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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

MARCH 2005 This publication was produced by Development Alternatives, Inc. for the United States Agency for International Development under Contract No. 497-M-00-05-00005-00


Photo credit: Reed Merrill, ESP Jakarta/West Java A watershed area nearby Banda aceh, Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam.


ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

Title:

Aceh Asessment Report

Program, activity, or project number:

Environmental Services Program, DAI Project Number: 5300201.

Strategic objective number:

SO No. 2, Higher Quality Basic Human Services Utilized (BHS).

Sponsoring USAID office and contract number:

USAID/Indonesia, 497-M-00-05-00005-00.

Contractor name:

DAI.

Date of publication:

March 2005


TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND ...................................................................... 1

2.

RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................................................................... 2 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6. 2.7. 2.8

3.

COMMUNITY HEALTH, HYGIENE, WATER SUPPLY, SANITATION, AND WATER QUALITY ................2 WATER SUPPLY BY PDAM(PERUSAHAN DAERAH AIR MINUM) ...........................................................5 WATER SUPPLY NON-PDAM..................................................................................................................6 WATER QUALITY MONITORING .............................................................................................................7 SANITATION...............................................................................................................................................7 SOLID WASTE ............................................................................................................................................8 WATERSHED MANAGEMENT ....................................................................................................................8 ACTIVITIES WITH HIGHEST PRIORITY.......................................................................................................9

RATIONALE..................................................................................................................... 10 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 3.7.

COMMUNITY HEALTH, HYGIENE .......................................................................................................... 10 WATER SUPPLY BY PDAM .................................................................................................................... 10 WATER SUPPLY NON-PDAM............................................................................................................... 12 WATER QUALITY MONITORING .......................................................................................................... 13 SANITATION............................................................................................................................................ 14 SOLID WASTE ......................................................................................................................................... 14 WATERSHED MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................................. 15

4.

PLAYERS........................................................................................................................... 17

5.

CONTACT LIST .............................................................................................................. 19

6.

JAKARTA DONOR COORDINATION NOTES .......................................................... 21 6.1. 6.2. 6.3. 6.4. 6.5.

7.

COORDINATION/WORKING GROUP PROCESS IN JAKARTA.............................................................. 21 CONTINUING COORDINATION IS ESSENTIAL ..................................................................................... 22 INFORMATION RESOURCES FOR CONTINUED COORDINATION ....................................................... 23 POSSIBILITIES FOR ESP PROJECT ADD-ONS IN ACEH .......................................................................... 23 COMMENTS AND CAVEATS ................................................................................................................... 24

MAPS AND PHOTOS ..................................................................................................... 25 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. 7.4. 7.5. 7.6. 7.7.

LOCATION OF ASSESSMENT................................................................................................................... 25 WATER CATCHMENT AREAS IN ACEH PROVINCE .............................................................................. 26 LAND CONDITION (DARKER COLOR MEANS DENSER FOREST).......................................................... 27 WATER SUPPLY ....................................................................................................................................... 28 SANITATION............................................................................................................................................ 29 SOLID WASTE ......................................................................................................................................... 30 WATERSHED ............................................................................................................................................ 31


1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND USAID has identified Aceh Province as a Special Concern and Imperative Area due to the overarching technical and programmatic imperatives for environmental services following the earthquake/tsunami on 26 December, 2004. USAID intends for ESP to inform USAID’s Basic Human Services Team of the opportunities and constraints for implementing ESP in Aceh Province. ESP shall conduct a needs assessment in Aceh focusing on rehabilitation as well as future development of key environmental services as covered under ESP’s scope of work, i.e., water, solid waste and sanitation. This assessment shall address issues related to transitioning from relief to reconstruction, coordination with future infrastructure repair and rehabilitation efforts, and coordination with USAID partners. One must bear in mind that this report is not an overall assessment of complete infrastructure needs in tsunami-affected areas of Aceh Province, but an indication of how ESP could assist in the recovery and sustainability by providing “ESP-type” services. Even within the bounds of the ESP program, this report cannot be considered to be an exhaustive assessment of services that could be provided but certainly will highlight the most obvious needs based on a brief 3-week assessment period. The ESP team will ground-truth existing damage assessments as well as conduct future needs assessment in close coordination with GOI (BAPPENAS) and key donors in the water, sanitation and environment sectors (World Bank, ADB, Netherlands, EU, and CIDA). Participation in Jakarta-based GOI and donor meetings will be required to update information and to take advantage of key opportunities for coordination and leveraging donor and GOI activities. DAI rapidly assembled a team of experts as follows: For Aceh Field Visit: Dr. Edzard Ruhe, Team leader/Sr. Water Quality Specialist Dr. Irfan, Watershed management Specialist Ms. Angela Ika, Community Sanitation Specialist Mr. Jeffrey Budiman, Municipal/Water Supply Engineer For Jakarta Donor Coordination: Dr. Timothy Brown, Donor Liaison Representative The remainder of this report includes a summary of recommendations, together with a brief description of the consultants’ findings and observations which led to these recommendations.


ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

2. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the findings, the recommendations contained herein necessarily go beyond reconstruction back to the level of development before the tsunami. The situation before the tsunami was - even compared to other Indonesian areas - quite poor, especially with regard to quality of infrastructure, human resource capacity and institutional development. Therefore it is recommended to set the targets for activities to a higher level of development than simply to the conditions existing prior to the tsunami. The general impression is that Meulaboh, in comparison to Banda Aceh, needs not only reconstruction regarding organizational development but construction. Since 2001 the activities of government institutions have been seriously hampered by the internal conflict of Aceh and many institutions are basically not working.

