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ITALY

PRESENT SITUATION Paris – 18th March 2005


ITALY (2003)

GENERAL INFORMATION

• Inhabitants: 57.562.000 • GNP: 1.300.926 106 € • Surface: 301.000 Km2


APER APER - Italian Association of Renewable Energy Producers - was born in 1987 as mini-hydro association (APEI). Since 1998 APER encompass all renewable energy technologies. It counts about 250 members from hydro, wind, biomass, biogas and PV sources for an installed capacity of approximately 2.000 MW and an electricity production of more than 5 TWh.


APER APER acts as a no-profit association and its finalities are the promotion of a wider culture of renewables, in the respect of the environment and in the view of a fully sustainable development. In the European context APER is a member of ESHA and EREF. APER is surely a relevant actor in the renewables Italian market.


APER AN ENERGY MARKET OVERVIEW The privatisation of Italian energy market started up in 1999 with the decree 79/99 (so called “Bersani decree”) but, at present, it isn’t fully completed. The same decree introduces the green certificates support scheme for the renewable energy sources The 2001/77/CE Directive was introduced in the Italian legislation by means of the decree 387/2003 issued on 29-12-2003 A significant regulation of the whole energy sector comes from the law 239/04, issued on 23-08-2004 The tariffs and the main technical rules are fixed by Energy and Gas Authority


APER MAIN ACTORS of the ENERGY MARKET GRTN: National Transmission Grid Operator It’s the public company in charged of the energy transmission Energy and Gas Authority It’s the public agency in charge of fixing the rules of the energy market, according to the laws AU:

Unique Trader It’s the public company in charge of trading the energy for the not eligible consumers (< 100 MWh/year)

GME:

Electric Market Operator It’s the public company in charged of managing the energy market (electric bourse) Distributors Companies allowed to distribute energy in reserved areas (for examples ENEL S.p.A., municipalities, etc.) Producers Public and private energy producers


ITALY (2003)

ENERGY CONSUMPTION GWh 320.658,4

100,00

20.869,8

6,51

299.788,6

93,49

5.162,2

1,61

industry

152.720,9

47,63

services

76.889,7

23,98

domestic uses

65.015,8

20,28

Total demand Power grid losses

Total consumption agriculture

%


ITALY (2003)

ENERGY GENERATION (GWh) Gross generation Auxiliary services consumption

Net generation

293.865,0 13.681,8

280.183,2

Pumping consumption

10.492,4

Available for use

269.690,8

Imported from other countries Exported to other countries

51.485,9 518,3


ITALY (2003)

ROLE of RENEWABLES in ENERGY GENERATION (GWh) Gross

Net*

%

44.276,8

36.674,3**

13,09

1.458,4

1.456,8

0,52

5,0

4,9

0,002

Geothermal

5.340,5

5.036,0

1,80

Biomass & waste

4.493,0

4.240,0

1,51

Total RES

55.573,70

47.412,00

16,92

Total generation

293.865,0

280.183,2

Hydropower Wind Photovoltaic

* Without the auxiliary consumption: delivered to the distribution grid ** Only from natural contribution (excluding pumped storage)


ITALY (2003)

ROLE of DIFFERENT HYDROPOWER SCHEMES (GWh) Natural With contribution pumping

Total

Storage schemes

9.767,6

7.578,0

17.345,6

Basin schemes

12.323,3

23,5

12.346,9

Run-off river plants

14.583,4

0,9

14.584,3

Total

36.674,3

7.602,5

44.276,8


ITALY (2003)

ROLE of RENEWABLES in ENERGY GENERATION 0,5%

15,6% 1,8% 1,5% 0,002%

81%

Wind Hydropower Geothermal Biomass & Waste Photovoltaic Other


ITALY (2003)

ROLE of HYDROPOWER AMONG RENEWABLES GWh Hydropower Wind Photovoltaic Geothermal Biomass & waste Total

%

36.674,30

77,35

1.456,80 4,9 5.036,00 4.240,00 47.412,00

3,07 0,010 10,62 8,94 100,00


ITALY (2003)

