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Engaging the World: The Study of International Affairs at The George Washington University

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Schools of International Affairs at GW

The School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy (1898 – 1905) The Department of Politics and Diplomacy (1905 – 1907) The College of the Political Sciences (1907 – 1913) International Law and Diplomacy in Columbian College (1913 – 1928) The School of Government (1928 – 1960) The School of Government, Business, and International Affairs (1960 – 1966) The School of Public and International Affairs (1966 – 1987) The School of International Affairs (1987 – 1988) The Elliott School of International Affairs (1988 – Present)


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“…A primary object should be the education of our youth in the science of government. In a republic, what species of knowledge can be equally important? And what duty more pressing than communicating it to those who are to be the future guardians of the liberties of the country?” George Washington’s Eighth Annual Message to Congress, December 7, 1796

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The George Washington University is the realization of the first U.S. president’s desire to establish a national institution of higher learning in the nation’s capital. Beginning with Benjamin Rush in 1787, prominent Americans promoted the idea of an institution of higher learning in the new country. Presidents from Washington to James Monroe believed that a national university would be a “unifying force” in the United States and eliminate the need for young men to travel abroad for their education.1 Although President Washington died 22 years before his vision was carried out, the Rev. Luther Rice took up the effort, raising funds to purchase land in the nation’s capital and petitioning the U.S. Congress for a charter. Rev. Rice believed that an advanced education was necessary to train missionary leaders for foreign service. President James Monroe and 32 members of the Congress later became involved, as well. On February 9, 1821, President Monroe signed the Act of Congress that created the Columbian College as a private, nonsectarian institution in the District of Columbia.2 The college opened its doors in 1822 with three faculty members, one tutor, and 20 students. Admission requirements emphasized the liberal arts, as well as a thorough knowledge of geography, and the ability to read and write Latin. With courses on political law, languages, and civil society among its first offerings, the seeds of an international

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affairs curriculum were planted at the university’s founding.3 The college began in a single building between 14th and 15th Streets north of Florida Avenue and would move one more time before settling in its current Foggy Bottom location. In 1873 the college became Columbian University, and in 1904, the George Washington University. The promise of a half-million dollar building endowment from the George Washington Memorial Association instigated the latter change; the name was retained although the agreement was canceled five years later. 4 Since 1898, the George Washington University has offered students an unbroken succession of international affairs programs, beginning with the School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy. In the 20th century, the school went through a number of reorganizations and reformulations, before emerging in the mid-1980s as an independent school devoted exclusively to international affairs. The main mission of the school—educating the next generation of international leaders, conducting research that advances the understanding of important global issues, and engaging the policy world to advance American and global interests—has been constant and compelling, but specific emphases have evolved over the decades as the world itself has evolved. From the 1820s to the present day, the study of interna-

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tional affairs at GW has taken advantage of the university’s location in the heart of Washington, DC. Then, as now, GW students received instruction from leading scholars and policy practitioners, including Supreme Court justices, U.S. and foreign ambassadors, and officials drawn from the government, business, and nonprofit spheres. From the Spanish-American War to the 21st century’s Millennium Development Goals, GW scholars have sought to bridge the theory and practice of international affairs. In 2013, we celebrate the 25th anniversary of the naming of GW’s Elliott School of International Affairs; we also mark the 115th anniversary of the school’s first incarnation at GW, the School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy. As the world has become more interconnected and complex, the study of international affairs has evolved from a narrow focus on law and diplomacy into a more expansive, multidisciplinary approach that includes a wide array of fields—anthropology, business, economics, geography, history, languages and literature, law, political science, public policy, science, and technology. The Elliott School and its predecessors have remained at the forefront of this change.

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1898-1905

School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy

1898–1905

With a Rand McNally Atlas among its first purchases, Columbian University’s School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy opened its doors in Fall 1898 to 90 graduate students interested in the history and workings of international law. Housed with the Law School in the newly built Law Lecture Hall, the School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy also shared faculty, including Associate Supreme Court Justices John M. Harlan and David J. Brewer.5 The school’s origins dated to the 1880s, when University President James C. Welling had envisioned the study of comparative jurisprudence as a worthy companion to the law faculty’s “school of practice.” Describing the school’s proposed curriculum, President Welling wrote that “the law of the civilized world shall be taught as a history and as a philosophy, from the first rude germs of the clan stage of human government up to the highest evolutions of that international law which today sits supreme above all politics and all conventions of men, Rand McNally, 1898 and which, by its moral sovereignty, is perpetually moving forward the boundaries of truth and righteousness in the relations of States.”6 In President Welling’s vision, lecturers would discuss political, geographical, and diplomatic history, and students would examine laws from the perspectives of ancient civilizations, Justinian Rome, the Middle Ages, Common Law, colonialism, and federalism.7 U.S. President William McKinley and his cabinet joined nearly 1,000 spectators for the school’s November 15, 1898 opening. Among the speakers were U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Lyman J. Gage, Canadian Prime Minister Wilfred Laurier, and School Dean Charles Needham.8 Former U.S. Secretary of State John W. Foster spoke of the school’s opportune timing: “We must all agree that this nation is entering upon a new epoch, when the influence of the country is to be felt more than in

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1898-1905

GW Law School, 1905

the past and there is a great field for diplomatic work.”9 The SpanishAmerican War and Hawaiian annexation earlier that year signaled the country’s increasing international involvement. In his remarks, Secretary Foster, who had held diplomatic posts in Mexico and Russia, echoed widening demands for professionalizing the foreign and, particularly, consular services. Praising efforts to correct the diplomatic corps’ deficiencies, the journal The American Lawyer noted the auspicious timing of the “first school of its kind.” John D. Rockefeller donated $2,500, and administrators believed similar generous gifts and tuition would support their work.10 The School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy’s curricula reflected President Welling’s original vision, designed in consultation with European Justices Harlan and Brewer, 1899 scholars. Courses would “fit men for the practice of international law and for positions in the public, diplomatic, and consular services” and lead to master’s degrees in diplomacy or laws or a doctorate in civil law.11 The school’s faculty boasted members who brought policy expertise into the classroom: David J. Hill, assistant secretary of state; J.L.M. Curry, former minister to Spain; and Martin A. Knapp, chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission, among others, joined Foster, Brewer, and Harlan as lecturers.12

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1898-1905

President McKinley and his cabinet, who attended the opening of the School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy in 1898

Over the next several years, the school continued to employ government experts as lecturers, and several Master of Diplomacy recipients joined the faculty. University catalogs advertised the benefits of the school’s location in Washington, DC, noting access to the Congressional and State Department libraries, opportunities to hear Supreme Court oral arguments, and guest lectures by the local diplomatic corps. Dean Needham emphasized the school’s focus on economics as especially valuable for the country’s expanding international trade.13 In June 1902, Dean Needham was named president of the university, and Henry St. George Tucker took over the deanship of the school. In 1903, the School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy became the Department of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy—a change in nomenclature more than anything, as the department continued to be administered independently and grant its own degrees, the Master of Diplomacy and the Doctor of Philosophy.14 gw

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1898-1905

GW President Charles Needham

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1905-1907

Department of Politics and Diplomacy

1905–1907

In Fall 1904, Columbian University became the George Washington University. With enrollment in jurisprudence courses declining, President Needham determined that another reorganization was necessary. “Students of law have regarded the School of Comparative Justice and Diplomacy as purely a culture course and not of advantage to men who intend to follow the ordinary practice of law…On the other hand, college men have been deterred from taking the political and diplomatic subjects because they had not studied and did not care to study law or legal subjects.”15 President Needham’s solution was the Department of Politics and Diplomacy, beginning in Fall 1905. Its prospective students would include those interested in foreign service as well as future “journalists, teachers, and other persons aiming to become moulders [sic] of public opinion upon the national and international issues of the day.”16 Catalog descriptions reveal continual tweaking of the department’s curriculum in international law, political science, economics, sociology, and history. Electives ranged from “British Imperialism” and “Disraeli as a Statesman” to “Government Control of Railroads” and “American Social Problems.” Maintaining its status as a separate graduate school, the Department of Politics and Diplomacy severed ties with the Department of Law and Jurisprudence, its new name reflective of the departmental readjustments.17 gw

