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Minerals Lab By: Shyra


bibliography • Sources: -Wikipedia.com -Glencoe.com “virtual Mineral Lab”


Biotite Mica • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: K(Mg,Fe++)3[AlSi3O10(OH,F)2 Lustre: non-metallic Cleavage: cleavage Color: black to dark brown Streak color: colorless Hardness: softness of a fingernail Special properties: Biotite is very easy to identify and with a little experience a person will be able to recognize it on sight. It is a black mica with perfect cleavage and a vitreous luster on the cleavage faces. When biotite is separated into thin sheets, the sheets are flexible but will break upon severe bending. When held up to the light the sheets are transparent to translucent with a brown, gray or greenish color. Experienced observers can sometimes recognize phlogopite by its brown color. Uses: Biotite, a phyllosilicate mineral, is used frequently in the process of constraining the age of rocks, typically by argon-argon dating or through what is known as potassium-dating.


Calcite • • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: CaCO3 Lustre: non-metallic Cleavage: cleavage : There are 3 planes Color: white or some times transparent, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue Streak color: white Hardness: softer than glass but harder than fingernail: MOH’s scale 3 Special properties: sometimes be fluorescent Uses: in WWW2 was used for gun sights, soil remidiation, soil stabalization and concrete repair.


Feldspar • • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8 Lustre: non-metallic Cleavage: cleavage: there are 2 or 3 planes Color: varied Streak color: colorless Hardness: harder than glass: MOH’s scale- 6.0-6.5 Special properties: uses: glass making and ceramics, electrical insulators, tiles.


Flourite • • • • • •

Chemical formula: CaF2 Lustre: non-metallic Cleavage: cleavage: 8 planes Color: (usually) variation of purple Streak color: colorless Hardness: softer than glass but harder than fingernail: MOH’s scale is 4 • Special properties: sometimes glows when heated or scratched. Fluorite crystalizes into cubes. • Uses: toothpaste and tap water.


Galena • • • • • •

Chemical formula:PbS Lustre: metallic Cleavage: cleavage: 3 planes Color: gray Streak color: gray to black Hardness: softness of a fingernail: 2.5 MOH’s scale • Special properties: it is the ore of lead • Uses: kohl-eyeliner, lead acid batteries to radio signals


Graphite • • • • • •

Chemical formula: C Lustre: metallic Cleavage: cleavage: 3 planes Color: black to gray Streak color: black to gray Hardness: softer than a fingernail: MOH’s scale 12 • Special properties: flaket, it is opaque • Uses: pencil lead, break linings, foundry facings, batteries and steel making


Gypsum • • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: CaSO4•2(H2O) Lustre: non-metallic Cleavage: cleavageColor: colorless, may be yellow, tan, blue, pink, brown, reddish, or gray due to impurities Streak color: white Hardness: softer than a fingernail-MOH’s scale-1.5-2 Special properties: disolves over time in water Uses: dry wall, plaster, fertilizer, soil conditioner, cement


Halite • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: NaCl Lustre: non-metallic Cleavage: cleavage- 1 plane Color: colorless Streak color: colorless Hardness: softness of a fingernail-MOH’s scale 2 Special properties: water soluble, salty, fluorescent, brittle • Uses: used to melt ice in the water, cooking


Hematite • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: Fe2O Lustre: metallic Cleavage: fracture Color: dark or silver red Streak color: red gray Hardness: harder than glass- MOH’s scale 5.5-6.5 Special properties: mineral form of iron oxide. Triangular shape, brittle, opaque • Uses: jewlery making, stamps 3


Magnetite • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: Fe++Fe+++2O4 Lustre: metallic Cleavage: fracture Color: black Streak color: black Hardness: harder than glass- MOH’s scale: 5.5-6.5 Special properties: strongly magnetic, cubic shape, brittle • Uses: to obsorb arsenic from water


Muscovite Mica • • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: KAl2(Si3Al)O (OH,F)2 Lustre: non-metallic, pearl, finish Cleavage: cleavage, 2 planes Color: white, gray, brown, green, yellow, sometimes violet and red. Streak color: white Hardness: softness of a fingernail MOH’s scale2.2-2.5 Special properties: little bit stretchy Uses: fire proofing, insalating, lubricant 10


Pyrite • • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: FeS2 Lustre: metallic Cleavage: fracture Color: brassy gold Streak color: greenish black Hardness: harder than glass Special properties: looks like gold, brittle Uses: in crystal radios, used in solar panels, marcasite jewlery


Quartz • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: SiO2 Lustre: non-metallic Cleavage: fracture Color: colorless Streak color: colorless Hardness: harder than glass Special properties: 6 sided prism, brittle, transparent to almost opaque • Uses: jewelry, sculpting


Sulfur • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: S8 Lustre: non-metallic Cleavage: fracture Color: yellow Streak color: yellow to white Hardness: softer than fingernail Special properties: burning coal, essential component of all living cells. • Uses: fertilizer, fungicide, bacteriocide, for food and wine making


Talc • • • • • • •

Chemical formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 Lustre: non-metallic Cleavage: cleavage Color: white or greenish Streak color: white Hardness: softer than fingernail Special properties: found in soap stone, it’s a metamorphic rock. • Uses: powder, rubber, food ,electric cable, cosmetics


Shyra mineral lab