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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

English Grammar in Use

A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students of English with answers

THIRD ED ITIO N

Raymond Murphy

Š Cambridge University Press

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

cambridge university press Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521532891 © Cambridge University Press 2004 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2004 12th printing 2007 Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN ISBN ISBN ISBN ISBN ISBN ISBN ISBN

978-0-521-53289-1 978-0-521-53290-7 978-0-521-53762-9 978-0-521-84311-9 978-3-12-534086-2 978-3-12-534084-8 978-0-521-53760-5 978-0-521-53761-2

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

Contents Thanks vii To the student viii To the teacher x Present and past 1 Present continuous (I am doing) 2 Present simple (I do) 3 Present continuous and present simple 1 (I am doing and I do) 4 Present continuous and present simple 2 (I am doing and I do) 5 Past simple (I did) 6 Past continuous (I was doing) Present perfect and past 7 Present perfect 1 (I have done) 8 Present perfect 2 (I have done) 9 Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) 10 Present perfect continuous and simple (I have been doing and I have done) 11 How long have you (been) … ? 12 For and since When … ? and How long … ? 13 Present perfect and past 1 (I have done and I did) 14 Present perfect and past 2 (I have done and I did) 15 Past perfect (I had done) 16 Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) 17 Have got and have 18 Used to (do) Future 19 Present tenses (I am doing / I do) for the future 20 (I’m) going to (do) 21 Will/shall 1 22 Will/shall 2 23 I will and I’m going to 24 Will be doing and will have done 25 When I do / When I’ve done When and if Modals 26 Can, could and (be) able to 27 Could (do) and could have (done) 28 Must and can’t 29 May and might 1 30 May and might 2 31 Have to and must 32 Must mustn’t needn’t 33 Should 1 34 Should 2 35 Had better It’s time … 36 Would 37 Can/Could/Would you … ? etc. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations) IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

If and wish 38 If I do … and If I did … 39 If I knew … I wish I knew … 40 If I had known … I wish I had known … 41 Wish Passive 42 Passive 1 (is done / was done) 43 Passive 2 (be done / been done / being done) 44 Passive 3 45 It is said that … He is said to … He is supposed to … 46 Have something done Reported speech 47 Reported speech 1 (He said that …) 48 Reported speech 2 Questions and auxiliary verbs 49 Questions 1 50 Questions 2 (Do you know where … ? / He asked me where …) 51 Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) I think so / I hope so etc. 52 Question tags (do you? isn’t it? etc.) -ing 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

and the infinitive Verb + -ing (enjoy doing / stop doing etc.) Verb + to … (decide to … / forget to … etc.) Verb (+ object) + to … (I want you to … etc.) Verb + -ing or to … 1 (remember/regret etc.) Verb + -ing or to … 2 (try/need/help) Verb + -ing or to … 3 (like / would like etc.) Prefer and would rather Preposition (in/for/about etc.) + -ing Be/get used to something (I’m used to …) Verb + preposition + -ing (succeed in -ing / accuse somebody of -ing etc.) Expressions + -ing To … , for … and so that … (purpose) Adjective + to … To … (afraid to do) and preposition + -ing (afraid of -ing) See somebody do and see somebody doing -ing clauses (Feeling tired, I went to bed early.)

Articles and nouns 69 Countable and uncountable 1 70 Countable and uncountable 2 71 Countable nouns with a/an and some 72 A/an and the 73 The 1 74 The 2 (school / the school etc.) 75 The 3 (children / the children) 76 The 4 (the giraffe / the telephone / the piano etc., the + adjective) 77 Names with and without the 1 78 Names with and without the 2

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IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

79 Singular and plural 80 Noun + noun (a tennis ball / a headache) 81 -’s (your sister’s name) and of … (the name of the book) Pronouns and determiners 82 Myself/yourself/themselves etc. 83 A friend of mine My own house On my own / by myself 84 There … and it … 85 Some and any 86 No/none/any Nothing/nobody etc. 87 Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty 88 All / all of most / most of no / none of etc. 89 Both / both of neither / neither of either / either of 90 All, every and whole 91 Each and every Relative clauses 92 Relative clauses 1: clauses with who/that/which 93 Relative clauses 2: clauses with and without who/that/which 94 Relative clauses 3: whose/whom/where 95 Relative clauses 4: extra information clauses (1) 96 Relative clauses 5: extra information clauses (2) 97 -ing and -ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident) Adjectives and adverbs 98 Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed (boring/bored etc.) 99 Adjectives: a nice new house, you look tired 100 Adjectives and adverbs 1 (quick/quickly) 101 Adjectives and adverbs 2 (well/fast/late, hard/hardly) 102 So and such 103 Enough and too 104 Quite, pretty, rather and fairly 105 106 107 108

Comparison 1 (cheaper, more expensive etc.) Comparison 2 (much better / any better / better and better / the sooner the better) Comparison 3 (as … as / than) Superlatives (the longest, the most enjoyable etc.)

109 Word order 1: verb + object; place and time 110 Word order 2: adverbs with the verb 111 Still, yet and already 112 Even

Any more / any longer / no longer

Conjunctions and prepositions 113 Although / though / even though In spite of / despite 114 In case 115 Unless As long as Provided/providing 116 As (As I walked along the street … / As I was hungry …) 117 Like and as 118 As if / as though / like

IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

119 For, during and while 120 By and until By the time … Prepositions 121 At/on/in (time) 122 On time and in time At the end and in the end 123 In/at/on (position) 1 124 In/at/on (position) 2 125 In/at/on (position) 3 126 To/at/in/into 127 In/at/on (other uses) 128 By 129 Noun + preposition (reason for, cause of etc.) 130 Adjective + preposition 1 131 Adjective + preposition 2 132 Verb + preposition 1 to and at 133 Verb + preposition 2 about/for/of/after 134 Verb + preposition 3 about and of 135 Verb + preposition 4 of/for/from/on 136 Verb + preposition 5 in/into/with/to/on Phrasal verbs 137 Phrasal verbs 138 Phrasal verbs 139 Phrasal verbs 140 Phrasal verbs 141 Phrasal verbs 142 Phrasal verbs 143 Phrasal verbs 144 Phrasal verbs 145 Phrasal verbs Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Regular and irregular verbs 292 Present and past tenses 294 The future 295 Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.) 296 Short forms (I’m / you’ve / didn’t etc.) 297 Spelling 298 American English 300

Additional exercises Study guide

Introduction in/out out on/off (1) on/off (2) up/down up (1) up (2) away/back

302

326

Key to Exercises 336 Key to Additional exercises Key to Study guide 372 Index

vi

368

373

IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS YOU NEED TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 326.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

Thanks I wrote the original edition of English Grammar in Use when I was a teacher at the Swan School of English, Oxford. I would like to repeat my thanks to my colleagues and students at the school for their help, encouragement and interest at that time. More recently I would like to thank all the teachers and students I met and who offered their thoughts on the previous edition. It was fun to meet you all and extremely helpful for me. Regarding the production of this third edition, I am grateful to Alison Sharpe, Liz Driscoll, Jane Mairs and Kamae Design. I would also like to thank Cambridge University Press for permission to access the Cambridge International Corpus. Thank you also to the following illustrators: Paul Fellows, Gillian Martin, Roger Penwill, Lisa Smith and Simon Williams.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

To the student This book is for students who want help with English grammar. It is written for you to use without a teacher. The book will be useful for you if you are not sure of the answers to questions like these: What is the difference between I did and I have done? When do we use will for the future? What is the structure after I wish? When do we say used to do and when do we say used to doing? When do we use the? What is the difference between like and as? These and many other points of English grammar are explained in the book and there are exercises on each point.

Level The book is intended mainly for intermediate students (students who have already studied the basic grammar of English). It concentrates on those structures which intermediate students want to use, but which often cause difficulty. Some advanced students who have problems with grammar will also find the book useful. The book is not suitable for elementary learners.

How the book is organised There are 145 units in the book. Each unit concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some problems (for example, the present perfect or the use of the) are covered in more than one unit. For a list of units, see the Contents at the beginning of the book. Each unit consists of two facing pages. On the left there are explanations and examples; on the right there are exercises. At the back of the book there is a Key for you to check your answers to the exercises (page 336). There are also seven Appendices at the back of the book (pages 292–301). These include irregular verbs, summaries of verb forms, spelling and American English. Finally, there is a detailed Index at the back of the book (page 373).

How to use the book The units are not in order of difficulty, so it is not intended that you work through the book from beginning to end. Every learner has different problems and you should use this book to help you with the grammar that you find difficult. It is suggested that you work in this way: Use the Contents and/or Index to find which unit deals with the point you are interested in. If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the Study guide on page 326. Study the explanations and examples on the left-hand page of the unit you have chosen. Do the exercises on the right-hand page. Check your answers with the Key. If your answers are not correct, study the left-hand page again to see what went wrong. You can of course use the book simply as a reference book without doing the exercises.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

Additional exercises At the back of the book there are Additional exercises (pages 302–325). These exercises bring together some of the grammar points from a number of different units. For example, Exercise 16 brings together grammar points from Units 26–36. You can use these exercises for extra practice after you have studied and practised the grammar in the units concerned. CD Rom The book is sold with or without a CD Rom. On the CD Rom you will find more exercises on all the units (different from those in the book). There are also 1,700 test questions, and you can use these to make your own tests. The CD Rom can also be bought separately.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

To the teacher English Grammar in Use was written as a self-study grammar book, but teachers may also find it useful as additional course material in cases where further work on grammar is necessary. The book will probably be most useful at middle- and upper- intermediate levels (where all or nearly all of the material will be relevant), and can serve both as a basis for revision and as a means for practising new structures. It will also be useful for some more advanced students who have problems with grammar and need a book for reference and practice. The book is not intended to be used by elementary learners. The units are organised in grammatical categories (Present and past, Articles and nouns, Prepositions etc.). They are not ordered according to level of difficulty, so the book should not be worked through from beginning to end. It should be used selectively and flexibly in accordance with the grammar syllabus being used and the difficulties students are having. The book can be used for immediate consolidation or for later revision or remedial work. It might be used by the whole class or by individual students needing extra help. The left-hand pages (explanations and examples) are written for the student to use individually, but they may of course be used by the teacher as a source of ideas and information on which to base a lesson. The student then has the left-hand page as a record of what has been taught and can refer to it in the future. The exercises can be done individually, in class or as homework. Alternatively (and additionally), individual students can be directed to study certain units of the book by themselves if they have particular difficulties not shared by other students in their class. Don’t forget the Additional exercises at the back of the book (see To the student). The book is sold with or without a CD Rom. This contains further exercises on all the units in the book, as well as a bank of 1,700 test questions from which users can select to compile their own tests. The CD Rom is also available separately. An edition of English Grammar in Use without the Key is also available. Some teachers may prefer this for use with their students.

English Grammar in Use Third Edition This is a new edition of English Grammar in Use. The differences between this edition and the second edition are: There are eight new units on phrasal verbs (Units 138–145). There is also a new unit on wish (Unit 41). Units 42–81 and 83–137 all have different numbers from the second edition. Some of the material has been revised or reorganised, and in most units there are minor changes in the examples, explanations and exercises. The Additional exercises have been extended. The new exercises are 14–16, 25, 30–31, and 37–41. The book has been redesigned with new colour illustrations. There is a new CD Rom with further exercises to accompany the book.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-53762-9 - English Grammar in Use with Answers, Third Edition Raymond Murphy Frontmatter More information

English Grammar in Use

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Present continuous (I am doing) St udy this exa mple situation: Sa rah is in her car. She is on her way ro work. She is d riving to work. T his means: she is driving The action is not finished.

110111.

at the ti me of speaking.

Am/islarc + -ing is the presellf CQmilllfolls: he/she/it wc/youlthc)'

d riving am (= I'm ) is (= he路s 'crc.) working a rc (= wc 're etc. ) doing etc.

I am doing something = I' m in the middle of doing it: I've started doi ng it a nd I haven't fi nished yet: o Please don 't make so much noise. I'm trying to work. (ll ot [ try) o ' WhCfe's Ma rk?' ' He's having a shower.' (1101 He has a shower ) o Let's go out now. It isn't raining a ny more. (1Iot It doesn 't rain ) o (at a party) Hello, Jane. Arc you enj oying the pa rty? (" ot Do you en joy ) o Wha t's all tha t noise? What's going o n? (= Wha t's ha ppening? ) T he aclion is not necessaril y happening at the time o f speaking. For example:

Steve is tal king to a friend on the phone. He sa~' s: I'm rea ding a reallv good book at the moment. It's about a man who ,..

I

Steve is nor readi ng the .book at the time of speaki ng. '-Ie means t har he h3S sta rred it. but has not finished it ret. He is in the middle of read ing it. Some mo re exa mples: o Kate wants to wo rk in Italy, so she's lea rning Ita lia n. (but perh'lps she isn't lea rn ing Ita lia n at the time of speaking) o Some friends of mine afe building their own ho use. They hope to fin ish il next summer. You ca n use t he present continuo us w ith today f thi s week f lhis year etc. (periods a round now ); o A: You ' re working ha rd today. (lto t You work ha rd roday ) It: Yes, I have a 1m to do. o T he com pany I work fo r isn't doing so well thi s year. We usc the present continuous w hen we ta lk abom cha nges happening around now, especially with these verbs: gel

change

become

IIlCfeaSe

rise

fa ll

gro w

Im prove

begin

stan

o Is your English geuing bette r? (n ot Does your Engl ish get better) o The popula tion of the world is increasing very fast. (lI or increases) o At first 1 didn't like my job, but I' m beginning to en jo)' it now. (not I begin )

2

Presen t con tinuous and present simple -- Units 3-4

Prese nt tenses for the future -- Unit 19


Exercises 1. 1

Unit 1

Complete the sen tences with the following verbs in the correct form:

gel

happen

look

'You _ 're.--.!J.2.!:!L~ 1 I

lose

make

sian

slay

try

.oW6I'*

hard Today.'

-Yes. I ha ve a lot to do.' for Christine. Do you know where she is?

3 Ii ._____._____.

dark. Shall I rurn on the light?

~

-I The~'

5 6 S 1.2

don', have anywhere to ]j\'c.tt the moment. They .__.____________ ._ with friends until the}' fi nd somewhere. Things are nO[ so good .][ work. T he compa ny ._______.___ ..... ____ .H. ______ money. Ha\'c you got an um brella? Ii ___..:._. __ ._...o_.___ C___ .__ ._.. to rain. /: You _.. -T------ a [at of noise. Ca n you be quieter? I _.... _ .._. ____ .. _. __!:.____._.__ [Q concenrratc. \X/ h~' a f C al l these people here? \X' hat ,, _________,, ____ _ .. c.................... ?