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1907-1913

The College of the Political Sciences

1907–1913 Faced with persistently falling enrollments, Acting Dean C.W.A. Veditz reorganized the political science and diplomacy curriculum once again. Beginning in Fall 1907, both graduates and undergraduates could enroll in the new College of the Political Sciences (CPS), a “leading feature” of President Needham’s George Washington University movement to enhance the university’s international status.18 Faculty required undergraduates to complete two years of college before enrolling in CPS courses leading to a Bachelor of Arts. Students studied political science and social, political, and economic history, as well as international law and the diplomatic histories of Europe, the United States, and Latin America. For President Needham, CPS’s goal continued to be career training. In his June 1908 commencement address he emphasized the college’s role as a “highly organized graduate and professional school,” its offerings “intended to fit men for consular and diplomatic positions, for the public service in the United States, while giving that general culture any equipment necessary for efficient civic service and the intelligent discussion of political, economic, and public questions.”19 President Needham’s 1908 commencement address This emphasis complemented U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt’s international and civil service reform interests. For the past two decades, U.S. presidents and secretaries of state had stressed the need to eliminate the spoils system in the diplomatic and consular services. U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root was a vocal proponent of reform and helped to push through Executive Orders requiring examinations that one writer called

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“a sad blow to the fashionable people who have been accustomed to billet their idle sons and brothers upon the diplomatic service.”20 In 1908, President Needham launched an ambitious plan to secure $25,000 per year for five years to fund CPS and proRichard D. Harlan mote the George Washington University movement. A year earlier he had hired Richard D. Harlan as the university’s special representative, charged with seeking subscriptions from leading businessmen.21 In soliciting funds, Mr. Harlan linked CPS’s work to the success of the London School of Economics and Government and Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques in Paris in preparing their governments’ foreign service. Touring Europe, he met with American businessmen critical of the U.S. consulates and added their complaints to his appeals.22 Despite early subscriptions of $5,000 from J.P. Morgan and others, Mr. Harlan was unable to garner continuing support. Blaming the Panic of 1907 for dampening incoming financial support, he believed his outreach would eventually reap benefits.23 However, reluctant to wait any longer, President Charles H. Stockton decided that a separate school of political science was no longer viable given the university’s overall financial crises. In January 1913, President Stockton recommended that CPS be discontinued at the close of the academic year, with political science instruction offered in Columbian College “so far as the finances” permit. President Stockton praised the excellence of the GW President Charles H. Stockton College of the Political Sciences faculty and recognized the importance of instruction on issues related to global affairs, musing “the questions pending and unsettled of a diplomatic nature between ourselves and other countries are certainly of a grave and

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1907-1913

The University Hatchet, February 21, 1913

complicated nature to show the necessity for men with very considerable personal and professional qualifications for our diplomatic positions.” However, he concluded that “demand for highly specialized instruction of this sort is not as great as was thought at the beginning.”24 The University Hatchet, which had regularly reported CPS events, was among those who mourned its demise: “Not only has it sent more men to the Diplomatic Service since the revision of that branch of the Public Service than any other two colleges in the United States, but also it has served to advertise the George Washington University throughout the world. …It is unfortunate, however, that a department which has been so creditable to the University should have died out as it has done.”25 gw

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1913-1928

International Law and Diplomacy in Columbian College

1913–1928

Ensconced in Columbian College for the next 15 years, the new political science department lost its institutional independence but retained its emphasis on preparing students for foreign and public service. Every Columbian College catalog from 1913 to 1927 included a special section which reprinted the latest regulations and course recommendations for the consular examination (only pre-med, and later pre-law, received similar treatment).5 The College advised students to enroll in topics covered in the exam: “natural, industrial, and commercial resources and the commerce of the United States; political economy, and the elements of international, commercial, and maritime law,� as well as American history and geography; modern European, Latin American, and Far East history; and arithmetic as it related to trade.26 From 1913 to 1916, Columbian College students pursued one of four

Columbian College Library Reading Room, 1920

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1913-1928

curricular tracks: Latin and Greek Studies; modern languages; mathematics and the natural sciences; or preparatory courses for further study in law or political science. The latter attracted the largest enrollment; by Fall 1914, more than a third of first- and second-year students pursued this option. Despite his role in dissolving the College of the Political Sciences, President Stockton continued to teach international law and supervise the political science faculty. Political science professors lectured on municipal, federal, and international history and governments, while business-related requirements were taught by the economics faculty. As Columbian College adjusted to the United States’ expanding international business interests, foreign service aspirants were directed into new pre-law or commerce tracks. Administrators renamed the special section on consular examinations “Public Service Courses,” a nod to the country’s progressive faith in government. In 1923, they added qualifications for students interested in the U.S. Department of Commerce and Labor’s GW President William Miller Collier Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, which “promoted U.S. trade and industry by compiling…statistical and other information on foreign and domestic markets and manufacturing.”27 The recommendations differed little from the foreign service curriculum, although there was less emphasis on U.S. and world history, and more on international commerce. As U.S. involvement in World War I became inevitable, President Stockton, who had served as an admiral in the Navy, pledged the university’s support for President Woodrow Wilson. President Stockton retired in 1918, continuing to serve as an unpaid lecturer in international law.28 His prudent cutbacks had restored the university’s financial stability. President Stockton’s replacement, William Miller Collier, continued to promote the study of international law. A former member of the New York Civil Service Commission and minister to Spain, he recommended the university add schools of political science and finance and commerce.29

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The Washington Post, December 28, 1927

“A great School of Political Science…ought to be started as a war measure,” President Collier wrote. “Never was it more important to teach the true principles of international law, international polity, and world organization than today, when all the world is molten and about to be cast into new forms. The war will be fought to a finish, but unless the(se) things…be not only taught but learned, every war will be but a skirmish for a subsequent greater contest.”30 President Collier’s immediate challenge was to institute the Student Army Training Corps, a government program that ensured GW would not lose its male undergraduates to the military.31 He resigned in 1921 to become the U.S. Ambassador to Chile, without instituting a School of Political Science. Endowments, necessary to supplement tuition, remained an issue. From 1921 to 1924, the Southern Baptist Conference annually approached university trustees with an offer to take control of the university. While such support might have been tempting during the university’s lean years, the trustees made clear in 1924 that they were not interested in any denominational affiliation.32 Their decision was fortuitous. In October 1925, the National League of Masonic Clubs expressed interest in endowing a chair or school for foreign service at GW within the year.33 Although their timetable proved unrealistic, the announcement acquainted other Masons with the university’s international affairs programs. In December 1927, the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States donated one million dollars for a school of government, the only caveat being that money must be returned if the university “ceases to be a nonsectarian institution.”34 gw Plaque acknowledging donation from Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States to GW

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School of Government

1928–1960

Given in memory of “George Washington, the Mason,” the gift was the largest donation received to date by the university. The funds allowed faculty members to once again offer a curriculum that drew from multiple disciplines to educate students for public service. GW President Cloyd Heck Marvin—appointed only three months earlier and himself a 33rd Degree Mason—helped negotiate the agreement.35 GW President Cloyd Heck Marvin Accepting the funds, President Marvin commented that “pernicious influences” and “false social and political ideals” necessitated more than “mere theoretical teaching of political science and more exhortation to good citizenship” to uphold American ideals. “Young men and women must not only study political theory,” he added, “but they must also study our governmental procedure and know how it really works, to realize the fundamental principles of the Constitution.”36 To further honor President George Washington and promote the School of Government, the National League of The University Hatchet, February 12, 1935 Masonic Clubs organized an annual sale of paper cherry blossoms on Washington’s birthday for the next twenty years. Colleges nationwide competed to see who could sell the most blossoms, with profits going to fund two chairs in foreign service at GW.37