2.1. COMMUNITY HEALTH, HYGIENE, WATER SUPPLY, SANITATION, AND WATER QUALITY It is recommended to include in ESP: • • •

Monitoring of Water Borne Diseases General Hygiene Campaign Integrated approach on community level regarding hygiene, water supply, sanitation and water quality monitoring.

1. Monitoring of Water Borne Diseases The baseline of diarrhea cases should be determined. This should be done in consideration of children’s health. Monitoring shall be conducted especially in areas where the ESP project will become active. 2. General Hygiene Campaign A general hygiene campaign should be conducted in Aceh province. Experiences of UNICEF and CARE should be considered and if possible coordinated with. Besides hygiene, the campaign should include sanitation and water supply. 3. Integrated approach on community level regarding hygiene, water supply, sanitation, and water quality monitoring. Communities must be supported in their effort to implement clean water supply and proper sanitation. The rationale of this approach would be to assure that improved or new installations, public outreach and capacity building will result in improved hygiene and health. In this context, community means small units (5 to 50 houses), individual households, and institutions like schools, puskesmas, dormitories, hospitals, markets, and other similar units. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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The approach shall be integrated in the sense of hygiene, as it relates to clean water supply, sanitation and water quality monitoring. In a participative way, the users shall make informed decisions to select and implement adequate water supply and sanitation installations.

The user groups and institutions joining will decide what water supply system and sanitation system they will implement based on the information received from the Government and Donor facilitators (funding sources). Water quality monitoring will be relevant before decisions are made and after water systems are installed. Outputs of training/ facilitation would be: • Environmental Health & Hygiene behavior improved • Water supply system options discussed • People / Community aware of role of DinKes to monitor water quality • Sanitation options discussed • Water system installed • Sanitation system installed • Water monitored People should be approached in the camps before moving to their final location. People not living in camps but in houses of friends or relatives will have to be contacted at their new locations.

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Proposed Activities: • Start with communication in camps before people move back. Combine with activities in future final locations, because not all IDPs live in camps. •

Identify areas for communal septic tanks or combined communal water supply and sanitation units (septic tank options).

Identify units which can be supported with DEWATS septic tanks like schools, dormitories of schools, academies, hospitals, etc.

Facilitate the idea of adequate sanitation need and planning in combination with an environmental and personal hygiene campaign. Consider cooperation with ESP Partner, BORDA and/or UNICEF regarding facilitation.

Build pilot plants for MCK’s (mandi cuci kakus, or small integrated water and sanitation systems). Capital costs to be financed by USAID or other donor agencies.

Cooperate with BORDA and other NGOs and donors regarding building of communal septic tanks.

It is recommended for ESP to collaborate with UNICEF with regard to Hygiene education. The project could benefit by using units developed by UNICEF and trained facilitators. The project should also cooperate with JHU / Care which is planning to carry out hygiene campaigns in the same regions. Other NGOs and Donors will be building housing communities, in which ESP could provide the basic public outreach and training programs. APPROACH FOR BUILDING Because of the situation in Aceh where communities have been devastated and people currently have no funds for construction, the ESP project should be furnished with sufficient funds to grant a reasonable number of MCK’s and community septic tanks. Otherwise, it may take additional time to leverage funds from other sources for these small basic facilities.

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2.2. WATER SUPPLY BY PDAM(PERUSAHAN DAERAH AIR MINUM) PDAM BANDA ACEH After renovation of the treatment plant and (parts of) the distribution network (by others) the following ESP interventions are proposed: 1. Facilitation between PDAM, Mayor, and DPRD regarding, targets of PDAM, contribution of PDAM to budget or subsidies by local government and tariff. 2. Facilitation between PDAM, Kimpraswil, Kimpraswilda, Mayor regarding projects carried out by Kimpraswil for PDAM 3. Institutional development regarding: • Business Strategy of PDAM and implementation and control of set targets, development of corporate plan • Financial Administration • Quality Assurance management system • Production process control (chemical dosing, optimized dosing concentration, aeration, filtration) • Operations and Maintenance • Quality Control (Laboratory) • Distribution net control (mapping of net, zoning) • Leak detection program 4. Provision of Lab equipment (if no other donor will provide, e.g. THW) and Reagents for about two years: JarTester™ , other instruments like pH meter, Turbidity meter, Spectrophotometer, and others 5. Wage coverage, minimum operating costs, chemicals, energy 680 mill per month, 100 mill per month (this should be in cooperation with World Bank Dutch fund which is in the planning stage) PDAM ACEH BESAR 1. A study should be conducted regarding water supply to residents in the western region of Banda Aceh which is currently connected to Mata Ie. The goal of the study would be to propose optimized financial and operational solutions for the PDAM. The study should clarify which additional hardware is necessary for the potential solutions and compare the operational costs and difficulty in operation. Possible solutions include: • Renovation of existing plant under consideration of high hardness of raw water and limited water supply of water source Mata Ie • New plant at higher point to avoid high pumping cost • New pipe from other source (spring in Jantho) by gravity with very high capacity (500 l/s) The results shall be presented to possible donors. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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2. Facilitation between PDAM, Mayor, and DPRD regarding tariff, targets of PDAM, contribution of PDAM to budget or subsidies by local government. 3. Facilitation to repair dam in Aceh river to avoid brackish water at PDAM intake 4. Institutional development regarding: • Strategy of PDAM and implementation and control of set targets • Quality Assurance management • Production process control (chemical dosing, optimized dosing concentration, jartest, filtering) • Quality Control (Lab) • Distribution net control (mapping of net, zoning) • Leak detection program MEULABOH PDAM Meulaboh is generally in a worse status than PDAM Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar. This results in the need for long term training and on the job interventions regarding institutional development. 1. Facilitation between PDAM, Mayor, and DPRD regarding tariff, targets of PDAM, contribution of PDAM to budget or subsidies by local government. 2. Institutional development regarding: • Strategy of PDAM and implementation and control of set targets, development of corporate plan • Financial Management and Administration • Quality Assurance management system • Production process control (chemical dosing, optimized dosing concentration, JarTester™, filtering) • Operations and Maintenance • Quality Control (Laboratory) • Distribution network control (mapping of net, zoning) • Leak detection program 3. Provision of Lab equipment (if no other donor will provide, like WHO) and Reagents for about two years: JarTester™, other instruments like pH meter, Turbidity meter, Spectrophotometer, Conductivity meter. It should be evaluated if there is a demand with the each of the PDAMs for a planning tool for distribution network planning and analysis such as EPANET 2 of USEPA. It could be translated into Bahasa Indonesia and implementation supported by ESP.