Put the verb into the correct form . Sometimes you need the negative (I'm not doing etc.) . Please don't make so mll~h noi se. I _~T. ....kJ;j.1{!9..... (try ) to work. 2. Let's go out now. lr _.._I§..~J... .r.~ g._.) rai n ) :ljlY Illorc. 3 You can tu rn off the radio. I ._....................... _..... _.... _._ .... _......:..~../!":....•. (Iisrcn)? it.

4 Kate phoncd me la sl night. She's on holida y in France. She ..........:..::........ _._~.~:.~....... _..._._ .......... (have ) 3 great tillle and doesn't W.lIlt to cOllle back . S I W;lIlt to lose weight, so this week I ---!;._.. ___ ._._.• _~ ..• _.,: ..:'.. __ .(-••• _._._ •• (cat ) lunch. 6 Andrew has iust starred e"cning classes. He ___ ._._._._...:.._.__ ~_._. __ (lcarn ) Gennan. - Pau I an d Sal Iy have had an argument . T hey _....__ .... ___:..' _____ ;,(v . _'._. __ Lr __. (spea k) to each other. S I _. _s:... _ (get) tired. I necd a rest. ~ ___ (work ) this wcek. HS's on holiday. 9 Tim

,

1.3

Complete the co nversations.

1 -\: I saw Brian 3 few da\"S ago,

Oh, did you: W'nit:.L~e.~g __ these d.1YS? (w hat I he I do ) He's at uni \·ersity. 8, (wh,lt I he I study) -\: Psychology, B: ..".-.................-.""" .. ~.-- ...T" .•. - ..•.•....- .....- it? (he I enjoy) .-\ : Yes, he says it's 3 \'cry good cou rse. B:

A:

2.

A:

B:

A: B:

1.4

H i, Liz. How .... _. ......... _._.... _..,.., .:......+ .........;;...(.,.... in rour nc;)\' job? (you I get on ) Not bad. It' wasn't so good at fi rst, but ......_.... _..... _=........................................... .... better now. (th ings I get) \'(' hat 3bom Jonathan! Is he OK? 'Yes, but .. •L..i: ........--....-:...:...-.--..·r .. ~.......·..·-...·. .r...-· his work, 3t rhe moment. (he I not I cn joy) He's been in the same job for a long time 3nd ___ .....__ ..__ ...f..<;..;._~." __ .~.~_ ..'!-.. . _. ___._ to get bored with it. (he I begin )

Comple te the sentences usi ng the following verbs: change get -tfIcrease nsc begin 2 3 4 S

The population of the world .. -':.L~~U'l.9._ very iasr. The world ._____ .~ __ ;--.---. . Th!ngs never Stay the same, The situation is alre3dy bad and it -fLL-._';.._____ .. _._. __._ worse. The COS t of living ....:.-.. __,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ , Every ),ear th ings are Illore expensi\'c. The we3 rher .._._.:.. ~. •_______ .~.~_ to improve, The r3in has stopped, and the wind isn'[ as Strong.

3


Present simple (I do) Study this exam ple situation: Alex is a bus dri\路cr. but now he is in bed asleep. He is nO( dri\'ing:1 b us. (He is asleep. ) bllt He dri\路cs a bus. (He is a bus driver.)

Drivc(s )!work(s )/do(cs ) erc. is the present simple: Uwe/youlthey drive/work/do etc. he/she/i t drives/works/docs etc.

We usc the present simple to talk about thihgs in general. We lISC it to say that something happens all the time or repeated ly, or that something is true in general:

o Nurses look after patients in hospi tals. o I usually go a wa y a t weekends. o T he earth goes round the sun. o The cafe o pens at 7.30 in rhe morn ing. Remember: I work ...

bitt

H e works ...

They leach .. , bllt

M y sister teaches ...

For spelling (-s or -es ), see Appendix 6. We usc doldoes to make questions a nd negative sentences: do doe, o o o o

IIwe/youfl hey he/she/it

work ? drive ? do ?

Uwe/}'0u1the~1 don't he/she/it I doesn'l

work dri"e ,. do

I come from Ca nada. Where do you come from? I don', go away very often. What does this word mean ? (not What means th is word? ) Riel." doesn'l grow in cold cli mates.

In the fo llowi ng examples, do is also the main verb (do you do I doesn't do elc.): o 'What do you do?' ' I work in a shop.' o He's alwa ys so lazy. He doesn't do anythi ng to help. We use the present simple to say how often we do thi ngs: o I get up at 8 o'clock every morning. o H ow often do you go to the d'cmist? o Julie doesn't drink tea ver y often. o Robert usually goes away twO o r three times a year. I pro mise J I apologise etc. Sometimes we do things by sa ying something. Fo r example, w hen )'ou promise [Q do something, you can say ' I promise .. .'; when you suggest something, you can ill)' ' I suggest .. .': o I promi se I won't be latc. ("ot I'm promisi ng) o 'What do you suggest I do?' ' I suggest that you .... In the sa nte way we sa)': 1 apologise ... J I advise ... 1 1 insist ... J I agree ... I I refu se ... etc.

4

Present simple and present continuous ..... Units 3-4

Present tenses for the futu re - Unit 19


Exercises 2.1

Unit 2

Complete the sentences usi ng the follow ing verbs : causc(s)

conncCI (S)

drink(s )

li vc(s)

tak c(s)

opcn{s)

Tam'a .. _._~_P.~.~... _. German \'erv well. ' .r 0 f[en ......................... ./~"1.1 2 I don :-:.................. . co ffce. 3 The swimming pool .......... _,........ ar 7.30 every morning. 4 Bad driving ......._~L'.L_ .._.! ..._.... many acc idents.

t...

5 My parents ..... _.... ~ .. _.... ...1 . . . . a H' r~' small naT. 6 The Ol~· !llpi c Games .......... __.q_......l:-:::;: ............. place every iour years. 7 The Panama Ca nal . F (~.....' . •.... the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. 2.2

Put the verb into th e co rrect form.

Julie .... _M~~.I:!.} ..4r~~._ . . (not I ?rink) n:a very often. 2 What time ....._.............~ ...._.....~....c::.~: ~L ..........J!. ..( .:.....?. (rhe banks I close) here? . rl ~ "I' ~ . 3 I ,'e gOt a compurer. bur I ..•2....~..... ......•..........!......... ............... (not I usc) It much. ....... :~~(.~...( ..... _:::.-::(.('( Marrin I conte) from?' 'He's Scottish: 4 '\,(/here 5 "What ..... :.~ .... .......... (you I do)?" "I'm an electrician .' 6 It ......:.J~...........J.................. ........................ (take ) me an hour to get fO work. How long '"ie· ....:fL........:..,.?....:...:........ ....... (it I take) rou? i Look at this senrence. Wha;[~;..;.{.',.•...d ......~;:.; ...... - 'C ...~.~ ........."................... /this word I mean )? 8 David isn't \'ery fit. He ..._........:...~ ..=-.........................:.................................. ........ (not I do ) any sparr.

...

2. 3

Use the foll owing verbs to complete the se ntences. Sometimes you need the nega tive : believe eat flow -go- -gt'OWmake rISe tell translate -"((UJlc:<I(S The earth .....g().~.~...... round the sun. 7 An interpreter .......................:..:.............:....... _ fr om one 2 Rice .....4P.~~.~.\....9.r.:9..~...... in Britain. language into another. ! 8 Liars are people who r-Ie., .. .{ ({ 3 The sun ......'!Y.. .d.:..!........ _.............. in the east. ~

;> I

4 Bees .......................l

. ................. ~.... h'lney.

5 Vegetarians ..:.:,.../ .....~.

6 An atheist ....~.~..r;.:... 2.4

YOll

2 3 4

5

6 2.5

meat.

" .........<.1:-11\ God.

the truth. 9 The River Amazon into the Atlantic Ocean.

ask liz qu estion s about herself and her family. Write the ques tions.

You know th:a li z phl)'S tenni s. You want to know how often. Ask her. How often .....4P. . .\j.~....~ ... ~.~::; .............................................................................. Perhaps Liz's sister plays tennis fOO. You want to know. Ask Liz . .........1:...f.t.-........:................................. rour sister ........~.~ ..~.f.!. ... :.~....................lZ.-i1.lL.iJ .................................................... ? You knoll' that liz reads a newspaper el'ery dar. You wanr fO kl~ow which one. Ask her. .' I /vl' t( " ..1 •,.. , .................................... _ ........................... t:.'...................... .......................... ...... C.................. L ................... _ You know that Liz's brorher works. You warn TO know whar he does . Ask Liz. I ;~ "'c :Yc ................................................. ? Y Oll know thar Liz goes to the cinema a lot. You want to know how often. Ask her. • I I p/~ .1(11 ;0,.' , -'/,;........................................... ~,1. '1>'; .....................................-.!......... .........-... . ? You don"t know where liz"s grandparents live. You \\:<)nt to know. Ask Liz, ',...

(

I, .,

Comple te using the following : I a pologise

I insist

I promi se

I recommend

It"s a nice da y. ......L..~.~99~~.t ... we go ou t for a walk. ., an~' body what r Oll said . ....................... I 3 (i ll a restal/ra ll t) You mu st let me pay for the meal. 4 ...........f~ ~.~(::. ~:: for what I did. It won"t ha'ppen again. ' very goo d . ......................................... ~'( ~ II. ,- Th e new restaurant .111 H'IIS I rreet IS .t I

1 I won"r rell

..

... ........

/

it.

5


Present continuous and present simple 1 (I am doing and I do) Compare:

Present

continllOltS (I

am doing)

Presellt simple (I do )

We use the continuo us for th ings happening at o r arou nd the rime of speak ing. The action is not complete.

\Y'/e use the simple for things in gene ral or things th:H happen rcpe:Hcd l ~路.

I do

I am do ing

past

{/IllITe

1I0W

o The W,Her is boi ling. Can you turn it off? o Listen TO those people. What language arc they speaking? o Let's go our. It isn't raining now. D 'I'm busy.' 'What arc you doing?' o I'm gelling hungry. Let's go and ear. a Kate wants to work in Italy, so she's lea rning Italian. o The population of the world is increasing very fa sr.

I

I

I

past

110 11 '

o Water boi ls at 100 degrees Celsi us. o Excuse me, do you speak Engl ish? o o o o

IT docsn ', ra in \'cry m uch in sum mer, What do yo u uSll1tlly do a t weekends? I a lways get hung ry in Ihe afternoon. i\ tost pe9ple learn TO sw im whcn the~' arc ch ildren, o Every day the populatio n of the world increascs by about 200,000 people,

We usc the con tinuous for temporary situations: o I'm living with some friends until I fi nd a place of my own. o A: You're working ha rd today. 8: Yes, I have a lot to do.

We use the simple fo r permallellf situations:

See Unit I fo r more info rmation.

See Uni t 2 fo r mo re inform:n ion.

~I y

pa rents live in Lllndon, They ha\'e li\'ed there all their li\'es, o J o hn isn't lazy. He works hard most of the time. o

I a lways do a nd I'm always doing I a lways do (something) = I do it every lime: o I a lways go to work by car. (1I0 t I' m a lways going) ' I' m a lways do ing someth ing' has a different mea ni ng. Fo r example:

I

I've lost my pen .again. I'm always losing things,

I' m a lways losing things = I lose things ,'ery often. perhaps toO oilen. o r more ofte n Ih:ln normal.

I

Two more examples: o You're a lways watching (elevision. Yo u should do some thing mo re acti\'e, (= You wa tch telev ision tOO o n-en) o Tim is never sa tisfied. He's a lways compla ining. (= He complains 100 much)

6

(utllre

Present continuous and simple 2 -- Unit 4

Present tenses for the future ..... Unit 19


Unit 3

Exercises 3.1

Are the underli ned verbs right or wrong? Correct them where necessary.

1 2 3 4 5

\X'ater h2il.s at 100 degrees Celsius. The w3ter h2.il.s.. Can you turn it oW Look! That nlan uit1 to open the door of ),OUT car. Ca n yOll hear those people: What d!! they mlk about? The moon ~ round the earth ;n about 27 days.

6 I must go now, It ifii hue. - I usually to work br ca r.

_ Q&.._.*.*.*M._.*......".. _ .. ___............_____... _ _~..Y..~9 ... ___ *" ___ ..•. _ _ _ _ •.. ___ · __ -

.. __ ._. ___ ._____ ....*_.M._··· _ _ __ __ ·*··,, _____ ·_·· __ ______ * _ _ . _ _ *. _ _ _ H' _ _ _ _ _ _ H ________

- -..-----------.---------

___.__ .H.H ____ * _______ · _ _ _ · _ _ _ ' Hurry up! I(s lime to leave: 'OK, I ~: "___.______ ._~ __ ._. __ .... _._. __ _ I hear you\'c got a new job. How d.Q you ggI on: ____.__H._......H.H.... _______ ·_·H_·_·· __ Paul is never hue. H e~ always ~ to work on time. "...... __.____ ."... _ .... _ .. _ ....... _._ .... __ ._._._.•. _......__ They don', get on well. Theyz always arguing. ...... ~_ ~

8 9 10 II

3.2

H . . . . .· _ · ·. . . . . • .. _ · _ · _ . . . • . . • . . • _ _ _ • .. _ _ · _ · _ _

........_

...... _

.... __

Put th e verb into the correct form , present conti~uous or present simple. 1

3 4

5 6 -

8

Let 's go out. It ......~r.J.~~.... r.w.~9...... (not I rain) now. Julia is very good al languagcs. She ......~p.~.s....... (s pcak ) four languages very well. Hurry up! Evcrybody ...... ......................... ....... (wai t ) for you. ._.... __ ._.. __ .... _.... _... _........... _.. _ .... _.. _ ..... (you I listen ) to the radio?' 'No, rou can turn it off.' ..__ ._._._.. _...... _... _................ __ .. _.... _.. ___ (you I listen) to the radio evcry da )'?' "No, just occasiona ll )'.' The River Nile .. ___ ._._.... _.. _. __ .. _...... _.... _.... . (flow ) into the Medi terrancan. The river __ ._...... _....... _._ ... _... _. __.____ (flow ) t"ery fast loday - much faster than usua l. \Yo/e usually ._. ___ ....... _ ......... __ ... _.. __ (grow ) \'egc(:lbles in our garden, but this year we _______ _. (not I grow) any. How's your English? 8: ~ot bad. I think it .__ ._... _. _________ . (i mpro\'e) slowly. .. ___ .. (S(:l),) at the Pa rk Hotel. Rachel is in London at the momeor. She __ ._. She always ._____ ._. __ ._. __ ...... __.___ (stay) there when shc's in London. Can we Stop walking slfDn? J ... _._ •.. ________.__.__ ....... _ (Slart ) to feel tired. ,\: Can yO li drive: B: I ___.___________.___ ._._. (learn ). l'...I ~' fathe r ........... _._ ....... _. __ ._. ___ .__ .... _. (teach) me, 1'0rmatJy I ..... _...... __.__.___.__ ....... _... _..... (fi nish) work at fi\'e, but this week I .............................................................. (work ) unril six to carn a little more money. l\ t y parents .. _........................... (Ii\'e) in J\ll:tncheSler. They were born there and have never li\'ed anyw here else. \'(' here ............ _............................................................................... (your parents I live)? Sonia ..................... ~...................... . (look) for a place to li ve. She ............................................................. (s(:lY) with her sister until she finds somcwhere. A: What ...•. _.................... _ .... _... _......... _.... _............._...._..,...... _ (your brother I do)? 8: He's an archi tect, but he ._.... _............................ __ .. _..... _.............. _._ ... _ (not I work) af the moment. (at a part)'} I usually _._ ...... _.~.~ __ .~ .. jnol I enioy ) this o ne very much.