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For its first two years, the School of Government’s objective remained the same: “to help men and women prepare for public service…(to) impart a knowledge of history and economics, information on the structure and function of government, and an understanding of social organization.”38 In the new school, political scientists, historians, and economists offered traditional courses in international and constitutional law, economic history, and U.S. government. A few courses signaled the growing trend to examine more contemporary events, for example: “Recent American History,” “Europe Since 1914,” and “World War and Its Aftermath.”39 Faculty continued to advise students on the preferred courses for employment abroad with the U.S. Departments of State and Commerce. The Rogers Act of 1924 continued the democratization of the U.S. Foreign Service by revamping the competitive examination and adding merit promotions, among other changes.40 Students would be tested less on the specific knowledge necessary to perform as Foreign Service officers and more on their comprehensive understanding of U.S. history, government, and economics. Despite these improvements, most students preferred international business to diplomacy as 1920s prosperity returned the country to the economic internationalism begun before World War I.41 With the majority of students who were interested in careers abroad opting for industry over government, the School of Government broadened its purposes: “The courses in foreign service train students for the many opportunities offered in the foreign fields to carry out the ideals for which America stands, not only in governmental work but in the wider field of foreign trade as conducted by private enterprise in all

The Washington Post, 1930

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1928-1960

parts of the world.” In addition to government and international affairs, undergraduates could pursue majors in business administration, finance, domestic commerce, and foreign commerce. The faculty now included specialists in finance, accounting, insurance, and taxation. A 1930 Washington Post article detailed the School of Government’s programs, highlighting both its foreign service and business administration offerings. New courses covered the “political backgrounds of the Far East” and “latter-day commercial and industrial problems” in U.S. economic history. The university credited the School of Government with attracting international students, many of whom were drawn by its training for “public service and statesmanship.”42 Despite the school’s continued association with foreign service training, its curriculum began to more closely resemble business schools of the period. Noting that “business has become respectable,” one educational specialist at the time claimed that “collegiate education for business” was the fastest-growing segment in higher education.43 By Fall 1933, the School of Government again revised its undergraduate offerings; majors included foreign service, foreign commerce, business administration, public affairs, public administration, and public accounting. The latter three reflected a new interest in government careers; as the Great Depression deepened, some students rejected the uncertainties of business for the security of government employment. In an age of efficiency and professionalism, university training became the hallmark of future local, state, and federal employees who admired the work of New Dealers.44 Addressing the campus sociological society, a Works Progress Administration official linked public service education with the issues of out-of-work Americans: “In 1932, no one in the country was equipped to handle labor problems of the unemployed because no one had been trained for such service. In the future, there will be a great need for expert service in the field of labor, both on the public and private side, and again on the laborer’s and employer’s side. Training people alone can aid in salvaging these unemployed.”45 A $250,000 contribution from Hattie M. Hattie M. Strong on GW’s campus, 1937 Strong in 1937 to build a Hall of Government complemented the Masons’ donations for the School of Government.

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President Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Germany, December 11, 1941

Like her earlier philanthropic colleagues, Mrs. Strong’s views reflected the nationalism that swept the country following World War I and continued during the Depression; she hoped her gift would help the university “stand staunchly for the American system of free representative government and individual opportunity.”46

The Impact of War As the United States entered World War II, the George Washington University adjusted its curricula to wartime exigencies by offering an accelerated program that allowed students to complete their degrees in less than three years. A new business and government statistics major combined course work in statistics, economics, and business administration but eschewed upper-level requirements in history or political science. The New York Times reported on the school’s new master’s degree designed “to provide a means of intelligent appraisal of the complex operations of government and of government policy.”47 A streamlined School of Government emerged from the war years as GIs arrived to study government and business.48 Undergraduates could major in foreign affairs, accounting, business administration, or statistics—the latter three drawing most of their coursework from business administration offerings. Master’s degree options included the same majors plus government and economic policy, public administration, public personnel administration, and occupational counseling. By 1948, School of Government faculty members were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the coupling of international affairs and

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1928-1960

business. Historians, political scientists, and economists viewed the mission of business and accounting as incongruous to their substantive concerns. Dean Arthur Edward Burns recommended establishing a separate school of business. “The maintenance of business administration in the School of Government does not make sense,” he wrote to President Marvin. “The present arrangement, I understand, was no more than a matter of administrative expediency.”49 In response, university administrators established a separate accounting department and reorganized the School of Government’s business administration program in 1950. President Marvin promised that the changes would “provide students with better integrated and comprehensive programs designed to meet the needs of modern industry and government,” including a new course that analyzed management issues in the federal agencies and business.50 Six years later, continuing concerns over the disparate programs within the School of Government led to an external study led by Eugene Zuckert, atomic energy commissioner and a former assistant dean of the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration. Although cognizant of some faculty dissatisfaction with the school’s current arrangements, the committee advocated emphasizing the interrelatedness of government and business and their policies, rather than creating separate schools. A faculty committee led by political science professor Wolfgang Kraus advocated renaming the school the School of Government, Business, and International Affairs, but simultaneously creating separate divisions for Public and International Affairs and Business and Public Administration. On October 13, 1960, the Board of Trustees approved the Kraus committee recommendations.51 gw

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1960-1966

School of Government, Business, and International Affairs

1960–1966

The objectives of the School of Government, Business, and International Affairs echoed its antecedents’ missions: the school would “give the student an understanding of his responsibilities under the Constitution of the United States in the conduct of public office, domestic and foreign, and also prepare students for careers in governmental service and in related business and professional fields.” Undergraduate majors in government pursued studies in domestic government or foreign relations; business students chose majors in accounting, business administration, or business economics. Business students outnumbered international affairs majors nearly five to one.52 Newly installed GW President Thomas H. Carroll viewed the continued pairing favorably, commenting that “There should be no antipathy between government and business.” Explaining the changes to the George Washington University community, Dean of Faculties O.S. Colclough was also optimistic about the renamed school: “These actions are intended to provide an effective structure in which the interlinkings

Dean of Faculties O.S. Colclough greets Lynda Bird Johnson, center, and her friend, as they arrive at the School of Government, Business, and International Affairs on February 3, 1964 to attend their first class of the Spring semester

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1960-1966

GW President Lloyd H. Elliott

of philosophy, program, and curricula of three vital components of our national life—government, business, and international affairs—can be more fully realized.”53 The school’s faculty members were less convinced of the connections between their various disciplines. In Fall 1964, a faculty committee once again reviewed the options. With the majority of faculty supporting a split into two separate schools, the committee concluded that “there has been virtually no element of cohesiveness between international affairs and the other programs within the school” and over 15 years “little success has been achieved in establishing a community of interests.” While GW administrators continued to praise the renamed school’s potential and uniqueness in higher education, their views did little to sway faculty members who were convinced that their programs’ future lay in creating two separate schools.54 With the appointment of GW President Lloyd H. Elliott in 1965, faculty members had an advocate for dividing the programs. A month before his inaugural convocation on February 21, President Elliott reminded the Board Letter from Scottish Rite of of Trustees that they had authorized a split Freemasonry to President Elliott, 1966 three years earlier, and called them to action. On March 1, 1966, the university divided the School of Government, Business, and International Affairs into two new schools: the School of Government and Business Administration, and the School of Public and International Affairs; the former to operate as “primarily a professionally oriented” school, the latter to be more “policy-oriented,” with interdisciplinary programs and an emphasis on “governmental policy, both domestic and foreign.”55 gw

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1966-1987

School of Public and International Affairs

1966–1987

Continuing an interdisciplinary approach to the study of domestic and international policy issues, the School of Public and International Affairs focused on helping students examine the political, economic, and social forces in the contemporary world. Led by Dean Burton M. Sapin starting in 1969, its goal was “not to produce narrow professional specialists” but to offer the broad background and analytical tools necessary for understanding the modern world. Students would gain a “critical, objective attitude, a caution in reaching judgments, and an awareness of the complexity of most issues.” Within the school, the international affairs curriculum emphasized international politics, economics, communications, and regional studies. Public affairs students focused on domestic government and policy. The programs aimed to be “broader than a concentration in one of the conventional disciplines.”56 By the mid-1960s, international studies programs were growing at a fast pace across the United States.57 While academicians argued the merits of professionalizing the study of international affairs, the school’s emphasis on liberal education ensured that intellectual capacities developed through interdisciplinary coursework prepared undergraduates to deal with current and future global concerns. As articulated by one