2.3. WATER SUPPLY NON-PDAM There is a large need for Training/Facilitation of water supply options other than that provided by PDAMs (see Section 2.1 Health and Hygiene, Water Supply, Sanitation, and Water Quality Monitoring). ESP would coordinate and link up with public and private NGOs also involved in providing such service. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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2.4. WATER QUALITY MONITORING Water quality monitoring is an integral part of water supply and sanitation and comprises PDAM water as well as water from wells and other point sources. 1. Laboratory DinKes Kota Banda Aceh and Meulaboh •

Facilitation between DinKes and local government that laboratory gets sufficient funds for monitoring (transport, chemicals, equipment,…)

Support labs with laboratory equipment and sampling kits. Sampling kits comprise devices for measuring of pH, Redox, Chlorine, among others. Requires motorbike plus chemical for 2 years (if not from other donor like CRS in Banda Aceh). Each DinKes will need some of such kits.

Capacity building with training courses and Training on the Job.

2. Laboratory DinKes Province (UPTD) This lab has strategic importance because it can do analysis for the donors and can probably train lab personal from district labs. Therefore a high standard should be set and achieved there. It is recommended to support this lab with training for staff regarding: • •

Use of new equipment (provided by Hope World Wide Indonesia and others) Quality assurance in chemical and microbiological lab.

2.5. SANITATION Sanitation in regard to septic tanks (individual and communal) has been discussed in Section 2.1 above. This section pertains to the collection and treatment of sludge from operating septic tanks and centralized treatment systems. BANDA ACEH AND MEULABOH 1. Perform Review/Study/Evaluation regarding sewage sludge treatment: • •

Capacity of Sludge Treatment Plant (IPLT - Intalasi Pengolahan Lumpur Tinja); Sludge treatment of STP (like composting);

• • •

Location of future STPs; Subcontracting of septic tank cleaning, private operator; Evaluation of the possibility to implement a centralized treatment system (e.g. for part of the town).

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2. Operational training for the communities/ beneficiaries regarding STP is recommended during/after STP is built. Job creation possibilities exist as well.

2.6. SOLID WASTE 1. Facilitation of the need for environmentally sound waste management in government; 2. Assist in the location of proposed engineered landfill solid waste management sites; 3. Identify and support implementation of waste management based on UNDP study (like operational training) in Banda Aceh; 4. Conduct study in Meulaboh about solid waste management improvements including location/design/construction of new site.

2.7. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT Target: Functioning of watershed safeguarded for the long term 1. Facilitation to establish FORUM DAS for watersheds Krueng Aceh and Krueng Meureubo. FORUM DAS is already in place in other provinces. The forum shall plan and control the use of the water and use of land. It shall comprise all players and stakeholders such as legislative, executive, judicial, industry, local communities, NGOs, Police, prosecutor, mass media. 2. Facilitation of measures to save protected areas. Support government (BKSDA NAD, BP DAS, Dinas Kehutanan and Bappedalda) regarding monitoring (GPS, GIS, training) to combine field data with GIS data. Establishment of DAS database. This will include the coordination with other related institutions such as Dinas Pertanian, Dinas Perkebunan. 3. Facilitation of re-forestation GERHAN to reduce fluctuation of river water Volume fluctuation (focus on Krueng Aceh). Facilitate use of critical land for forests or for agro-forestry. Facilitation of land use rights: change from HGU (concessions which are not replanted) to forest status. 4. Capacity building in related government institutions and NGOs 5. Improvement of people awareness in regard to natural resource protection. Communicate to local people correlation between river, forest, water and the importance to their health and welfare. Reactivating informal traditional rules (adat) for this purpose. Facilitate local people to influence others to protect natural resources 6. Identification of illegal logging (Krueng Meureubo) ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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7. Support BPDAS in campaign for rain water infiltration wells (sumur resapan).

2.8 ACTIVITIES WITH HIGHEST PRIORITY It is recommended to start with following issues immediately: •

Study of raw water supply Aceh Besar

Study regarding dam repair on Aceh river.

Contact PDAM, local government and BAPPENAS and make MoU in regard to institutional development and capacity building

Study solid waste management Meulaboh

Identify partners (NGOs,..), adapt program, and select locations for implementation of integrated water and sanitation concepts and public outreach and communications.

Campaign to prevent uncontrolled or miss-use of timber from natural forest (especially from Krueng Aceh and Krueng Meurebo watersheds) for reconstruction needs.

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3. RATIONALE This section provides detailed discussion of finding which led to the recommendations of the previous sections. In the interest of brevity, the following paragraphs concisely describe the findings, observations and opinions of the assessment team.