9 A:

10 II

11

13 14

15 16

17

3.3

H ...... _

• • _ _ •••••• _ . _ . _ .

Finish 8's sente nces. Use always -in9 . 1 A: I've lost my pen a~ain. 8: :-\ot again! _:t:~_'('£..~ ~Ll&~ .. ~_~__ ._._._._ .. __ ... __ ... ~ __ ............. _._. ________ • 1 .~: The car has broken down again. B: That car;s useless. It ____ ._________ .___ ._.~ ... ___ ._____ .......... _... __ ~_. _ _ _ _ _ •

__

3 .\: Look! You\'e made the same mistake again. ._... .. ._._- . 8: Oh no, not again! 1 _ .. ~._.~ ... ___ .___ ~. __ ._._. . 4 .~: Oh. I've forgonen my glasses again. B: Typica l! ._... ~._ ........ __ .. ___ ..... _ ............----..- ..--- ...........-....-.--.-..-...... ~ ........................... --.-.-.--.-.~ ..............-....-.. - ,

_-_._-_._._._----_ __

7


Present continuous and present simple 2 (I am doing and I do) We use contin uous fo rms for actions a nd happenings that have started bu t not fi nished (they a re eating I it is raini ng etc.). Some verbs (for example, know a nd like ) afe not normall y used in t his way. We don't say ' I am knowing' or 'they are li king'; we say" know', 'they like', T he fo llowi ng verbs a re nor normOl U\, used in the present conrinuous'

like

love hale want

kno w

realise

belong

fi,

suppose

cOnla ;n

need

prefer understand

mean

consist

believe

remember

seem

a I'm hungry. J wan l somethi ng to eat. (no t I'm wanting) a Do you understand what I mean ? o Anll doesn't seem very happy al the moment. T hink When think means ' believe' or ' ha ve a n opinion', we do nor lise the cont in uous: o I think Ma ry is Ca nadian, but I'm not sure. (I/O f I'm t hin king) o Wha t do you th ink about my plan? (= Wha t is your opinion?) When th ink means 'consider', the conti nuous is possible: o I' m thinking about what ha ppened. I often think abour it. o Nicky is th ink ing of givi ng up her job. (= she is considering if) \

He is selfish and He is being selfish He's being = He's behaving I He's acting. Com pa re: o I ca n't understand why he's being so selfish. He isn', usua lly like that. (being selfish = behaving selfishly at the momen t ) o He never thinks about other people. He is very selfish. (110 1 He is being) (= He is selfish generall y, nor only at the .moment) We use a m/is/a rc being to say how somebody is bebol/il/g. It is not usually possible in other sentences: o It 's hot today. (I/ or It is being hor ) o Sa rah is very t ired . (I/ ot is being t ired) See

hea r

smell

taste

We normally usc t he present simple (not contin uous ) wi th these \'crbs: o Do you see tha t man over there? (t/ot Are you seei ng) o This rool11 smell s. Let's open a window. We often use ca n .. seelhearlsmelVtaste: o I can hear a strange noise. Can you hear it ? Look

feel

You can use the present si mple o r continuous to say how somebody looks or feels now: o You look well today. or You're looking well today. o How do you feel now? or How a re you feeling now? bllt

o I usually feci t ircd in the morni ng.

8

( l l0 t

I'm usually feeling )

Present continuous and simple 1 ....... Un it 3 Have - Un it 17 Prese nt tenses for the future -.. Un it 19


Exercises 4.1

Unit 4

Are the underlin ed ve rbs t ight or wrong? Correct th em where necessary. ~ick}'

I

is

tbi!lkio~

of gi \'ing up her job.

1 .itt you brlj,,"jng in God ~ J I'm £edio~ hungry. Is there anything to cat? -\ This sa uer is great. It"s tastioi rcally good.

._..QK __ ._._._._._.......__.__....._....__ ._..._._...._._. ___ -_._. __.__.__._._. ._.... _. ___.__._. __ ._. __.____.___ ._.......__.__ ._. __ ._._._.,_. __._"'_._.

.. _. __._.____ ..... _.... _______._____._.__ _ _ ._._. _______ ' H _••• __ •____ ·_ _ _ _ _ ·_ _ __

5 I'm Ihjnkim: this is your key. Am [ right?

4.2

Use the word s in brackets to ma ke sentences. (You should also study Unit 3 before you do th is exercise.) (what I you I do?)

Be qu iet! (I I think)

3

(who I th iS umblt'lia

(the dinner /smell/good)

I ~Iong

to?)

5

Th~'n!

4.3

4.4

too small.

Put the verb IO ta the correct form , present continuous or present simple. I Arc ~' ou hungr~' : ..... D9... .!:i~_ ...'r.!.m t..... (you I want) something to car? 1 Don't put Ihe dictionary away. [ ....., ................. (use) it. 3 Don't PUI the dictionary away. I .__ .............. (need ) it. 4 \X' ho is Ihat Illan? \Xlhat ......... ....................... _ ......... (he I want)? 5 Who is that Illan? \'\Ihy ._._.......... _.... _ (he f look) at us? 6 Alan says he's 80 years old. but nobody _... ___ ... _................. _......... _.. _................ (believe) him. 7 She wId me her name, bUI I ......................_._ ............._.......... __ .. _. ____ (nOl i rell1ember) it now. S I __. ,_. (think) of selling m~' car. Would j-ou be interested in buying it ? 9 __ (rhink ) you shou ld sell your car. You __._......... _..... ~ ......._~ .... ~. ______ (nOl I use ) it \·eryoften . .~ ____ ... ~ __ ~~. (consist) mainly of nitrogen and oxygen . 10 Air Complete the se ntences usi ng the most suitable form of be. Somet imes you must use the sim ple (am/isfare) and sometimes the continuous is more suitable (am/is/are being). 1 I can't understand wh~' .....~.~~_ ...~_~g._. so selfish. He isn't usually like that. 1 Sa r:th _ _._ ... __ .. very nice to me at the moment. I wonder why. 3 You·1t like Debbie when ~'ou meet her. She ........... _._ .. ___ ............. ___ ._............... \'ery I1ICt". 4 You 're usu.tlly very p:.u iem. so why _...... ......... _.. _._. ___._._....... _ so unreasonable about waiting ten mort" minutes? .................. _._._._...... il l? 5 \'\' h ~' isn'! Ste\'e at work toda~' ?

9


Past simple (I did) Study rhis exam ple: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was an Austrian musician and composer. He lived from 1756 to 1791. He Slarted composing at rhe age o f five

and wrote more than 600 pieces oi music. He was o nly 35 yea rs o ld w hen he died . Livcd/st:lrIcd/wrotc/was/dicd are 311

simple.

Pll S!

Very often the past si mple ends in -cd (regular verbs): o I work in a travel agency now. Before that I worked in :I depanment store. D We invited them to o ur party. but they decided no t to come. o The police slopped me on my way home last nigh t. o L'lura passed her exami nation because she studied vcry ha rd. For spelling (stopped, studied etc.), sec Appendix 6. But ma ny write sec go shut

verbs are irregular. The past si mple does lI o t end in -cd. For exa mple: - wrote 0 Mozart wrote more than 600 pieces of music, ..... saw 0 We saw Rose in town a few days ago, ..... went 0 I went to the cinema three times last week, -- shut 0 h was cold, so I shut the window,

For a list of irregula r verbs, see Appendix I , In questions and negatives we use did/didn't .. ;" fj"itive (enjoy/see/go etc,l : she they o

enjoyed saw went

you did

she they

enjoy? see? go?

she they

didn 't

enjoy see go

Did you go out laSt night? B: Yes, I went to the cinema , but J didn't enjoy the film much, o ' When did Mr Thomas die ?' ' About ten rea rs ago.' o They didn't invite her to the party, so she didn't go, o ' Did you have time to w rite the letter ?' 'No, I didn 't.' A:

In the fo llowi ng exa mpl es, do is the mai n verb in the sentence (did .. , do / didn't do ): o What did you do at rhe weekend? (1Iot What did you at the weekend ?) o I didn 't do anything, (Im t I didn't anyth ing) The past of be (am/is/are) is was/we" r _' _ _ _ _-,----,---_-, l/ hc/shcli t was/wasn't we/youlthey were/weren't

was

IIhe/she/it ?

were we/youlthey?

Norc that we do nor use did in negati\'es and questions with was/wel"c: o I was angry beca use they were late, o Was the weather good when you were on holiday? o They weren't a ble to come beca use they were so busy. o Did you go ou t last night or were you roo tired?

10

Past simple and pas t continuous .... Unit 6

Past simpit' and present perfect .... Uni ts 12- 14


Exercises 5.1

Unit 5

Read what laura says about a typical worki ng day :

~

I usually get up at 7 o'clock and have a big breakfast. I walk to work, which takes mt' about half an hour. I star t work al 8.45. I

n('Vef have lunch. I finish work at 5 o'clock. rm always tired when I get home. I usua lly cook a meal in the evening. I don't usually go out. I go to bed at about 11 o'clock, and I always sleep well.

lau ra

Yesterday was a typical working day for Laura. Write what she did or didn 't do yesterday.

........ :u 5 o 'clock. 7 ... _..... fired when ................................. home. 8 9 ... ........ ... . ... a meal yesterday evening. ............ to gel to work. 10 ....... om res rerday evening .

___ ........ a hig breaktasr.

2 She "'_... _'H. _

3 She

_____ _______ ."... _..

4 It

5 6 5.2

...................._ .. ....... 3 1 8.45. ..................... _..................................................... _............... _ lunch.

....................... _..... ............................. ........ at 11 o'clock . ....................... well last night .

11 12

Complete the sentences using the following verbs in the COrrect form : bu ~'

2 3 4 S 6

ca tch

cost

fa ll

hurt

scll

spend

teach

thro w

-wflf-e-

\I oz:m ._.w.r.9.~ ... more than 600 pieces of music. ' Ho w did you learn to drin;-? ' '~ I y father ........ .. ... me: W.le cou ldn't :lfford to keep o ur ca r. so we ..... D,l\'e ..... dow n the stairs thi s morni ng and ........................ .................. his leg. J im the ball to Sue. who ............................. ... it. Ann .... a lot of money yesterda y. She ........................................... a dress which

......... £ 100. 5.3

You ask James about his holiday. Write your questions. H i. How are things ? Fine, thank s. \\ 'e JUSt had a great llOlid,ty. ''I?here ... 4!4. . ~C¥.... 99 ... . To the U.S. \, 'e went on a trip from San Francisco to Denver. 2 Ho\\" ..... ...................................... ?Bycar? Yes. we hired a car in $,111 Franci sco. 3 It·s a long way to dri\·e. How long ........................................... _ . Two weeks . 4 Where . .. ................. .... ? In hore-ls? Yes. small hotels or mo tel s.

5 6 5.4

.................................... ................................ .;

Yes, bm it was I"cry hor - sometimes ......................... _.. the Grand Canyon? Of course . It wa s wonderful.

tOO

hot .

Complete the sentences. Put the verb into the correct form , posit ive or negalive. 1 It wa s warm, so I ......tQQ..\::... o ff nl\'. coat. , .(takc ) 2 T hc fi lm wa sn't "cry good. I ..... ru4~. J ... !2U9~ ..... it very much. (enjoy) 3 I knew $:lTah wa s " ery b usy, so I ........................ ............................... her. (disturb ) the parry early. (leave ) 4 I wa s "cry tired. so 1 ...... _.. ..................... S The bed wa s "er~' unco mfo rtable. I ............................................................... very well . (sleep ) .......................... .. ......... into the room. lfly) 6 T he window was open and a bird ... very much . (cost ) - T he ho tel wasn 't \'er~' ex pensh·e. It .... time ro phone you . (have ) S I was in a hurry. so I .........:............ ............. very he.l "y. (be ) 9 It was hard c:lrr~' ing the bags. They .

11


Past continuous (I was doing) Study this example si ruation: Yesterday Karen and Jim played Tennis. They began :11 10 o"clock and finis hed at 11.30. So,31 10.30 they were playing tcnnis.

They were playing =they wcre in Ihe middle of pJa~路 ing. They had not finished pla ying.

r

Was/were -ing is the

P.lSt ('0 1lti1l1l0 1lS:

I/ he/she/it was wc/youlrhey were

playing doing working etc.

I was doing something = I was in the middle of doing something at a ccpa in ti me. The action or situation had already sta rted before this time, but had nOt fini shed: I started doing

I

I was doing

~ I ------...

I fini shed doi ng

I

past o This time lasl year I was living in Brazil. o What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night? o I waved to Helen, but she wasn't looki ng.

past

now

Compa re the past continlfOus (I was doing ) and past simple (I did):

Past

CO l1til111 011S

(i n rhe middle of an acrion)

o J was wa lking home when I mel Da ve. (in Ihe midd le of an action ) o Kare was watching television when we arrived.

Past simple (complete aClion) ::J I walked home after the parry lasr night. (= all the way. complctely)

:J Kalc walched lelevision a lot when she was ill last year.