Dean Burton M. Sapin

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1966-1987

political science faculty member, “The purpose of our degree program is not to produce an educated political scientist but to produce an educated man with an emphasis in political science.”58 Cold War tensions drew attention to the Soviet Union both within and outside higher education. In 1961, GW launched the Institute for Sino-Soviet Studies to better understand developments in the Soviet Union and China, as well as their geopolitical aspirations. In addition to conducting research, institute scholars offered graduate-level courses such as the “Communist Bloc in Far Eastern Politics,” which examined the Sino-Soviet rivalry, the evolution of communism in Asia, and “the current armed struggle in South and Southeast Asia.” The institute’s goal was to train “a new breed of generalist” to analyze the East-West conflicts and formulate policies.59 Assessing the need for scholars familiar with current world affairs in 1963, institute Director Kurt London commented that “the old balance of power was more of a chess game…[now] you have to have a divining rod in your brain to know what the other side is thinking. That’s why we need a completely informed generation, one which has all the facts; knows the lingo.”60 The School of Public and International Affairs, and specifically the Institute for Sino-Soviet Studies, were not immune to the student unrest and anti-war protests that erupted on U.S. campuses during the 1960s. In April 1969, the local chapter of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) demanded the institute’s closing, viewing its research as “ideological support for American imperialism and the militarization of our society.” After SDS’s five-hour takeover of the institute, the faculty

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voiced their refusal to be intimidated by attacks on academic freedom, and drew parallels between the SDS and Nazi student groups.61 Increasing recognition of the importance of the non-Western world resulted in new courses on developing countries, Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America. A new major in Chinese studies drew from the traditional disciplines of history, economics, and political science, as well as East Asian languages and literature. Latin American studies in particular had a long history at GW, with courses on Inter-American concerns offered in the School of Government. In 1933, the university established the Center of InterAmerican Studies under the direction of Alva Curtis Wilgus, a nationally recognized expert on Latin America. President-elect Herbert Hoover’s 1928 goodwill trip to Latin America, coupled with President Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor policies in the 1930s, helped draw interest to Latin America and its potential for trade with the United States. School of Public and International Affairs courses continued to explore the region’s importance to the United States with the establishment of a master’s program in Latin American Studies and emphases in the undergraduate and graduate international affairs degrees under Dean Sapin.62 In addition to pursuing a regional focus, graduate students could also pursue topical Vice President for Student Affairs William P. Smith reads a statement to studies, including inthe Students for a Democratic Society after they stormed Maury Hall in ternational economics, April 1969 comparative government and politics, and international organizations. The 1960s also saw new academic attention to social problems in American cities. The School of Public and International Affairs added an urban affairs major to its public affairs curriculum in 1969, with courses in urban and regional policies and planning. Dean Sapin and the school’s faculty recognized that it was no longer sufficient “for the student of international relations to have a passing knowledge of French or German, some exposure to diplomatic history and international economics, the international law and organization of the Wilsonian generation, and some standard courses in political

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science.” Programs also needed to address increasingly complex international concerns of “environmental management, population control, food production, the pressing need for an effective arms control system, and the…explosion of technology.”63 Technology’s impact on society, public policy, and the political system became the focus of the school’s graduate program in Science, Technology, and Public Policy, which was launched in 1971. The program’s implications for international studies were addressed by Dean Sapin: “The impact of scientific and technological developments—on domestic, social, economic and political life, and on the international environment and relations among nations, and in turn the way in which these developments are handled by local, national, and international political and social organizations, represents a public-policy area of rapidly growing importance and complexity.” Emphasizing the critical importance of these issues, the faculty viewed technological developments as providing both “opportunities for solving many of the pressing problems of our times” and posing “severe threats to the quality of human life.”64 Two-thirds of the Science, Technology, and Public Policy students came from the social sciences, while the remainder had undergraduate majors in the physical or life sciences. Seminars focused on issues related to domestic and international space, energy, and environmental policies. The skills and values acquired in their studies provided the relevant background for science policy positions with private research firms and government agencies such as the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Students in class, 1970 Assessment and the National Science Foundation.65 In July 1986, the School of Public and International Affairs established the Center for Science and Technology Policy (later renamed the Center for International Science and Technology Policy); the Space Policy Institute became a major element of the center. Also in 1986, Congress and the media called on Director John Logsdon to share his space policy expertise following the January 28 Space Shuttle Challenger explosion.66

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During the 1970s, the School of Public and International Affairs continued to provide a strong interdisciplinary program for students, while complementing coursework with faculty research on contemporary international issues. For example, the relationship between foreign policy and national security was explored in the Security Policy Studies program, which was added in 1979. The school maintained its longstanding tradition of interacting with Washington, DC’s myriad international specialists from the U.S. and foreign diplomatic corps as well as global corporations and organizations. In 1971, for example, the school welcomed former U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union and Britain W. Averell Harriman to lecture on his three decades of public service, including service as special envoy to Europe for President Roosevelt during World War II. Dean Sapin, himself a U.S. foreign policy expert, commented on the Space Policy Institute Director John Logsdon, testifying before Congress seminar’s value: “Of all about the Space Shuttle Challenger explosion, 1986 living Americans, none has had greater personal involvement in the development of U.S. foreign policy since World War II than Governor Harriman.”67 During the new school’s first decade, undergraduate enrollment remained fairly consistent, while graduate enrollment nearly doubled. In 1966, the school had 173 graduate students and 168 undergraduates. By 1975 there were 310 students pursuing graduate degrees and 152 undergraduate majors.68 By the end of the 1970s, the School of Public and International Affairs offered master’s degree programs in international affairs; regional studies; public affairs; science, technology, and public policy; security policy studies; East Asian studies; Latin American studies; Middle Eastern studies; and Russian and East European studies. In the 1980s, higher education was reassessing both the quality and value of the undergraduate curriculum.69 School of Public and International Affairs Acting Dean Peter Hill wrote a detailed October 1983 memo outlining the strengths and weaknesses of the school, identifying faculty appointments and budgetary issues as particular concerns.70

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President Elliott charged a campus Commission for the Year 2000 with “recommending new program directions or emphases to place the University among the leading universities of the world over the next 15 years.” To assist the commission, faculty committees discussed the potential for international studies at GW. They concluded that there was “a striking potential for a distinguished program,” drawing both on the university’s location and the strengths of its current faculty, as well as “the scholars, professionals and diplomats from the larger community of international affairs within this city.”71 In its final report, the Commission identified two focuses that could take advantage of Washington, DC’s role as the nation’s capital and as a global center: “international dimensions of academic programs and the study of government and public policy.” To achieve these goals, they recommended that the School of Public and International Affairs concentrate solely on international studies and become the center for campus international programs, with public affairs courses transferred to Columbian College. Further, the commission recommended that the school should have some core faculty of its own and recruit non-tenured professionals from the diplomatic and international business and communications community to share their expertise.72 The stage was set for a new chapter in the school’s history. gw

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School of International Affairs

1987–1988

In December 1986, the School of Public and International Affairs faculty agreed to discontinue the undergraduate and graduate programs in public and urban affairs; three months later they unanimously voted to become the School of International Affairs. Dean Maurice A. East, who became dean of the School of Public and International Affairs in 1985, provided key leadership during the transition to a school devoted exclusively to international affairs. The renamed school continued its predecessor’s mission of preparing students “for an increasingly international and multinational environment,” retaining interdisciplinary programs, “with a focus on economics, history, and political science,” Dean East emphasized in a memo to GW Vice President Roderick French. 73 Transitioning to a school with a sole concentration in Dean Maurice A. East international affairs required and received the support of the university administration. While President Elliott’s Commission for the Year 2000 provided the final catalyst, faculty evaluations of the school’s programs over the preceding several years, in addition to Dean East’s leadership prior to the transition, had generated enthusiasm for moving forward. Among the changes was increasing the number of budgeted faculty, who would retain their departmental affiliations while associating fully with the new international affairs school. In addition, the administration approved the introduction of courses under the international affairs rubric. The new school’s ultimate goal was not simply to cut public affairs courses and maintain the status quo, but to create a “high-profile, high-morale, high-quality School of International Affairs that [would] make a powerful and distinctive contribution” to the new vision for the university.74 gw

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Portrait of Lloyd and Evelyn “Betty� Elliott

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Elliott School of International Affairs

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Lloyd and Betty Elliott

In 1987, the GW trustees voted to change the name of the school in honor of outgoing GW President Lloyd Elliott and his wife, Evelyn. On March 1, 1988, with the long-time GW President and his wife in attendance, the school was re-dedicated as the Evelyn E. and Lloyd H. Elliott School of International Affairs. Commenting on President Elliott’s contributions, Dean East wrote, “His presidency was characterized by a global perspective and a commitment to enhance the international dimensions of the University with the School of International Affairs as the cornerstone for this endeavor.”75 At the time of the naming, the school was already making impressive strides under the direction of Dean East, who played a critical role in the development of the Elliott School’s programs, structure, and overall growth and prosperity. Dean East, who taught at the University of Denver and the University of Kentucky before coming to GW, recognized the importance of keeping current with global events as students prepared for their careers. “In response to historic changes occurring in the post-Cold War world, we are continually revising our program,” he informed potential M.A. students. Issues ranging from world poverty and environmental degradation to armed conflict and newly established market economies informed courses and programs.76 Another of Dean East’s priorities was strengthening the Elliott

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School’s core faculty. He began to hire faculty on the school’s budget, while also continuing to engage faculty from Columbian College. By 1994, the Elliott School funded 24 faculty members on its own.77 Under Dean East’s leadership, the Elliott School attracted greater numbers of markedly better students. In Fall 1991, for example, the school was selective enough to admit only 200 of the more than 1,000 graduate program applicants.