3.1. COMMUNITY HEALTH, HYGIENE P2P (Subdinas Program Pemberantasan Penyakit of Dinas Kesehatan Kota) monitors diseases like diarrhea. Diarrhea is not currently considered as major health threat (compared to other diseases like dengue fever). Not clear if data are still available in Banda Aceh because office was hit by tsunami. According to Dinas Kesehatan Meulaboh, every few years an outbreak of Diarrhea occurs. UNICEF develops training units regarding hygiene. These units can be used by all interested organizations. The units will teach and facilitate learning in participative way regarding hygiene for children at schools and also for adults. The training will be provided as Training for Trainers. The trainer will later train facilitators, which will work in the camps and villages. John Hopkins University CCP in cooperation with Muhammadiyah University will carry out campaigns regarding Hygiene, Sanitation, Reproductive Health, Nutrition, and Child Health. Currently the conditions in Banda Aceh and Meulaboh are being evaluated. Target groups include communities both inside and outside the camps. Distribution of hypochlorite for purifying drinking water is being conducted by CARE. A study currently carried out in Aceh by Care/ CDC shows that more than 60 % of water samples are contaminated, even though already boiled.

3.2. WATER SUPPLY BY PDAM PDAM BANDA ACEH PDAM services can be described as follows: • 235,000 people have been living in 54,800 houses. PDAM served about 25,000 House Connections. Post-tsunami, the PDAM serves about 8000 HC; • The installed capacity is 450 l/s, but currently about 300 l/s (Lambaro WTP) are used routinely. In addition packets with 20 l/s,(Packaged plant) and 5 l/s (GE mobile plant)are in use; ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Average Water Tariff is about Rp 850/m3 (calculated by revenue divided by cubic meters of water sold); Only about 25 % of the original pipe network is still functioning; Very high leakage losses. 100 small leakages and 30 large leakages have already been closed; PDAM Income before Tsunami was Rp 800 mill./month with expenses of Rp 680 mill./month; Currently, almost no income is available; Administration building flooded, most files destroyed. Distribution maps destroyed. Computer destroyed. No electricity available. Salary cannot be paid. Files in treatment plant including SOPs destroyed; Maintenance not carried out as necessary; Some debts of the PDAM have already been paid back. PDAM was in process of calculating new tariff together with BKPM; An 11 billion Rupiah debt is due up to 2002 according to Department of Treasury; Projects by Kimpraswil for PDAM often carried out with inadequate quality yielding to high losses and problems for PDAM; Many illegal household and commercial connections; According to DinKes Kota water has often high content of Nitrite, Nitrate and Sulfate during raining season; SDC will renovate plant (electrical and mechanical); JICA plans to put in 10 kms of new distribution pipe with related zones into place. The zones shall serve 300 m to both sides of the main pipe; Dutch WB fund is interested in providing support. This will include training and also operational cost; KfW (Germany) plans to support PDAM, although that assistance is not yet clear.

Wishes for support (expressed by Kimpraswil Pusat in Banda Aceh) Training regarding: • Production Process of PDAM (especially chemical dosing, JarTester™, operator, because they use too much chemical); • Network control and leak detection. Others: • Facilitation of tariff increase; • Drainage system cleaning. PDAM ACEH BESAR PDAM has different production places. Some of them serve areas which are the outer region of Banda Aceh. One installation is constructed but not connected to network now. It is located opposite of the plant of Banda Aceh on the other side of the river. The situation of the water supply system can be described as follows: • High hardness of water; • Before Tsunami, enough capacity for people supplied, but many people would like to get house connection; • Capacity of source Mata Ie 2 is limited to 50 l/s or about 5000 HCs; • 3000 HC have been supplied from Mata Ie 2; • 1000 HC have been supplied from Mata Ie 1 (15 l/s) by gravity system; ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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• • • • • • • • • •

At the moment the demand is higher than the capacity from Mata Ie 2 because of refugees; The demand from Mata Ie 1 is currently very low because villages where it supplies i.e. Peukan Bada & Lhoknga have been destroyed; It is considered to connect Mata Ie 1 with Mata Ie 2 to enhance capacity of Mata Ie 2; The average price of 600 Rp/m3 is far too low to cover operational costs (revenue divided by water sold); No chemicals used for turbidity reduction because PDAM cannot afford chemicals; Piped water is turbid after rains, many complaints by customers; DPRD has been reluctant to increase tariff (even before tsunami); 7000 houses on waiting list for new HC in area southwest Aceh; PDAM director is in need of new hardware for improvement and adequate tariffs to cover operational costs; The Director of PDAM presents a very credible impression to be able to implement needed improvements.

PDAM MEULABOH PDAM Meulaboh operates three plants, one for the city and two for villages in the area of Meulaboh. One plant for the villages was completely destroyed (Ranto Panjang, 10 l/s); the other plant for the villages was not affected by the tsunami (Peurembeu, 5 l/s). The plant for the town (80 l/s)., which is the largest, was not affected by the tsunami, but the intake was destroyed as were parts of the distribution system. The intake for the town plant and the distribution system will be repaired by Spanish Red Cross. It will take about 9 months to complete. The plant Ranto Panjang will be reconstructed by Oxfam. It will take about 1 year. Revenue of PDAM was about Rp 100 Million per month with 4000 HC. PDAM sells about 92,000 m3/month, with an average price of about Rp 920/ m3. No business plan was available.

3.3. WATER SUPPLY NON-PDAM BANDA ACEH Many people using their own wells. Apparently there is no regulation against this. Communal wells not so common, but some do exist located at mosques. Ground water is readily available, although quality varies considerably. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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According to DinKes Kota, the water from shallow wells is often contaminated by coliforms due to close proximity to septic tanks. In certain villages in Aceh Besar (e.g. Krueng Raya, Alunaga, Asonangkro) water is sold in units of 20 Liter (Rp 1,000 – 2,000) and 200 Liter (Rp 5,000). MEULABOH Approximately half of the area around have very good water quality; and the other areas have quite bad quality (brown color). Water was often not boiled by people in this area but used directly.

