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HIDROENERGIA 2006 Crieff, Scotland, UK, 7-9 June, 2006

RIVERS EXEMPT FROM DAMMING: CASE STUDY OF LOWLANDS Petras PUNYS Lithuanian Hydropower Association / University of Agriculture


Contents 1. Introduction Case studies: two forbidden rivers

The Nemunas

The Neris

Conclusions Epilogue


Overall aim is: to analyze in quantitative terms the consequences of the imposed prohibition on damming of the two largest rivers of the country: ™ the lower Nemunas for which the inland waterway modernizing and a new river port construction will be undertaken (Kaunas), including the improvement of the overall status of the river surroundings within the city limits; ™ development of a new inland waterway and a river port for the lower Neris (largest tributary of the Nemunas river, reach Kaunas city - Jonava town).


Neris

Nemunas

Lithuania’s largest rivers


Amendment of the Water Law (2004):

“It is forbidden to construct dams on the river Nemunas and the rivers valuable from ecological and cultural point of view�. As a result, a list of 169 rivers or their stretches was elaborated where any river damming was forbidden for ever.


Hydrographical network: • Protected rivers (conventional reserves) • Protected rivers + forbidden rivers (amendment of the Water law takes effect)


1000 500

41%

30%

Environmental

1500

Economical

2000

Technical

100%

Natural

SHP Potential , GWh

2500

Forbidden rivers

14%

5%

0 1

2

3

4

5

Decrease of SHP potential due to a variety of constraints


The Nemunas river Catchment A =100 000 km2 Average flow: 630 m3/s (at Kaunas ~280m3/s) Waterway of international importance (E-IV class) Insufficient depth for navigation (1.2 m to 1.5 m) Modernising waterway and expansion of navigational facilities including river ports are needed Kaunas city’s development master plan: 2 low head dams will assure the required depth for vessels to access the river port.


Groynes+ dredging: Shallow waterway

1.2-1.5 m

2.0m

Dams: Deep waterway

2.5 m

3.0 m

River-sea vessels

Range of depths of the navigation fairway


Cascade of low head dams downstream Kaunas (Nemunas, 94-210km)


Dam Name of No. HPP

Discharge m3/s

Head m

Flooded area, km2

Installed Generapower, tion, MW GWh/ year

1

Vezininkai

541

5.4

3 to 3.5

22

174.2

2

Jurbarkas

533

4.2

2.9 to 3.7

17

134.6

3

Seredzius

517

3.5

3 to 3.5

13

103.0

4

KaunasMarvele

400

3

~0

9

71.3

5

Kaunas284 Petrasiunai

3

~0

6

47.5

67

530.6

TOTAL

Preliminary indicators of HPP cascade on the Nemunas river


Small dams

Alternatives of the river port location (Kaunas city)


Marvele dam (navigation lock, fish pass)


To make the Nemunas waterway more commercially attractive, more significant depths are required. This can be assured by building low head dams. In fact, modern waterways practically always fulfil also other functions apart from inland navigation. The most common case is the utilisation of water power in plants built next to navigation locks, since the dams do not justify for single purpose. The low head dams will allow setting up the river port in Petrasiunai, which, in turn, will improve aesthetics of the river stretches in the city and mitigate the adverse effect of hydropeaking due to upstream operating Kaunas HPP.


The Neris river

Catchment area A =25 000 km2 Average flow: 179 m3/s (at Kaunas) Free-flowing river Corridor for migrating fish (salmon). Wild salmon conservation and restoration program is currently underway.


Fishing sector

Present situation

Prospects of development

Commercial fishing

Commercial fishing is forbidden

Poor in comparison to the lower Nemunas

Recreational fishing

Poor in comparison to the other Big prospects (especially for social water bodies and cultural needs)

Commercial and recreational fishing of wild salmon and sea trout

Commercial fishing is forbidden. It is allowed only in the Baltic sea. Fishing quota is set to 36 tons/year. Catches amounts only to a few hundred kilos per year. Expenses for propagation reach some LTL 2.3 million (0.7 Mâ‚Ź)

The number of wild salmon and sea trout should increase by a factor 2 or 3 by 2010. It is expected to get the bigger quotas for catches in the Baltic sea. After restoration the fish stocks, commercial and recreational fishing will be allowed in the Neris river.