We oftcn use the past simple and the past continuous togethe r to say tha t something happened in the middle of something elsc: o Matt phoned white we were havi ng dinner. o It was raining when I got up. o I saw you in the park yesterday. You were siu ing on the grass and reading a book. o I hurt my bac k while I was worki ng in the ga rden.

I

But we use the past simple to say that one thing happened after a nother: o I was walking along the road when 1 saw Da\'e. So I stopped, and we had a chat. Compare: o When Karen a rri\'ed, we were having dinner. (= we had al ready started before she arrived)

:J \'\?hen Karen arrived, we had dinner. ( = Karen arri\路ed. and then we had dinner)

Some verbs (for example, know a nd want ) 3re nor normally used in rhe continuous (see Unir 4A ): o We were good friends. We knew each other well. (lI o t We were knowing) o I was enjoying the party, but Chris wanted to go home. ( l1 o t wa s wa nting)

12


Unit 6

Exercises 6.1

What were you doing at these times? Write sentences as in the examples. The past continuous

is not always necessary (see the second examp le] , I 1 3 4 5 6

1:11 8 o'clock yes le rd3~' even ing) _J...~~... !,!Q.,'f~9_..w.!.I.~.: ... ______ ... ~ .. ~ __ ... _____ ·"· __ ·_··......_-"*-

\at 5 o"c1ock last ~ l o n d3y ) _L~.~__Q!U!c.J~!~~.~._g!.L~!:l..!:I.~.J1_~!L_. __._.*"*._._.__.__.___ ( at

10.15 yesterday morning) _ .. _________________________________ .__ ... _

(at 4.30 Ihis morning) ___ .________ .. _______________ •. _

1at i .45 yesterday ('\"ening) ___________ .. _.... ___ ... _. __ ._•. _ _ _ _ _ ._ _ _ .______ _ (half an hour ago ) ... ___ .__ .__ .___ *_. ______ ._._.___ ._.. _.. _.~.*.*.* .. _. ____•.*._".HM __·_· _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _·_·*

6.2

Use your own idea s to compl ete the sentences. Use the past continuous. I .\Ian phoned whil(' w(' •__ .~~~ . h~~~.9-.~~~- ....-.....-.-- ........... _..........._._ ... ___ ......................_... _._ ... _. __.___.__ • 1 The doorbell rang while I ..... _.. _ ..........._..... __.___.__._._..... _..........................__ ..... _._. _____ ......... _ .. _.. _.... _.. _._._ ... _. 3 \'I;/e saw an accident while we ._ .................. ,_ ... _.. _. ___ .......... _ ................. _...................... _...."............ 4 Ann fell asleep while she ..... ,.................................................................................................................... _...... ...................... ....... . 5 The television was on, but nobodr . ........................ _...... _...."............................. _._

6.3

Put the verb into the correct form . past continuous or past simple.

2.:,r=-=,-

I _.so..I'L. (se<"l Sue in rown yes terda~·. but she ~_ ~ ___ ._.. ____ .. ___ (nOt I see) me. She _ .._ .. _ _ .. _ _ (look ) the o ther wa,·. ..

I ____.____ (meet) To m

I . ________ (C)'c1e) home

and Jane at the airport a few weeks ago. They _ __ ,, ___ .___ ._,,_ (go) to Paris and I ........ ____ .__ ... _._ .. _... _._. __ .__ (go) to

),esterda)' when a man ....... __ ._. __ ....... _.... __ ... _ ... (step) o ur

Rome. \";'e .. _____ ._____

......... (ha ve)

a chat \\·hile we .. _ ...................... __ .... .. _......... _.... _ (wait ) for our fli ghts. 6.4

into the road in from o f me. I ............. _....... __ .___ (go) quite fast, but luckil), I .___.___ ..... _ (manage ) to StOP in time and ......................"......... (nor I hit) him .

Put th e ve rb into' the correct form, past continuous or past simple. J en n ~' ..... _w ~.... !o'J~9-

1 '\'I;lhar ........... ....."........... 3 4 How fast rh:lppen ): 5 S:lnl .____.__

(wait ) for me when I ....,,~.r.~~.~ ..... (a rrive). ....... _ (you I do) at th is time yesterda}'?' 'I was asleep.' (rou I go ) out laSt night?' 'No, 1 was tOO tired.' _. __ ... __ ... _ (you I dri"el when the accident .... _._. __ .. _._._ ....... _._. (take l a p hotogra p h of me while 1 .____________ . _. ___.

(not I look ).

6 We were in a \'e rr diffi cul t position. W/e __________ ... ___.____ (not I know) what

to do.

- I haven't seen Alan for ages. When I last ________._._... ~ (see) him, he ._ ___ .... _ ._.. (tr y ) to find a job. 8 1 ____.___ (walk ) a long the st reet when suddenly I .~._.~_ ... _... _... ___ .. ___ _ (hear) footsteps behind me. Somebody .____________ ._._._... _...... _ (fo llow) me. I was scared and J ..... _.. __ .• _______ ._ ......... (starr ) to run. 9 When I was young. I ......___ .. __ ..... .... _._ (want) to be a pilo£. 10 LI st night [ ........ _........ _...... ~. ___...._...... _._._._ ... (dro p) a plate when 1 ....."'''''''........... _..... _.... __ ....... _.. .... _ (do) the washing up, Fo nun:udy it ................ _... .........."',,... (not I break ). ....,. Add itiona l excrcise 1 (page 302)

13


Present perfect 1 (I have done) Stud y this example simarion:

Tom is looking for his key. He can't find it. He has \OSI his kt路 ~路. He has losl his k e~' :: He lost it recently. and he sti ll doesn't h3\'C il. Havc/has losl is the prest'1II perfect sim ple: IIweft h ey/~'ou

ha ve (= l'\'e C'rc. '

helshelit h"

1= he's etc.)

finished

lost done

been el..:.

The present perfect simple is havclhas + past /Jorticil,/e. The pa st participle often ends in -cd (fin ished/decided erc.), but ma ny important verbs are irregular (lost/done/written etc.). For a list of irregular ve rbs, see Appendix I. When o o o

we say that 'somethi ng has ha ppened ', this is usually new info rmation: Ow! I've cut my finger.

The road is closed. There's been (there has been ) an accident. ((rom tl)e " ews ) Po lice have arrested fWO men in conncctio n with the robbery,

When we use the presem perfcct, there is a connection wi th now, The act io n in the past has a result flOW: o 'Where's your key?' ' I do n't know, I've lost it: (= I don'r ha\'e il now) o He told me his name, but I've fo rgon en it, (= I ca n't remember it " ow ) o ' Is Sa lly here?' 'No, she's gone out: ( = she is ou t now ) o I can't find my bag, H ave you seen it ? (= Do you know where it is IIOW? ) You can use the present perfect with JUSt, a lready and yet, J USt = it short rime ago: o 'Are you hung ry ?' 'No. I've ju st had lunc h: o Hel lo, H ave rou ju st a rri ved ?

,

We lise a lready to sa y fh a t someThing happened sooner than expected: o ' Don'r forger ro send rhe lerrer.' 'I \ 'e al readr sent it.' o 'What tillle is Ma rk lea ving?' 'He's a lready gone: Yet = until no w, Yet shows that the spe3ker is expecti ng something to h.lppen, Use in questi o ns and negari ve semences: o H as h SlOpped raining yel ? o I've wrinen the lerrer, bur I haven't sent it yet.

I

~'e l

o nly

--~---

Note the difference between gone Itol and been (to ): o Jim is on holida y. He has gone to Ital y, (= he is there now o r o n his wa)' there) o J a ne is back home now, She has been to Ital y, (= she ha s now come back)

14

Present perfect ..... Units 8, 11 Been to -- Uni ts 8A, 1268 Present perfect continuous ..... Units 9-10 Present perfect and past ..... Units 12- 14 Ye t and al ready ..... Unit 11 1 America n English "'" Appendix 7


Exercises 7.1

Read the situations and write sentences. Use the foll owing verbs : arnve break fa ll go up grow improve .lose-

1 3 4 5 6 -

7.2

Unit 7

Tom is looking for his key. He ..;all't find it. ~Iargilret ,;m't watk and her kg is in phmcr. La st week the bus brt' was 80 pence. Now it is 90 . \13ri 3'5 English wa sn't \"Ny good . :'\ow it is beHcr. Dolll didn 't hau' a be;lTd before. Now he has a beard. This morning I \\'as expecting a letter. :-.iow I have it. The rernper:Hure \\'as 10 degrees. :\ ow it is onl~' 12.

.....H.~....r.~

_

He ........................................ . The letter h_. T he .......................................................................

Comp lete 6's sen tences. Use the verb in brackets + just/already/yet. A Would you like something to eat?

..

,.~.~.t .n.i§._ ~_~.:.

She . The bus bre ................................................ _....... Her English ..............................................

B

No. thanks. . J:Y.~..j.~.~~ ..~.\Y.J......~.r.!.~ ............. (I I JUSt I ha\'e I lunch)

1

Do you know where- J ulia is?

3

What time is David lea\';ng?

Yes, ' .............................................................................. ,............... . (I I iu st I see I her) (he I a lread )' I leave)

Wha t's in the newspaper

5

tod a~:

Is Sue coming to the ci nema with us:

I don't know.

n f not I read I it ~'er) ~o

. ............................ ,.......... ,............... _...

(she I .l lre.ld )' I see I the fil m ) 6

Are

~'o ur

friends hefe

~'e t :

Yes, ..................................................... (they I JUSt I ~Hrive)

\X' hat does Tim think abour your plan: (we I nOt I tell I him yet )

7.3

Read the situat ions and write sentences with just, already or yet. I After lunch ~'ou go ro see a frien d at her hOllse. She sa ys. '\X'ould you lik e someth ing to eat?'

You say : ~o thank ~·ou . .... .J.~..".~.jI....~.t ..\:'1~ ... ~.~ctJ...... . (ha\'e lunch ) 2 Joe goes Out. Fi\'e minutes later. the phone rings and the ca ller says, 'Can I spea k

3 4

5 6 -

7.4

to Joe?' You sa~' : I' n; aira id . ........ ..................... ........................................................... .................................... . (go Ollt ) You are eating in a resrauraIH, The wa iter thinks you ha ve finished and starts to take your plate a\\·ay. You say: Wai t a mlnure~ ........................................................................................................... . (not I finish) You are going to a rest aurant to night. You phone to resen'e a table. Later your friend says, 'Shal ll pho ne ro reserve a ta ble.' You S:ly: No. ............................................... ........................_.... (do it) You know that a friend of yours is looking ior a place to li\le. Perhaps she ha s been sl\l:cessfu l. Ask her. You sa~' : ................. ? (find) You are sti ll thi nki ng about \\·here to go for rour holiday. A friend a sks. 'Whe re are you goi ng fo r you r h olida ~' :' You say: . ........................ ........................................................ _..... . .. . (nol/dccide) Linda went to the ba nk, but a few minutes ago she returned. Somebod y asks, ' Is Linda still at the bank? ' You say: ~o , ... _ ............... _........................................................... _..... .............. . (come back)

Put in been or gone. I 2 3 4 5

Jim is on holiday. H e's ... gon~ .... to Italy. Hello ! I\ 'e JUSt ........ ............... to the shops. I've bought lots of things. Alice isn't here .l( the moment. She's . .......................... to the shop to get a newspaper. Tom h;lS .................. out. He' ll be back in :lhour an hour. 'A re you goi ng to the b.l1lk:· ·~o. I've a l r('a d~· ........ ,.. ,.......................... ,.. ro the bank.'

15


Present perfect 2 (I have done) Stud y this exam ple conversation: DiONE: H ave you tra vell ed

:l

lor. Jane?

JANE: Yes, I've been to lors o f pl aces. I)A\'[ : Really ? H ave yo u t'\'er been to China ? JANE: Yes, I've been ro China twice. DAVE: JAN E:

W hat a bout Ind ia ? o. I haven't been to India.

Jane's life fa period until now )

past

1I 0 U '

When we tal k abou t a period of ti me that conrinues frolll the past um il no\\', we use the prese"t perfect (have been I have travelled etc. I. Here. Da ve a nd Jane arc talking about the places j .m e ha s visited in he r life {wh ich is a period thar continues unril now l.

Some more exa mples: o H ave you eve r e ~lI c n caviar ? (in your li fe)

o We've nevcr had a ca r. o ' H a ve you read Hamlet?' 'No, I haven't read any of Sha kespeare's plays.' o Susa n rea ll y loves tha t fi lm . She's seen it eight l imes! o Wha t a bori ng fi lm! It's the most boring fil m I've ever seen. Been (to) = visited: o I've m:ver been to China. H ave you been there? In the following examples tOO, the spea ke rs a re ta lking about a period that continues until now (recend y I in the last fe w days I so far I since breakfast etc.): o H ave you heard from Brian recentl y? - - - recentIY,- - ---i o I've met a lor o f people in the last few days. o Everythi ng is going wel l. We haven't had a ny problems - in the lasl few days _ so far. - - since brea kfa st o I'm hungry. I haven't eaten anything sil'\ce breakfast. (= from breakfast until now ) past now o It's good to see you agai n. We ha\'en't seen each other fo r a long time. We use the present perfect with today I this evening I thi s yea r etc. when these periods a re nor fi nished at the time of speaki ng (see also Unit 148): o I've drunk fo ur c ups of coffee today. toda y o Have you had a holiday this year (ret )? past now o I ha ven't seen To m this mo rning. Have you? o Rob hasn't studied very ha rd this term . We sa y: It 's the (fi rst) time something has happened. For exa mple: a Don is having a driving lesso n. It's his fi rst one. It's the fi rst time he has driven a car. (not drives) or H e has never driven a car before. o Sa rah has lost he r passpon aga in. T his is the second ti me this has ha ppened . (not happens) o Bill is phoni ng his girlfriend aga in. That's the th ird time he's phoned her this evening.

16

Present perfect 1 - Unit 7 Presen t perfect + for/since ...... Units 11 -12 Present perfect and past - Units 12-14

ThiS is the fir5t ti me rve d rive n a car.


Exercises 8.1

Unit 8

You are asking people questions about th ings they have done. Ma ke questions with ever using the words in brackets.

(ride I horse? ) _.. .tI~'o:'~... .ti~... ~X~.... r.~ ..~ ... f:!gr.~.~.?..._ 2 (be I Ca lifornia: ) Have . ............................................. 3 (run I marathon? ) . 4 (speak I famou s person: ) 5 (mosr beaUTifu l pbce I \'isir? ) \'\fhat's .