ROLE of HYDROPOWER AMONG RENEWABLES 9,37% 11,13% 0,01% 3,04%

76,45%

Hydropower Wind Photovoltaic Geothermal Biomass & waste


ITALY HYDROPOWER GENERATION in the LAST YEARS (GWh) 1996

1997

1998

1999

Hydropower* 42.035,6 41.599,8 41.213,6 45.358,0 2000

2001

2002

2003

Hydropower* 44.204,9 46.810,3 39.519,4 36.674,3 * Only from natural contribution (excluding pumped storage) NB. 2003 was an extraordinary dry year in Italy


ITALY HYDROPOWER GENERATION in the LAST YEARS 50.000,00

GWh

45.000,00 40.000,00 35.000,00 30.000,00 25.000,00 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003


ITALY CLASSIFICATION of HYDROPOWER PLANTS

Name

Capacity

SMALL

10 MW ≥ X > 1 MW

MINI

1 MW ≥ X > 100 kW

MICRO

100 kW ≥ X

Classification adopted by the European Commission


ITALY (2003)

NUMBER of POWER STATION and GENERATION CAPACITY Classes

Plants (nr.)

Nominal capacity (MW)

1,9% 12.117,5

Real capacity (MW)

> 100

39

52,8% 11.178,4 53,2%

10 – 100

261

13,0%

8.202,8

35,8%

1 – 10

583

29,1%

2.103,7

9,2%

1.924,0

9,2%

<1

1.122

56,0%

509,3

2,2%

406,5

1,9%

Total

2005

100% 22.933,4

100% 20.986,6

100%

7.477,8 35,6%


ITALY (2003)

NUMBER of PLANTS for GENERATION CAPACITY 2% 13%

56%

29%

> 100 MW 10-100 MW 1-10 MW < 1 MW


ITALY (2003)

GENERATION of PLANTS for CLASSES 1,6%

>100 10-100 MW 1-10 MW < 1 MW

0,4% 8,3%

89,7%


ITALY GENERATION of the DIFFERENT CLASSES in the LAST 3 YEARS (GWh)

2001 < 1 MW 1 – 10 MW > 10 MW Total

2002

2003

1.667,8 1.603,6 1.455,3 6.988,8 6.443,9 5.736,2 38.153,8 31.471,8 29.482,8 46.810,3 39.519,4 36.674,3


ITALY GENERATION of the DIFFERENT CLASSES in the LAST 3 YEARS

GWh

45.000,00 40.000,00 35.000,00 30.000,00 25.000,00 20.000,00 15.000,00

2001 2002 2003

10.000,00 5.000,00 0,00 < 1 MW

1-10 MW

> 10 MW


ITALY (2003)

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION of HYDROPOWER PLANTS and CAPACITY Power stations (n.) Northern Italy

Nominal capacity

Actual capacity (net)

Actual capacity (gross)

1.567

16.361,5

14.749,9

15.131,2

Central Italy

270

1.673,3

1.404,2

1.424,8

Southern Italy & Islands

168

4.898,6

4.359

4.430,6

2.005

22.933,4

20.514,0

20.986,6

Total


ITALY (2003)

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION of HYDROPOWER GENERATION (GROSS)

Northern Italy

34.747,1 GWh

Central Italy

2.971,4 GWh

Southern Italy & Islands

6.558,3 GWh

Total

44.276,8 GWh


ITALY (2003)

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION of HYDROPOWER GENERATION (GROSS)

15% Northern Italy

7%

Central Italy

78%

Southern Italy & Islands


ITALY Targets for RES (Italian White Paper on RES 1999) Source

1997

2002

2006

MW

PJp

MW

Hydro > 10 MW

13.942

309

14.200

312

14.500

318

15.000

329

Hydro < 10 MW

2.187

75

2.300

87

2.600

98

3.000

113

Geothermal (el.)