Salmon industry

No salmon industry

No prospects

Assessment of the situation of the fishing sector


Current river use

Development level

Income generated Econo LTL mics million a year

Recreational fishing

Poor

0.1

Insignifica Positive, nt significant

Big

Commercial fishing

Not allowed

~0

No

No

Poor (LTL 0.5 mllion. per year)

Fish propagation

High

-2.3 (No income)

No

Insignificant

No

Water tourism, recreation

Very poor

~0

Insignifica Positive, nt significant

Big

Conservation Very high

No income

No

Positive, significant

No

Water supply

12

Significan t

Positive, insignificant

Poor (LTL 20 million per year)

~1.0

No

Negative, significant

No

Poor

Receiver of High waste waters

Impact

Development Social, cultural prospects issues

Estimation of the present uses of the Neris river water resources


Cascade of dams on the lower Neris (reach KaunasJonava)


1

Low dams

3

Assure only minimu m depths

Delay of traffic passing through 2 locks

No

2

Higher 2

Always assure required depths

Delay of traffic passing through 1 lock

GeneraLarger More tion more areas of effeceffective land tive inundated

dams

Number of dams

Option

Dam

Waterway

Hydropower generation

Flood control

Advant ages

Disadvantages

Advanta ges

Disadvantages

Advantages

Disadv antages

No production during flood event

No

No protecti on from larger floods High capital cost

Dams development scenario (reach Kaunas-Jonava)


No

Name of dam

Head, m

Flooded Pond storage area, mln. m3 km2

Installed capacity MW

Power generati on GWh/ye ar

Cost M€

Payback period, years

1st option: 3 dams 1

Lapiu

5.8

1.1

2.2

8.2

60.4

39.1 11.1

2

Mykoliskiu

5.4

0.8

1.5

9.1

64.5

39.1 10.4

3-1 Jonavos – 1

7.1

4.2

10.4

12.5

78.6

32.4

7.1

2nd option: 2 dams 1-1 Lapiu

10.9

5.4

19.8

17.0

122.4

3-2 Jonavos – 2

9,0

4.4

14.0

12.0

64.7

50.2 40.8

Main parameters of cascade of SHP plants (river reach Kaunas-Jonava)

7.0 10.9


Waterway development options Dredging

River training by groynes (0 to 10 km) and dredging (11 to 45 km) Canalisation by a series of dams

Advantages

Disadvantages

Quantification/Evalua tion

No

Significant maintenance costs for removing sediments from fairway

No justification from economical and environmental point of view

Low maintenance cost of the reach 0 to 10 km

Significant cost of construction of groynes (LTL 30 million). Significant dredging cost (LTL 2.4 million a year)

No justification from economical point of view (navigational income generated varies between LTL 0.3 and 1.4 million per year). Environmental benefits are not dominant.

No need for dredging, river regulation

Low speed of transporting cargo, degradation of water quality

Justifies from economical point of view if there is hydropower generation

Commercial waterway development options for the lower Neris (the reach Kaunas-Jonava)


Prospective uses

Income generated, LTL million a year

Impacts Economics

Commer- 1.4 (from SignifiKaunas to cant cial Jonava) navigation

Social and Recreational and commercial fishing, cultural and water tourism aspects

Significant Positive impact on: water tourism, recreation. Undetermined on: commercial fishing (salmon) and protected species.

Hydropower

44

Very significant

Undeterm ined

Floods defence

No

Non significant

Significant Undetermined (life quality)

Positive impact on: climate change, protection of the atmosphere, water tourism, water supply etc. Undetermined on: commercial fishing (salmon), protected species.

Prospective uses of water resources (reach KaunasJonava)


Conclusions 1. The building of dams associated with hydropower development is forbidden by the Water Law in Lithuania. Consequently, the opportunities of multipurpose use of water resources were restricted enormously (inland navigation, irrigation, fish farming, flood defence, low flow augmentation etc.) 2. Scientific, economic, legal and environmental base of the elaboration of the list of the rivers exempted from damming is insufficient. It undermines the principles incorporated into National Sustainable Development Strategy and Energy Strategy. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) must be applied for a particular case of river resources development.


3. The results of the studies carried out for the two largest rivers of the country (the Nemunas and the Neris) shows that the current legal ban for the river damming is useless for economic development of the country. 4. It is recommended to review the national environmental legislation in force dealing with river engineering in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of the vital river ecosystem.


Low head hydraulic structures associated with hydropower generation can bring significant benefits for multipurpose utilization of water resources, for the improvement of river surroundings.


Epilogue

Communication of the Environmental protection Committee of the Lithuanian Parliament (19 April, 2006)


The Water law and subsequent decision on introducing the List of forbidden rivers are contradicting with the international legal practice of hydropower development, and some items of the National Law on Protected areas. Consequently, the principles incorporated into National Sustainable Development Strategy and Energy Strategy are undermined. The requirements of the National Environmental legislation should not be stronger as they are outlined in the relevant EU environmental legislation and international conventions.


Thank you for your attention

/EP_2_Punys  

http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/documents/workshops/hidroenergia/EP_2_Punys.pdf

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