programs may be required to state, in a detailed written submission, how and when each objective is met and each skill is acquired and/or tested.

Given the extreme variation between programs in different countries, many aspects of existing doctoral programs do not constitute adequate criteria for membership. For example, there should be no requirements concerning the minimum learning hours per item (since doctoral students often have highly developed skills prior to entering the program), and no external checking of actual acquisition (since such checking is expensive). Further, there should be no requirement that the training process happen within the candidate program itself: in many cases general training can be given within generic doctoral courses at each university, and highly specific training can be organized in seminars and workshops in which several Translation Studies programs participate. It is envisaged that detailed thought about the list of objectives and skills will in some cases help stimulate existing programs to envisage supplementary training activities (seminars, conferences, workshops). Quality metrics Numerous metrics can be used to assess the quality of doctoral programs, and it is not clear that the EST has the status or mandate to apply any of them. We must exclude those that are particularly countryspecific (e.g. maximum duration of the program, percentage of taught courses, entry requirements for new students, format of doctoral examination sessions, or grades awarded to doctoral theses). We should also exclude metrics that are onerous to organize or process (e.g. academic qualifications of supervisors, quality of coursework, evaluations by students or inspection visits).

Training in supervision techniques One way in which the network could help improve doctoral programs is by providing training in supervision techniques that are in some way specific to Translation Studies. This could be through short-term (perhaps two-day) annual workshops that provide certification. The network should not require that all supervisors have such certification, since many co-supervisors work in disciplines that are not strictly concerned with translation. However, the network may require that a certain percentage of main supervisors in a member program either have completed a training course of some kind or are able to show experience in the supervision of doctoral researchers. It is recognized that the ability to do research in Translation Studies is not the

same thing as the ability to supervise researchers.

Publication impact Another possible approach would be to use an external system that measures quality. At the present time, the one area in which the quality of research work is controlled with some rigor is in the selection of articles by indexed journals. A member program might be required to demonstrate that, over a five-year period, an average of two thesis-related indexedjournal publications have been accepted per successful doctoral student. Acceptance might be prior to the defense of the thesis or within three years of the defense of the thesis. This could be calculated as an average for the entire program. For example, if one student has one publication and another has three, then the average is two and the requirement is met. “Indexed journals” could be taken to be those journals with an ISI Web of Knowledge impact score, as well as the various national lists of approved peerreviewed journals. There should be no requirement concerning the impact score or the discipline of the journal, as long as the articles are related to the doctoral research. A higher or lower degree of quality can be obtained by increasing or decreasing the number of publications per student.

Post-thesis employment A further criterion could be data on successful post-thesis employment. This could be based on self-report data and would have to allow for research that is not completed in order for employment purposes. This criterion would, however, indicate the desirability of working with industry partners and possible employers in the design and executive of research training.

Board of management The network could be coordinated by a five-member board, comprising Director, Treasurer, and three further members. It may also have a technical assistant (website, preparation of materials, organization), paid on the basis of hours worked. The language used in all communications with and from the Board, including candidate dossiers, could be English.

23 The Board might report annually to the Executive Board of the EST and should be governed in all respects by the constitution of the EST.

international and multilingual communications; 6. Are able to plan a high-level career involving research in TS.

The funds generated could be used for the running and further development of the network.


Timeline for implementation Initial funding for the network could be provided by the EST. The following events are planned: August 27-29, 2014: Meeting of interested representatives of doctoral programs with the aim of agreeing on a constitutive text and determining the foundation members of the network. This might also coincide with a two-day course in doctoral supervision techniques, issuing a certificate endorsed by the EST. December 2014: Constitutive meeting of stakeholders (representatives of doctoral programs and supporters of programs from industry and policy institutions) with the aim of signing the constitutive text and electing a Board for the network.

Annex 1 Objectives and skills compiled by Yves Gambier on behalf of the TS-Doc Working Group (Newsletter 42, 2013)

OBJECTIVES (based on the Dublin descriptors, 2004) After completion of the third cycle, qualifications are awarded to students who: 1. Have demonstrated a systematic understanding of TS as a whole and unified field of research (and not only in a narrow subfield) and mastery of the skills and methods of research associated with TS; 2. Have demonstrated the ability to conceptualize, design and implement a substantial and original research project in TS; 3. Are capable of critical analysis and evaluation of new and complex ideas in TS; 4. Can communicate with their peers, the larger scholarly community in TS and with society in general with respect to the use and importance of translation; 5. Can promote, within academic and professional contexts, social and technological progress related to

By the end of the program, the graduates should have acquired the following skills:

Basic skills 1. Manage time and demonstrate selfdiscipline, manage intermediate milestones and prioritization of activities 2. Manage research with self-reflection, awareness, creativity, open-mindedness 3. Identify and access appropriate bibliographical resources, archives, and other sources of relevant information (acquisition and collection of information through the effective use of appropriate resources and equipment) 4. Use information technology appropriate for database management, recording and presenting information 5. Read critically the scientific literature 6. Learn from other disciplines 7. Identify one’s own training needs 8. Work in a team in an international and intercultural context; be able to network and develop working relationships with supervisors, peers, colleagues within the institution, and the wider research community 9. Criticize and intellectually defend solutions 10. Resolve problems involving professional and research ethics 11. Communicate academic arguments with consistency, precision and explicitness, present logical thinking and evidence, and defend research outcomes effectively 12. Write academic papers, have citation skills 13. Summarize, document, report and reflect on progress 14. Present skills, personal attributes and experience through effective CVs, applications, interviews 15. Plan and write funding applications 16. Demonstrate awareness of issues relating to the rights of other researchers, of research subjects, and of others who may be affected by the research, e.g. confidentiality, ethical issues, copyright, ownership of data, plagiarism, etc.

Research skills 1. Be aware of what has been done before 2. Recognize and validate problems and

formulate and test hypotheses 3. Accept great flexibility in choosing research questions 4. Pay attention to claims, possible counter-evidence, counter-arguments 5. Think about the advantages and disadvantages of case studies 6. Select appropriate and sufficient material/data/subjects/examples for the dissertation 7. Choose appropriate variables in relation to the objectives and the resources available 8. Develop theoretical concepts 9. Analyze critically and evaluate one’s findings and those of others 10. Understand relevant research methodologies and techniques and their appropriate application within TS 11. Justify the principles and experimental techniques used in one’s own research 12. Question the position of the researcher as an observer with subjectivity, assumptions, implicit ideology, cultural background, stereotypes 13. Have a clear view of generalizability limitations, of risk of oversimplification and of comparability of situations, actions and data 14. Understand the processes for evaluation of research 15. Demonstrate the potential impact of the research project.

Translation research skills 1. Have knowledge of recent advances in TS and in related areas 2. Read and analyze critically the literature in TS and evaluate findings (read about the same topics researched using different methods; read about different topics researched using the same methods) 3. Be open to research outside TS, with a critical eye on scholars, schools, trends which can be easily taken as “authorities” 4. Appreciate research conducted using other methods 5. Understand and apply the current metalanguages of TS, clarify basic terms, provide working definitions 6. Resolve complex problems in an interdisciplinary context 7. Understand and apply research techniques relevant to the project 8. Make efficient use of current language technologies to carry out the project 9. Understand and apply quantitative methods relevant for new developments in TS 10. Appreciate standards of good research practice in TS 11. Demonstrate the relevance of the research project.


Hot Topics in Translation Studies: Accessibility Translating Music Where words, music and ideas across cultures and languages meet www.translatingmusic.com

Lucile Desblache University of Roehampton

In the 21st century, music is everywhere. Technology has made its dissemination and appropriation instantly and globally available. Yet its role is often subsidiary to something else: we play music as a way of creating a personal space, as support for branding and advertising, to generate particular atmospheres. Music today is also primarily a companion to the visual, a trigger to our subconscious fears and desires. It is often used as an ephemeral

service and a disposable product. Listening to music as an exclusive activity is relatively rare and making music even more so.

Music is without doubt part of global communication, the question of its translation is therefore crucial. Many questions beg answers: does music ‘translate’ culture, for instance can Brazilian music evoke notions relating to Brazil, regardless of words? While the majority of pop songs are not only in English but North American, is music another tool of cultural imperialism? How far can and should we translate the words of songs? And how much is the answer to this question determined by production houses, copyright issues and other commercial constraints rather than by the wishes of listeners, lyricists and composers? How much attention is given to music translation in the growing world of media accessibility?

The Translating Music network has emerged out of a will to start answering these questions and open the door to many more. Its main investigators started in the world of opera and classical music where interlingual and intralingual translations have revolutionised access to forms of music often considered elitist or too focused on the past. Audiences have enthusiastically embraced surtitles and some types of accessibility for the deaf and blind such as audio description were pioneered by the arts, and music in particular. But this accessibility provision largely stops at the door of the classical genre.

Audiences, be they viewing/listening or hearing/visually impaired, always tend to want more information if possible. The commercial and practical context of performance or media transmission determines to what degree this information is given. It is true that, as the last decade has shown in changes in web writing, contemporary multimedia societies need to streamline information in digestible and realistic formats. However, in the case of musical texts, there is little coherence in the way they are (or not) translated. We know from the recent past of film, television and DVD markets that the industry can respond to the notion of wider access. At present, little is happening in relation to how music is made available and translated. Let us make this situation change.

In the next few months, in the form of a blog, various resources based on our investigations this year will appear on the Translating Music site. Interviews, filmed debates, reports and other resources will hopefully motivate further ideas and actions. If you have an interest in this area, join the network and let us know your ideas on how to change current provision or share your resources with us, so that the network can grow and make a difference. After all, as Confucius wrote more than 2000 years ago, music is a reflection of society and listening to it we can know it. So isn’t it time to consider how the translations of musical texts are contributing to the meaning of music?



Audio Description: Lifelong Access For The Blind (Adlab)

Vlaamse Radio en Televisie), Poland (Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań) and Germany (Bayerischer Rundfunk). The project is coordinated by the University of Trieste.

Iwona Mazur

The project is designed to produce sets of guidelines, based on extensive research and experimentation, that will be valid across Europe, providing the impetus to create highly professional products for a whole range of potential uses: from digital television and DVDs to mobile telephones and e-books, from art gallery and museum visits to theatre performances. The results of the project will be brought to bear on curricula for AD courses in higher education, and for the training of describers and describer-trainers.

Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Poland

Christopher Taylor University of Trieste, Italy

Audio Description (AD) is a type of intersemiotic translation that consists in the verbal description of the visual elements of an audiovisual product. With this method, the blind and visually impaired can hear descriptions of films, television programmes, theatre performances, museum exhibits, etc. and thus participate more fully in the wealth of experience provided by audiovisual means. However, progress in this field is varied across the European spectrum, ranging from contexts in which AD is an accepted part of many audiovisual packages (e.g. in the UK, in Spain) and other contexts where the process is unknown or rare. In 2011 a group of audio description researchers and practitioners came together under the umbrella of a project called Audio Description: Lifelong Access For The Blind (ADLAB) – a three-year project (2011-2014) financed by the European Union as part of the Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) and involving eight partners from six European countries: Italy (University of Trieste, Senza Barriere ONLUS), Spain (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona), Portugal (Istituto Politecnico de Leiria), Belgium (University of Antwerp,

The project consists of eight work packages (WPs). The purpose of WP1 (User needs analysis) was to achieve a ‘photograph’ of the AD situation in Europe – particularly in the partner countries. Information was gathered concerning – among other things – the number of blind and visually-impaired people, AD service accessibility, and ADrelated legal regulations. You can read the report here: http://www.adlabproject.eu/?page_id=376 In WP2 (Text analysis) all partners carried out an extensive analysis of a complex multimodal text (Quentin Tarantino’s Inglourious Basterds, 2009) as a result of which issues which may be problematic in AD were identified: text on screen, music and sounds, intertextual relations/cultural references, secondary elements/content prioritization, gestures and facial expressions, cinema tools/camera techniques, spatio-temporal characteristics, characters, audio description wording, language and style. WP3 (Testing) consisted of two stages. The purpose of stage one was to identify and tackle the so-called ‘Audio Description Crisis Points’ (ADCPs) understood as stumbling blocks in audio description, requiring a conscious decision on the part of the audio describer. Establishing such critical points may be helpful in determining what to describe, while looking at the specific solutions applied to overcome them may give us some indication as to how to describe. As a result of analyses conducted as part of this stage 14 ADCPs were identified, which to a great extent overlapped with issues identified in WP2. Stage two of WP3 involved an AD reception study conducted in all of the partner countries. The purpose of the study was to test different AD solutions and see which of them are better received by blind and

visually impaired respondents. In preparing the study results obtained in both WP2 and stage one of WP3 were used, so tested AD items concerned such issues as introducing characters, reading out text-on-screen, describing gestures, rendering filmic language, etc. In the study, respondents were shown a 20-minute audio described clip from the above-mentioned Inglourious Basterds, which was followed by a questionnaire-based in-depth interview. WP4 (Guidelines) – currently in progress – involves development of modular guidelines and is coordinated by the University of Antwerp. More information about the project: http://www.adlabproject.eu

Translation as an alternative method of creating audio description scripts Anna Jankowska Jagiellonian University of Krakow

Agnieszka Szarkowska University of Warsaw

Audio description (AD) is an additional verbal description of the most important elements of the image which provides the blind and visually impaired with information that sighted viewers perceive through the visual channel. From the point of view of Translation Studies, audio description – as a verbal interpretation of the image – is usually considered from the viewpoint of

27 intersemiotic translation, one of the three types of translation famously distinguished by Jakobson back in 1959. However, AD can also be considered as interlingual translation. Such is the case of AD scripts created as a result of translation from a foreign language rather than being developed from scratch during the usual process of describing the image, which currently is the most common way of creating scripts. So far the feasibility of translating AD scripts was addressed by a handful of researchers (MA theses: Herrador Molina 2006 and Psiuk 2010; articles: Hyks 2005, López Vera 2005, Bourne & Jimenez Hurtado 2007, and Georgakopoulou 2009; and a PhD dissertation: Jankowska 2013). Here we present the results of the PhD thesis by Jankowska (2013). Why translate AD scripts? Given the costly and lengthy process of AD creation – whereby the audio describer has to watch the film several times, in each scene decide what to describe and how, then to consult the output with a visually impaired member of the target audience, and finally to record the script in the studio – translating AD scripts appears to be a promising and costeffective solution. The translation of AD scripts would make it possible to eliminate some steps from the AD production process. It is particularly in countries where AD is still in its infancy and where there is a shortage of experienced audio describers that the translation of AD scripts could possibly increase both the amount and the quality of audio descriptions. The question of the feasibility of translating AD scripts for dubbed films was taken up in a three-stage study by Jankowska (2013). The first stage of the experiment was aimed at comparing the time needed to create the AD script from scratch and to translate it (in this case from English into Polish). The second experiment, a pilot study, was designed to study audience reception to the proposed solution. The pilot study was conducted among an experimental group (blind and partially sighted viewers) and a control group (sighted viewers). The third experiment, i.e. a comparative cognitive analysis of AD scripts written from scratch and translated ones, was carried out in order understand the differences in the scripts and in audience preferences. The results of the first part of the study showed that the process of writing an AD script on average took 56 hours, while the process of translating it – only 22.5 hours. It has to be noted, however, that these results come from a comparison of the

performance of novice audio describers and novice translators (in this case MA students of an elective course in AVT at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków). The study also showed that the process of translating AD scripts was less timeconsuming when the performance of experienced audio describers was compared with that of novice translators: experienced audio describers needed twice more time (45 hours) than novice translators (22.5 hours) to write their scripts. The pilot study also showed that the AD target audience was willing to accept AD created through translation. Visually impaired respondents actually preferred the translated scripts over the ones written from scratch. In their opinion, these scripts were easier to understand and follow. Interestingly, the control group opted for the newly written scripts and described them as more interesting, picturesque and faithful to the image. The analysis of various AD scripts using the methodological toolkit of cognitive grammar showed that the translated scripts differed from the ones written from scratch in various characteristics which might make them easier to understand and follow. In general, translated scripts contained fewer pieces of information in general, they were less detailed, and they presented the action in a logical timeline rather than in relation to the image. All in all, it seems that the translation of AD scripts is feasible, and if it proves successful for other language pairs and AVT types (i.e. voice-over and audio subtitles), it could be a way of reducing the cost of AD production, but at the same time maintaining – if not improving – its quality.

References Bourne, J. and C. Jimenez Hurtado (2007). "From the visual to the verbal in two languages: a contrastive analysis of the audio description of The Hours in English and Spanish”. . Díaz Cintas, P. Orero, A. Remael (eds) Media for All: Subtitling for

the Deaf, Audio Descrition, and Sign Language. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 174-187. Georgakopoulou, Y. (2009). "Developing audio description in Greece”, MultiLingual, 38-42. Herrador Molina, D. (2006). La traducción

de guiones de audiodescripción del inglés al español. Unpublished MA thesis. Granada: Universidad de Granada.

Hyks, V. (2005). "Audio Description and Translation. Two related but different skills”. Translating Today 4, 6-8. Jankowska, A. (2013). Tłumaczenie

skryptów audiodeskrypcji z języka angielskiego, jako alternatywna metoda tworzenia skryptów audiodeskrypcji. Unpublished PhD thesis. Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński. López Vera, J. F. (2006). "Trasnlating audio description scripts - the way forward? Tentative first stage project results”, http://www.euroconferences.info/proceedin gs/2006_Proceedings/2006_Lopez_Vera_Ju an_Francisco.pdf (consulted 22.07.2012). Psiuk, A. (2010). Analiza przedstawienia

bohaterów w skrypcie audiodeskrypcji tworzonej i tłumaczonej do filmu Harry Potter i więzień Azkabanu, a strategie tworzenia audiodeskrypcji dola filmów dubbingowanych. Unpublished MA thesis. Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński

Accessible filmmaking Pablo Romero Fresco University of Roehampton

The numbers tell a sad story. Almost 60% of the revenue obtained by the leading topgrossing films made in Hollywood in the last decade comes from the translated (subtitled or dubbed) or accessible (with subtitles for the deaf or audiodescription for the blind) versions of those films, and yet only between 0.1% and 1% of their budgets is usually devoted to translation and accessibility. Relegated to the distribution stage as an afterthought in the filmmaking process, translators have to translate films in very limited time, for a small remuneration and with no access to the creative team of the films. This may be seen as a profitable model for the film industry, but more than a decade of research in audiovisual translation (AVT) has shown that it may also have a very negative impact on the quality and reception of translated films. In fact,

28 renowned filmmakers such as Ken Loach are now beginning to denounce that this model often results in the alteration of their film’s vision and that, even more worryingly, they are not always aware of this (de Higes Andino forthcoming). As a potential way to tackle this problem, accessible filmmaking (Romero-Fresco 2013) attempts to integrate AVT and accessibility as part of the filmmaking process through collaboration between filmmakers and translators. The aim is to apply this model to training, research and practice, and the first steps have already been taken. From the point of view of training, some AVT courses now include film content as part of their syllabus. This is the case of the MA in Media Accessibility at the University of Macerata or the MA in Accessible Filmmaking at the University of Roehampton (London), where students learn not only how to make films but also how to make them accessible to viewers in other languages and viewers with hearing and visual loss. Whether or not these students will end up working in the film industry, they will be able to speak the same language as filmmakers, which will facilitate their collaboration for the translation of the films. Another potential step in this direction is to establish links between film schools and translation institutions so that AVT students can subtitle or dub for their assignments real short films made by student filmmakers. This may be more satisfying than translating clips from films that have already been translated and will also foster the spirit of collaboration between both areas. As far as research is concerned, three new avenues in AVT are already looking at the common ground between film(making) and translation: universal design applied to media accessibility (Udo and Fels 2009), part-subtitling (O’Sullivan 2008) and creative subtitling (McClarty 2012). All three are examples of accessible filmmaking, which could help filmmakers and film scholars explore the aspects of AVT and accessibility that have an impact on the reception of their (translated) films and AVT scholars and translators identify the elements from filmmaking and film studies that can contribute to the theory and practice of translation. In this sense, it is worth considering the often-overlooked research on translation carried out by filmmakers such as the scholar and documentarian David Mac Dougall, for whom subtitling “remains part of the creative process, influencing the pacing and rhythm of the film as well as its intellectual and emotional content” (1995:168). Now that research on AVT has come of age and

has begun to delve into reception studies, it is in an optimum position to consider the practical and theoretical implications of strengthening its links with film studies and filmmaking. Finally, if it is to be presented as a realistic alternative to the current consideration of AVT as an afterthought in the filmmaking process, accessible filmmaking must also be applicable in the professional practice. A first example of this is the short documentary about blindness and audiodescription Joining the Dots (RomeroFresco 2012, available here), presented at the 69th International Venice Film Festival. The film is currently hosted at the United Nations’ ITU website, which is also supporting accessible filmmaking as an approach to increase the visibility of accessibility in the industry. At the University of Roehampton, the collaboration between translators and the creative team of the film is set as a requirement for filmmakers who wish to have their films translated or made accessible. This collaboration may range from a couple of meetings between the filmmaker and the translator to a more thorough involvement as part of the postproduction process. Examples are Michael Chanan’s Secret City (2012), Enrica Colusso’s Home Sweet Home (2012) or the award-winning documentary Hijos de las nubes (2010), directed by Alvaro Longoria and produced by the Spanish actor Javier Bardem. Outside Roehampton, companies such as Subtrain and Sub-ti are also beginning to apply this model. Furthermore, independent filmmakers such as Alastair Cole, whose award-winning films have been presented at the Cannes Film Festival Critics’ Week, are now working with a new figure, the producer of accessibility, who acts as liaison between the filmmaker and the translators ensuring that they have access to the creative team of the film for their translation. As well as the examples mentioned here with regard to training, research and practice, other initiatives have been launched to raise the visibility of accessible filmmaking in academic and non-academic circles, including presentations in film festivals (Venice 2012 and 2013, Edinburgh 2013, Berlin 2014) to reach professionals in the film industry, a first academic article (Romero-Fresco 2013), a dedicated website and a special item on the Spanish newspaper El País about the application of accessible filmmaking in developing countries. In an increasingly multilingual society where film co-productions are becoming more and more common, translation has a

key role to play. The integration of accessibility and AVT as part of the filmmaking process through the collaboration between filmmakers and translators can help ensure that the filmmakers’ visions are not altered when their films reach foreign audiences and viewers with hearing and visual loss. Time will tell whether or not it is possible to present alternative models to the current consideration of AVT and accessibility as an afterthought in the film industry, but the fact that accessible filmmaking is already being applied at grassroots level and in independent films provides encouragement to keep pursuing this cause.

