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Jessica L. Espinoza Carlos Garcia Henry Avila Thomas Santillan Ana Trujillo v


Editor-in-chief: Jessica Espinoza Movie Critic: Thomas Santillan Journalist: o Carlos Garcia o Henry Avila o Ana Trujillo o Roberto Blanco

Hello =] my name is Jessica best known as Espi. I am currently enrolled in Mr.Holmes physiology class and we have been learning about STD’s and their risk factors as well as their back ground(history) and what our body does to protect us from these viruses. The following articles are here to inform not only you but readers all over the world of the risk and dangers of HIV, AIDS, and HPV. All HIV,HPV, and Aids take a dangerous toll in the life’s of many people all over the world and some of these victims don’t even know that they have it. These magazine articles are here to inform the everyday reader the symptoms and some background information for their own good. Enjoy =]


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Editors Letter: Pg.2

Getting to know you immune system Pg.4

History Behing HIV Pg. 5

All About Aids Pg.6

What is HPV…?? Pg.7-8

What’s Burning Our Eyes In Cinema Today Pg.9


Getting to know your immune system By: Roberto Blanco Imagine you wake up , your head is throbbing and you have a fever, your nose is stuffy and your throat hurts. You check the time and you are already late, you wish you can lay in bed all day but unfortunately you have to work. I don‟t know about you but being sick is a dread and can really interrupt your life. You can choose to stay home to get some rest or deal with it and go to work. Either one will have a toll on your life. Today you will learn how your immune system actually works! Everyday our immune system is at war with pathogens and antigens (any substance capable of provoking an immune response). Most are large and complex molecules that are not usually in our body; which is why they are considered „foreign intruders‟. A virus is an infectious agent, most are hostspecific, and they consist of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat. Viruses have a general structure of genetic material (DNA/RNA) and a protein coat. The goal of a virus is to survive and replicate. As you may know a virus can only survive with a host cell. The nonspecific defense system is broken down into two parts, the first line of defense and the second line of defense. The first line of defense involves the skin and mucus membranes. The skin and mucus secrete enzymes and chemicals that are toxic and kill pathogens.

Examples of these are found in the stomach, saliva, and vaginal secretions. The second line of defense includes cellular and chemical defenses. It primarily relies on the destructive capabilities of phagocytes, natural killer cells, the inflammatory response, and other chemicals the kill pathogens and repair tissue. Both the phagocyte and natural killer cells kill pathogens directly. Immunity is the body‟s ability to resist diseasecausing agents. The two branches of immunity are humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Humoral is basically the production of the antibodies, while cell-mediated is the protective factor (antibodies defending body). One of the most important cells in the immune system is the B-cell. It works as an antibody producing factory. Descendants of a B-cell and memory cell are the same except they remember a specific antigen and produce antibodies much faster. Another essential cell in the immune system is the T-cell. The T-cells are what actually protect our body because the B-cells produce the antibodies. The T-cells destroy antigens, suppress b-cell activity (once the threat it gone), and stimulates B-cells when it encounters an antigen. T-cells are helper T-cells, cytotoxic t cells, and suppressor T-cells. Helper T-cells are kind of like the “snitches” that warn of an intruder, and the cytotoxic T-cells are “killer cells”.


By: Carlos Garcia The disease known as HIV is a descendent of the African SIV (simian chimpanzee immunodeficiency virus). Theories of how the virus was contracted by humans are that men were hunting the diseased chimps and it spread through the blood. HIV itself stands for Human immunodeficiency virus. The structure of HIV is composed of a viral envelope, two copies of reverse transcriptase, and two strands of RNA as well. The virus, already being extremely small, is disguised to look like a cell membrane by the viral envelope that contains a lipid bilayer membrane and glycoproteins on the surface. The two strands of RNA are converted to DNA by the enzymes called reverse transcriptase. This allows the virus to then enter the nucleus and “hijack” the host cell. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and is contractible through the blood. It’s a retrovirus meaning that its an RNA virus instead of a standard DNA virus. HIV is a lentivirus which actually means “slow virus”. Cleverly, the virus targets the white blood cells at a slow rate and at the same time remains concealed. It goes after CD4+ plus helper T-Cells. This makes the body more vulnerable to other infections due to a weakened immune system (opportunistic diseases). Sadly, it is extremely difficult to create a vaccine for HIV because of the many rapid mutations it undergoes. The only way such a vaccine can be developed is if it consists of all the possible forms that the virus can become. The virus is like an endless puzzle because you can put all the pieces together, but they will always change.