559

36

620

42

700

47

800

54

Wind

119

1

700

13

1.500

28

2.500

46

16

0

25

0

50

1

300

3

192

5

500

28

9.000

50

2.300

127

89

2

350

16

600

28

800

37

PV Biomass and biogas (el.) Waste (el.) Biofuels

PJp

MW

2008-2010 PJp

MW

PJp

3

12

23

39

Biomass and biogas (th)

45

59

67

73

Solar Thermal

0

2

5

9

Geothermal (th)

9

10

13

17

Waste (th)

4

5

7

8

489

586

685

855

Total


ITALY SUPPORT SCHEMES: MAIN FEATURE AND PRICES PAID CIP 6/92 Type of RES: all, and the so called “assimilated plants” as well, like cogeneration plants and others Type of support: feed-in for the first 8 years; fees are related with the production cost of a standard conventional plant, taking into account also the typical costs of every source Type of incentive: fees on the produced energy, different for each source Conditions: to have signed a CIP 6 contract. The admission list was closed on 31-12-1996 and the dead-line for the accepted plants is to have all the authorisations by 31-03-2001. Prices: in the following table only the main items are quoted (year 2004) Source

Price [€/MWh]

SHPs run off the river

102,7

Wind and geothermal plants

127,6

PV, biomass, waste

182,1

Comments: by now the CIP 6 is the most efficient incentive system and the most appreciated by investors, but it was abandoned for the high cost on the final users of the energy, depending only on the fact that the most incentives amount was enjoyed by the “assimilated plants”, usually with big capacity (more then 100 MW each).


ITALY SUPPORT SCHEMES: MAIN FEATURE AND PRICES PAID GREEN CERTIFICATES Type of RES: all (waste too) Type of support: obligation of RES production or green certificates acquisition for conventional energy producers in percentage (2% +0,35% every year from 2004 to 2006) on the new production Type of incentive: on the produced energy, the same for every source Conditions: new plants (running after 31-3-1999) for the first 8 years. Type of plant Green Certificates Refurbished and repowered plants only in quota CIP 6 (source) (2004) parte Prices: the 2004 top-price (green certificates owned Small hydro 102,7 ~ 146 by the GRTN) was 97,39 €/MWh for the certificates, Wind 127,6 ~ 146 decreased of the transaction cost of ~3%, to which the energy value must be added, about 52,00 Biomass 182,1 ~ 146 €/MWh, getting a total price of 146 €/MWh, more or Photovoltaic 182,1 ~ 146 less. See the table for comparison (price expressed in €/MWh) Comments: new supporting system, theoretically market friendly, actually it need an impressive amount of rules to assure efficiency and no discriminations among the operators. The first period gives good sounds about the support fee to RES, but they aren’t enough to make the system acceptable for the banks (till now). As it is a “market support system”, the price is the same for the different sources: some difference would be introduced on the duration of the support measure (default: 8 years)


ITALY SUPPORT SCHEMES: MAIN FEATURE AND PRICES PAID ENERGY AUTHORITY DECREE N. 34/05 Type of RES: all Type of support: feed-in system, with prices stated by the Gas and Energy Authority, taking into account the dynamic of the energy prices (40% is connected to the inflation rate) and the capacity of the plants. By 500.000 kWh

95,00 €/MWh

From 500.000 to 1.000.000 kWh

80,00 €/MWh

From 1.000.000 to 2.000.000 kWh From 2.000.000 kWh

70 €/MWh Average price for not eligible consumers (~50 €/MWh)

Type of incentive: fees on the produced energy, depending on the annual production Conditions: plants by 1 MW of installed power Prices: decreasing prices, following the annual energy production For example: for 1 MW plant, producing 3.700.000 kWh/year, the average price is 65,74 €/MWh Comments: quite satisfactory prices, but only to cover the ordinary maintenance costs, not for refurbishing investments, which need significantly higher prices to be repaid. It’s a decree issued on March 2005,which comes from the positive experience of the 82/99 and 62/02 decrees for the SHPs only. As it’s not considered a form of support, it can be cumulated with the Green Certificates system or other support schemes


ITALY SUPPORT SCHEMES: MAIN FEATURE AND PRICES PAID

Others support schemes Type of RES: all, but especially the newest technologies, such as electric production by means of biomass and photovoltaic panels Type of support: grants or financing facilities. Type of incentive: funds to cover a significant share of the research and development costs, but also a contribution to the plant costs. Conditions: innovation and/or plants in disadvantaged areas Formal framework: at regional level ( e.g.: structural funds for disadvantaged areas)


ITALY Data source for the production figures: GRTN – Dati statistici sull’energia elettrica in Italia – 2003

APER P.le R. Morandi, 2 20121 – Milano Tel. 02-76319199 Fax 02-76397608 www.aper.it segreteria@aper.it

/Italian_energy_market_over  

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