References de Higes Andino, Irene (forthcoming).

Estudio descriptivo y comparativo de la traducción de filmes multilingües: el caso del cine británico de inmigración contemporáneo. PhD thesis. Universitat Jaume I. MacDougall, David (1995). "Subtitling Ethnographic Films". Visual Anthropology Review 11: 1, 83-91. McClarty, Rebecca (2012). “Towards a Multidisciplinary Approach in Creative Subtitling.” Rosa Agost, Pilar Orero and Elena di Giovanni (eds) (2012).

Monographs in Translating and Interpreting (MonTI) 4, 133–155. O’Sullivan, Carol (2008). “Multilingualism at the multiplex: a new audience for screen translation?” Linguistica Antverpiensia, New Series – Themes in Translation Studies 6, 81-97. Romero-Fresco, Pablo (2013). “Accessible filmmaking: Joining the dots between audiovisual translation, accessibility and filmmaking” The Journal of Specialised Translation 20, 201-223. http://www.jostrans.org/issue20/art_romer o.pdf (consulted 19.11.2013). Udo, John-Patrick and Deborah Fels (2009). “The Rogue Poster Children of Universal Design: Closed Captioning and Audio Description.” Ted Rogers School of

Information Technology Management Publications and Research, Paper 18, 1-32. http://digitalcommons.ryerson.ca/trsitm/18 (consulted 31.01.2013).


Obituary In Memoriam Professor Martha Cheung(張佩瑤教授)

Professor Pui Yiu Martha Cheung, of Hong Kong Baptist University, passed away on 10 September 2013, at the age of 60. She is best known for her editing, annotation and part-translation of An

Anthology of Chinese Discourse on Translation, Volume One: From Earliest Times to the Buddhist Project (2006),

which was part of her ongoing project to make Chinese translation history and theory better known. In this, as in her dedication to knowledge and lively personal relations with scholars and students, she played a key role in international Translation Studies. She is much missed. -----------------Dear colleagues, students and alumni, It is with deep sadness that I share with you the news of the passing of Professor Martha Cheung, Chair Professor in Translation at the Department of English Language and Literature, and Director of the Centre for Translation, on 10 September 2013.

Professor Cheung was a beloved figure among colleagues and students since she joined us 18 years ago. She was one of the top translation scholars in the world and a much respected teacher and mentor whose contribution to the University in teaching, research and service was uniformly and consistently excellent. Her tremendous energy, enthusiasm, good humour, professionalism and integrity made her a role model to fellow colleagues and students. Professor Cheung joined HKBU in 1995 as Associate Professor, and was promoted to Professor in 1998 and Chair Professor in 2007. Over the years, she held a number of concurrent posts, including Director of the Centre for Translation, Head of the BA (Hons) in Translation programme, and Associate Vice-President responsible for the implementation of the four-year undergraduate curriculum. She also served on numerous HKBU committees, both at the university and faculty levels. Professor Cheung’s dedicated service won her several honours and awards from HKBU. She was twice awarded the President’s Award for Outstanding Performance in Scholarly Work, and once received the President’s Award in Teaching. A prolific writer and researcher, Professor Cheung’s contributions to the research and academic community and the discipline of translation studies were powerful and highly esteemed both locally and internationally. Her groundbreaking Anthology of Chinese Discourse on Translation, volume 1 of which, titled From Earliest Times to the Buddhist Project, made her a much sought-after speaker on the international conference circuit, and at prestigious doctoral research training programmes such as that at CETRA in Leuven, Belgium, and the Nida School in Misano, Italy. Professor Cheung continued work on volume 2 of her Chinese Discourse

project even through her illness. She also served as advisory member to several international organisations and editorial board member to a number of international academic journals. As a teacher, Professor Cheung had a genuine desire to help her students achieve more, and the same caring attentiveness was channeled into mentoring colleagues as well. Such demonstrations of complete commitment to the cause of cultivating upand-coming scholars were part of a philosophy that sought always to nurture the positive in people. Please join me in extending our heartfelt condolences to Professor Cheung’s family at this time of bereavement. She will be missed by the HKBU community, especially those who had the opportunity to work with her or were taught by her. Her contributions to HKBU, the tertiary education sector and the discipline of translation studies will always be remembered. The funeral of Professor Cheung will be held at 9:00 am on 30 September 2013 at the Hong Kong Funeral Home in North Point. A memorial gathering will be organised by the Faculty of Arts in early October, with details to be announced in due course. Albert S C Chan President and Vice-Chancellor Hong Kong Baptist University 12 September 2013


Recent TS Events: Personal Reports EST Congress, 2013 th

As a relatively new academic (4 year PhD student), the idea of visiting a lovely part of the world and being surrounded by 400 hundred expert academics for a few days had its attraction. Thrown in a three session panel on my specialist field and the 2013 EST congress in Germersheim, Germany became irresistible. The numbers alone from the congress are mind-boggling. There were over 300 presentations, 24 panels, and too many posters to count. This meant that, unlike some conferences where it is inevitable that there will be some slots where you struggle to find an interesting session to attend, at EST Congress, you were always spoilt for choice. Everything was covered: from the latest developments in Audiovisual Translation to new perspectives on Terminology and from Translation Pedagogy to Interpreting in Religious Settings. If anything, another day (or two) might have been useful to allow people to take more in. As I had to leave before the end of the conference I missed one of the plenaries but the two I did take in gave an interesting flavour to the whole event. On 29th August, Brigitte Busche set the ball rolling with a fascinating and thoughtprovoking talk on multilingualism. Her view that “everyone is multilingual” was based on that face that we all adjust our speech and writing to different situations, based on the need to fit in. For me, by far the best part of her talk was when she explored some of the “language diaries” submitted by her students. Feelings of being different and not being accepted are surely familiar to anyone who has changed environments when growing up. Her talk then reminded everyone there that language is intimately personal. Our language develops and changes as we do. It is just such a pity that she chose to illustrate this point with quotes and arguments from philosophers and not child development experts. The second plenary was given by Brian James Baer and centred on translation in Russian gulags. Reactions to this talk seemed mixed. Russophiles and literary scholars seemed to find it fascinating and helpful while scholars in interpreting and

the translation professions seemed to not benefit as much. As a researcher in church interpreting, I was a little disappointed to hear so little on those who translated parts of the Bible while in the gulags but had to agree with the speaker that gulag translation deserves a much more thorough treatment in Translation Studies. The paper presentations did not disappoint. For me, this all started with a panel on Pedagogy, Competence and Cognition, which spanned a wide range from an early stage longitudinal study presented by Carla Quinci on the skills acquitted by “competent translators” to a more advanced study on the images students have of translation while the go through their training. The latter paper serves as a neat complement to the work done on metaphors of translation. After this panel, my choices were driven by the fact that I co-chaired a three session panel on Translation and Interpreting in Religious Settings with Jill Karlik of Leeds University. We were very pleased at the wide range of work presented. The panel started with the excellent first session, which we ended up giving over entirely to Francine Kaufmann who talked on the history of interpreting in Judaism. This set the scene for all the other work that was to be presented. Her main theme was that many of the interpreting norms we take for granted – such as neutrality, strict linguistic accuracy and our position as ‘outsiders’ – are comparatively new on the scene. Up until very recently, interpreters in Judaism were often given far more freedom and a far higher status than many professionals enjoy today. The power and position of those doing translation and interpreting was an ongoing theme of the panel. Doug Trick, from Trinity Western University in Canada, gave a very helpful presentation on the practice of Bible translation for minority language communities and paid special attention to the role of consultants and translation agencies. Deborah Shadd, from the Nida Institute, followed this with a profound presentation on the usefulness of the concept of hospitality for translators. Where the last two presenters had discussed theory and practice, Andy Owen gave the panel a demonstration of practice, weaving the interpreting of the story of David and Goliath from English to British Sign Language into his presentation on the

practice of Sign Language interpreting in a multilingual church. The last session of the panel was divided into three talks. Sari Hokkanen, of the University of Tampere, started the session by exploring the use of auto-ethnography as a research method. Auto-ethnography, she argued, allows us to combine the personal and the social and tease out how these two are linked. Adelina Hild, from Leicester University, then presented a talk on the role of interpreters in a church in Switzerland. Last up was my own talk on a model for understanding user expectations of church interpreters. The following day was my last at the EST congress but it was well worth it. Elisabet Tiselius’ talk on how interpreters improve their performance (or not!) was, for me, the standout talk of the day, if not of the entire conference. I am currently reading her entire PhD thesis to find out more. In addition to all these talks, there was the EST General Meeting, which was the friendliest, most enjoyable meeting of its type I have ever attended. This meeting, and indeed the conference as a whole, were powerful testimonies not only to the well-deserved growth of EST over the past few years but also to the hard work and organisational skills of the conference organisers and the EST Executive Board. Needless to say, the 2016 congress in Aarhus is already on my calendar.