Expanding Research and Curriculum Dean East stepped down as dean in 1994 and was succeeded by Harry Harding in 1995. Dean Harding, who came to the Elliott School from previous appointments at Swarthmore College, Stanford University, and the Brookings Institution, continued to focus on strengthening the school’s academic programs and standing. Between 1995 and 2005, the Elliott School experienced a period of tremendous innovation and growth under the leadership of Dean Harding. The school expanded its academic curriculum, created new and innovative reDean Harry Harding search programs, launched partnerships with universities around the world, and moved into a new, modern facility. Dean Harding’s first goal for the Elliott School was to advance its academic programs. At the graduate level, he set out to create a professional curriculum that would prepare students for careers not just in public service, but also in the private sector and non-governmental organizations. In 1996, as part of this initiative, the Elliott School introduced one-credit courses to teach students practical skills, such as long-term forecasting, negotiating, and cross-cultural communication. This was followed in 1997 by the introduction of capstone courses, which require students to use the analytical skills they have gained during their time at the Elliott School to address specific problems in world affairs. The new emphasis on a professional curriculum was also reflected in the recruitment of faculty. In 1996, the Elliott School created professorships of the practice of international affairs. These positions would be

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held by experts with significant professional experience in diplomacy, international development, international security, and other specialties. Another important component of the new professional graduate program was the creation of an office of Graduate Student Career Development during the 1998-99 academic year. This new office quickly became an important resource for graduate students, offering a range of services to prepare them for their careers. Its career counselors helped establish links between prospective employers and students, created an online recruiting database, and hosted on-campus job fairs. The Elliott School also added several new master’s programs: the International Development Studies program was introduced in 1992; the Master of International Policy and Practice program for mid-career professionals was introduced in 1996. It was followed in 1997 by the master’s degree in International Trade and Investment Policy. During the 1998-99 academic year, the Elliott School and the School of Public Health and Health Services created a dual M.A./M.P.H. degree program for graduate students interested in international health issues. That program became the third combined degree program offered to Elliott School students, after the joint M.A./J.D. and M.A./M.B.A. programs already in place with the Law School and the School of Business. The school also created 10 graduate certificate programs designed to give students rigorous training in specific topics, such as Asian studies or international security. The Elliott School also reorganized and broadened its regional studies programs. Europe and Russia were combined into one program administered by the Institute for European, Russian and Eurasian Studies.78 The M.A. in East Asian Studies became the M.A. in Asian Studies in 2001, reflecting increased attention to South and Southeast Asia. In 2005, the master’s degree program in Latin American Studies was broadened into the Latin American and Hemispheric Studies program, which included the study of Canada and the Caribbean. During the 2000-01 academic year, the Elliott School established partnerships with two schools offering professional programs in international affairs: Ewha Womans University in Seoul, South Korea, and the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po) in France. Working with these institutions, Dean Harding developed a Master of International Studies (MIS) dual-degree program for students studying at one of the Elliott School’s partner universities. This program allows students to complete a master’s degree at the Elliott School while simultaneously earning a degree at their home institution. The partnership program grew rapidly. During the 2002-03 academic year, four new

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partnerships were signed with universities in Australia, Lebanon, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The Harding era also saw a broadening and strengthening of the Elliott School’s undergraduate programs. In 1995, the school introduced “Introduction to International Affairs: A Washington Perspective,” a core course for first-year students. In Fall 2000, a redesigned undergraduate curriculum increased options for International Affairs majors; the new specializations were contemporary cultures and societies, comparative political and economic systems, international development studies, international environmental studies, and conflict and security. As the Elliott School strengthened its curriculum, its faculty continued to expand. In 1995, the Elliott School faculty included 87 full-time professors, including faculty budgeted to the Elliott School as well as other GW schools. In his 1998 history of the Elliott School, Professor Emeritus Peter Hill commented on the faculty’s multidisciplinary commitment: “Though opinion has shifted over the years as to what constitutes the ‘right’ mix of disciplines, the study of international affairs at GW ultimately found its most durable dynamic among those political scientists, historians, and economists.” At the same time, faculty sought more opportunities to link their disciplines together and to bring in the perspectives of anthropology, sociology, psychology, and other fields. The school also introduced a new research center—the Institute for Global and International Studies (IGIS)—under Dean Harding. The Elliott School’s efforts to expand and strengthen its academic curriculum and research programs were recognized by the U.S. Department of Education, which named it a National Resource Center in international studies in 1997. This award for excellence was renewed in 2000 and in 2003.

A New Home on 1957 E Street After decades of being housed in separate facilities across campus, GW dedicated a new building for the Elliott School in September 2003. GW alumnus Colin Powell, then U.S. Secretary of State, helped to cut the ribbon at the opening of 1957 E Street.The new building featured state-of-the-art lecture halls and facilities, in addition to a prime location near the

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GW President Steven Joel Trachtenberg, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell, Dean Harry Harding, and GW Board of Trustees Chairman Charles Manatt at the Elliott School’s 2003 ribbon-cutting ceremony

U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Federal Reserve, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. Dean Harding stepped down in Summer 2005 and Michael E. Brown was named dean of the Elliott School. Dean Brown came to GW from Georgetown University, and he previously had appointments at Harvard University and the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London. In accepting the position, Dean Brown said, “The Elliott School is one of the premier schools of international affairs in the world, known for both cutting-edge scholarship and its superb teaching programs. It will play a leading role in advancing our understanding of the challenges of the 21st century and educating the next generation of national and international leaders.”79 Under Dean Brown’s leadership, the Elliott School of International Affairs has focused on the three core components of the school’s mission: education, research, and policy engagement. Since 2005, the school has strengthened its capacity to provide a world-class education in international affairs, produce cutting-edge scholarship on important global issues, and serve as a center for the discussion of important international developments. Its academic success has been widely recognized: in 2007, both the undergraduate and graduate programs of the Elliott School were named among the top 10 in the United States, putting GW alongside other elite universities including Harvard, Princeton, and Georgetown. Subsequent surveys in 2010 and 2012 reiterated these strong standings.80

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On the academic front, Dean Brown focused on strengthening existing programs and expanding the school’s offerings. Two new M.A. programs in Middle East Studies and Global Communication, launched in Fall 2007 and Fall 2008 respectively, have expanded the curriculum. The Middle East Studies program, which received more than 100 applications in its first year, features courses on the politics, economics, international relations, history, and cultures of the Middle East. Offered jointly Dean Michael E. Brown with Columbian College’s School of Media and Public Affairs, the Global Communication program helps students understand the complex global information environment; its implications for governance, security, and business; and how to communicate effectively to global audiences. The Elliott School added 20 new full-time faculty lines after 2005 to enhance its academic and research capacities. It increased its international partnerships from 12 to 19 universities, including new relationships with universities in Africa, India, and Latin America.81 The school also significantly expanded its research efforts under Dean Brown’s leadership, with the addition of four new institutes that act as hubs for scholarship, teaching, and event programming: • The Institute for International Economic Policy (IIEP) was launched in Fall 2007 to support research on “the opportunities and challenges of the increasingly globalized world economy.” Its signature projects examine extreme poverty, China’s economic development and the U.S.-China economic relationship, adaptation to climate change, and global economic governance.82 IIEP houses the International Trade and Investment Policy (ITIP) master’s program, originally launched in 1997. • Founded in Fall 2007, the Institute for Middle East Studies (IMES) supports research and engagement on the modern Middle East. Among the institute’s activities are a series of high-level events called the Middle East Policy Forum, as well as the Project on Middle East Political Science, which brings Middle East scholars

