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The Role of Small Hydropower in the EU-27

Dirk Hendricks, ESHA ESHA-Hydroaction Seminar Small Hydro Going Smart

Brussels, 13 April 2010


The European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA)  Promotion of the interest of the small hydropower sector in Europe and globally  Non-profit international organisation, founded in 1989  Members in EU countries and globally (national associations, research, industry, independent producres, project developers, investors, research community, equipment manufacturers)  Headquarters ideally located with other RES associations in the Renewable Energy House in Brussels


ESHA – Key activities 1. Policy Advice and lobbying 2. Public relations and media activities 3. Membership services 4. EU co-sponsored projects


EU-sponsored projects  SHAPES - Small Hydro Action for the Promotion of Efficient Solutions  HYDROACTION - Methodology on maximising productivitycost turbines  RURAL-RES - Good practices of mini-hydro in mountain areas  CHOICE- Certification procedure for hydropower  STREAM MAP - Roadmap and central database for SHP sector  SoRE – SHP and storage and grid issues


Facts about Small Hydro Power (<10 MW)  Supplies over 12 million EU householdes  41 000 GWh of electricity production  Over 13 000 MW of installed capacity  Reduces GHG emissions by 29,000,000 tons per year

 Provides back-up for grid increased volume of intermittent RE technologies  Enables use of local energy sources hence  improving local energy security  decreasing transport losses  creating income sources and jobs

 Increased role with CC adaptation (flood prevention and control, irrigation needs)


High energy pay-back ratio* Plant

Yield factor

Small hydro

80-100

Large hydro

100-200

PV

3-5

Solar (thermal)

20-50

Wind

10-30

* ratio of the quantity of energy produced by an installation during its lifetime and the energy required manufacturing the installation, its operation and disposal including secondary energy.


Leading SHP EU Countries 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Italy (21%) France (17.5%), Spain (15.5%), Germany (14%), Austria (9.4%) Sweden (7.7%)

High identified capacities in Romania (3%), Czech Republic (2.4%) and Poland (2.3%) (% of the total SHP installed capacity in the EU-27)


Leading SHP EU Countries


EU 27 RES Electricity Production


RES Directive  Establishes a framework for the promotion of renewable energy sources in the EU up to 2020  Sets mandatory national targets for renewable energy sources in final energy consumption and in the transport sector  Provides flexibility to MS in meeting the targets: it lays down rules on statistical transfers, joint projects between Member States and with third countries  It requires the streamlining of administrative procedures, more information and training on RES and access to the electricity grid for energy from renewable sources


Water Framework Directive  Has as key objective to achieve good ecological status (GES) for all surface waters in the EU by 2015. If a Water Body (WB) fails to reach good status as a result of physical alterations by human activity it can be designated as heavily modified or artificial. In these cases the environmental objective is good ecological potential (GEP)  Regardless of the starting reference point (HMWB or not HMWB) the measures taken to meet the final objectives of the WFD, imply strong negative effects on small hydro


Policy Framework & Barriers in the EU


Key barriers to SHP development  Environmental concerns - ecological impact  Regulatory barriers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; WFD, Eels regulation, Natura 2000, river classification, no go areas  Administrative barriers â&#x20AC;&#x201C; long, costly & complicated licensing procedures  Lack of financial incentives and clear regulatory framework (developing countries)  Affordable & transparent grid connection  Negative image


Environment Environm ental Integration - Resistance to SHP developm ent EU-27 & CC Visual im pact

Fishery

W ater regulation

Environm ental Regulation

Com petition with other uses

O ther kinds of resistance

100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% AT

BE

DK

FI

FR

DE

EL

IE

IT

LU* NL

PT

ES

SE

UK

*Inform ation not available due to too sm all num ber S HP P

BG C Y* CZ

EE

HU

LV

LT

M T* PL

RO

SK

SI

HR

MK

TR


Key challenges  Balance between economics and ecology  Need for further R&D investment to address this balance  Need for political decision on an integrated approach to water resource planning  Balancing the targets of the RES Directive and WFD remains a critical objective for the sector


Areas of potential growth  New very/low-head small hydropower schemes  Multi-purpose schemes: electricity production combined with flood control, irrigation channels, waste water treatment and recreational use  Repowering and upgrading of existing sites  Development of storage facilities to revalue other RES such as wind and solar  Innovative methods of taking advantage of using energy from existing sites, for example using reserved flow for electricity production  Flood prevention/control increasingly important with CC


Recommandations for future SHP  Decrease the barriers for developing  Measures for fast-track planning procedures & onestop shops  Increase public awareness & improve acceptance at local level  Support the manufacturing industry by increasing the research  more efficient  more environmental friendly  Maintain competativness on international level


Thank you for your attention dirk.hendricks@esha.be +32 2 546 1945 Skype: dirk.hendricks

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