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EFECTS OF TURBINE TYPE SELECTION ON TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL BENEFITS OF THE NEW SHPP PROJECT Authors: Hajrudin DZAFO Dipl.-Ing. & Dzevad FAZLIC Dipl.-Ing. JP Elektroprivreda BiH d.d.- Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina


Bosnian hydropower historical overview: 1899 – first SHPP Jajce ( 8 x 1,0 MW) to 1918 – six SHPP in operation with 7,3 MW after 1945 – NO interest for SHPP !?

years:

from 1999. up today: NEW AGE FOR SMALL HYDRO IN BOSNIA !


Year 1899 – Bosnia & Herzegovina: the first Hydro power plant Jajce ( 8 x 1,0 MW)


IS IT BOSNIAN PYRAMIDE !??


Year 2008: Bosnia & Herzegovina: rivers and streamflows


FEDERATION OF BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA: Hydropotential for new SHPP

Year 2008:

15 SHPP... in operation 50 SHPP... under contruction 200 SHPP ...concession contracts


THE AREA OF POWER PLANT PROJECT CEMERNICA & KALJANI - East Bosnia -


SMALL HYDRO POWER PLANT CEMERNICA & KALJANI SCHEME


GODIŠNJA KRIVA TRAJANJA PROTOKA (m3/s)

RASPOLOŢIVI PROTOK (m3/s)

6.00

5.00

4.00

3.00 Srednji protok

2.00

1.00 Q BAZNO TEH:MIN,

0.00 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

TRAJANJE PROTOKA (% godišnje)

THE ANNUAL FLOW DURATION CURVE: location of SHPP Cemernica & SHPP Kaljani

80

90

100


THE SHPP CEMERNICA ( 530 kW ) Average annual flow ....Qmean = 0,370 m3/s The installed flow ....Qi = 0,500 m3/s Pressure pipeline length / diameter: d = 1481,00 m / 600/500 mm Gross head / Net head: 129,61 m / 120,16 m

Number of units: ......... 1 Type of turbine: .......... Pelton The installed power of turbine: ................... 530 kW Annual generation: ....... 2,1 GWh


THE SHPP KALJANI Two Francis Units versus Two Cross-flow Units

VS

Criteria (No.1)…..Annual generation: Variant I:

2 x Francis unit ….... Hn = 36,5 m; Qi = 2 x 2,0 m3/s

Variant II:

2 x Cross flow unit … Hn = 36,5 m; Qi = 2 x 2,0 m3/s

Variant III:

1 x Cross flow unit ….. Hn=36,5m; Qi= 2,0 m3/s 1 x Francis unit ……… Hn=36,5m; Qi= 2,0 m3/s (peak=89%)


THE SHPP KALJANI Two Francis Units versus Two Cross-flow Units

Criteria (No.1)…..Annual generation: Variant I:

teh.min.(%Qi) peak (%) 90,5 89,0 87,0

2 x Francis unit ….... Hn = 36,5 m; Qi = 2 x 2,0 m3/s Annual generation (GWh) 40% 50% 60%

4,67 4,62 4,52

4,64 5,56 4,46

4,00 3,95 3,85


THE SHPP KALJANI Two Francis Units versus Two Cross-flow Units

Criteria (No.1)…..Annual generation: Variant II:

2 x Cross flow unit … Hn = 36,5 m; Qi = 2 x 2,0 m3/s

Flow rate Output kW Flow rate l/s Efficiency (%) ( ή )

100% 610 2000 84

90% 549 1800 84

Annual generation of Variant II: ....... 4,68 GWh

60% 366 1200 84

30% 183 600 83

17% 101 340 81


THE SHPP KALJANI Two Francis Units versus Two Cross-flow Units

Criteria (No.1)…..Annual generation:

Variant III:

1 x Cross flow unit ….. Hn=36,5m; Qi= 2,0 m3/s 1 x Francis unit ……… Hn=36,5m; Qi= 2,0 m3/s (peak=89%)

Annual generation of Variant III: ....... Francis unit:........ 2,95 GWh ........ Cross flow unit:.. 1,87 GWh Total:__________ 4,82 GWh

Criteria (No.2)…..Governing system – control equipment: It is complicated connect equipment of different suppliers, also incompatible auxiliary governing systems. From that reasons, we compare and not accepted variant III.


THE SHPP KALJANI Selected solution of hydroelectric generating units for SHPP Kaljani and SHPP Cemernica:

SHPP Cemernica:.......one Pelton unit (two runners with four nozzles)...530 kW SHPP Kaljani: ..............two cross flow turbines ..................................2 x 630 kW with these hydraulic characteristics for one turbine: Gross head .......... Hb = 39,50 m Net head .............. Hnet = 37,00 m Hydraulic losses ... ∑t = 2,50 m Flow rates: ... maximum flow rate at Hnet ... Qmax = 2.000 l/s minimum flow rate at Hnet Qmin = 340 l/s Guaranteed performance based on the hydraulic data in full regulation: Flow rate Output kW Flow rate l/s Efficiency (%) ( Ύ )

100% 630 2000 87

90% 567 1800 87

60% 378 1200 87

30% 189 600 87

17% 107 340 85


THE SHPP KALJANI ( 2 x 580 kW Generator output)


THE SHPP CEMERNICA & SHPP KALJANI COMMON POWERHOUSE (1 PELTON + 2 CROSFLOW = 3 UNITS )


THE SHPP CEMERNICA & SHPP KALJANI COMMON POWERHOUSE (1 PELTON + 2 CROSFLOW = 3 UNITS )

THE POWERHOUSE UNDER CONTRUCTION, May 2008.


CONCLUSION The main characteristic of this design solution is the joint powerhouse for both power plants. From tender request for two Francis turbine, to final decision for choosing this turbine type, with technical and economical strong reasons, processing explained. Turbine-generator unit selection for the new small hydropower plant is a very sensitive phase of the project development, needs more criteria involved in process of designing. Most important criteria are technical availability operation all equipment during annual period with highest number of working hours, which means highest total income for owners and investors of the small hydropower projects.


Hajrudin DZAFO Dipl.-Ing. Dzevad FAZLIC Dipl.-Ing. E-mail: h.dzafo@elektroprivreda.ba dz.fazlic@elektroprivreda.ba Bosnia and Herzegovina

THANK YOU FOR ATENTION !

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