All about AIDS! By: Ana Trujillo First of all what does AIDS stands for? Well readers let me inform you that AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is the aftermath from being infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). You develop aids once you have been infected. But that doesn’t always mean that you can develop Aids. The person infected with HIV can still be healthy and live a long time without developing AIDS. The ways that you can become infected with HIV is by sharing needles with someone with HIV and having sexual intercourse with someone infected because their body fluids like semen or blood has been infected. AIDS is the advanced stage of HIV; HIV weakens the immune system, so it damages the CD4 t cell count. The human body has 1000 Cd4 T- Cells and if it goes below 200 that mean that you have been affected with HIV. There are ways that you can be diagnosed with aids and one them is by getting a blood test that finds antibodies and the another way is a oral fluid test that the doctors get a padding that you put in your mouth in between your cheeks and gums and the pad absorbs the fluids from the mouth . This also is a blood test that finds antibodies. HIV is known as a lentivirus and this means that the virus is very slow and it takes years to get really sick. Since HIV weakens the immune system there are many infections that take advantage that the immune system is weak. These are called opportunistic infections. Some of the common opportunistic infections are genital warts, oral herpes (Herpes Virus).A fungal infection that appears in the mouth, vaginal area and throat called Candidiasis An eye disease that can lead up to blindness called Cytomegalovirus Turbocolosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia that causes a fungal infection.Since HIV has invaded the immune system , infected the t-cells ,mutated and ,weakened the immune system ,then the person that has been infected and develops the opportunistic infection /diseases .

These infections cause to reveal that the person has developed AIDS. HIV is a lentivirus meaning it’s very slow and can be in the body for years until it turns on and starts attacking. But in children its more rapid to develop than adults and this is because their body is barely developing and they get very ill fast. Then if the person infected doesn’t get treatment then the person can develop AIDS quicker than the one getting treated.


By: Henry Avila There’s not a lot of talk about HPV know a days. There are many people in the world that don’t even know what HPV is, or what damages takes place due to it. HPV HPV is a STD that is transferred sexually or by skin to skin contact either it being the rubbing of a private part or by unprotected sex. It is an STD that stands for Human Papilloma Virus, and it is a part of the Papilloma Virus family. There are over 200 types of HPV. Some can cause absolutely no symptoms, but some can cause warts or even cancer. Signs or symptoms of the virus usually take 15 years to emerge.


There is a variety of types of HPV some being less worrisome then others, and others being more harmful to the human body. Types 6 and 11 are some of the less worrisome types of HPV; yes they are still bad for you but not as much as others. Type 6 and 11 may develop into warts of the genital areas. It has been shown that 2/3 out of sexually active people who have been infected with the STD will obtain genital warts. Meanwhile 16 and 18 can lead into cancer in the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, or even penis. The virus causes cancer in places by mutating the cells of a specific area causing cancer going from a benign point to a malignant. Prevention Some forms of HPV can be prevented by a vaccine call Gardasil. Gardasil helps prevent cancer and warts but only defends against type 6, 11, 16 and, 18. Meaning that it won’t protect us from the other 194 types of HPV symptoms, the way the vaccine works is by sending an empty shell of the HPV inside the body to sort of train our defense system, so that way when the virus comes in un expectedly the body will know how to react.

Remember: Gardasil doesn’t protect us from all 200 types of HPV so have safe sex and wear a Jimmy.


And the Band Played On Reviewed by Thomas Santillan And The Band Played On is the best dramatic film of the year. Based on a bestselling non-fiction novel this movie is bringing in quite an amount of cash in the box office. The plot surrounds the AIDS epidemic that occurs in the 1980’s. Dr Don Francis, played by Matthew Modine, is an epidemiologist that becomes aware of what is soon be known as AIDS. He begins to do research on this in cities like Los Angeles and San Francisco, although there isn’t much funding for it. Even through this challenge he is very persistent in doing research, and eventually with the help of other scientists. The movies shows great acting from Matthew Modine as the lead role, but also by Alan Alda, which plays the role of Dr Robert Gallo; a research scientist that is looking to get credit for finding the AIDS virus. This brings up the many challenges that the research scientist faced that allowed A IDS to spread so much. The many disputes that they faced regarding not wanting to accept the fact that it was not only affecting the gay community, and it was in the blood. They also wanted funding for research to find evidence that it was caused by a virus, but they would not be given funding if there was no evidence that it was caused by a virus. The issue of it being transferred through blood, and the funding needed to research this is regarded in the very powerful word of Dr Don Francis: “How many hemophiliacs have to die before it'll be cost effective for you people to do something about it? A hundred? A thousand? Give us a number so we won't annoy you until the amount of money you start losing on LAWSUITS makes it PROFITABLE for you to save people than to kill them!” The whole problem regarding the AIDS incident that did occur in the 80’s, there are several things that could have been done different. Most of the things would have to do with people decisions. One being that they could have not started calling it GRID because it just made it associated with gays. Another would be that they could have seen that it was a major problem and they could have started funding it from the beginning. And these are just some of the problems that could have been solved if people just made different choice. By: Thomas Santillan


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