Jonathan Downie PhD Student, Department of Languages and Intercultural Studies Heriot-Watt University


Methodological Challenges for Contemporary Translator Educators 2013 Translation Pedagogy at Kraków October Conference 10-11 October, 2013, Kraków It is highly appropriate that a new academic year, which always starts on October 1st in Poland, should commence with an event of considerable academic relevance and validity. It does not seem an exaggeration to note that the international conference Methodological Challenges for Contemporary Translator Educators (MCCTE2013) that took place on October 10-11th in Krakow was such an event. It was an outcome of organizational effort of two Krakow-based translator training institutions: the UNESCO Chair for Translation Studies and Intercultural Communication at Jagiellonian University and the Chair for Translator Education at Pedagogical University. Geographically spanning a huge territory and represented by translation pedagogues from all major universities in Poland, and from other countries: India, Turkey, Russia, the Ukraine, Czech Republic, Poland, Belgium, Ireland, Great Britain, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Finland, the Conference attracted international attention of specialists in translator education research. The Conference languages were English and Polish, whereas the major themes included, but were not restricted to methodology and particular skills in TT, specialisation, authentic environments, technology, evaluation, directionality, qualifications and cultural aspects, the market and others. Forty eight papers presented at the Conference oscillated around those key themes. An interesting and current issue of professionalization of translator education was highlighted with topics like transferable skills training, student internships, transfer of knowledge between university and workplace, and self-training. There were also discussions accompanying presentations on competencies of professional translator trainers and competence models in response to market demands and professionalisation of the discipline, specialisation and various aspects of specialised training, modes of specialisation, teaching curricula and courses, course content, combining

professional and pedagogical assessment, professional realism in translator training, reconciliation of market demands with traditional goals of academic education, project work, and others. Beside traditional conference papers, particular focus was put on the empirical component – within the Conference programme there were six interactive workshops (with no additional fee) with the use of technology in three parallel sessions. They concerned the topics of: (1) Acquiring translation skills through interactive captioning and revoicing of clips (ClipFlair) by Laura McLoughlin Incalcaterra, Olga Torres-Hostench and Patricia RodríguezInés; (2) Integrating technology into interpreter training courses through a blended learning approach by Maria Tymczyńska and Marta Kajzer-Wietrzny; (3) Flexible use of CAT tools by Izabela Mrochen; (4) MemoQ translation software by Marek Pawelec, and (5) Translating Wikipedia articles as a genuine translation project for translator training by Piotr Szymczak. There was one workshop addressed only to Polish participants, as it was conducted in Polish, namely the workshop on Community Interpreting conducted by Małgorzata Tryuk. The hands-on experience of workshop participants was very valuable and generally appreciated. The Keynote presentations included lectures of renowned translation scholars, professors: - Dorothy Kelly (Universidad de Granada, Spain), who was speaking on directionality in translator training; - Don Kiraly (Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Germany), whose lecture entitled “Looking backwards to move forward: epistemological communities of practice and Translator Education” outlined key strands of thought on the pedagogy of translation; - Wolfgang Lörscher (Universität Leipzig), who presented the developments in research on bilingualism as related to translation competence; - Elżbieta Tabakowska (Jagiellonian University, Poland), who had a lecture on “cognitive translatology”. At the inauguration of MCCTE2013, EST Vice-President, prof. Alexandra Assis Rosa, demonstrated how EST has contributed to the development of Translation Studies. It so happens that the academic year 2013/14 begins the year of the 650th anniversary of the founding of the Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world, in the city whose

student population is so vibrant and tremendously rich. It so happens that the famous Wierzynek’s feast, a symbolic event that echoed in Europe; a medieval celebration at the contemporary Polish King, Casimir the Great’s court with the participation of several European monarchs took place in Krakow almost 650 years ago around this time of the year and near the place where the Conference banquet was given at the medieval Krakowian Market Square. It so happens that at this time of the year St. Jerome’s Day – “Hieronimki”, or “Dzień Tłumacza” is celebrated in Poland, and particularly in Krakow, the city of literature. The Conference venue was not a single location, on the contrary, there were four conference sites, which could have been a nuisance but actually was a good pretext to enjoy the city at its best on exceptionally warm and sunny October days. It is obvious that translation pedagogy has undergone a process of transformation and is past the transition from Ladmiral’s performance magistrale to contemporary translator training methods. Poland is a country where the proliferation of translation teaching and translator training institutions is tremendous, and a country which witnessed a rapid growth and qualitative and quantitative difference in translator education: from translation to translator focus, from prescription to description, from declarative knowledge to empirical and procedural instruction, from academic to professional orientation. The first expert conference on the methodology for teaching translation was organised in Krakow in 1998 by the Jagiellonian University and the Polish Society of Economic, Legal and Court Translators TEPIS. MCCTE2013 has intended to continue the tradition of teacher development, and wished to provide the venue for thought-provoking meetings, exchange of ideas and communication not only locally but on a larger scale. The outcome of any academic event should not only be momentarily important but should yield relevant insight towards future research and also for the development of the discipline. That idea of one conference of two Polish universities seems to have been implemented. As one of the Conference participants, member of MCCTE2013 Advisory Board, prof. Leonid Chernovaty from V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University in the Ukraine, said at the Conference closing, “you judge the quality of a academic event by the speakers who are invited to it.” It was definitely the opinion shared by the majority of Conference participants that the

32 quality of all plenary lectures, workshops and presentations was excellent.

event matter on the contemporary scene of translation research and education.

We were very happy to offer translation teachers/ translator trainers/ translation educators; whichever name we wish to adopt; a conference forum and a platform for fruitful exchange of ideas and opinions on the shared research domain. Focusing not only on the translator, “the key figure of the 21st century” in Ryszard Kapuściński, a Polish reporter’s words, but looking retrospectively and progressively at the role of the translation teacher, welcoming liaisons between the workforce and the academia, between researchers, educators and professionals, we wished to make the

We wish to thank EST for being an honorary sponsor of MCCTE2013, its VicePresident for inaugurating the Conference with the EST presentation, and the whole MCCTE2013 academic community for their excellent contribution to increasing the visibility of translator educators and the growth of translation pedagogy in its moving from a marginalised to fully professionalised and academised sub-field of TS.

Maria Piotrowska On behalf of MCCTE2013 Organising Committee

TS initiatives

Translation Research for Industry and Governance TRIG 2014 Leuven, Belgium, 11-12 December 2014 Keynote speakers:

Jan Blommaert

Fred Hollowood

Tove Hansen Malloy

With the participation of: Yves Gambier (Turku), Reine Meylaerts (KU Leuven), Anthony Pym (URV), Christina Schäffner (Aston)


Organized by: Centre for Translation Studies (CETRA), KU Leuven ITN project Translation Research Training: An integrated and intersectoral model for Europe (TIME)

?conf=trig2014. Please do not submit your proposals any other way.

Call for Papers: Research in the humanities is increasingly under pressure to justify its applicability to real-world problems, if only to secure respectable funding. Research on translation, interpreting and localization is no exception. Academic projects are nowadays supposed to correspond in some way to needs beyond the academic world. At the same time, however, the training of researchers largely takes place within the walls of universities.

Deadline for proposals: 31 March 2014

Here we are concerned with this problematic with respect to translation in a wide sense, including all forms of interpreting, audiovisual translation, localization and the use of translation technologies. This conference will address issues including the following: 1. What kinds of interests do non-academic institutions (industry, NGOs, governmental and intergovernmental institutions) have in research on translation? What kind of research do they do on translation? What kind of research would they like to be doing? 2. How can such institutions participate in academic research? How can they assist in the training of researchers? 3. What arrangements can be made for funding, internships (“secondments”, practicums, stages) for researchers? 4. What experiences have we had in cooperation between academic researchers and non-academic institutions? Which have been positive? Which have been negative? 5. What channels of communication are open between academic research institutions and non-academic institutions? How can those channels be improved? 6. What kinds of research projects merit or seek industry involvement but are currently unable to find suitable partners? What kinds of industry projects are unable to find partners within academic institutions? 7. How does Europe (particularly in view of the largely failed Lisbon Strategy) compare with other parts of the world in this respect? 8. As academic research is pushed towards non-academic institutions, what are the threats to our independence? Can we still voice radical critiques? Proposals for 20-minute papers and posters are invited on these and related issues. Proposals should be of about 500 words, including bibliography. They should be submitted via EasyChair at https://www.easychair.org/conferences/

We are particularly keen to attract representatives of non-academic organizations, with a view to promoting contacts for future research projects.

Notification of acceptance will be sent by 15 May 2014. Conference fee: The conference fee is 200 euros for nonstudents and 100 euros for students enrolled in a Bachelor's, Master's or Doctoral program. The fee will help cover catering for coffee breaks, lunches, and an evening reception. (Further information will be provided on how to pay the fee and register for the conference.) Venue: The conference will be held at the campus of KU Leuven (featured in the banner above), in the historic city of Leuven, in the Flemish region of Belgium and only 25 kilometers from Brussels. Information regarding lodging, dinning and sight-seeing can be found at the City of Leuven's tourism website. A city map can be found here.

CETRA 2014 Twenty-sixth Research Summer School University of Leuven, Belgium 18-29 August 2014

the different currents in the international world of Translation Studies: Gideon Toury (Tel Aviv, 1989), †Hans Vermeer (Heidelberg, 1990), Susan Bassnett (Warwick, 1991), Albrecht Neubert (Leipzig, 1992), Daniel Gile (Paris, 1993), Mary SnellHornby (Vienna, 1994), †André Lefevere (Austin, 1995), Anthony Pym (Tarragona, 1996), Yves Gambier (Turku, 1997), Lawrence Venuti (Philadelphia, 1998), Andrew Chesterman (Helsinki, 1999), Christiane Nord (Magdeburg, 2000), Mona Baker (Manchester, 2001), Maria Tymoczko (Amherst, Massachusetts, 2002), Ian Mason (Edinburgh, 2003), Michael Cronin (Dublin, 2004), †Daniel Simeoni (Toronto, 2005), Harish Trivedi (Delhi, 2006), †Miriam Shlesinger (Tel Aviv, 2007), Kirsten Malmkjaer (London, 2008), †Martha Cheung (Hong Kong, 2009), Sherry Simon (Montreal, 2010), Christina Schaeffner (Aston, 2011), Franz Pöchhacker (Vienna, 2012), Michaela Wolf (Graz, 2013). Basic activities and components of the Summer Session: 1. Public Lectures by the CETRA Professor on key topics. A preliminary reading list will be furnished and all topics are to be further developed in discussions. 2. Theoretical-methodological seminars given by the CETRA staff. Basic reading materials will be made available in advance. 3. Tutorials: individual discussions of participants’ research with the CETRA Professor and the CETRA staff. 4. Students’ papers: presentation of participants’ individual research projects followed by open discussion. 5. Publication: each participant is invited to submit an article based on the presentation, to be refereed and published on the CETRA website. For further information:

CETRA Chair Professor: Arnt Lykke Jakobsen, Copenhagen Business School

In 1989 José Lambert created a special research program in Translation Studies at the University of Leuven in order to promote research training in the study of translational phenomena and to stimulate high-level research into the cultural functions of translation. Since then, this unique program has attracted talented PhD students and young scholars who spend two weeks of research under the supervision of a team of prominent scholars, and under the supervision of the Chair Professor, an annually appointed expert in the field of Translation Studies. From 1989 on, the program has hosted participants from Austria to Australia, from Brazil to Burundi, and from China to the Czech Republic. The list of CETRA professors may serve as an illustration of the program’s openness to


please contact Steven Dewallens: steven.dewallens@kuleuven.be


please see our website: http://www.arts.kuleuven.be/cetr a

Other TS initiatives Nida School of Translation Studies (NSTS), theme: Translation as Interpretation, 26 May - 6 June 2014: http://nsts.fusp.it/nida-schools/nsts-2014 Certificate in Collaborative Translation Teaching, the University of Auckland, 14.04-17.04.2014 http://courses.cce.auckland.ac.nz/courses/ 127-certificate-in-collaborative-translationteaching