3.4. WATER QUALITY MONITORING BANDA ACEH Water quality monitoring is carried out by DinKes Kota and the Kabupatens. DinKes Kota has no laboratory and is subcontracting all analysis to the Provincial Laboratory. The charge for this service is Rp 200,000/sample for chemical analysis and Rp 60,000/sample for Total Coliform and Fecal Coliform testing. DinKes Kota Banda Aceh is interested in running its own laboratory. DinKes lacks funds or ability to transport samples. About 2 - 5 samples are taken per month, with 24 to 27 water quality parameters monitored for clean water and drinking water respectively. THW is considering providing lab equipment for PDAM and DinKes Kota. CRS is interested in improving the lab of DinKes Kota by providing equipment and capacity building. The provincial laboratory will get within the coming months new equipment for chemical analysis, including Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer for metal analysis from Hope World Wide Indonesia. The existing installation for Microbiological analysis looks quite well and the staff competent. This lab could function as lab for all water related analysis in the transition period. Scope of work of the lab is water (health) and environmental analysis. MEULABOH No water quality monitoring has been carried out since 2001. Head of DinKes is very interested to start monitoring. No laboratory available. Analysts are available. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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The Bupati does not support idea of water quality monitoring and does not provide funds for such.

3.5. SANITATION BANDA ACEH Septic tanks are commonly used. They are usually open to the ground below them that the water can infiltrate into the soil. Leaching fields are not an option. In some areas the distance between septic tank and well is only a few meters, which is not sufficient to avoid contamination of the wells. Septic tanks are emptied by Dinas Kebersihan (three vacuum trucks, all destroyed, but already 5 new trucks supplied). Cost is Rp 60,000 or Rp 120,000 per de-sludging. A sewage (sludge) treatment plant exists in Kampung Java at the site of the TPA close to the sea. According to the Dinas Kebersihan, the treatment plant was destroyed. A new treatment plant is necessary. The best location still to be evaluated. Currently the sludge is disposed of in the river close to the ocean from the trucks (see photo in following sections). The NGO and ESP Partner, BORDA, works in the field of sanitation. The main focus is in North Aceh, but willing to cooperate in Banda Aceh and Meulaboh with ESP. MEULABOH People uses septic tanks, ring shaped precast pipe septic tanks (one tube or two connected tubes), or no septic tanks (people living close to the sea). The overflow and discharge of the liquid sewage waste is unclear. There is a treatment plant, which apparently has not been used for a long time. It seems that the sludge collected is discharged to a pond system. The ponds were full and the treatment, if any, is unclear. There was space for further treatment of the sludge, probably for composting or drying of sludge.

3.6. SOLID WASTE BANDA ACEH Solid waste is deposited in a landfill which is operated by open dumping. Estimated currently at about 500 m3 of waste per day. The final landfill (TPA) is located directly at the sea (Kampung Java) and was hit by the tsunami. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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It is not clear if the landfill was/is sealed by membrane against leakage to the ground. Location at sea and river mouth facilitates pollution of sea and upstream river in case of high tide. Loss of about 50 field employees by tsunami out of 250 employees. Before tsunami, 11 Dump Trucks and 3 dozers have been available; 3 trucks are remaining. The leachate treatment has been damaged. Banda Aceh city has difficulties to find adequate locations for new landfill. Due to decentralization, adjacent districts reject the idea of receiving waste from Kota Banda Aceh (NIMBY syndrome). UNDP is evaluating situation in solid waste sector. The study will take about 6 months. UNDP is looking for donors regarding solid waste disposal. MEULABOH Solid waste is dumped to an open pit. The whole area of the dumping place is used, including the space right and left of the road leading to the landfill. The whole area makes the impression of an uncontrolled (unsanitary) landfill. Site is located in swampy area with very shallow ground water level.

3.7. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT KRUENG ACEH (ACEH RIVER) WATERSHED There are 3 forestry agencies that work in this area: BPDAS (Balai Pengelola Daerah Aliran Sungai), BKSDA NAD (Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam), and Dinas Kehutanan. BPDAS and BKSDA are Unit Pelaksana Teknis of Forestry Department in Jakarta. Watershed Aceh River is first priority of Aceh government as water source for Banda Aceh people (category 1 out of 3). Watershed is managed by BPDAS (Badan Penglolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai, Unit pelaksana teknis department kehutanan) and by Forest Ministry. Only little forest left in water shed close to Banda Aceh. Forest still available in upstream area close to springs or sources of rivers. One natural reserve (Cagar Alam Pinus Jantho, 16 640 Ha) is located in the catchment area

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(Jantho). Responsible agency is BKSDA NAD, (Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam, Agency for Natural Resource Conservation) Another protected forest (Taman Hutan Raya Tjut Nyak Dhien, 6 220 Ha) is located in the watershed, and managed by Dinas Kehutanan. Coordination between sectors not yet established. Encroachment of forest area by local people. Computer and data lost in BKSDA and BPDAS. Lack of facilities of BKSDA and Dinas Kehutanan for monitoring of forests. Currently no wood use concession (IPK, Izin Pemanfaatkan Kayu, Wood Use License) and logging concession (HPH, Hak Pengusahaan Hutan) is issued. Industrial Forest (HTI, Hutan Tanaman Industri, 50 000 Ha) is located in the watershed. Fires often appear in pinus forest and empty land. Agriculture land mostly used for rice fields. Irrigation is used (1200 Ha) Fluctuation of water capacity in Aceh River very high (95% from maximum level) Government Program of rehabilitation of forests and land (GIRHAN) should have started this year in Aceh province. Program was delayed because of tsunami. River Water is monitored by BAPEDALDA. Data not available (frequency of monitoring, results,‌) KRUENG MEUREBO Compared to Aceh water shed, there is still much forest 930 km2 existing; out of that, however, 311 km2 are in critical condition. All three waterworks take the raw water from Krueng Meurebo 11 saw mill companies operate in the area; only one is in the process of applying for a license. Much fresh cut wood found at the streets, probably from Meurebo area Conflict exists between people and wild life Land use conflict between people farming honey in forest and military planning to establish barracks. Re-forestation GERHAN stopped because of tsunami Forestry Office Aceh Barat lost all computers and data.