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from around the world to the institute to engage with GW faculty and students. IMES was designated by the U.S. Department of Education as a Title VI National Resource Center for the Middle East in 2010.83 IMES is also home to the school’s undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Middle East Studies. Launched in Fall 2008 by the Elliott School and Columbian College’s School of Media and Public Affairs, the Institute for Public Diplomacy and Global Communication (IPDGC) advances research, training, and innovative thinking in the areas of new media, security, and public diplomacy; communication, and diplomacy; U.S. foreign policy priorities and interagency challenges; and global perspectives on and approaches to public diplomacy. IPDGC also sponsors the Global Communication graduate program. The Institute for Security and Conflict Studies (ISCS) was launched in Fall 2009 to advance teaching, research, and policy engagement on an array of national and international security issues. ISCS consolidates and leverages the Elliott School’s faculty expertise on key contemporary issues, including nuclear weapons issues and energy security. It hosts two popular Elliott School event series— the Nuclear Policy Talks and the Security Policy Forum—that bring leading security experts to 1957 E Street. ISCS also supports two academic programs, the Security Policy Studies master’s program and the National Security Studies Program, which provides executive education courses for the U.S. Department of Defense and other federal agencies.

Dean Brown and ISCS Director Charles Glaser at the institute’s launch event, October 27, 2009

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With the launch of ISCS, the Elliott School sponsors nine research centers and institutes: • Center for International Science and Technology Policy • Institute for European, Russian, and Eurasian Studies • Institute for Global and International Studies • Institute for International Economic Policy • Institute for Middle East Studies • Institute for Public Diplomacy and Global Communication • Institute for Security and Conflict Studies • Sigur Center for Asian Studies • Space Policy Institute These institutes serve as powerful platforms where scholars come together, forming subject-specific academic communities, advancing understanding of global challenges, and engaging the broader academic and policy worlds. The Institute for Global and International Studies, for example, houses several research and policy programs, including the Culture in Global Affairs program, the GW Diaspora Program, and one of the school’s newest initiatives, the Global Gender Program (GGP). GGP brings together “faculty and students in the Elliott School who are dedicated to improving the health, education, rights and security of women and girls internationally and to reducing gender-based exclusion, violence, and discrimination.” Through its institutes, the Elliott Sen. John Kerry at an Elliott School event, 2009 School has sponsored individual and multi-person research projects on topics such as: democratization, security and development, major and rising powers, peacekeeping, political mobilization in the Middle East, and other key issues. Innovative research undertaken by Elliott School scholars has attracted support from major funders including the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, and the National Science Foundation. In 2011-12, the Elliott School was awarded more than $3.5 million in sponsored research support.84 In 2006, the U.S. Department of Defense awarded the school a five-year, $8.5 million contract to train senior-level military officers and civilian officials.85 As a nonpartisan institution, the Elliott School provides a forum in

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in the center of Washington, DC for scholars and policy practitioners to engage on some of the most important issues of our time. To that end, the Elliott School sponsors an unparalleled program of special events— more than 250 lectures, seminars, panel discussions, workshops, and conferences every year. These programs provide GW students with extraordinary opportunities to hear policymakers, diplomats, scholars, and journalists from around the world. Six Nobel Peace Prize Laureates—Kofi Annan, Jimmy Carter, Shirin Ebadi, Albert Gore, Jody Williams, and Muhammad Yunus—have spoken at GW in recent years. The Elliott School’s Distinguished Women in International Affairs series has featured more than two dozen leaders on a range of key international affairs topics since its launch in 2006. The school’s longstanding Ambassadors Forum brings diplomats to the GW campus to share their insights and perspectives. The Elliott School has Strategy and Arms Control poster signed by Thomas C. Schelling and Morton H. Halperin at launched several event series that an Elliott School event in September 2011 harness the school’s research priorities, convening leading scholars and policy experts to speak under the auspices of the Security Policy Form, the Global Gender Forum, the Middle East Policy Forum, the International Economic Policy Forum, and the Nuclear Policy Talks series. Launched in Fall 2009, the Web Video Initiative (WVI) provides an online platform for the Elliott School’s most important events. The WVI enables the school to share its intellectual reFormer UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan a GW event, 2006 sources with students and faculty who are unable to attend events in person; with alumni, parents, and other members of the broader GW community; and with scholars, students, and citizens around the world. The WVI also includes a series of faculty interviews, focused on timely topics in international affairs.

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In just a few years, WVI videos have been watched in more than 140 countries around the world—more than 70 percent of UN member states. The WVI is a global educational resource that has enabled the Elliott School to extend its global impact and raise its global profile.

Students at Elliott School graduation ceremony, 2012

Looking to the Future The world faces many challenges—from poverty and authoritarianism to terrorism and war. Population growth, energy consumption, and damage to the environment will become even more intense as the 21st century progresses. These issues are not abstract, policy puzzles; they are realworld problems that affect billions of human beings. Great schools tackle the world’s greatest problems. While the original School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy focused in 1898 on preparing future lawyers for foreign service, the Elliott School’s reach today is far broader, producing informed citizens who are exceptionally committed to action that advances the common good. The Elliott School’s faculty and students generate new ideas and innovative policy solutions for the world’s most pressing problems. As the largest school of international affairs in the United States—with more than 2,100 undergraduates, 750 graduate students, and more than 20,000 alumni—the

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Elliott School is educating and enlightening the next generation of international leaders. The Elliott School’s location is unique—situated in the heart of Washington, DC, in the midst of U.S. policymakers, the international diplomatic community, leading think tanks, and some of the world’s most important international organizations. Location is a powerful intellectual and institutional asset that enriches every school activity. But fundamentally, the Elliott School is special not just because of where it is, but because of what it is: a remarkable community of people—scholars, students, alumni, and staff who are exceptionally dedicated to the study of global issues and having an impact on the global agenda. Today, the Elliott School’s exceptional community reflects its tremendous growth and enduring legacy since its beginnings in 1898. The school continues to honor the vision of George Washington to “educate citizens in the science of government,” balancing this vision with a global perspective that has expanded as the school has evolved over the last century. The Elliott School’s namesakes, Lloyd and Betty Elliott, believed in the importance of this global perspective. GW’s Elliott School of International Affairs will continue to honor the legacy of Lloyd and Betty Elliott in the 21st century through its commitment to the highest standards of academic excellence, to advancing understanding of important international issues, and to making the world a better place. gw