8.2

Complete 8's answers. Some sen tences arc positive and some nega tive. Use the following verbs : be

be

cat

happen

ha\'c

-meef-

play

read

sec

What's :\ Iark's sister like:

How is Diane these

3

Arc you

5

hlln g r~' ?

Are

~'OU enio~' i ng

you r

h o lida~' ?

6

What's that book like?

7

Is Brusse ls an inren.'sting place?

8 9 10 II

8.3

da~'s ?

Ca n rOll play chess?

4

~\'l ike

try

B

A

2

sec

wa s late fo r wo rk again today.

Do

~'ou lik e ca \'iar?

I hear your ca r bro ke down again yesrerday. \\;' ho's that wom an by the

door~

r n' no idea . ......i.:X.e. ..~~I(_~_. met

her.

I don'r kno w. I ...._ ................................................. her recently. Yes. I

......................................................................... much today.

Yes. but

................................. fo r ages.

Yes. it's the best holida y. for .\ long rime. I don'r know.

I' ve no ide,\. Agai ll? He ...................................................... e"ery da y thi s week.

I don't know.

. it. ......... there. ........................ late . it.

Yes, it's the second time . thi s week.

I don'r know. ..

....... her before.

Complete the sentences usi ng today I this yea r I this term etc. I saw Tom }"esterda~·. but ......I.... ~.~~.~.:t.~.~. .~.~....~ . . 3 1 read a newspaper yeSTerda y, but I ................ ............................................................................................................... Today. 4 Last yea r rhe l'Ompany made a profit, but rhi s ~'ear ....................................................................................... 4 Tracy wo rked hard at school la ST term. but ...................... ........................................................................................... . 5 IT sno wed a lot la St \,·inter. hut .................................... .................................................................................................• 6 Our footba ll ream won a lot of games la sr"season. bur we

8 .4

Read the situations and write sentences as shown in the example. I Jack is driving a car. bur he's \'er~' nervous and not sure wha t' TO do. You ask: .....H.?:-y.~... ~2\A. ....¢.r~~.~ ....?:-.... ~....~.~ft?t~. ~ ................................................................... H e says: ...... NQ.l.J~~S: ....i,§..__~.~ ....fi,r..5..t... .t.4r.~.. ..!.\~... 4r.~.~ ....o..:.....~ ....................... 1 Ben is playing ten nis . He's not good ar it and he doesn't know the rules. You ask: Have ..... _.......... ___ ........... . ............................................................ _ H e sa~'s : :-":0. this is the fi rst ........................................................................................................................... 3 Sue is riding a horse. She doesn't look very confident or comfortable. Yo u ask: ._ She says: 4 \I aria is in London . She ha s JUSt arrived and it's very new for her. You ask: She says:

17


Unit

9

Present perfect continuous (I have been doing) It has been rai ning Study this example situation: Is it raining? ~o,

but the grou nd is weI.

It has been raining.

Havelhas been -ing is the prest'" perfect continuous:

Vwcllhey/you ha\'c he/she/it

h"

(= I've etc. I

(=

hc's etc. )

been

doi ng waiting playing

CIC.

We use the presen t perfect conti nuous for an activity tha t has recently stopped or just stopped. is a connect ion with /lOW: You' re ou r of breath. H ave you been ru nning ? (= you're our of br;arh now) Pau l is very tired. He's been working very hard . (= hc's tired now) Why 3tC you r clothes so dirty? What have you been do ing? I've been talking to Amanda about the problem and she agrees wi~h me. Where have you been? I've been looking fo r you everywhere.

T here o o o o o

It has been raining fo r two ho urs. Study this exa mple si tuatio n:

Ir began rain ing twO ho urs ago a nd it is still raining. How long has it been raini ng ~ Ir has been raining fo r twO ho urs. We use the present pe rfect cont in uo us in this way w ith ho w lo ng,. for ... and since .... The acti\路iry is still happening (a s in this example ) o r ha s just sropped. o o o o

H o w lo ng have you been learning English ? (= you're still learning English ) Tim is still watching television. He's been wa tching television a ll day. Where have you been ? I've been looki ng fo r you fo r the last ha lf ho ur. C hris hasn 't been feeling well recently.

Yo u can use the present prefect continuo us for actio ns repeated over a period of lime: o Debbie is a ve ry good tennis player. She's been playing since she was eight. o Every morning they meet in the sa me cafe. They've been going there fo r years. Compare I am d o ing (see Unit I ) and I have been do ing:

I am doing

I have bttn doing

present continuous

present perfect continuous

I now

IIOW

o Don 't disturb me now. I'm working. o Wle need an umbre lla. It 's raining. o H urry up ! We' re waiting.

18

Present perfect con tinuous and simple

-+

Un its 10 - 11

I'\'e been working ha rd. :\"ow I'm going to ha ve a break . ;: The g rou nd is wet. I[,s been raining. :J " :re 've been waiti ng fo r a n hour.

Present perfect + for/since -

Units 11-1 2


Exercises 9.1

Unit

What have these peopl e been doing or what has been happening?

2

earlier

.

3

earlier

I

earlier

Th e~'

9.2

9

_ ........__ .... _...... ,............._.........................................................

1I0W

H e .... _ .................................................................................._..................

Write a qu estio n for each si tu ation. I You meet Paul as he is leavi ng the swimming pool. You ask: fyou I swim? ) ..J:I_~v_~._~~~._~.~._.5..!'::!~~.!!I.9L __.__ .. __ ._. _______ ..... ".H.,,_. __ ..................... 2 You h,l\'C JUSTarri\'ed to meet a fr iend who is waiTing io r you. You ask: (you I wait I long ; ) __ .. _. ________ .__.___ .___ ...... ________ ...... _..... _______ .... _________ _ 3 You meeT a friend in the street. His face and hands arc "ery dirty. You ask: (what I ro u I dO: l __________ .______________ .__ .____ _

-\ A friend of yours is now working in a shop. You want to know how long. You ask: (how long I you I work I there n ._. ___ ~_"' ___ ~.~' .."' ___ '__ '~'~~'_~'~'~'_~ __ ~ __ ~ ______ 5 A friend tells you about his job - he sells computers. You wa m to know how lo ng. You ask: lho\\' long I ~'o u I sell I com puters:) "."_... ~ .. _.. ~" .. ~.~._.~" ..... ~ .... ~.~ .... ~ .... ~ ___ ............ ~ ___ ~. __ ._~ .... _

9.3

Rea d the situ a tio ns and compl et e the sente nces.

I It's ra ining. The ra in staned tW O hou rs ago. II _..~... .P.,~ ....r ~.g..... for two ho urs. 2 \'\/e are wa it ing fo r the bus. \X'e started waiting 10 minutes ago. We ,.. ~ .... _.......... ". ....... ~ .. ~~ .... ~ .. _.............. ~ ... _......... ........... ,.......... ~ .. ~ fo r 20 minutes. 3 I' m learn ing Spanish. I smned classes in December. ............... _................... , .............. ~.... _____ ................... ~ ................... ~ ...." since Decenlber. I 4 ~tary is wo rking in London. She started \i:arking there o n 18 Janua ry . .... _.. _. .......... _.....~.~ .. ~._._ ........... _............. _._.~.~ .... ~_ .................... ~ ....... _ since 18 J a nuary. 5 Our friends a lways spend thei r holidays in Italy. The~' started going there years ago. ____ ... _ _ __ ... _. __ ._____ ... _. ____ .. _._. __ ....... ________ for rea rs. 9.4

Put the verb into the presen t cont inuous (I am - ing) or prese nt pe rfect continuous have bee n - jng). 1 _ /'v\o.r~~~_ b~ _l.t.o.mLn9 __ (.\I aria I lea rn ) English for IWO years. 2 Hello, Tom, _. _ .___ {I I look) for YOli. Where ha\'C~ you been? 3 \XThy ____. _ _ _ , __.___ (you I look ) al me like Iha l ? SlOP it ! 4 Linda is a teacher. .____ .... ~.~. ______ ... ____ . (she f reach) for ten years. 5 ~ .. _._ .... _... __..........__.__.__ .. _"."......"~ (II think ) a bout wha t you sa id a nd I've decided to take your adl路jce. ........... _._ ..... __ (hc I work).' 6 'Is Paul on holiday th is week:' 'No, ..... . ................ _ .. (she I work) vc ry ha rd recently. - Sa rah is "cry ti red.

II

19


Present perfect continuous and simple (I have been doing and I have done) Study this exa mple situation:

Kate's clorhcs are coverec! in paim. She has been painting the cei ling.

The ceiling was whi re. :--':ow it is red. She has paimed the ceili ng.

Has been palming is the /Jr{'sc1lf perfect

Has paimed is th e "resell! I}er(ect simplt,.

co ntillll OUS.

Here, the important thing is that something has been fini shed. Has painted is <1 completed acrion. W/e arc interested in tht result of the activity (the painted ce i1ing ~ . nOI the activity itself.

We are interested in the activit}'. It does not matter whether something has been finished or nOt. In this example, the activity (paiming

the ceiling) has nO[ been finished.

--IComp:uc these examples: o M y hands are very diny. I've been repai ring the car. D Joe has been eating t OO much recently. He should eat less. D II 's nice to sec )'OU again. What have you been doing since we laSt met? o Where have you been? H ave you been

playi ng tennis?

We usc the conrinuous to say hOIll IOllg (for an activity that is still happening ): o How long have you been read ing that book? o Lisa is still writing Iwers. She's been writing leners all day . o The)"ve been pla yi ng tenni s sin ce 2 o'clock. o I'm learning Spanish, bur I ha\'Cn 't been learn ing it very long.

.

l

o The car is OK again now. I've repaired it. o Somebody has eaten all my chocolates. The box is empty. o \'('here's the book I ga\'e you: \X'hat ha\'e you done with it? o H ave ~路ou e\'er played [ennis?

We usc [he simple (0 say ho/l' mild), how 11/,/11)' or (lOW 11/(111)' times (tor completed :lctions) : o How much of Ih :lI book ha\'e you read ?

o Li sa ha s wriu en ten lene rs

roda~路.

o

They路 '路c played tenn is three times this week. o I'm learning Spanish, but I havcn't learnt vcry much yel.

Some verbs (for example, kno wllikcJbelieve) a re nor norma ll y used in the conti nuous: o I've known about it for a long time. (1I0t [\'e been knowing) For a list of these verbs, see Unit 4A. But nOte that you call use want and mean in Ihe present perfect conrinuous: o I'vc been meaning to phone Jane, but I keep forge rting.

20

Present perfect si mple - Units 7-8 Present perfect contin uous Present perfect + for/since "" Units 11- 12

Unit 9


Exercises 10.1

Unit 10

For each situation, write two sentences using the words in brackets. 1 Tom s£arted read ing a book tW O hours ago. He is still reading it and now he is on page 53. Iread I tor fWO hours t ...J:te,__~.!~:LPJ~&!:'L re~£I..!!I.9_.i:P:!:_.~Q_.!l~~ ____ ..... _____."----.----(read I 53 pages so fa r) _Ji!L~.~_.!_~.f~:~L2.L~~~--~-ttJ.C!-t.,..-.--.**"*-.-*.*.*.*. ________._. ____ _

1 Rachel is from Australia. She is rra\'ell ing round Europe at the moment . She began her trip three months ago. (tr,l\'el l fo r three months) She _____ ._. ___ ,______ .. ____

*, _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ _ _ _

(\'isi t I six countries so far) _.....*. _ _ • __ _________.*._,.. _. ___.__,___.__.____.________ .. _*. _ _

3 Patrick is a ten nis player. He began pla ying [ennis when he wa s ten rea rs old. This year he is narional champion again - for rhe fourth time. ~ win I the na lional championships I four t imes) .. _.... _.............................................................. _._ ......................... _._ .. _._.... _ (pla y I lennis since he was It'n ) ... _.. _. ___ .. _ ....... _..... ___ ... _... ~ .... ~ ....... _._. __ ................................. _ .... _........_.........._._. 4 When they left college, Lisa and Sue started making films toget her. They sti ll make film s. (make I five film s since they left college) Th e~'.. ........................... .............................. ...... _............ (make I films since th e ~' left college) .................... _..... ...................................... 10.2 For each si t uation, ask a question using the words in brackets. 1 You have a friend who is lea rning Arabic. You ask: [how long I learn I Arabic? ) ..... !::l.Q.~....~.!'!~l._~~¥:.~ .. ~~ ....p.~ ...~~g ....A.r.~j&L._._ .... __ ._....... _....... _..._.__... 1 You ha\'e JU St arri\'ed to meet a friend. She is waiting for you. You ask: [wait I long? ) H ne .. _____ .... _. ______ ._______ .____ ._. __.__ ... ____ .. __ .. __ .____._____ ._.... _

3 You see somebody fis hing by the river. You ask: !catch I any fis h ?) ._ _ _ _ _ ._ _ _ _ _ ._________ .. ______________ .. __ 4 Some friends of yours are having a party next week. You ask: (how many people I invite? ) _._. _________ ~ ___.__ .___ .. _.~._._. __ .~. ___._______._________ 5 A fr iend o f yours is a leacher. You ask: Ihow long I tea..:h? ) __ ._. ______ ._. ______ ... _.. ____ .~ __ .. ____________._____ .. ~ .. _ ....... __.___ ~. __ _ 6 You meet somebody who is a w riter. You ask: (how long I write I books?) .. _.. _...... _. ___ ._.... _.... _.... __ ..... _._._ .... ~._._ .... _.... _._._._._ ..... _... ~ ..... ~_._. ___ ....... ~_._ ... _........ ___ .~_ .... - A friend of you rs is sa\'ing money to go on hol iday. You ask: Ihow long I sa \'e? ) ....... ___ .~ ... _.. __ .... _.... ~ .... __ ~_ ...._....... ............................ _._ ............... _._._._._ ........ _._._._ ... _._........._.__ fhow much money I save:) ............................. _.... _... .................................................................... ........................ 10.3 Put t he verb into the more su itable form , presen t perfect si mple {I have done} or continuous (I have bee n doing) .

1 Where have yO ll been ? ..... tI.~·X.~.....!:!Q:I!... ).~.t} ... M!:l.t!.I9 ... (roll I pl ay) ten nis? 1 Loo k~ _._._..._. __... _._._..... _.... ~._. __ .. _ .. _... _._ .. _._ (somebody I break ) that window. 3 You look tired . ._.. __ ._._................. ____ ... __ .... _. ____ ._.... ~_ (YOli I wor~) hard?