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4. PLAYERS Organizations working in Aceh, (identified by team): 1. UNICEF: ƒ

Facilitate communities for hygiene behaviour & sanitation system by using participatory methodology (PHAST)

ƒ

Development of water and sanitation systems in school and some IDP camps.

ƒ

Providing potable drinking water by water trucking, and water treatment system for clean water

ƒ

Rehabilitation PDAM distribution pipe in Meulaboh

ƒ

Providing emergency water/ sanitation in camps by cash-for-work program.

ƒ

Hygiene promotion for IDPs and returnees

ƒ

Conduct training and socialization for SPHERE standard

2. Oxfam:

3. Catholic Relief Services (CRS): ƒ

Support rural water supply/ sanitation reconstruction in Meulaboh

ƒ

Water, environmental sanitation in schools, markets, mosques

ƒ

Providing equipment for water quality monitoring testing

ƒ

Facilitate communities for hygiene behaviour, water supply & sanitation systems by using methodology participatory assessment (MPA)

4. Walhi & Samaritan Purse: ƒ

Salinity survey

5. Cardi/ IRC: ƒ

Emergency Water/ Sanitation,

6. French Red Cross: ƒ

Water treatment plant in Meulaboh, supporting hospitals solid waste treatment by incinerator

7. Norwegian Church (NCA): ƒ

Water treatment plant in MBO

8. Spanish Red Cross: ƒ

Water treatment plant, distribution potable rehabilitation PDAM piping networks (Meulaboh)

ƒ

Hygiene promotion in West Coast

drinking

water,

9. ACF:

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

10. Planete Urgence: ƒ

Non PDAM water study, including shallow/ deep well

11. Hope World Wide: ƒ

Supporting equipment for provincial laboratory

ƒ

Feasibility study for waste management in Banda Aceh

ƒ

shelter reconstruction

12. UNDP:

13. John Hopkins Univ (JHU) CCP: ƒ

Development of appropriate media for health & hygiene campaign.

ƒ

Distribution of Safe Water System by hypochlorite in IDP camps

14. CARE:

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

5. CONTACT LIST The following individuals were among those interviewed by the ESP Aceh Assessment Team during the visit. No. Contact Person 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Organization

Mawardi Nurdin, Ir, MM Walikota Banda Aceh Nyak Ben Ridwan Sekda Aceh Barat Andi Basrul, Drs. BKSDA (Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam) NAD Zulkarnaen, Drh. Muswir Ayub, Ir. BP DAS (Balai Pengelola Daerah Aliran Sungai) Mustafa Hasballah, Ir. Dinas Kehutanan NAD Husaini Syamaun, Ir, MM Esma, Ir. Dinas Kehutanan Aceh Barat Arsyiah Arsyad, Ir, MM Bapedalda NAD Fauzi Dinas Kebersihan dan Pertamanan Banda Aceh Dinas Kebersihan dan Lingkungan Hidup Aceh Barat Dinas Kesehatan Banda Aceh Dinas Kesehatan Aceh Barat Laboratorium Kesehatan Daerah NAD PDAM Tirta Daroi Banda Aceh

Position

Phone

PJS Walikota Sekda Kepala KBTU Kepala

0811 682036 0812 6981817 0651 42694 0811 688735 0812 6904712 0815 34025253

Kepala Kasubdin Kasi RHL Kepala

0811 682260 0812 6970015 0651 635722

Bid. Pemantauan dan Pemulihan Kepala

e-mail

bapedalda@nad. go.id

8

Saifuddin TA, Drs, MSi

9

Munawar

10 11 12

Dr. Marzuki Yusuf, dr. Ormaya, dr.

13 15

Syamsul Bahri Mukhlis T. N. Ayub, Ir.

16

Syahrul Saifullah

17 18

Samsul Rizal Aswandi, Ir.

19

Harry Santoso, Dr.

20

Tim Walsh

UNDP

21

Belinda Abraham

UNICEF

22 23 24

Dr. Ormgia Ralf Pahlmann Kuroda Kazuyoshi, Mr.

UPTD Health Laboratory Head Technisches Hilfswerk (THW) JICA Assistant resident representative

0813 60256617 0812 1075623 kuroda@jica.or. id

25

Ian Small

OXFAM

0815 3059238

26

Lorenz Berne

Planet Urgent

27

Ross Tomlinson

PDAM Tirta Montala Aceh Besar PDAM Tirta Meureubo Aceh Barat Departemen Kimpraswil Dinas PU Pengairan (Cipta Karya) NAD Direktorat Jenderal Rehabilitasi Lahan dan Social Forestry

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

0651 7410780 0812 6908735

Kepala Kepala Kepala Kepala

0811 683059 0811 680103

Dirut Kabag Teknik Dirut

0813 70025318 0811 681672 0812 698055

Kabag Teknik Dirut

0812 6918210 0813 60225092

Kepala Direktur DAS dan 021 5730166 Rehabilitasi Lahan Consultant Solid Waste Head of Hygiene Promotion

Humanitarian Program Coordinator Representative

Harryst@cbn.n et.id

0815 11637055 0813 60241089 beabraham@ya hoo.ca

ismall@oxfam.o rg.uk

0813 60239088 indonesia@plan eteurgence.com 0815 11557296 rosstomlinson @email.com

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

No. Contact Person

Organization

Position

Phone

e-mail

0811 924616

aceh@diplo.de

0812 8135495

ending@careind .or.id

28

Kemal N. Siregar, Dr.