New Publications PhD dissertations Kristiina Abdallah Translators in

Production Networks. Reflections on Agency, Quality and Ethics University of Eastern Finland, 2012 Abstract: Over the past fifteen years, the field of professional translation has undergone major structural changes. As a result, translators often work as subcontractors in globalized production networks that consist of multiple actors. Studies focusing on translators’ workplaces –falling under the rubric of sociology of translation – are few. Research that addresses the organizational characteristics of the work context of translators are particularly sparse. This dissertation makes a contribution towards contextual workplace studies, as it focuses on translating in production networks. My viewpoint is strictly that of the translator. Hence, this dissertation relies on multiple sources of data and blends different theoretical approaches. By employing a mixed methods approach my goal has been to study both agency and structure and to explore how translation production networks are organized and how their actors interact with each other. My research design is qualitative and ethnographically oriented. The data examined consist of translator interviews and my own observations and experiences, as well as student reflections on translating in production networks. General network theory (Barabási 2002), actor-network theory (Latour 1987) and agency theory (Eisenhardt 1989) are the major theories from which I draw – and they are used to provide complementary insights into translating in production networks. The objective of this thesis is not only to describe production networks and translators’ agency therein but also – and perhaps more importantly – to try to understand, and thereby also help others to understand, their organizing principles, as well as to discover the conflict points, so that these might be resolved. Conflict resolution, however, is not the primary target of this thesis, nor could it be. Indeed, that would be a major undertaking that would require the collaboration of translators and their unions, the educational institutions and the translation industry in general, not to mention the representatives of the various users of translations. This dissertation is comprised of five articles, four of which are based on

empirical data. The first empirical article provides a bird’s eye view of the topology of translation production networks and focuses on the issue of trust. The second article, also based on empirical data, zooms in on one specific audiovisual translation production network paying particular attention to the actors, both human and non-human, and their interaction. The third empirical article examines structure and agency, bringing to the fore the relevance of information and emotional aspects regarding translation quality. The fourth article examines students’ reflections on translating in production networks as empirical data while it tackles questions of ethics. The fifth article, the only Finnishlanguage article in my thesis, is theoretical and concentrates on the issue of quality in production networks. The research findings of the various subsections of this thesis are parallel and, when analysed together, clearly indicate that production networks are a challenging working environment for translators, especially for translators who are recent graduates. The analyses reveal serious conflict points as to the cooperation between the actors, particularly regarding the issues of quality and ethics. Firstly, trust-building among the actors in production networks seems to present a challenge due to their self-organizing, undemocratic principles. Secondly, it appears that translating as an institution is currently under threat, as are users’ rights in society. As production networks continue to exhibit emergent complex behaviour governed by their own internal workings and logic, translators’ fiduciary duties towards the users of translations need protection. Thirdly, stringent competition at the expense of sustainable development may lead to abnegation of responsibility, thus lowering quality in the network. At its worst, such a situation can result in moral hazard arising in the network, as pressures from the rest of the network may motivate even translators to lower their ethical values. Finally, I argue that translators’ currently restricted and narrow agency must be strengthened, so that translators have the opportunity to act as agents more effectively for themselves and the users, thereby improving translation quality. Keywords: Agency, Translation Production Network, Quality, Ethics For more information, see: http://epublications.uef.fi/pub/urn_isbn_97 8-952-61-0609-0/urn_isbn_978-952-610609-0.pdf


Tracks and Treks in Translation Studies. Selected papers from the EST Congress, Leuven 2010 By: Catherine Way, Sonia Vandepitte, Reine Meylaerts and Magdalena Bartłomiejczyk (Eds) Year of Publication: 2013 John Benjamins, 298 pp. The Selected Papers from the 6th Congress Tracks and Treks in Translation Studies (TS) held at the University of Leuven, Belgium in 2010 congregated scholars and practitioners presenting their ideas and research in this thriving domain. This volume includes fifteen carefully selected articles which represent the diversity and breadth of the topics dealt with in Translation Studies today, increasingly bolstered by its interaction with other disciplines. At the same time it aims to provide a balance between process and product oriented research, and training and professional practice. The authors cover both Translating and Interpreting from a myriad of approaches, touching upon topics such as creativity, pleasant voice, paratext and translator intervention, project-based methodologies, revision, corpora, and individual translation styles, to name but a few. This volume will hopefully contribute to further fruitful interaction and cohesion which are essential to the international status of TS.

35 través de las nuevas tecnologíasteleinterpretación, software de apoyo a la comunicación- como de forma presencial en hospitales, centros de salud, etc. Por otro lado, la investigación sobre el papel del marketing, contratación y promoción del turismo spa, wellness y de la naturopatía en dos países europeos, Alemania y España utilizando las nuevas tecnologías como difusión del nuevo producto «turismo de salud», especialmente el papel de las redes sociales desde un punto de vista muy amplio contribuirá a una mayor calidad de este nuevo producto turístico.

Turismo y salud: traducción, interpretación y comunicación intercultural en el sector turístico europeo By: Almahadano Güeto, Inmaculada and Postigo Pinazo, Encarnación (Eds) Year of Publication: 2013 Editorial comares, 176 pp. En el presente volumen se compilan una serie de artículos de investigación teórica y práctica realizados por profesionales de la medicina y la salud, personal parasanitario y especialistas en naturopatía, traductores e intérpretes profesionales, y profesionales especializados en la formación y promoción del turismo de salud en Europa desde un punto de vista interdisciplinar. Agradecemos a la profesora Trinidad Carrión Robles su valoración crítica de la obra desde el ámbito de las Ciencias de la Salud que, sin duda, contribuye a aportar al trabajo una visión desde la perspectiva profesional. Distinguimos tres bloques principales a la hora de clasificar los trabajos cuyos objetivos contemplan establecer sinergias entre el ámbito de la investigación y el sector empresarial con la investigación sobre los empresarios especializados en el servicio del turismo de salud y la oferta complementaria con la aportación de prestigiosos académicos europeos. Investigadores de otras disciplinas directamente imbricadas con la industria del turismo y por supuesto con el ámbito sanitario o sociosanitario, como es el caso de la traducción y la interpretación, hacen patente su interés por este nuevo fenómeno que requiere herramientas y estrategias para la comunicación satisfactoria de proveedores y usuarios. Los profesionales de la traducción y la interpretación proporcionan ayuda tanto a

la Universidad de Málaga analizan la evolución del turismo de salud en Francia y sus implicaciones socioculturales entre los siglos XIX y XXI. El turismo termal y de balneario siempre ha representado un papel relevante en el ocio y en la vida de la alta sociedad en Francia.

Con el fin de alcanzar una mayor difusión de la obra los capítulos se publican en la lengua de trabajo de cada uno de los investigadores participantes, a saber, alemán, español, francés e inglés y viene a cubrir estudios demandados por los profesionales citados y la necesidad de formación en Servicios de la Salud Pública con el objeto de una mayor racionalización de la demanda. Dentro del primer bloque, «El turismo de salud y la comunicación en el contexto europeo» se enmarcan tres trabajos. Encarnación Postigo Pinazo y Laura Parrilla Gómez, profesora de Traducción e Interpretación de la Universidad de Málaga e intérprete profesional plantean la problemática de la interpretación comunitaria con especial atención al ámbito de la salud. Ambas presentan un estudio realizado en Reino Unido mediante encuestas a usuarios, intérpretes no profesionales y profesionales, llegando a la conclusión de la imperiosa necesidad de la contratación de dichos intérpretes profesionales puesto que el estudio revela una gran implicación de éstos últimos en su trabajo. Günter Füth, profesor de la Escuela Superior Universitaria de Economía de la Salud Apollon de Bremen, lleva a cabo un estudio del desarrollo del turismo de salud en general, y las ventajas de Alemania como destino de este tipo de turismo. El autor aborda las motivaciones y tipologías del usuario de balnearios, centrándose especialmente en el modelo alemán donde los balnearios están llevando a cabo una reestructuración interna para adaptarse a un nuevo turista que busca mayor calidad de vida en sus vacaciones. La formación del futuro Graduado en Turismo de Salud que se imparte en Alemania debe de responder a la gran demanda de profesionales en este sector. Marie-Ange Bugnot Tripoz, Carmen Cortés Zaborras e Isabel Turci Domingo, profesoras del área de filología francesa de

Self-Translation. Brokering Originality in Hybrid Culture By: Anthony Cordingley (Ed.) Year of Publication: 2013 Bloomsbury Publishing, 216 pp.

Self-Translation: Brokering originality in hybrid culture provides critical, historical and interdisciplinary analyses of selftranslators and their works. It investigates the challenges which the bilingual oeuvre and the experience of the self-translator pose to conventional definitions of translation and the problematic dichotomies of "original" and "translation", "author" and "translator". Canonical self-translators, such Samuel Beckett, Vladimir Nabokov and Rabindranath Tagore, are here discussed in the context of previously overlooked selftranslators, from Japan to South Africa, from the Basque Country to Scotland. This book seeks therefore to offer a portrait of the diverse artistic and political objectives and priorities of self-translators by investigating different cosmopolitan, postcolonial and indigenous practices. Numerous contributions to this volume extend the scope of self-translation to include the composition of a work out of a multilingual consciousness or society. They demonstrate how production within hybrid contexts requires the negotiation of different languages within the self, generating powerful experiences, from crisis to liberation, and texts that offer key insights into our increasingly globalized culture.

36 déterministe) des acteurs institutionnels, ici canadiens et québécois : ceux-ci développent des stratégies et des structures visant à promouvoir et à accueillir la littérature québécoise en Espagne et en Catalogne. L’auteure se penche aussi sur l’action d’autres agents (éditeurs, directeurs de collection, traducteurs, professeurs de littérature, etc.) qui jouent un rôle central dans le transfert concerné.

Le Québec traduit en Espagne. Analyse sociologique de l’exportation d’une culture périphérique By: María Sierra Córdoba Serrano Year of Publication: 2013 University of Ottawa Press, 380 pp. Comment une « petite nation » peut-elle exister et subsister dans l’espace culturel mondialisé actuel ? Par quels mécanismes une culture minoritaire peut-elle être exportée et se tailler un créneau dans un marché culturel central surchargé ? Voici les questions auxquelles María Sierra Córdoba Serrano tente de répondre dans ce livre.

María Sierra Córdoba Serrano est professeure adjointe au Monterey Institute of International Studies, en Californie. Elle détient un doctorat et une maîtrise en traductologie de l’Université d’Ottawa, de même qu’un baccalauréat en traduction de l’Université de Málaga, en Espagne. Elle s’intéresse aux approches sociologiques en traductologie, en particulier aux transferts culturels entre le Québec et l’Espagne. Elle a publié plusieurs articles sur ce thème dans les revuesMETA, TTR, Quaderns, MonTI, Globe : revue internationale d’études québécoises et Jeunesse : Young People, Texts, Cultures. Elle a également contribué à des ouvrages collectifs et traduit de nombreuses nouvelles parues dans des revues littéraires. Elle a aussi réalisé la traduction espagnole du roman Nikolski, du Québécois Nicolas Dickner.