4 . ______ ._._.. _________.____.__.__ (yO" I em I wo,kl ;n " (',10<,.1'

, 0, "'v,,:

j 'liz is away on holiday: ' Is she? \X/ here .____ ~ __.____.__ .. _~ ____ .~ ___ .__ (she I go)? 6 .\I y brother is an acto r. __ ._._. __ ._... __ ._._. __ .~._. ____._._._. (he I appear ) in several films. - 'Sorry l"m late: 'That's all right. _~, __ ,_... ~_ ... __ ,__ ~,~_, ____ ,__ ,_, __ (II nor I wait) long.' 8 ' Is il still rain ing:' ':\0. _______ .___._.. _._~ .. _. ____ (i l l stop): 9 _._ ______ (I I lose) my address book. __.__ ._._. ____ .. __ ._____ _

(you I see ) it? 10

__. _._._.~.~.~_ (I I read ) the book you lent me, but _...... __ ·_·H····· ____ ·~_· __ ·H __ ~. (I I nOI I fini sh) it yet. h 's very interesting. __ __ ......... _. (1 / read) the book you lent me, so you ca n have it back now. ••

II

__•

_

•• N

21


?

How long have you (been)

••• •

Study this example situation:

D.1O and

Jt'ml~'

are married. They got married exacdy

10 yc:.us .lgo. so today is thei r 20t h wedding a nni\Ws:HY. Tht'~·

ha\'c been married for 20 yea rs.

\'<'e say: The y are married.

Iml

(prest'flt)

H ow long ha ve they been Ill.uried? (presellt perfect} (1/01 How long arc they married?) Th('y ha,'c been tmrried for 20 yea rs. (1I0 t Thc~' arc m;Hried fo r 20 ye.lrs)

We lise the present I)erfect to ml k about something t hat began in the pa st and sri ll cominues now. Com pa re the IJresellt a nd the present perfect:

but

o Bill is in hospital. H e has been in hospita l since Monday. (llot Bill is in hospita l since Monda y)

o Do you know each other well? but Have yOll known each Other for a lo ng lime? (not Do you know)

/Jrescflt

present perfect

o She's waiting for somebod)'. b" t She's been wai ting all morning.

o bllt

11 0141

Do thc)' have a car? How long have the)' had their car?

I have known/hadll ived etc. is the presellt perfect simple . ) have been learning I been wai ting I been doin1! etc. is the present perfect COl1lillllOll s. When we ask or sa)' 'how long', t h~' contin uous is more usual (see Uni t 10); o I'vc been learning English for six months. o It's bccn raining since lunchtime. o Richard has bcen doing [he same job for 20 yea rs. D ' How long havc )'ou been driving ?, 'Since I was 17'Some verbs (for cxam ple, know/likelbclievc ) a Tt:' nOI nunnally used in the continuous; D H ow long have you known Jane? ( Ilo t have you been knowing) o I've had a pai n in my stomac h all day. (I/Of I" ve been having) See also Uni ts 4A a nd l ac. For ha\-e, sec Unit 17. You can usc either rhe present perfect cont inuous or simple w it h ti ,'c : m d work: D Jul ia has been living I has lived in Paris for a long lime. D How long have you been working I have )'ou wo rked here? But we usc the simple (I've lived 1 I've done etc.) with always: o I've always lived in the country. ( n ot always been living) We say 'I haven't done something sincclfor .... (preSl!lIf perfect simp/e ): o 1 haven', seen Tom since Monday. t= ~1 on d ay was the la st time I saw him ) o Sue hasn't phoned for ages. t= the last time she phoned was ages ago)

22

I haven' t ... since/for ..... Unit 8A Present perfect continuous ..... Units 9- 10

For and since --- Unit 12A


Unit 11

Exercises 11.1

Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. I Bob is a fr iend oi mine. I know hi m wry wetl. ~~~ ________ '___ '_' __ '_"H"_' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 Bob is a friend of m ine. I kilO\\, hjm fo r a long rime . l ·v~_. l::nq~r.!._.!:I. ~ ___ .. _ .. _...... _.... _________ _ 3 Sue and Alan acc m ;ucjed since JuJ~·. .......·_...·.. 4 The weather is awful. II'S mining agai n. ...... __ ............ ... .................... _._ S The weather is awful. II'S ra jnim; all da~'. .................... .. ..................... h_ ..... _

6 1 like your house. H ow long arc ,"oy ]j\"j nj; tht're? - G:HY js WOChl!; in a shop for tht' la st few months.

. . _ . . . . . . " . . . · · . _ · . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . • • . . _ · _ • • • __ · _ ' • •

.....................................__ ............. ............. __ ._H........._

.. __ .____ H. __

S 1 don"t know Tim well. \'\'e\'c only met a iew times. 9 I gave up dri nking .:offcc. I dOIl 't drink it for;l ycar.

10 That's a very old bike. How long do \'ou have it? 11 .2

Read the situa tions and write questions from the words in brackets. 1 J ohn tell s ~'ou that his mother is in hospi tal. You ask him: Iho\\' long I be I in hospi t,t l? ) ..+:iq.w_.!P.!1~ ... ):1.~._ ~~r_ .. mQ~.~.... ~.~ .I!.! ..\:IQ;?~..L .............. ,. ,...... 1 You meet a wom an who tells you th .tt shc tcal.:hes Eng li sh. You a sk her : ..................................... ,.. ,............... _,.. ............ _... ~ .. ,.. ,.. ,................... _.. _............. (how long I teal.:h I Engl ish? ) .> You know that Jalle is a good iriend oi Caroli ne's. You ask Jane: Ihow long I know I C.troline? ) ... _____ .~._.*._~....._._ ....... _.... ____ ...... __ ...... _ ..... __ .. Your friend's brother WCnt IU Australia some 1;l11e ago a nd he's still there. You :tsk your friend: thow long I be I in Austra lia ?1 ,_ ~ __ ~._~._._. .... ____ ._... _.. _._ ... __ 5 Tim always wears Ihe same jal.:ket. It 's a "ery old jacket. You ask him: (how long I han' I lh;tt jacket? ) .. _, .. ,,_.. ,... _... ,...... _.... _.... _._* ..... _._._ ..... _.. _.~* ....."._.."..........__ .~._ 6 You are lalking to a friend ;tbo ut Joe. Joe now works at Ihe airport . You ask your friend: (how lo ng I \\'ork ( at the a irpo rt ?I ............. "............................... .. 7 A friend of ~'our s is learni ng to dri\·e. You ask him: t how lo ng I learn I ro drive?) .. _. ,........ _.......... _. ...... ...."................ _.... ~ ...... "".................... _._ ....... _.,. .... _._._._._ ... _ S You meet somebody on a plane. She sa ~'S t hat she li,'cs in Chicago. YOli ask her: ( alw.I~·s ( lin" in Chil."tgo ?) ____ ._. __ *. __ ._._... _. __ .... _,._ ..""... _*_ ... __ .. __ _

11 .3

Complete 8's answers to A's questions. A 2

3 4

5 6

8 9

10

"

12

13 14

Bill is in hospi ta l. isn't he? Do yqu see Ann I'cry often? Is ,\!:I rg,HCt rnarried~ Are ~'ou " ',!iring for me: You know lind,l. don't ~·ou: Do you still pl.1Y tcn nis? Is Jim w,\tI:hing TV? Do you W,tI.:1t TV a lot? Ha\'c ~'OU got a he,ld,ll.'ite? George is nc,er ill. is he? Are you feeling ill? Sue lives in London, doesn't she? Do ~'OLl go to the ,int'rna a lor? \'\"ou ld you like to go to l"ew York one d.ty?

~

__~~____~a B

Yes, he ..... nM..... ~~ ... _. III hospital since M o nday, :-';-0, 1 .. nq.,,,et'1:.~ . s.~ her fo r three months. Yes, shc ....... _........................................ married fo r ten years. Yes, I ._................... ".................. for the last half hour. Yes, we ... ~._, ....... _._. __ ._._........... each o ther a long time, :-':0, I _ _ .____... ______ tennis fo r years. Yes, he _ ... ~_. _______ ~ _______ ... TV :tll even ing. ~o, I .. ____ .....:... _____________.__ TV for ages.

..

Yes. I .... ~._.~. ____ ~ .. ~.~ ..... __.__ ... _ a hcad<lche all morning. No, he ..."... _.. ill sincc I' ve known him. Yes, I ....... "............ ,,,...... ..... . ................. _................ _ ill a ll day. Ycs, she .......................... ".. . ................................ in Londo n for tht' last few years. No, I ._~ __ .. _.. _._ ............................. to the cinema for ages. Yes, I ._.__ .... __ ._. __ . __ ..... _._~_ .......... to go to New Yo rk. (use always I wan t ) H .........'

........................

23


For and since When ... ? and How long

?

••• •

We usc fo r .lIld since to 5:1)' now lo ng somethi ng has been happening. We USl' fo r + ;1 p('riud uf lime six weeks etc.);

o I've been waiting fo r for

fWO

(IWO

tWO

ho urs.

hours.

\'(/(" use since + thc stan of a period 18 o 'clock. M o nd a ~· . 1999 elc. ): :J I' ve been wailing since

since 8 o'clock

hours

8 0 'c/uck - - - - - -_

two hUlIrs ago - - - - - -_ lIulI'

since April 1985 C hristmas

[0 '

twu hours 20 minutes !l \·c days

8 o'clock.

~

a wcck ages years

a long time: six months

50 YC;lrs

o Sa il}' has been work ing here for six mo nths. [110 1 since six month s) o [ h'lven', sn~Jl Tom fo r three days. (I/ ot si nce three d.l},S)

0"':10..:1.

Monday 12 Ma~'

IIOIl'

lunchtime we arrived I got up

:J Sally has been working here since April.

1= from April until now ) ::J I haven't seen Tom since M onday. (= from ~ t ondar unt il now )

It is possible to leave out for (bur nor usually in negative sentences):

o They've been married (for) ten years. (with or wi thou t fo r ) o They haven't ha d a holiday fo r ten yea rs. (you must usc fo r ) We do

o

for + a ll ... (all day I a ll my life etc.): I've lived here a ll m y life. (llot for all my Hid 1I0t U Sl'

Compare when ... ? (+ past simpie) and ho w lo ng ... ? (+ present perfect ): A:

II: A: Ii:

When did'it St<lTt raining: It stdrtl"d r.l ining a n ho ur ago I a l I o'clock. Ho w lo ng has ir been r'lining? It's been raining for a n ho ur I sin ce I o'clock.

. !

When d id Joe and Caro l fi rsr meet ? a lo ng time ago. Ii: The\" hrst met . when Iher were a t school.

A:

Ho w lo ng h;l\"e rhey know n eal.7h mher? for a lo ng time. Ii: The\'\ 'c known eJl.7h mher . h h I . since t e}' were at sc 00 .

A:

!

We say ' h 's (a long ti me I twO years ell.7,) since somelhing happened ': o h's two years since I last saw Joe. (= I ha \'en't seen JOt' fo r twO years) o It 's ages since we went 10 the ..:inema. (= We ha \'en't been to the cinema fo r ages) You can ask ' Ho w lo ng is it since ... ?': o How lo ng is it since )'ou last sa w Joe? (= W hcn did you la st see Joe ?) o How lo ng is it since M rs H ill died? (= When did Mrs H ill die?) Yoo can also say ,It 's been (= It has ocen) ... since ... o It 's been fWO yea rs since I la st saw Joe.

24

How long have you (been) ... ? - Un it 11


Exercises

Unit 12

12. 1 Write fo r o r since. 1( 5 been rai ning M.M:>tYlCA:._*. luncht ime. 1 Sa rah has Ij\'ed in Paris ~ 1995. 3 Pa ul h:ls lived in Lond o n _____ .____ It'n ycar .. , -4 rm !ired o i waiti ng. \X'e\'{' been sining here an hnm. S Ke\'in has been looking. for a joh _. ______ .~ ___ *. he left school. 6 I ha\'en ', been ro a parry .'_M*.M.' _____ •__ a~es. - I wonder where Joe is. I haven't seen him .___ .* ______ la..r w{'("k. g j.lIlt' ;s a way. She's been away .___ ._.. ____ ... _. Friday. 9 The wearhe r is dry. It hasn't rained .... __ .___ .. _.. __ ..... ;1 few wt'ek .. , ._M' __ • _ _ _ _ _ _ . _

12.2

Write quest ions with how long and when . I I( s raining. (how long? l .... How, Lo~9 ....\.:I_M .... !f....~~... !.~9.L........_......................................._................. (when: ) W't1.~ . c44-., 1t,,,.•5.,~...!':.~.g,? 1 Kale is lea fning J apa nese. lhow lo ng I l ea rn ? ~ ......... _......... 1w hen I Sf:l fl ~) .. 3 I know Simon. (ho w lo ng I you f know? ) _.... __ ..... ___ .___ .... ___ .___ ... __ (when I you I fi rst I meet? ) .__._.. ____ .. _. __ .•._._._ ..... _. __ .... _ -t Rebecca and Da\'id are married. (ho w long? ) ._________ ~ __ .. __ .____ ._____ ... _ ... __ .. ___ .~ ________ ~ .. ____ ~ .. H_._ .. __ ... __ ._~ (when? ) __ ...... ___ *.* •• _ _ _ _. _... _ .• _ _ _ _ _ . •. _._ _. _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ _ ~_._ .• __ ..... _. _ _ *._... _._._... _..... _.. _. __ H

12.3

.................