International Education and Training in Reproductive Health

29

Heinrich Haupt

30

Endang Widyastuti, dr.

Monitoring, Evaluation, and Operational Research, Senior Adviser German Federal Foreign Office Special Envoy Humanitarian Relief Care International Indonesia Program Leader

31

Matteo Frontini

Unicef

0815 34045791 frontinimatteo @hotmail.com

32

Aron Cristellotti

Association for International Country Cooperation and Humanitarian Representative Aid

0815 33747546 Alisei_banda_ac eh@yahoo.it Alisei_Indonesia @tin.it

33

Frank Fladerer

Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association

Country Representative

0811 253907

34

Hoshina Takashi

Pacific Consultants International

0813 19248963 hoshinot@pcito kyo.co.jp

35

Bambang Purwanto, MSc.

Department Kimpraswil

Water & Environment Department Kasubdit Wilayah Barat II

36

Peter Hof

37

Willi Finger

Swiss Agency for Development 0813 60225167 and Cooperation Swiss Agency for Development Wells in Meulaboh 081534042078 and Cooperation

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

0816 876243

fladerer@borda .de

bbgpurwanto@ yahoo.com

Willi.finger@blu ewin.ch

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

6. JAKARTA DONOR COORDINATION NOTES During the work in the field in Aceh Province, it was essential that a team member coordinate with and attend the myriad meetings conducted by the Government of Indonesia with the numerous lending agencies, bilateral donors, public and private NGOs and other players in the massive response to the earthquake/tsunami disaster in Indonesia. Dr. Timothy Brown attended many of these meetings, and what follows are his notes and observations relevant to the assessment by ESP in Aceh.

6.1. COORDINATION/WORKING GROUP PROCESS IN JAKARTA The BAPPENAS Aceh Reconstruction Planning Process is on a fast track, following orders from the President of Indonesia. Draft reports are due soon, with a final product to the President by March 26, 2005. The time for input and influence has nearly passed, as these notes were being written. The final plan will be delivered as actions on the ground are still developing and donors continue to seek comparative advantage and high visibility projects. As with any plan, it will be revised repeatedly during implementation. Some limited findings based on attending working group and coordination meetings in Jakarta: ƒ

ƒ

ƒ

ƒ ƒ ƒ

BAPPENAS has limited resources for primary data collection or to send teams to Aceh. Rather BAPPENAS relies on inputs (assessments, data, cost estimates) from academics, independent teams, line ministries. This process seems unstructured and opportunistic more than systematic. In particular, the basis of cost estimates is not clear. Donor interest is high, especially World Bank, which (reasonably) sees Bappenas as the lead GOI agency for coordination, planning, and foreign assistance. However, participation is haphazard based on when the meetings are called and which donors have the resources to provide full time consultants to the process. International NGOs, local NGOs and UN agencies are not well represented in these meetings. Suggestions by some donors and projects (including ESP, WB, and KfW) to bring Acehnese to Jakarta and create venues for other kinds of public consultation and participation have not been taken up systematically. Acehnese are not well represented in these meetings, though input from Aceh comes in through line ministries and field assessment teams who are on the ground. Despite participation in meetings, ability to influence the process is uncertain. Suggestions are heard, but not clear what process or documents these feed into. Comments and suggestions do not seem to be systematically collected. Other “sectoral” working groups meet to coordinate activities between key ministries and donors most interested in these sectors. Based on the meeting of the FAO/DKP/DepTan organized meeting on “Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.” In contrast to the BAPPENAS working groups, this meeting was: informative, well-

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

organized, well advertised, and well-attended. DKP representative stated that the results of this working group, i.e., the DKP report on which the presentation was based, had been submitted to BAPPENAS less than a week previously. This may mean that the quality of inputs to the BAPPENAS process are high and that the surface impression created by attending meetings is not truly representative. Within the BAPPENAS Working Group Structure and process there are four levels or possible entry points for donor and project coordination. ƒ Secretariat: management team reporting to Minister, mainly composed of Bappenas officials ƒ Donor Liaison Officers: point of contact linked to Secretariat for management coordination. Some donors heavily represented with full time consultants. ƒ Task Forces: working groups or pokjas for each of the 11 priority/sectoral areas. This is made up of gov’t officials from a wide range of ministries ƒ Expert Working Groups: technical advisors to the Pokjas, supplied by donors and projects. A fifth Jakarta-based level for interaction and coordination is, of course, the sectoral/line ministry most involved with the specific activity being planned, such as public works. These represent different levels of action and possibility for coordination or resolution of issues identified in the field or during implementation. ESP project staff may provide expertise or seek information readily through the Task Forces and the Expert Working Groups. For higher level coordination issues, some involvement with the Donor Liaison officers and the Secretariat may be necessary. It is recommended that the ESP Aceh Team coordinate closely with ESP management to determine what issues should be brought to the table through the project and which issues should perhaps be channeled through USAID to allow direct Government to Government discussion and resolution of potential issues.

6.2. CONTINUING COORDINATION IS ESSENTIAL To facilitate access for resolution of potential issues during implementation, ESP Jakarta may wish to maintain continued, but limited, involvement in coordination meetings in Jakarta, or at least the “listserves” that announce and discuss the donor coordination process. USAID/ESP can gain some advantage from this coordination. For example, these meetings provide the first point of contact for coordination with GOI and other donors to determine priority activities and comparative advantage. Opportunities for leveraging or influencing other donors’ programming of activities toward priorities USAID/ESP has identified can be explored in one-on-one or small group meetings. For example, in the area of designing and implementing sanitation interventions, the Dutch, GTZ, World Bank (managing the Dutch Trust Fund), and several private sector companies will be important donors. ESP may be able to coordinate activities to ensure smooth dovetailing with other activities, or a separation of responsibilities, such as software (social mobilization) to balance hardware (infrastructure) investments.