Zmierzyć przekład? Z metodologii oceniania w dydaktyce przekładu pisemnego [Measuring Translation? Towards an Assessment Methodology in Translator Education]

L’ouvrage examine les transferts culturels du Canada vers l’Espagne en analysant un corpus de 77 traductions d’œuvres littéraires québécoises traduites en Espagne, en espagnol et en catalan, entre 1975 et 2004. Les assises théoriques de cette étude reposent sur la sociologie des champs de Pierre Bourdieu appliquée à la traduction et s’appuient, d’une part, sur les études de réseaux et, d’autre part, sur la recherche dans le domaine de la diplomatie culturelle. Ce livre met en lumière les différentes phases d’un transfert littéraire : d’abord l’initiation et la sélection des biens culturels, puis la circulation, la réception et la reclassification ou création d’une nouvelle image de marque de ces biens cadrant avec la logique des champs sociaux et littéraires cibles où ils se voient recontextualisés et resémantisés. L’auteure montre comment les intérêts propres à chacun des champs culturels concernés – source (canadienne et québécoise) et cible (espagnole et catalane) – se traduisent par des stratégies politiques, commerciales, éditoriales et textuelles différentiées. L’ouvrage porte en outre un regard inédit sur le rôle déterminant (mais non

should be wary in putting forward such arguments in order not to replace Eurocentrism by a confrontational geographical model characterized precisely by a continentalization of discourse, thereby merely reinstituting under another guise. The work also questions the relevance of continent-based theories of translation as such along with their underlying beliefs and convictions. But since the volume prefers to keep the debate open, its concluding interview article also provides the opportunity to those criticized to respond and provide well-balanced comments on such points of criticism.

By: Dybiec-Gajer, Joanna Year of Publication: 2013 Universitas, 345 pp.

Eurocentrism in Translation Studies By: Luc van Doorslaer and Peter Flynn (Eds) Year of Publication: 2013 John Benjamins, 133 pp. In the wake of post-colonial and postmodernist thinking, ‘Eurocentrism’ has been criticized in a number of academic disciplines, including Translation Studies. First published as a special issue of Translation and Interpreting Studies 6:2 (2011), this volume re-examines and problematizes some of the arguments used in such criticism. It is argued here that one

The study investigates selected issues in translation quality assessment from the perspective of translator training. It thus raises a topic essential to translation studies which, despite the growing body of literature, is still felt to be underresearched. Problems involved in translation assessment seem to have two main sources. On the one hand, it is the complexity of translation itself, both as a product and as an activity. On the other, it seems there is insufficient awareness and knowledge of the premises behind a broadly understood assessment process, with its advantages and constraints in the context of such a complex, intellectual activity as translation. The book attempts to overcome some of the problems by

37 investigating issues in both the assessment and the quality of translation as an important element in the translator educator’s methodology, introducing a rationalization which draws on professional realism. It puts forward a proposal for a conceptual tool, Critical Point Analysis (CPA), which allows the translator educator to combine both product and process approaches to translation teaching, including evaluation. Theoretical and methodological considerations are complemented with an empirical investigation of translation assessment practices in an educational setting.

translator can first read and analyse postmodern STs and subsequently preserve their intricacies in the TL. To provide an original response to this challenge grounded in both theoretical and practical evidence, the author refers to the work of the Bakhtin Circle; concepts from literary theory, stylistics and translation theory; and translations of a body of texts as variegated in character as those of Sarraute. Using the approach which she recommends, the author then explains how she rerenders in English a collection of Sarraute’s polyphonic writings.

The book is a useful resource for both translation studies researchers and translator educators.

this area of research. In the course of this process, this area has become more interdisciplinary and technically sophisticated, widening its scope to cover new interpreting settings and language combinations. This volume attempts to provide an overview of the state of the art in interpreting quality. It contains 16 papers selected through a double-blind peerreview process. All contributors took part in the Second International Conference on Interpreting Quality held in Almuñécar in 2011, and the reviews were conducted by a panel of international experts in interpreting studies. This publication was funded by the Government of Andalusia (project ref. P07HUM-02730). We would like to thank all authors who submitted papers for review. Special thanks go to the reviewers for their hard work. Finally, we would like to warmly express our gratitude to Angela Collados Ais for her unrelenting endeavour in advancing the research on interpreting quality.

Quality in interpreting: widening the scope Volume 1

Preserving Polyphonies. Translating the Writings of Claude Sarraute By: Ellender, Claire Year of Publication: 2013 Peter Lang, 240 pp. To date, translation theory offers no satisfactory response to the multidimensional challenge of rerendering postmodern texts. As the existence of linguistic and cultural plurality in these writings is now widely acknowledged, many theorists recognise the impossibility of achieving complete equivalence in translation. If the fragmented, decentred, postmodern source text (ST) is to be rerendered in the target language (TL), a process of ‘rewriting’ is deemed necessary. Nevertheless, such an approach, if taken too far, may not always be the most appropriate. Focusing on the French journalist and novelist Claude Sarraute, whose postmodern writings offer a suitable body of texts for study, this book seeks to determine effective means by which the

By: Olalla García Becerra, E. Macarena Pradas Macías and Rafael BarrancoDroege (Eds) Year of Publication: 2013 editorial comares, 400 pp. From the early days of interpreting studies, the notion of quality has attracted the interest of professionals, trainers and scholars alike. Its elusive nature gave rise to various approaches aimed at figuring out its constituent parts. These efforts have made it possible to understand quality from a multidimensional perspective. Quality was already a well-established research topic in 2001, when the first international conference devoted entirely to it was held in Almunecar, Spain. Ever since, the field has greatly evolved as research instruments and methods have been refined, not least because globalization has facilitated closer cooperation among scholars. Recent years have witnessed a considerable increase in the number of publications on quality, and the continued activity of both individual scholars and research groups testify to the liveliness of

Reading, Translating, Rewriting. Angela Carter's Translational Poetics By: Martine Hennard Dutheil de la Rochère Year of Publication: 2013 Wayne State University Press, 384 pp. In translating Charles Perrault's seventeenth-century Histoires ou contes du temps passé, avec des Moralités into English, Angela Carter worked to modernize the language and message of the tales before rewriting many of them for her own famous collection of fairy tales for adults, The Bloody Chamber, published two years later. In Reading, Translating,

Rewriting: Angela Carter's Translational Poetics, author Martine Hennard Dutheil de la Rochère delves into Carter's The Fairy

38 Tales of Charles Perrault (1977) to illustrate that this translation project had a significant impact on Carter's own writing practice. Hennard combines close analyses of both texts with an attention to Carter's active role in the translation and composition process to explore this previously unstudied aspect of Carter's work. She further uncovers the role of female fairy-tale writers and folktales associated with the Grimms' Kinder- und Hausmärchen in the rewriting process, unlocking new doors to The Bloody Chamber. Hennard begins by considering the editorial evolution of The Fairy Tales of Charles Perrault from 1977 to the present day, as Perrault's tales have been rediscovered and repurposed. In the chapters that follow, she examines specific linkages between Carter's Perrault translation and The Bloody Chamber, including targeted analysis of the stories of Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, Puss-in-Boots, Beauty and the Beast, Sleeping Beauty, and Cinderella. Hennard demonstrates how, even before The Bloody Chamber, Carter intervened in the fairy-tale debate of the late 1970s by reclaiming Perrault for feminist readers when she discovered that the morals of his worldly tales lent themselves to her own materialist and feminist goals. Hennard argues that The Bloody Chamber can therefore be seen as the continuation of and counterpoint to The Fairy Tales of Charles Perrault, as it explores the potential of the familiar stories for alternative retellings.

Transfiction. Research into the realities of translation fiction By: Klaus Kaindl and Karlheinz Spitzl (Eds) Year of Publication: 2013 John Benjamins, 368 pp.

This volume on Transfiction (understood as an aestheticized imagination of translatorial action) recognizes the power of fiction as a vital and pulsating academic resource, and in doing so helps expand the breadth and depth of TS. The book covers a selection of peer-reviewed papers from the 1st International Conference on Fictional

effectively by sophisticated naturallanguage technology

Proposes innovative solutions to the problems of recognizing and processing idiomatic expressions, understanding metaphors, matching an anaphor correctly with its antecedent, performing word-sense disambiguation, and handling out-of-vocabulary words and phrases

Provides an analysis of the role of natural language technology in the global marketplace

Explores the need for natural language mapping-tools that can cull important data from the vast array of socialmedia postings

Covers innovative Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods and applications

Offers innovative NLP tools for physicians, educators, and translators

Translators and Interpreters in Literature and Film (held at the University of Vienna, Austria in 2011) and links literary and cinematic works of translation fiction to state-of-the-art translation theory and practice. It presents not just a mixed bag of cutting-edge views and perspectives, but great care has been taken to turn it into a well-rounded transficcionario with a fluid dialogue among its 22 chapters. Its investigation of translatorial action in the mirror of fiction (i.e. beyond the cognitive barrier of ‘fact’) and its multiple transdisciplinary trajectories make for thought-provoking readings in TS, comparative literature, as well as foreign language and literature courses.

While the critical consensus reads into Carter an imperative to subvert classic fairy tales, the book shows that Carter valued in Perrault a practical educator as well as a proto-folklorist and went on to respond to more hidden aspects of his texts in her rewritings. Reading, Translating, Rewriting is informative reading for students and teachers of fairy-tale studies and translation studies.

Where Humans Meet Machines. Innovative Solutions for Knotty Natural-Language Problems By: Neustein, Amy; Markowitz, Judith A. (Eds.) Year of Publication: 2013 Springer, 315 pp.

Brings humans and machines closer together by showing how linguistic complexities that confound the speech systems of today can be handled

Where Humans Meet Machines: Innovative Solutions for Knotty Natural-Language Problemsbrings humans and machines closer together by showing how linguistic complexities that confound the speech systems of today can be handled effectively by sophisticated natural-language technology. Some of the most vexing natural-language problems that are addressed in this book entail recognizing and processing idiomatic expressions, understanding metaphors, matching an anaphor correctly with its antecedent, performing word-sense disambiguation, and handling out-of-vocabulary words and phrases. This fourteen-chapter anthology consists of contributions from industry scientists and from academicians working at major universities in North America and Europe. They include researchers who have played a central role in DARPA-funded programs and developers who craft real-world solutions for corporations. These contributing authors analyze the role of natural language technology in the global marketplace; they explore the need for natural language mapping-tools that can cull important data from the vast array of social-media postings; they describe innovative Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods and applications; and they offer NLP tools for physicians, educators, and translators. Their contributions constitute diverse and multifaceted solutions for the knotty natural-language problems that permeate everyday human communications.

39 internally relate L2 to L1 even when L1 is not used in class. The predominant ideologies of language learning can create a sense of guilt associated with the use of translation – it is something teachers and learners do, but they feel they should not be doing – and there may even be a sense of translation as a retrograde pedagogical activity, a remnant of the nineteenthcentury grammar translation method.

Translation Theory and Development Studies. A Complexity Theory Approach By: Kobus Marais Year of Publication: 2013 Routledge, 232 pp. This book aims to provide a philosophical underpinning to translation and relate translation to development. The second aim flows from the first section’s argument that societies emerge out of, amongst others, complex translational interactions amongst individuals. It will do so by conceptualising translation from a complexity and emergence point of view and relating this view on emergent semiotics to some of the most recent social research. It will further fulfill its aims by providing empirical data from the South African context concerning the relationship between translation and development. The book intends to be interdisciplinary in nature and to foster interdisciplinary research and dialogue by relating the newest trends in translation theory, i.e. agency theory in the sociology of translation, to development theory within sociology. Data in the volume will be drawn from fields that have received very little if any attention in translation studies, i.e. local economic development, the knowledge economy and the informal economy.