Rea d the sit uations a nd co mplete the sentences. II t 'S ra1l1l11g. " It 's been ra . .. h lime. ' It __ $tG.rted..r~9 h time. ' ining sll1ee [ une "__ ' ___ '__ at [ une 1 Ann and Sue a re fri end s. They first met yea rs ap,o. They've ...X~~..._~ ...9.~~._W___ . yea rs. 3 Joe is ill. He became ill on Sunday. He has ___ .. __ .... __.____.__.__.__.__.___ .... ____.*__ •. _. __ ._... Su nday. -t Joe is ill . He beca me ill a few days ago. He has .... _.. __ ."H.. __ •..• _..*H ............................_._.* ...... __ ..........H. a few days. 5 Liz is married. She's been ma rried for a year. She gO! ..... _.................................... _............. _......... _... __ ...... _. ___. 6 You have a headache. h started when you wok e lip. I'\'e ....... _._ .......... ~ .............................................................._._ ............... _ I woke lip. 7 Sue ha s been in h a ly fo r the la st three weeks. She went .... __ .................................. 8 You' re working in a hotel. You started six months at!o. I·\·e ... ..H......... _ .............._.. _...... ~ __ ...... _......._.. _....... __ '_H

•• _ _ _ ..... , _ _ _ _ •••

'2.4 Write 8's senten ces usi ng the words in brackets. I .-\: Do you o ft en go on holiday? R: (no I fi\'e yea rs) .. _t:i_ 9..._Lb9.-:.~Q'o..:.L .~Q4.._..~_H.r.g.~ .:f9.!: ...{~~.:.~~.;}..,~._. __.....___ .H.__.____.__.__ 1 .-\: Do you o ften see Sarah ? B, (no I aOOUi "month ) :-Jo. ,_H. __ .... ____ .. ___ ,_. ___ ._.H. __ ._... _*. __ H.... _____ ._____ • _ _

3

.. :

4

.. :

Do you o ft en go to t he cinema ? B, (no I a lo ng time ) _.. _ _ ._. __ ._____ .______ .____ ... ___ ._ _ .•. ________________ _ Do you o iten ea t in restaurants? ~ o . I __ ___.__ '*_ ... __ .. _. __ •__ •• * _ _ _ _ _ *. __ . __. , _•. _. _ _ _ _ _ .~. ______ . ____ ... ___ •. ___ •. _

B, (no I agesl

Now write 8'5 a nswe rs agai n. This time use It's ... si nce ... . I I I _._~qJ._.~~~._.fy~le .!j.~~ ,.. ;}.~~ ....L..b . t~4d~:...hQ!iM_~.,_._._._..._. __._._......,_...................* ............H..._. __..........__...H...__._._ 6 I! I ~ o , ...___ .....__..., ._. ...

5

.e ........ _ . .. . . ....... _ . ... . .....

. ..... _ . _ ••• _ _ ._ •••••• _ . _ ...... _

....... , ... "

••••• " ................. . ........ .

( 3 1 ........... " ........ _ .......... _ .•. _ ...... __ ." ._._._ ..• ___ •

8

14 1

t'\o. it's ._..... ".................. _... ~.......... _.......... _.. _ ...............................

25


Unit

13

Present perfect and past 1 (I have done and I did) Study this exa mple situation; Tom is look ing fo r his

k t'~路.

He (a n't find it.

He has losl his key. (prese llt PI'Treet) This means

th iH

he doesn't 113\'(' hi s key

I IOll'.

Ten min utes later: Now Tom has found his kcy. He h,15 if now,

Has he lost his key?

No. 11(' has found it.

Did he lose his key?

Yes. he did .

He losl hi s key (!Jilst sill/I,ll' ) hut now he has found it. (preseIIIIJerfect )

The present perfect (something has happened ) is a present tense. It alwa ys tells u S about the situatio n n O/v. 'Tom has lost his key' =he doesn't have his key " Dill (see Unit 7). The past simple (something happened ) tells us only about the past. If somebody says 'Tom lost his key', this doesn't tell us whether he ha s the key now o r nor. It tells us only that he lost his key at some Ti me in the past.

Do f,o t use the present perfect if the situ ation now is di ffere nt. Compare: o They've gone away. They' ll be hack on Friday. Ithey arc away flOW) They went away, but I think they're back at home now. (llot They\ 'e gone)

o It has Slopped

ra in ing now, so we don't need the umbrella. (it isn't rai ning flOW) It stopped raini ng for a whi le. but now iI's ra ini ng aga in. Illot It has stopped )

You can use the prescm perfect for new or recent happeni ngs: o " 've repaired the TV. It's working OK now: 路Oh. that's good: o I-lave you heard the news? Sally has won the lon ery! Usc the paSt si mple (no t the present perfect ) for things that arc not recent or new: o Mozarl was a composer. He w rote more than 600 pieces of music. (n o t has been ... has written ) o M y mother grew up in Scotland . (ll o t has grown ) Compare: o Did you kno w that somebody has invented a new type o f washi ng machine? o Who invented the telephone? (llot ha s invented ) We usc the present perfect to give new information (sec Unit 7). But if we continue to ta lk about it, we no rma ll y usc rhe past simple:

o

Ow! I've burnt myself. 8: How did you do that? Ill ot have you done) A: I picked up a hot d ish. (1I0t ha\'e picked) 11.:

o A: Look! Somehody has spilt someth ing o n the sofa . 8: Well, it wasn't me. I didn 't do it. (ll o t ha sn't been ... haven't done)

26

Past simple ..... Unit 5 Present perfect - Units 7-8 American English - Appendix 7

Present perfect and past 2 - Unit 14


Exercises 13.1

Unit 13

Complete the sentences uSing the verbs in brackets. Usc lhe present perfect whtrc possiblt:. Otherwise use the past simple.

- - - ---------------,-------1 Th~ offir~ is empty now. Evrrybodv _. ____ .___ .____ _ Igo) home.

t can't gel in. t 've. lost _ (105() my key.

3 I meant to call you las! night.

but I

Mary ......... ,......................................... .

(forget).

,;;~~Ds:~~ Igo) to Egypt

fOf a holiday, but she's back home in England now.

5

Vrs, I (havtl a headache, but t f('el fi ne now.

13.2 Put the verb into the correct form , present perfect or past simple. h stepped. r:llnlng for .1 \\'hile. hut now it"~ rall1l1l g a ~a in . (Stop ) 2 The TO wn is n: ry di ffe rent n o w . It 11~ c.hf.l.nge4 ;l lor. IchanAc) .3 I did Ge rnl.l n .l( school. but I most o f it now. (forget ) 4 The po li.:e three peo ple. hm I,n er they let them go. (arrest ) 5 \'\'h;1t d o yo u th ink nt m~' English? Dn you think it ? (improve) 6 .l,; Are ~' o u still r e.ld i n ~ rhe p.lrer ? B: :-\0 , I . WiTh it. YOII ":'Ul h;1 \'e it. (fini sh)

S 9 10

13.3

I

fm .â&#x20AC;˘ joh as " tom;sr <,,;d,. but I ",os." soccessf,,1. lapply)

\X' here's my t.ikt,? It outside the house, hut it's nor there now. (be ) Look! There's :In :t rnr.ulance m 'er then-. There ... ~ a n accident. (be) ,\: Ha ve you he.ud ,tho ut Ben : He his Mm . (break ) (h,lppcn ) Ii: R e all~' ? Ho w .l,; He ..... oif;1 ladde r. (iall)

Are the underlined parts of these sentences right or wrong? Corrcct them whcrc nccessary. Do YOll kno \\" ,l ho llt Sue ? She's gj\'eD up her joh. 1 .\I y mo ther bas ~ roWD up In Scorland . 3 Ho w man y plays bd SSbakespeJre \\"[ jnen ? ... O w! J,,'r cut my fin ger. It 's t-.leed ing. 5 Drugs ha ve OCcome ,I hlg prohlelll e\'er}'where. 6 The Chinese b;;m: jo n'm cd p.lpcr. - Whe re ba ve VO l! been born? S \ Iary isn't at ho me. She's go ne shopping. 9 Albert Einstein has heeD the scientist who has d,'vdooed the theory of relativ ity.

27


Unit

14

Present perfect and past 2 (I have done and I did) Do no r use the present perfect /I have done) when you talk about a finished time (for exam ple. yesterday I tcn minutes ago I in 1999 I when I was a child ). Use a past tense: o It was very cold yesterday. (n ot has been) o Paul and Lucy a rrived Icn minutes ago. (not ha ve arrived) o Did you eat a lot of sweets when you were a child ? (1101 have you eaten) o I got home late lasl night. I was very tired and went straight to bed. Use the past to ask When ... ? o r What time ... ?: o When did you r friends arrive? (n ot have ... a rrived) o What lime did you fini sh work? Compa re:

Present perfect o Tom has losl his key. He can '[ get into the house. D Is Ca rla here or has she left ?

Past simple D To m lost his key ~' cs t crday . He couldn'T get into the house. D Whcn did Ca rla lca \'c:

Com pare:

Preseflt /Jcrfect (have done) a I've done a lot of work today.

Pa st siml,le tdid ) o I did a lot of work yestcrday.

We lise the present perfect fo r a period of time that continues IIlItil /IOIll, For example: today 1 this week 1 since 1985,

We use the past sim ple for a {illished rime in t he past. For exa mple: yesterday I las( week I from 1995 (0200 1.

r

{i llislu!d-,

I

yesterday

past

past

/lOll '

/lOIll

D It hasn't rained this week.

:: It didn't rain last week .

D H ave you seen Anna this morning ?

e

Did you sec An na this morning: (ir is now afternoon or e\'ening)

D Have you seen Tim recently ?

c

Did you see Tim o n Sunday ?

D I don't know where Lisa is. I haven't

C ,>": Was Lisa ar the parry o n Sunday ?

(il is still mo rn ing)

seen her. (= I haven't seen her recently ) D We've been waiti ng fo r an hour. (we

are still waiting no w)

o Ia n lives in

Londo n. He has li\'cd there for seven yea rs.

o I have never played golf. (in my life ) D It s tile last day of your halMa)'. YOII

say: h 's been a rea lly good holiday. I' ve really enjoyed it.

28

I

Past simple .... Uni t 5

Present perfect -

Un its 7- 8

R:

e

I don't th in k so, I didn't see her,

\X'e wa ited (or were wai ting) for an hour. {we arc no lo nger wai ting)

:: Ian li\'ed in $calland for ten years, ~ow

he lin:s in London.

=I didn't play golf last summer. :: After YOll come b ..,Ck (rom holidllY yOIi say: II was a rea lly good holiday, I really enjoyed iI,

Present perfect and past 1 .... Uni t 13


Exercises

Unit 14

14.1 Are the ynderlined pa rts of th ese sentences rig ht or wrong? Correct them where necessary. 1\ '( lost my key. I can', find it :lnywhere. 1 Ha ve yo u eaten a lo t o f sweets when you were a child ? 3 I've bough! a ne\\' C.l f. You mUSt come and see it. -l e ve bQu~hl a ne\\' caT laSt week. 5 \X' here ba\'c \'O y tx-en yeS te rd 3 ~' e\"(~ning? 6 Lucy bas lef! school in 1999. - I'm looking fo r ,\I ike. Has, "o y seen him ? S ' Have rO Y been 10 Paris: ' -Yes. many times.' 9 I'm "cry hungry. I bil \'CO" eaten much today. 10 W'hcn has this book been publi shed : 14.2

_Q.~___ ... ~. ___ .... _.............. __ ...... _____ ._._. __

__Q!4._ ~__ ~ .... ___ .. __ .... __ ._.. ___ _ ._. __ .... _______ ._....... _... __ ........... _ H ..... _ _ • _ _ _ • _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .. _

.... _ _

Make senten ces from th e words in brackets. Use t he presen t perfect or past si mp le.

1

3 4

5 6 8

!i t / not I rain / this week ) It _.. n~n.'J.....f.~_~ ....!J.:ll§...~.~ ,............ _............. (the weat her I be I ..:old / recentl y) The weather ......................... (it I cold I last week I It .... _ ............ _._____._.. _ 11/ not I read 1 3 newspaper yesterday) I 11 1 not I read 1 3 newspa per tod a~' ) ..........__ .. _...... __ IEmily I earn l a lor o f money I t his year ) .. _.... _... __ Uhe I nOt I earn I so much I la st ~'ea r ) _ ...... __ ._.. _...... _.. _.................... _..................... ____ .. _.......... _.. _.... _..................... __._ (you I ha\'e l a holida y recemly? ) .... __ .__ ........... _... __.___........ _................. _______ ... ____ ._......... _... _... _ ...... _

14.3 Put the verb into the correct form , present perfect or past simple.

I do n't know w here Li sa is. _._~.'f..;._.H~_~.m'! ..... (you I sec) her: .______ (get ) home last nigh!. J ______ ....H. ___ .. __ ._._. __ (be ) very fi red and I _ _ _______ " (g O) straight to bed. 3 .-\: ________ .. _ _ ___ (you I fi nish ) paiming rhe bedroom ?

1 \X'hen J _

B: :",:ot yet. I' ll fini sh it tomorrow. 4 George __._____ (not I be ) \'ery well last week. S ~ I r Clark . ". ______ ...... ____ (work ) in a ban k for 15 years. Then he g.1 ve it up. 6 ~ l o ll ~' li \'es in Dublin. She ._... _.. __ ... _......... _.... _.. __ ... _........ _............ (li\'e ) there all her life . . \: .................. _ ........ _.... (yo u I gal to the cinema last night ? 1\: Yes. but it _. .. ................. !be) a mistake. The fi lm ... _._ ........... _.. .. ................... (be ) aw fu l. S ~ I y grandfather ........ ___... (die ) befo re I was born . [ ......... (ne\'er I meet ) him. 9 J don't kn ow Caro l's husband. I .. _.................. _..... _ ........... _._._ (never I meet ) him . 10 .-\: Is ~l.lrtin here? B: ~ o , he ...... _._ ........ ~ .... _........ _..... ...... _ (go ) our . \X'hen ex a c tl ~· .... ......... __ ...... _.... __ .............. (he I gO ) our? B: About ten minutes ago . II .-\: Where do ~'o u Ih'c? B: In Bosron. _. __ ...... _..... _.. _. __ ... _.. (you I th'e) there? B: Five yea rs. How long . ____ ... _._..__ (you I live ) befo re that? R: In Chic.:ago . .-\: Where ...... __ .___ ~.~ ___._._. (you I li\'e) in Chicago ? 8: Two years. .-\: And how lo ng ._

" "

14.4

Writ e sentences about yo urself usi ng t he ideas in brackets.