Michelle Obama delivers GW commencement address, 2010

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Albert Castell, “The Founding Fathers and the Vision of a National University,” History of Education Quarterly 4 (Dec. 1964): 280-281. 2 Elmer Louis Kayser. Luther Rice. Founder of Columbian College (Washington, D.C. Office of the University Historian, The George Washington University, 1966). 3 “A Brief History of GW,” The GW and Foggy Bottom Historical Encyclopedia, Special Collections Research Center, George Washington University, accessed Feb. 29, 2013, http://encyclopedia.gwu.edu/ index.php?title=A_Brief_History_of_GW; Laws of the Columbian College in the District of Columbia (1822): 17-18. 4 “Name is Changed By Vote,” The Washington Post, 1904 June 9; Elmer Louis Kayser, Bricks Without Straw. The Evolution of George Washington University (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970), 202; for an early history on George Washington University, see “GW History: Founded by an Act of Congress,” accessed Feb. 28, 2013, http://www.gwu.edu/history. 5 The Columbian University, President’s Annual Report for the Year 1898-1899 (Washington, D.C.: Judd & Detweiler, Printers, 1899), 5; The Columbian University, Report of the Treasurer for the Seven Months Ending December 31, 1899 (Washington, D.C.: Judd & Detweiler Printers, 1900), 12; President’s Annual Report for the Year 1898-1899, 1-21. The Law Lecture Hall opened on January 3, 1899. 6 The Columbian University, School of Comparative Jurisprudence (Washington, D.C.: Gibson Bros., Printers and Bookbinders, 1891): 1. 7 The Columbian University Bulletin 78 (1898-1899): 167. 8 “New Era in Education. School of Jurisprudence and Diplomacy Opened. President and Premier Present,” TheWashington Post, 1898 November 16. 9 Ibid. 10 “Current Topics,” The Albany Journal: A Weekly Record of the Law and Lawyers 58 (Dec. 3, 1898): 361 and “Law Schools. The Columbian University of Washington, D.C,” The American Lawyer 7 (May 1899): 210211; President’s Annual Report for the Year 1898-1899, 17. 11 The Columbian University, Annual Meeting of the Corporation, 1898 June 1, Records of Trustees, vol. 5, 291. 12 Information on the school’s early curriculum is taken from university bulletins, presidents’ reports, minutes of trustees’ meetings, and Elmer Louis Kayser, Bricks Without Straw. 13 The Columbian University, Stated Meeting of the Board of Trustees, 1902 Jan. 8, Records of Trustees, vol. 5, 525. 14 Bricks Without Straw, 185-186. 15 “President’s Report,” The George Washington University Board of Trustees, 1904 Nov. 16, 212. 16 “Feb. 24, 1905 Convocation,” Ibid., 243; The George Washington University Bulletin 4 (March 1905, part 2): 174. 17 Ibid., 173-181; The George Washington University Bulletin 4 (March 1905, part 1): 16-17. 18 The George Washington University, “University Miscellanea” in Faculty of Graduate Studies Number 5 (Dec. 1906): 107; “Political Science Emphasized in New College,” The University Hatchet, 1907 Oct. 2, 7. 19 The George Washington University Bulletin 7 (June 1908): 5. 20 René Baché, “Shuffling the Diplomatic Cards,” Lippincott’s 79 (Feb. 1907): 223, quoted in Warren Frederick Ilchman, Professional Diplomacy in the United States, 1779-1939 (University of Chicago Press, 1961): 88. 21 “President’s Report,” 1908 May 7, Records of Trustees, vol. 6, 377; “Aid Political School. Business Men Give Money to College of G.W.U.,” The Washington Post, 1909 June 17; Letter, Richard D. Harlan to Chairman, Committee on Dr. Harlan’s Appointment, 1908 Nov. 9, quoted in Board of Trustees Minutes, 1908 Nov. 10, Records of Trustees, vol. 6, 423-426. 22 “American Consular Service Declared to Be Worthless,” Atlanta Constitution, 1907 Oct. 6, 8; “Consular School Indorsed. Dr. Harlan’s Plan Commended by Paris Commerce Board,” The Washington Post, 1908 Feb. 10, 3. 23 Letter, Richard D. Harlan, 1908 November 9. In addition to fundraising for the CPS, Harlan campaigned for the extension of the Morrill Act to the District of Columbia; see Board of Trustees, 1910 July 1, Records of Trustees, vol. 7,1910, 40. 24 Board of Trustees, 1913 Jan. 8, Records of Trustees, vol. 7, 1913, 209; The George Washington University, Report of the President, January 1913, 6-7; Report of the President, 1913-1914, January 1914, 9. 25 “Passing of C.P.S.,” The University Hatchet, 1913 Feb.21. 26 “Regulations Governing Examinations Promulgated by the Board of Examiners, December 13, 1906” in The George Washington University Bulletin 12 (June 1913), 3. 27 Record Group 151, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, National Archives, accessed, Feb. 28, 2013, http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed- records/groups/151.html. 28 Bricks Without Straw, 226; Board of Trustees, 1918 April 30, Records of Trustees, vol. 7, 479. 29 “More G.W.U. Pay to Be Asked Soon,” TheWashington Post, 1918 April 28. 30 William Miller Collier, “George Washington’s Will and George Washington University” in The George Washington University Bulletin 17 (June 1918), 12. 31 Bricks Without Straw, 229-230.

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32 33 34 35

Ibid., 233; 265-268. “League of Masonic Clubs Plans School of Foreign Service,” Christian Science Monitor, 1925 October 23. Special Meeting of the Board of Trustees, 1927 Dec. 22, Records of Trustees, vol. 8, 448. “George Washington, The Mason,” TheWashington Post, 1927 December 28, 6; Bricks Without Straw, 260261. 36 “G.W.U. Accepts Gift of $1,000,000 from Southern Masonry,” The Washington Post, 1927 Dec. 28. 37 Melville D. Hensville, Untitled, The Kraftsman, December 1940, 12. The University Hatchet regularly reported on the annual competition; see, for example, “Masonic Club Wins Cherry Blossom Sale,” 1937 Sep. 21, 8. 38 The George Washington University Bulletin 27 (March 1928), 369. 39 See departmental course listings in The George Washington University Bulletin, Catalogue Issue, beginning in 1928. 40 U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, A Short History of the United States: The Rogers Act, accessed February 2013, http://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/short-history/rogers. 41 Jack Zetkulic, U.S. Diplomatic History in Brief—a Foreign Service Perspective, accessed February 2013, http:// www.usdiplomacy.org/downloads/pdf/sketches/zetkulic.pdf. 42 “G.W.U. Offers 70 Courses During Second Semester,” The Washington Post, 1930 Jan. 26; “G.W.U. Students from 40 Nations,” The Washington Post, 1931 Oct. 11. 43 James H.S. Bossard, “University Education for Business—A Survey,” The Journal of Business of the University of Chicago, Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business, 1931 (July 1931), 68-69. 44 Mitchell Dresse, “Guidance for a Career in the Public Service,” Journal of Educational Sociology 14 (January 1941), 280; “The Three R’s—for Politicians!” Los Angeles Times, 1934 May 6, G3. 45 “Anderson Says Public Service Training is Needed,” The University Hatchet 27 (April 20, 1937). 46 Meeting of the Board of Trustees, 1937 June 3, Records of Trustees, vol. 9, 312 and subsequent meetings; “A Mother’s Gift,” The New York Times, 1938 Feb. 4. 47 “Education Notes,” The New York Times, 1944 October 1, E11. 48 Harry Robert Page, The George Washington University School of Government and Business Administration, a History and Memoir, 1988, School of Business and Public Management records, University Archives, Special Collections Research Center, The George Washington University. 49 [1948] Memo from Dean Burns to President Marvin, quoted in Page, The George Washington University, 9. 50 “Accounting Dept. Established Here,” The University Hatchet 47 (September 19, 1951). 51 Undated, “School of Government Report,” attachment to 1960 December 5 Memo from O.S. Colclough, Acting President, to Dean Woodruff. Series 3, Box 4, Folder: AA—Government, Business, and International Affairs, School of, General, 1959-1965. Office of the President records, Special Collections Research Center, The George Washington University [hereafter cited as President records]; “GW School Is Renamed And Divided,” The Washington Post, 1960 December 7, C23. 52 The George Washington University Bulletin 60 (1961-1962 catalogue), 133-135; Attachment, School of Government, Business, and International Affairs. Annual report, 1964-1965. Series 3, Box 4, Folder: AA— Government, Business & International Affairs, School of. Reorganization 1964-1965, President records. 53 “Carroll Wants Top University for D.C.,” The Washington Post, 1961 Feb. 5; 1962 December 14 Memo from O.S. Colclough, Dean of Faculties, to Deans and Department Chairmen, Series 3, Box 4, Folder: AA— Government, Business, and International Affairs, School of, General, 1959-1965. President records. 54 “Report of the Committee to Review the Organization of the School of Government, Business, and International Affairs,” February 19, 1965, Series 3, Box 4, Folder: AA—Government, Business & International Affairs, School of. Reorganization 1964-1965, President records. See correspondence supporting the continuation of the School of Government, Business, and International Affairs, ibid. 55 Ibid; The George Washington University Bulletin 65 (1966-1967 catalogue), 108; The George Washington University Bulletin 66 (1967-1968 catalogue), 137. 56 The George Washington University Bulletin 66 (1967-1968 catalogue), 137-140; Brochure, Public and International Affairs, Graduate Study, The George Washington University, ca. 1969. 57 Andrew W. Cordier, “Professionalization of International Studies,” International Studies Quarterly 11 (June 1967), 111. 58 1971 March 30 Memo from [Committee], John W. Brewer, chairman, to Dean Linton, Series 4, Box 3, Elliott School of International Affairs records, University Archives, Special Collections Research Center, The George Washington University [hereafter cited as Elliott School records]. 59 “IERES Traces Its Roots Back 50 Years,” IERES Insight, Spring 2011, 1.3; The George Washington University Bulletin 66 (1967-1968 catalogue), 260-165; “Institute to Stress Sino-Soviet Study,” The Washington Post, 1962 June 3, 37. 60 Meryle Secrest, “West Must Learn Facts Plus Lingo,” The Washington Post, 1963 Jan. 13. 61 “SDS Seizes Maury Hall,” The University Hatchet 65 (April 24, 1969); “Faculty Statement: Sino Soviet Studies,” The University Hatchet 65 (April 28, 1969). 62 Brochure, Latin American Studies, ca 1969, Series 1, Box 2, Elliott School records. 63 1971 April 30 Memo from John Hanessian, Jr., to the SPIA Faculty re Current Review of Curriculum for SPIA Undergraduate International Affairs Program, Series 4, Box 3, Elliott School records.