Translation and language learning: The role of translation in the teaching of languages in the European Union. A Study By: Anthony Pym, Kirsten Malmkjær, Maria del Mar Gutiérrez-Colón Plana Corporate author(s): European Commission, Directorate-General for Translation Year of Publication: 2013 Publications Office of the European Union This study asks how translation, both written and spoken, can contribute to the learning of a foreign or second language (L2) in primary, secondary and higher education. It is based on questionnaire surveys that were responded to by a total of 963 experts and teachers; the qualitative research process further benefited from input by 101 contributors. The study includes case studies of the institutional and pedagogical relations between translation and the preferred languagelearning methods in seven Member States (Croatia, Finland, France, Germany, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom) and three comparison countries (Australia, China and the United States). The general finding is that L2 teachers, in Europe and elsewhere, prefer ‘communicative’ teaching methodologies but often do not see that translating is a communicative act. In many cases translation is frowned upon in the L2 classroom, along with the use of L1 generally. If stakeholders believe that L1 should be excluded from the L2 classroom, in tune with ideals of ‘immersion’ and the teacher as a ‘native speaker’, then translation activities are automatically excluded as well. Translation nevertheless remains present as scaffolding to help learners initially, as a traditional means of checking on acquisition, and in learners’ ‘mental translation’ processes, when they

Reclaiming Romeo and Juliet. Italian Translations for Page, Stage and Screen By: Minutella, Vincenza Year of Publication: 2013 Rodopi, 180 pp. This book explores the birth, life and afterlife of the story of Romeo and Juliet, by looking at Italian translations/rewritings for page, stage and screen. Through its analysis of published translations, theatre performances and film adaptations, the volume offers a thorough investigation of the ways in which Romeo and Juliet is handled by translators, as well as theatre and cinema practitioners. By tracing the journey of the “star-crossed lovers” from the Italian novella to Shakespeare and back to Italy, the book provides a fascinating account of the transformations of the tale through time, cultures, languages and media, enabling a deeper understanding of the ongoing fortune of the play and exploring the role and meaning of translation. Due to its interdisciplinarity, the book will appeal to anyone interested in translation studies, theatre studies, adaptation studies, Shakespeare films and Shakespeare in performance. Moreover, it will be a useful resource for both lecturers and students.

40 It provides case studies of eight European and non-European countries, with further chapters on sociological and economic modelling, and goes on to identify a number of policy options and make recommendations on rectifying problem areas.

The Status of the Translation Profession in the European Union By: Anthony Pym, François Grin, Claudio Sfreddo and Andy L. J. Chan Year of Publication: 2013 Anthem Press, 190 pp. Based on thorough and extensive research and written by a team of eminent scholars in the field, this book examines in detail traditional status signals in the translation profession.

There are strong indications that traditional mechanisms of signalling the status of translators are no longer functioning as they should, and that new online mechanisms are turning status into a readily available commodity. Despite demonstrating that some of the traditional status signals do still function relatively well, the book nevertheless finds that others appear to be failing for various reasons, and that this has resulted in a degree of market disorder. Such circumstances may cause good translators to leave the market, which is clearly an undesirable situation for all concerned. The work was written by a team of eminent scholars in the field, with contributions from a host of other academics and professional translators, and includes five appendices providing very useful information on areas of specific interest.

"An informative and highly accessible book. Taking a global look at a profession that is as vital to the twenty-first century as it is difficult to pin down, the authors provide a wealth of data and analysis that will be of great interest to practitioners, trainers and policy makers." —Valerie Henitiuk, MacEwan University, Canada and Editor of the journal "Translation Studies" "The translation profession now has empirical data to illustrate market conditions for soft values like status, quality and the importance of customer signalling. It is now up to the associations to convert the data into member information and draw the relevant conclusions for the future development of translation and the linguistic community." —Jeannette Ørsted, Executive Director, International Federation of Translators "An important and timely book. A wealth of richly diversified statistical data coupled with selected case studies provides a solid basis for recommendations about the future of the translating profession." — Juliane House, Hamburg University, Germany Based on thorough and extensive research, this book examines in detail traditional status signals in the translation profession.

Schleiermacher’s Icoses. Social Ecologies of the Different Methods of Translating By: Douglas Robinson Year of Publication: 2013 Zeta Books, 350 pp. Schleiermacher’s Icoses is the first booklength study of the 1813 Academy address “Ueber die verschiedenen Methodes des Uebersetzens”; in addition to celebrating its 200 years of influence, the book undertakes a comprehensive examination of the whole argument, from its theory of hermeneutics to its foreignizing theory of translation and all the passing “poetic” elements on which Schleiermacher’s rhetoric always so heavily relied. The “icoses” in the title are specifically an articulation of the Gefühle/feelings that lie

at the heart of Schleiermacher’s hermeneutics—specifically, his insistence that feelings are shaped by society, and so seem “objective” or “universal,” but are experienced inwardly by each individual, so that they seem “subjective” and “private.” Research-based “feeling one’s way into an author” is guided by culture, and is therefore not, pace certain twentiethcentury hermeneutical philosophers, mystical but “icotic.” TESTIMONIA Robinson's intriguing study of Schleiermacher's 1813 Academy address "On the Different Methods of Translating," which grew out of an article commemorating its bicentennial, is the first book-length commentary on the address. Robinson works meticulously through the entire text, both the German original and his own English translation, exposing its logical and other argumentative flaws mercilessly, but in order not to attack or dismiss it, rather to show that logic is not the right interpretive lens through which to view Schleiermacher's project. The right lens, Robinson suggests, is what he calls "icoses": social ecologies that shape our thought and convictions as members of a social group. The result is a fresh look at Schleiermacher's address and the hermeneutics that inform it, and one that generates surprising new insights into foreignization, feeling-based hermeneutics, and the Romantic ethos of estrangement. (Radegundis Stolze, Technische Universität Darmstadt) Robinson's reading of Schleiermacher deals in detail with the whole address, and more, bringing out numerous problems that have remained hidden, dormant, and should be discussed. It provocatively picks up what any close reader feels: Schleiermacher's is not a highly coherent account of translation - it got some things right but left many gaps and contradictions. Robinson's inquiry suggests how the unresolved problems might be approached in an unexpected way: by a hermeneutic blurring of distinctions between the subjective and the objective, the psychological and the linguistic, the individual and the social. (Anthony Pym, Professor of Translation and Intercultural Studies Rovira i Virgili University, Visiting Professor Monterey Institute of International Studies).

41 Gabriela Saldanha is a Lecturer in Translation Studies at the University of Birmingham, UK. She is co-editor of the second, revised edition of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies (2009) and is on the editorial board of InTRAlinea and of Translation Studies Abstracts. Sharon O'Brien is a Lecturer in Translation Studies at Dublin City University, Ireland. She is co-editor of St. Jerome’s Translation Practices Explained series and a track editor for the journal Translation Spaces.

Translation and Web Searching By: Vanessa Enríquez Raído Year of Publication: 2014 Routledge, 212 pp. The book presents a comprehensive study of various cognitive and affective aspects of web searching for translation problem solving. Research into the use of the web as an external aid of consultation has frequently occupied a secondary position in the investigation of translation processes. The book aims to bridge this gap in the literature. Beginning with a detailed survey of previous studies of these processes, it then focuses on web search behaviors using qualitative and quantitative analysis that presents a multifaceted overview of translation-oriented web searching. The book concludes by addressing the implications for the teaching of and research into translators’ web searching skills. With regard to teaching, the book's didactic discussions will make it a valuable tool for both translator trainers and translation students wanting to familiarize themselves with the intricacies of Web searching and to reflect upon the pedagogical implications of the study for acquiring online information literacy in translator training.

By: Saldanha, Gabriela, O'Brien, Sharon Year of Publication: 2013 St Jerome, 280 pp. As an interdisciplinary area of research, translation studies attracts students and scholars with a wide range of backgrounds, who then need to face the challenge of accounting for a complex object of enquiry that does not adapt itself well to traditional methods in other fields of investigation. This book addresses the needs of such scholars – whether they are students doing research at postgraduate level or more experienced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with methods outside their current field of expertise. The book promotes a discerning and critical approach to scholarly investigation by providing the reader not only with the know-how but also with insights into how new questions can be fruitfully explored through the coherent integration of different methods of research. Understanding core principles of reliability, validity and ethics is essential for any researcher no matter what methodology they adopt, and a whole chapter is therefore devoted to these issues. Research Methodologies in Translation Studies is divided into four different chapters, according to whether the research focuses on the translation product, the process of translation, the participants involved or the context in which translation takes place. An introductory chapter discusses issues of reliability, credibility, validity and ethics. The impact of our research depends not only on its quality but also on successful dissemination, and the final chapter therefore deals with what is also generally the final stage of the research process: producing a research report.

La Traduction des voix intratextuelles/ Intratextual Voices in Translation By: Kristiina Taivalkoski-Shilov and Myriam Suchet (Eds) Year of Publication: 2013 Éditions québécoises de l'oeuvre, 256 pp.

Contributions by: Michael Boyden, Lillian DePaula, Esmaeil Haddadian-Moghaddam and Anthony Pym, Nathalie Mälzer, Hilkka Pekkanen, Agata Rola, Elżbieta Skibińska, Myriam Suchet, Kristiina Taivalkoski-Shilov and Agnes Whitfield. Translation Studies is increasingly interested in how the concept of voice can illuminate translation practice and ethics. This timely volume seeks to develop new insights into the specific concept of intratextual voices in translation. How can intratextual voices be defined? What challenges do they represent for the translator? What can the translation of dialogue in dramatic texts tell us about translating voice? How is voice articulated in plurilingual or heterolingual texts? Whose voice is the translator translating when authorship is unclear? The volume brings together studies of intratextual voice in contemporary and historical contexts involving a variety of languages, including English, Finnish, Polish, French, German, Portuguese, Persian and Ijaw.


Interpreting in a Changing Landscape. Selected papers from Critical Link 6 By: Christina Schäffner, Krzysztof Kredens and Yvonne Fowler (Eds) Year of Publication: 2013 John Benjamins, 340 pp. This book of selected papers from the Critical Link 6 conference addresses the impact of a rapidly changing reality on the theory and practice of community interpreting. The recent social, political and economic developments have led to phenomena of direct concern to the field, for example multilingualism in traditionally monolingual societies, the emergence of rare language pairs, or new languagerelated problems in immigration application procedures, social welfare institutions and prisons. Responding to the need for critical reflection as well as practical solutions, the papers in this volume approach the changing landscape of community interpreting in its diversity. They deal with political, social, cultural, institutional, ethical, technological, professional, and educational aspects of the field, and will thus appeal to academics, practitioners and policy-makers alike. Specifically, they explore topics such as interpreting roles, communication strategies, ethics vs. practice, interpreting vs. culture brokering, interpreting strategies in different interactional contexts, and interpreter training and education.