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

6.3. INFORMATION RESOURCES FOR CONTINUED COORDINATION BAPPENAS supported by the World Bank has excellent resources for managing information at < www.acehreconstruction.bappenas.go.id > and another site is managed by Bakornas with and for the provincial and regional governments < www.acehrecovery.bakornaspbp.go.id >. The first site provides information, data, reports, and presentations that have contributed to the working group process. This site also provides a venue for receiving and disseminating inputs from line ministries and independent assessment teams sponsored by various donors. However, the quality of the material available is only as good as the inputs received from line ministries or donors. Some donors have not made their assessments available on line. The second site has more provincial and local information, but perhaps more oriented to affected populations. The ESP Aceh team may wish to visit these sites to keep aware of background information and plans that may be developing over the coming months. The UN also has a special web site with assessment information, maps, data and other links at < www.indonesia-tsunami.un.or.id >. This is a useful site for identifying activities and contact points for integrating with UN funded activities.

6.4. POSSIBILITIES FOR ESP PROJECT ADD-ONS IN ACEH There are a lot of donor proposals and funding possibilities, but these may be constrained by lack of mechanisms in the short run. ESP may be able to identify some short term activities (because it is already active and funded) that will improve the foundation for future project interventions by other donors or GOI as funding mechanisms come into place. ESP may want to use its links with key donors in Jakarta and key planning and funding agencies in Aceh now to open the possibility for later collaboration or co-funding of implementation projects. Examples: ƒ ƒ ƒ

ESP small grants to community groups to cooperate/involve in other donor funded water and sanitation projects. ESP planning, design, and public consultation activities followed by other donor funding of implementation or hardware. ESP communication and outreach programs designed to create public constituencies for improved service delivery, transparency, and participation in other donor or GOI funded projects.

Another issue is community involvement and public consultation/participation. Many GOI and donor proposed activities are focused on large infrastructure investments, clearly a compelling need given the devastation. For roads and bridges, reconstructing what was there may be enough. When it comes to relocating roads, or urban infrastructure (watsan, schools, etc.) where people live, issues of community acceptance will become increasingly important. Land use, ownership, title will be important underlying concerns. Good systems and communication approaches will need to be in place to solicit the views of the ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

community and organize their involvement in the project, to the extent possible, given that many communities are shattered. For design of some kinds of projects, especially community-based or low density watsan projects, involvement of the community influences the design (e.g., individual or community septic tanks, collection systems, etc.) For longer run operation, maintenance, and cost recovery of some kinds of systems (e.g., water purification or delivery), may need organized user groups, local markets, private sector involvement, etc. Within the larger project interventions proposed for ESP’s Aceh component, it would be desirable to also include opportunities to fund activities in the short run to build consultation mechanisms, strengthen community or user groups, or conduct public awareness and outreach campaigns. Any efforts to build up the “software side” (community involvement, social systems to maintain or pay for infrastructure or services) will help to provide a balance and a better design for planned infrastructure investments, whether funded by USAID or another donor.

6.5. COMMENTS AND CAVEATS Based on review of Jakarta based planning processes, ESP’s Aceh effort may want to be aware of the following possible “disconnects” that could arise in the coming several months. ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Jakarta based plans may not be consistent with locally developed plans, activities of well-funded NGOs: possible conflict between GOI levels Safety planning & engineering cautions (minimum acceptable design standards) may not be consistent with land ownership/rights: possible social conflict Donors may be competing to fund or lead in key projects: possible duplication or overlap Public consultation with Acehnese seems limited from Jakarta: possible disappointment, failure of expectations

Some “muddling through” is expected. Addressing these concerns is beyond ESP’s mandate although ESP experts could be called on for advisory services. In any case, the implementation team will want to keep these ideas in mind and explore opportunities to mitigate potential problems – for example, through well-designed and comprehensive public consultation.

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

7. MAPS AND PHOTOS 7.1. LOCATION OF ASSESSMENT

Tsunami affected area Location of Assessment

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

7.2. WATER CATCHMENT AREAS IN ACEH PROVINCE

ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

7.3. LAND CONDITION (DARKER COLOR MEANS DENSER FOREST)

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

7.4. WATER SUPPLY

Filters – WTP Lambaro

Clarifier with pulsator – WTP Lambaro

Mata Ie spring.

Water Treatment Plant in Mata Ie – No chemicals are added.

Water Treatment Plant in Meulaboh.

Individual shallow well in Banda Aceh.

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

7.5. SANITATION

Typical individual septic tank in Banda Aceh.

Vacuum truck owned by Dinas Kebersihan Banda Aceh.

Sewage treatment through pond system in Meulaboh.

Sewage treatment (IPLT) Banda Aceh.

Illegal sludge disposal.

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

7.6. SOLID WASTE

Final Disposal Site at Kampung Jawa, Banda Aceh.

Final Disposal Site at Kampung Jawa, Banda Aceh.

Final Disposal Site in Meulaboh.

On the way to Final Disposal Site in Meulaboh.

Swampy condition at Kampung Jawa.

Leachate treatment with oxidation pond.

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ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT

7.7. WATERSHED

Krueng Aceh river.

Krueng Aceh catchment area.

Krueng Aceh catchment area at Mt. Seulawah.

Catchment area near Krueng Aceh River.

Typical barrack made of wood. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM WWW.ESP.OR.ID

31


ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES PROGRAM Ratu Plaza Building, 17th. Fl. Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 9 Jakarta 10270 Indonesia Tel. +62-21-720-9594 Fax. +62-21-720-4546 www.esp.or.id

ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT  

ACEH ASSESSMENT REPORT MARCH 2005 This publication was produced by Development Alternatives, Inc. for the United States Agency for Internati...

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