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65 66

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72 73

74 75 76 77 78 79 80

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otes

1970 January 16 Letter from Burton M. Sapin, Dean, School of Public and International Affairs, to H.F. Bright, Provost and Vice President for Academic Affairs, Attachment, Series 1, Box 13, Office of the Provost records, University Archives, Special Collections Research Center, The George Washington University [hereafter cited as Provost records]; Brochure, The George Washington University Announces a New Master of Arts Degree Program in Science, Technology, and Public Policy, Series 1, Box 2, Elliott School records. George Washington University, A Report to the Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Higher Education (Washington, D.C.: George Washington University, 1976), 205. 2011 November 14 Memo from Douglas B. Shaw, Associate Dean for Planning, Research, and External Relations, to Michael Brown, Dean, School of International Affairs, re Sigur Center recharter application, Elliott School of International Affairs Internal Records [hereafter cited as Elliott School internal records]; see, for example, Mary Thornton, “Legislators, Scientists Urge Quick Adoption of Recommendations,” The Washington Post, 1986 June 10. “Harriman Joins SPIA,” The Hatchet, 1971 Sept. 2. A Report to the Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools, 5. See for example, Association of American Colleges Project on Redefining the Meaning and Purposes of the Baccalaureate Degree, Integrity in the College Curriculum. A Report to the Academic Community (Washington, D.C.: AAC, 1985), which is referenced in the university’s Commission for the Year 2000 report, 29 [see following paragraphs]. 1983 October 12 Memo from Peter Hill, Acting Dean, School of Public and International Affairs, to Harold Bright, Provost, Provost records. George Washington University (1985), Commission for the Year 2000, Final Report. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED. 273172), 52; 1984 July 12 Memo from Bob Park and Bill Johnson to Commission for the Year 2000 re Interim Report of Subcommittee on International Studies at George Washington University, and 1984 November 29 Draft Memo from Bill Johnson and Bob Park to the Commission for the Year 2000 re Revisions to 01Oct Draft Report and Recommendations, Series 5, Box 4, Provost records. George Washington University (1985), Commission for the Year 2000, Final Report, 70, 75-83 1987 February 23 Memo from Maurice A. East, dean, School of Public and International Affairs, to [Roderick] French, Vice President, re Reorganization of SPIA and 1987 February 27 Minutes, School of Public and International Affairs Supplemental Faculty Meeting, Series 19, Box 3, President records. 1987 February 6 SPIA Faculty Meeting, Remarks by Rod French, Elliott School internal records. Maurice A. East, “Message From the Dean,” SIA Notes 2 (Summer 1988), 1-2. Brochure, The Elliott School of International Affairs, Master of Arts Program, undated. Series 1, Box 1, Elliott School Papers. Peter Hill, “International Affairs Through the Years,” The Elliott School of International Affairs Alumni Directory (White Plains, N.Y.: Bernard C. Harris Publishing Co., 1998), xi. Information on the school’s recent curriculum is taken from its website, http://elliott.gwu.edu/, Elliott School annual reports, and university bulletins. 2005 June 3 Press Release, Michael E. Brown Named Dean of GW’s Elliott School, Elliott School internal records. Daniel Maliniak, Amy Oakes, Susan Peterson, and Michael Tierney. The View From the Ivory Tower: TRIP Survey of International Relations Faculty in the United States and Canada. College of William and Mary, February 2007. The Elliott School of International Affairs Annual Report, 2011-2012, 9. The Elliott School of International Affairs Annual Report, 2007-2008 (Washington, D.C.: George Washington University, 2008), 14; “Institute for International Economic Policy,” accessed February 2013, http://www. gwu.edu/~iiep/index.cfm. The Elliott School of International Affairs Annual Report, 2010-2011, 28-29. “A Message From the Dean,” Elliott School Briefing Newsletter, accessed February 2013, http://elliott. gwu.edu/news/briefing/sept12/index.cfm. “A Message From the Dean,” Elliott School Briefing Newsletter, accessed February 2013, http://elliott. gwu.edu/news/briefing/sept12/index.cfm; “Pentagon Awards GW’s Elliott School of International Affairs Prestigious Multi-Million Dollar Contract to Train Senior Officials.” GW Office of Media Relations, Jan. 12, 2007.

Writers/Editors: Jennifer Golden, Betsy Cantwell Writer/Research: Peggy Ann Brown, Ph.D. Photo Credits: Peggy Ann Brown, Ph.D.: 15 (bottom) | Courtesy of Maurice East: 29 | Elliott School records: cover (left, center right), 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 | GW External Relations: 41 | GW and Foggy Bottom Historical Encyclopedia: 8 | GW Hatchet records (GW Special Collections): 23 | GW Special Collections and University Archives: cover (center left, right), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 (top), 10, 11 (bottom), 12, 13, 14 (top), 16 (top), 18, 21, 22, 25, 26, 31 | Library of Congress: 5 (bottom), 7, 11 (top), 14 (bottom), 19 | Courtesy of NASA: 27 Design: Lloyd Greenberg Design, LLC For giving opportunities, please contact: Elliott School Office of Development and Alumni Relations 202-994-5244 | elliott@gwu.edu

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the g eo r ge wa shington university


in

memoriam

L l o y d a n d e v e ly n “ B e t t y ” E l l i o t t

Lloyd Hartman Elliott, the 14th president of the George Washington University (1965 to 1988), was a man of vision and foresight. He fostered an ambitious era of growth for the university. He was a gracious and unassuming leader who navigated tumultuous times on campus during the Vietnam War and the Kent State shootings that shocked the nation. Dr. Elliott and his wife, Evelyn E. “Betty” Elliott, loved the university and remained staunch supporters throughout their lives. Raised in a family of educators, Dr. Elliott began his career as a teacher, served as a professor and university administrator at Cornell University, and then as president of the University of Maine, prior to his inauguration at GW. While at GW, Dr. Elliott increased the university’s endowment from $8 million to $200 million, launching its transformation from a commuter school to a leading research institution. Dr. Elliott oversaw the development of the Foggy Bottom campus, including the construction of three libraries, the Cloyd Heck Marvin Center, the Charles E. Smith Center, and the Academic Center. Dr. Elliott was deeply committed to his faculty colleagues through his 23-year tenure, attracting top talent in a variety of fields and expanding studies in world affairs. In March 1988, GW’s School of International Affairs became the Evelyn E. and Lloyd H. Elliott School of International Affairs, a tribute to their vision for a university focus on international affairs. As vital members of The George Washington University community for more than four decades, Betty and Lloyd Elliott have made countless contributions to the university’s institutional development. Notably, their creation of the Evelyn E. and Lloyd H. Elliott Fund continues to support the Gaston Sigur professorship at the Elliott School, as well as other school programs and initiatives. Lloyd Hartman Elliott will be remembered as a military veteran, lifelong educator, visionary leader, and friend. The Elliotts’ legacy lives on through their family and the entire university community.

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Engaging the World: the Study of International Affairs at The George Washington University  

A history of the Elliott School of International Affairs and the study of international affairs at The George Washington University

Engaging the World: the Study of International Affairs at The George Washington University  

A history of the Elliott School of International Affairs and the study of international affairs at The George Washington University

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