Portrait of a Tongue By: Yoko Tawada. Translated with commentary by Chantal Wright Year of Publication: 2013 University of Ottawa Press, 160 pp.

the School of Translation and Interpretation at the University of Ottawa. She studied at the University of Cambridge and the University of East Anglia in the UK, and previously taught at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, the University of Alberta, and Mount Allison University. Her research interests focus on the theory and practice of literary translation, stylistics, and exophony. In 2012, her translation of Tzveta Sofronieva’s poetry collection, A Hand Full of Water, won the inaugural Cliff Becker Book Prize in Translation. Chantal Wright has translated some of Germany’s bestknown children’s authors including Milena Baisch, Zoran Drvenkar, and Cornelia Funke. In 2011, her translation of Andreas Steinhöfel’s The Pasta Detectives was shortlisted for the Marsh Award for Children’s Literature in the UK. From 2005 to 2008, Chantal Wright was the editor of Transcript, a European Union funded, online review of international writing published by Literature Across Frontiers at the University of Aberystwyth in Wales.

Yoko Tawada's Portrait of a Tongue: An Experimental Translation by Chantal Wright is a hybrid text, innovatively combining literary criticism, experimental translation, and scholarly commentary. This work centres on a German-language prose text by Yoko Tawada entitled ‘ Portrait of a Tongue’ [‘Porträt einer Zunge’, 2002]. Yoko Tawada is a native speaker of Japanese who learned German as an adult.

Portrait of a Tongue is a portrait of a German woman—referred to only as P— who has lived in the United States for many years and whose German has become inflected by English. The text is the firstperson narrator’s declaration of love for P and for her language, a ‘thinking-out-loud’ about language(s), and a selfreflexive commentary. Chantal Wright offers a critical response and a new approach to the translation process by interweaving Tawada’s text and the translator’s dialogue, creating a sideby-side reading experience that encourages the reader to move seamlessly between the two parts. Chantal Wright’s technique models what happens when translators read and responds to calls within Translation Studies for translators to claim visibility, to practice “thick translation”, and to develop their own creative voices. This experimental translation addresses a readership within the academic disciplines of Translation Studies, Germanic Studies, and related fields. Chantal Wright is Honorary Fellow of the School of Modern Languages and Cultures at Durham University and Visiting Fellow of

Perspectives on Literature and Translation. Creation, Circulation, Reception By: Brian Nelson, Brigid Maher Year of Publication: 2014 Routledge, 232 pp. This volume explores the relationship between literature and translation from three perspectives: the creative dimensions of the translation process; the way texts circulate between languages; and the way texts are received in translation by new audiences. The distinctiveness of the volume lies in the fact that it considers these fundamental aspects of literary translation together and in terms of their

43 interconnections. Contributors examine a wide variety of texts, including world classics, poetry, genre fiction, transnational literature, and life writing from around the world. Both theoretical and empirical issues are covered, with some contributors approaching the topic as practitioners of literary translation, and others writing from within the academy.

Where Humans Meet Machines: Innovative Solutions for Knotty Natural-Language Problems is designed for speech engineers, system developers, computer scientists, AI researchers, and others interested in utilizing natural-language technology in both spoken and text-based applications.

Translation in Anthologies and Collections (19th and 20th Centuries) Towards a History of Translating: In Commemoration of the 40th Anniversary of the Research Centre for Translation, CUHK Volume I On Translation Volume II On Chinese Literature Volume III On Translation History Edited by Lawrence Wang-chi Wong with the assistance of Stephanie Cheuk Wong Year of Publication: 2013 CUHK The Research Centre for Translation (RCT), Institute of Chinese Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, celebrated its fortieth anniversary in 2011. It is an important landmark, one that allows the Centre to re-examine its many achievements over these forty years and to envision its future role in Chinese literature translation and translation history research. To commemorate this event, the threevolume Towards a History of Translating is compiled. The first two volumes consist of articles on translation and Chinese literature selected from the past issues of Renditions. The articles are arranged in chronological order of their first appearance in Renditions, kept as close as possible to the previously published editions to give our readers a closer feel for the RCT’s development over the years. The third volume is a collection of articles invited from distinguished scholars in the field of translation studies. Written especially for the occasion, the articles explore major topics in translation history.

By: Teresa Seruya, Lieven D’hulst, Alexandra Assis Rosa and Maria Lin Moniz (Eds) Year of Publication: 2013 John Benjamins, 287 pp. Among the numerous discursive carriers through which translations come into being, are channeled and gain readership, translation anthologies and collections have so far received little attention among translation scholars: either they are let aside as almost ungraspable categories, astride editing and translating, mixing in most variable ways authors, genres, languages or cultures, or are taken as convenient but rather meaningless groupings of single translations. This volume takes a new stand, makes a plea to consider translation anthologies and collections at face value and offers an extensive discussion about the more salient aspects of translation anthologies and collections: their complex discursive properties, their manifold roles in canonization processes and in strategies of cultural censorship. It brings together translation scholars with different backgrounds, both theoretical and historical, and covering a wide array of European cultural areas and linguistic traditions. Of special interest for translation theoreticians and historians as well as for scholars in literary and cultural studies, comparative literature and transfer studies.


TS Journals

paradoxes of our “convergence” (1) and divergence contemporary cultures. Henry Jenkins (2006). Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide. New York: NYU Press.

Lucile Desblache General Editor MonTI 5 (2013) The History of Translation within Translation Studies: Problems in Research and Didactics La historia de la traducción como parte de los estudios de la traducción:Problemas de investigación y didáctica Miguel Ángel Vega & Martha Pulido (eds.) For abstracts and more information see http://dti.ua.es/es/documentos/monti/mont i-5-2013-portada-eindices.pdf?noCache=1371725717819

The Journal of Specialised Translation Special issue on Translating Multimodalities Issue 20, July 2013 Guest-edited by Carol O’Sullivan and Caterina Jeffcote How do we communicate with, but also beyond words in the commercial, professional, technological and cultural worlds that we live in? As new forms of literacy develop in the 21st century, how does this impact on the practice of translation and on the emergence of transcreation and multilingual communication? This issue on 'Translating Multimodalities' discusses these themes in twelve articles, introduced by Carol O’Sullivan. It also seemed appropriate to include a film both on matters of accessibility and designed to be accessible, which is accompanied by an article discussing the challenges that this involves. While this is only an open door on to an expanding area, the present articles offer a rich overture to the developing ways with which translation responds to the

Journal of Writing Research SPECIAL SECTION: Writing and Translation process research Bridging the gap

together open up one perspective into contemporary Finnish translation and interpreting research. Each paper takes up an idea, hypothesis, or theoretical model presented in Finnish translation studies and approaches it from a new point of view or through new methods and materials. Articles on Finnish and German audio descriptions, translation of Finnish pronominal references into English and German in radio plays, contemporary challenges on the Finnish court interpreting scene, the alleged “universal” status of the Unique Items Hypothesis, methodological challenges in a corpus-linguistic study of retranslations, history and analysis of retranslations from German into Finnish, and translation of culture-specific realia provide the backdrop for this exploration.


Vol. 5, No. 1 | June 2013

Special Issue: Travel Writing and Translation (2013)

Guest Editors | Helle Dam-Jensen and Carmen Heine


Writing and translation are traditionally addressed as two different objects of study. However, they also share many characteristics - as revealed by the research carried out in the two fields, which often uses the same methods to investigate both areas. In this introduction, it is suggested that writing and translation can be studied as types of text production. Different dimensions of text production are sketched as examples of research topics at the interface between writing and translation. The two articles that follow this introduction explore two such dimensions: competence and profiles.

Trans-kom. Journal of Translation and Technical Communication Research Band 6, Nummer [1] (2013)

Special Issue on Theories and Tendencies in Finnish Translation Studies http://www.trans-kom.eu/index-en.html Guest editors: Leena Kolehmainen and Pekka Kujamäki A couple of years ago, translation and interpreting training in Finland celebrated its 40th birthday, but the occasion was at that time buried under academic routine and substantial university reforms. To mark the occasion post festum, this special issue contains seven original papers that

Guest edited by Susan Pickford & Alison E. Martin This Special Issue differs from previous work we have done on translation and travel writing (Martin and Pickford 2012) to the extent that it places a far greater emphasis on understanding, from the perspective of the history of publishing, how translations of travelogues came into being, which individuals were central to the creation of these texts in another language and how eighteenth- and nineteenthcentury accounts have fared in the current publishing climate. This collection sets out to explore three particular aspects which shape such transpositions – the dynamics of the book market, the power differentials between languages, and the agents who are key figures in the mobilisation and circulation of texts – , and aims to assess as much the technical and textual difficulties of putting non-fictional travel writing into a different language, as the practicalities of writing, editing and publishing travel accounts to meet the demands of a contemporary readership. From the Introduction: Travel Writing, Translation and World Literature by Susan Pickford & Alison E. Martin.


Cadernos de Tradução XXXII Lexicografia e Metalexicografia https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/traduc ao/issue/view/2017 v. 2, n. 32 (2013)

teórica sobre o dicionário. Além de

Volume 5 (1) ~ May 2013

defender que esse campo do saber se constitui, na atualidade, como disciplina científica, esse estudioso apresenta vários signos de avanço dessa área, tais como classificações de tipologias de dicionários, critérios que definem perfis de macro, micro e medioestruturais e, por fim, dá destaque a componentes externos do dicionário.

Editor: Jemina Napier

From the Introduction by Adja Durão and Reinhold Werner

Adja Balbino de Amorim Barbieri Durão & Reinhold Werner (Orgs) O presente número de Cadernos de Tradução concentra-se na temática da Lexicografia e da Metalexicografia, mostrando, desse modo, o vigor deste campo do saber, complementar e imprescindível a um desenvolvimento sadio dos Estudos da Tradução. O artigo que abre este número, intitulado Balanço e perspectivas da lexicografia, elaborado por Bugueño Miranda, constrói uma retrospectiva do processo de evolução da lexicografia, um campo do saber que passou de ser, em suas palavras, uma atividade

International Journal of Interpreter Education

Intersecting Interpreting Modalities http://www.citasl.org/Journal/2013_Vol5(1)/index.html

The number of submissions to IJIE has grown considerably in 5 years. In particular, and evidenced by the contributions in this issue, we are seeing more submissions dealing with spoken language interpreter education. Interpreting processes and practices are generally acknowledged to be essentially the same across spoken and signed languages; only the working modalities are different (Kellett Bidoli, 2002; Napier, 2011; Nicodemus & Emmorey, 2012; Pöchhacker, 2004)—however, this is a noteworthy distinction that gives rise to others. Spoken language interpreters work between two linear languages, whereby one word is produced after another, and the message is built up sequentially. Signed languages, however, are visual-spatial languages that can convey meaning by creating a picture using space, location, referents and other visually descriptive elements. Signed language interpreters are therefore constantly transferring information between two alternate modalities, which requires the representation of information in very different ways. From the Introduction by Jemina Napier

eminentemente prática a uma reflexão

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