(something you ha\'en'[ done [od'IY) _LI1O"~_e.!'I~L~.':}... JY'l~.~.~~_~'- ___._______.__ _ ~'o u ha\'en'( done toda y) .. _________ .___ .__ ... ~. __ ...... ___ ... ~. _____ ... _...... ~. __ .__ .__ _ (So mething ~' o u d idn '[ do yesterda y) .. __ .. _ ....~ ... __ .. ____.___ .. _... ~_ ........... _~.~.~. ___ ... _. __ ... _....... _.. __._ (something ~'O U did ~' est c rda~' ('\'eni ng) .__ ._... _. ____.__ .. _._ ...... _...... ~ .. _..... _... ___ .......... _... _.... ~ ........ __ .......... _........ _ (someth ing ~'o u ha \,en't done recently) __._.. _.. _ .. _. __ ... ~ ... ___ .. __._. __ ._._............... _........ ___._______ ".. _. lsomerhing yo u· \·{' done a lor recen tl rl ..... _._ ....... ~_ .............. _...... _.. _..... _ ................ __.___ ..... __ ....... _._._ ... __..... ~

1 (something 3 4 5 6

....,. Additional exercises 2- 4 (pages 303-04), 14- 15 (pages 310-11 )

29


Past perfect (I had done) Study this example situation:

at 10.30

at 11.00

Sarah went to a parry la sl week. Paul went (0 the parr~' too. bur they didn't sec each OIner. Paul left the parry at 10.30 and Sa rah arrived at II o'clock. So:

\'(/hen Sa rah arrived at the parry. Paul wasn'r there. He had gone home. Had gone is the p.lSl perfect (simple/: Uwelthey/you he/she/it PAUL

had

(= I'd etc.1 (= he'd etc.)

gone secn fini shed etc.

SARAH

T he past perfect si mple is had + past participle (goncJsccnlfin ishcd etc).

Sometimes we talk about something that happened in the past: o Sarah a rrived at the party. This is the starting point of the stor),. Then, if we want to talk about th ings that happened before this ti me, we use the past perfec t (had .. . ): o When Sa rah arrived at the party, Paul had already gone home. Some more exa mples: o When we gOt home last night, we found that somebody had broken into the flat. o Karen didn't wam to go to the c inema with us because she'd a lready seen the fi lm. o At first I thought I'd do ne the right thing, but I soon realised tha t I'd made a big mistake. o The man sitting next to me on the pla ne was very ne rvous. He hadn 't fl own before. or ... He had never fl own before. Com pare the presem perfect (have seen etc.) a nd the past perfect (had seen etc.):

P.IS/ perfect

Prese"t perfect

bad seen

have seen

past

past

now

o Who is that woman? I've never seen her before. o We aren't hungry. We've JUSt had lu nch. o The house is dirty. The), haven't cleaned it for weeks.

" ow

I didn't know who she was. I'd never seen her before. (= before that time) \'(/e weren't hungry. We'd JUSt had lunch. T he house was di rty. They hadn't cleaned it for weeks.

= =

Compa re the past simple (left, was etc.) and the past perfect (had left , had been etc.): o A: Was Tom there when ro u arri\'ed? II: Yes, but he left soon afterwards. o Kate wasn't at ho me when I phoned. She was at her mothe r's house.

30

Past perfect con tinuous _ Unit 16

=.\: \'('as Tom there when rou arrived? 8: 1\:0. he had already left. D Kate had JUSt gOt home when I phoned. She had been :11 her mother's hOllse.

Irregular verbs (gone/seen etc.) -

Appendix I


Unit 15

Exercises 15.1

Rea d the situa t ions and write sente nces f rom the words in brackets.

You went

TO

Sue's house, bUT she wasn't there.

(she I go I out ) .... _~_~ __ . hM._.9.Q.I:1~... w..t

.............................

.............................................................................................

1 You went back [0 your home tOwn after many yea rs. It wasn't the same as before. (it I change I a lot ) .................................. ...............................................................................* •• 3 I im-ired Rachel to the parry, bu t she couldn't come. (shc.f arrange I to do something else) _________ ........... . 4 You wem (Q the ci nema last nighr. You got to the cinema late. (the film I already I begin ) ....................... _............... _.......... _._ .................................... _ 5 Ir wa s nice to see Dan again after suc h a long rime. I not I see I him for fi\'e ~'ears ) .. _ ........................ 6 I offered Sue something ro eat. but she wasn't hung r ~'. (she I JUSt I ha\'e I breakfast ) .............................. _. _________ .. ___ , _.. .

o

, 5.2

For each situa tion . write a sente nce endi ng with never ... before. Use the verb in bra ckets. I The man sitting next to you on the plane was \'ery nervous. It was his first flight. (tl y) _...!:!.~.~4.....~~y.~....&?h.!'l...P..~.f9.r.~:.............................................................. _ .._..............._............._................_._..................._.....

1 :\ woman walked into the room. She was a complete stranger

to me. (see ) I ._.......... _ .............. _... _...................................... _........................................ _....................................................................................... _ before. 3 Sam pla~'ed tennis yeste rd a~·. He wa sn '[ \'er~' good:n it because it was his first game. (play) He ........... _._ .... _................................................................................................................................ _ 4 Last ~' ear we went to Denmark. It was our first rime there. (be there I \'<;'e ................... _ .......................... _.......................................... _...

15.3

Use t he sente nces on the left to com plete the parag raph s on th e righ t. These se ntences a re in th e order in which they happened - so ( 1) happened before (2) . (2) before (3) etc. But your paragraph beg ins with the underli ned se nte nce. so sometim es you need t he past perfect. II I

I! I IJ \

Some body broke into the office during the night. We a rrj\'ed at work in the morning. \'i,le ca lled the po lice.

2 (\ I Laura went ou t this morning. I! I I trjed to phone her. ( 31 There was no answer. 3

4

Jim came back from holiday a few days ago. I! I I met hi m the same dav. 13 1 He looked \'er~' well.

II I

I .tried to }

pho~~ La~r.a. ~hlS mor~::.n~\~:r.

She

....... out.

}:u~e'J,~,f~,':~ays '=~ .• • • • •. •. .~e~;I~:~:

0 1 Ke\'in I! I

(J l ( -I )

15.4

\,\Ie arnved at work m the morning and found that somebody l1 o..d.. broken } mto the office dunng the night. So we .

sent Sally lots of emails. Yesterday KevlO '.. . from Sally. He She never replied to them. ........... very surprised. Yesrerdav he got a phone call from her. } He ._... ............. lots of emails. but she. H e was \'e r~' surprised.

Put the verb into th e correc t fo rm, pas t pe rfect (I ha d done) or pa st simple (I did). I 'Was Paul aI the party when you arrived? ' 'No, he .. _.r..~ 9.9..Y!.~..... (go) home.' 2 I felI n'ry tired when I gOt home, so I . . ............. _............ (go) srraigh t to bed. 3 The house was \'ery quiet when I gOt home. Everybody .............. ....... (go) to bed. 4 Sorry I'm lare . The car ..... . ........................ (break ) down on my way here. 5 We were driving along rhe road when we .................................................... (see) a car which ......... _._...... ______.. (break ) down, so we ,.......................... ....... (stop) to help.

..

.... Add it iona l exercises 5- 8 (pages 304-07)

31


Past perfect continuous (I had been doing) Study this exa mple situation:

yesterday morn;lIg

Yesterday morning I got up and looked out of the window. The sun was shining, but the ground was

very WCt. It had been raining. It wa s 1I0t raining when I looked our of the window: the sun was shining. But it had been ra ining before.

, ,, ,

H ad been -ing is the IIwe/youlthcy

'he/shelit

P,lSt

h,d

perfect

cont illl/ OIlS:

(= I'd e tc. )

been

(= he'd elc. )

doing working pia ying etc.

Some more exa mples: o When the boys came into the house, their clothes were dirry, their hair was untidy and one of them had a black eye. They'd been fighting. o J was very tired when J gOt home. I'd been working hard all day. o When I wCnt to Madrid a few years ago, I stayed with a friend of mine. She'd been living there on ly a short time but knew the city very well. You ca n say that something had been happening for a period of time before something else happened: o We'd ~e n playing tennis for about half an hour when it staned to rain heavily. o George went to the doctor last Friday. H e hadn't ~en feeling well for some time. Compare have been 路 ing (present perfect continliOIlS) and had been -ing (pas t perfect cofltimtolls ):

I I

Past perfect contill/lOIl S

Present perfect continuous I ha ve been 路ing

past

o

I had bceo -ing

past

11 0 1/1

I hope the bus comes soon. I've been

waiting for 20 minutes. (before IIOW)

o Ja mes is Out of brea th . H e has been running.

I 110 11'

o

At last the bu s came. I'd been wa iting fo r 20 minutes. (befo re the blls came} o Ja mes wa s ou[ of breath. H e had been running.

Compare was -ing (past continllOIlS ) and h3;d been -ing: o It wasn't raining when we wem out. The sun was shining. But it had been raining, so the ground was wet. o Ca thy was sitting in an armchai r resting. She was tired because she'd been working very ha rd. Some verbs (for example, know and like) are not normally used in the continuous: o We we re good friends. We had known each other for years. (110 1 had been knowing) For a list of these verbs, see Unit 4A.

32

Presrnt perfect continuous ... Units 9- 10

Past perfect si mple ... Unit 15


Exercises

Unit 16

16. 1 Read the situations and make sentences from the word s in brackets. I was ver\' tired when I arrh'ed home . (I J work '/ hard all da\') .. ~~r!.,JyQrk..~g....b.~4....o.J!"....~., .........................................................................................._ 2 The twO boys came into The house. They had a football and they were both very tired. (they I play I footba ll) .. _ .................................................................. __ .... _._....... _...... ........ _................ _................... _.... _.. _ 3 I was disappointed when I had to cancel my holiday.

_.r4. .

(( ! Iook I forward

(Q

it ) ...................

......................

4 Ann woke up in the middle of [he nighL She was frightened and didn't know where she was. .................................. _ .................................. ................... _ (she / dream ) 5 When I got home, Tom was sitting in from of the TV. He had just tu rned it off. (he I watch I a fi lm) ......... "...................... ....,....................................................................... _ \ 6.2

Read the si tuations an d complete the sentences.

I \'(le played tennis yesterday. Half an hour after we began playing, it started to rain. We .....n.I?4..).~....~!!.!9 .. _fur.. . . ~.?J:f. ...~....n.~r ... when . it swtea.. to rGlirl 2 I had arranged ro meet Tom in a restaurant. I arrived and waited for him. After 20 minutes I suddenly realised that I was in the wrong restaurant. .............................. _....... _.......... _.... _. for 20 mi nutes when I ................... _...._........................................ _........... I ..... ......................................... ........................ .................... the wrong resrauranr. 3 Sarah gOt a job in iacrory. Five years later the factor y dosed down. At the time the factory ..................................................................................................... , Sarah .......................................... .. there for five years. 4 I went to a concert last week. The orchestra began playing. After about ten minutes a man in the audience sudden l>' starred shouting. The orchestra ......... .. ......... ....................................................................................................................................................... when This time make your own sentence:

S I began walking along the road. I . when ....... \ 6.3

.. ...................

Put the verb into the most suitable form, past contin uous (I was doing ), past perfec t (I had done) or past perfect continuous (I had bee n do ing) .

1 It wa s very noisy next door. OUf neighbours ..... f':J.q.~ ... n.~.y. l!!9 ..... (have) a parry. 2 \'(le were good f;ie nds. We ..... ~.%....~.~Q.'!'!.~..... (know) each other for years. 3 John and 1 went for a walk. I had difficulty keeping up with him because he .................. ".... (walk ) so fast. . 4 Sue was sitting on the ground. She was our of breath. She ............................................................... _..... (run). S When I arrived, everybody was sitting round the table with thei r mouths full. T hey .................................._ ........................... (ea t). 6 When I arrh路ed , everybody was sitting round the table and talking. Their mouths we[e empty, but their stomachs were fu ll. They ....... ........................ ........... (eat). 7 Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He ........................................................................ (look) for his contact lens. 8 When I arrived , Kate ......................... ................................ (wait) for me. She was annoyed with me ........... _.... _....... (wait) for a long time. beca use I was !are and she 9 I was sad when I sold my car. I .................. _._ ........ _.......... _....................... (have) it for a very long rime. ..................................................... ([ravel) fo r 10 We were extremely tired at the end of rhe jou rney. We more than 24 hours.

-0-

Additional exercises 5-8 (pages 304- 01)

33


Have got and have H ave got and have (= for possession, relationships, illnesses etc.)

You can use have got or have (without got ). There is no difference in meaning: o They've got a new car. or They have a new car.

D Lisa's got two brothers. or Lisa has rwo brothers. o J' ve gOt a headache. or I have a headache. o OUf house has got a small garden. or OUf house has a small garden. a He's got a few problems. or He has a few problems. With these mea nings (P9ssession etc.), you cannot use continuous forms (am having etc. ): o We're enjoying OUf holiday. We've got I We have a nice room in the h Old. (not We're having)

For the past we use had (without got ): a Lisa had long hair w hen she was a ch ild. {not Lisa had got) In questions a nd nega tive sentences there are three possible forms:

--

I

Have you got a ny questions? Do you have any questions? H ave you a ny questions? (less usual)

I haven't gOi any questions. I don't have a ny questions. I haven't a ny questions. (less usual)

H as she got a car ? Docs she have a car? H as she a car? (less usual)

She hasn't got a ca r. She docsn't hal-'e a ca r. She hasn't a ca r. (less IIsllal)

In past questions and negative sentences, we use did/didn't: o Did you have a car when you were living in London? D 1 didn't ha ve a watch, so I didn't know the time. D Lisa had long hair, didn 't she? H a ve breakfast I have a bath I have a good time etc. We also use have (bll t not have gOt) fo r ma ny actions and experiences. For exa mple:

have

breakfast I dinner I a cup o f coffee I something to cat etc. a bath I a shower I a swim I a break I a rest I a party I a holiday a n accident I an experience I a dream a look (at something) a chat I a conversation I a discussion {with somebod yl d ifficulty I trouble I fu n I a good time etc. a baby (= give birth [0 a baby)

H a ve gOt is not possible in the expressions in the box. Com pare: o Sometimes I ha ve (= eat) a sandwich for my lu nc h. (not I've gOt) but I've got I I ha ve some sa ndwiches. Would you like o ne?

II

You ca n use continuous forms (am having etc.) with the expressions in the box: o We're enjoying our holiday. We're having a great time. (no t We have) o Mike is having a shower at the moment. H e has a shower every day. In questions a nd negative sentences we usc do/docs/did : o I don't usuall y have a big breakfast. (not 1 usually haven't) o What ti me does Jenny ha ve lunch ? (not has j enn y lunch) o Did you ha ve difficulty find ing a place to live ?

34

Have (got) to ........ Unit 31

American English ..... Appendix 7

I I


Exercises

Unit 17

17. 1 Write negative sentences with have. Some are present (can't) and some a re past (COUldn't). 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 17.2

I can't get imo the house. (3 key ) ..... L..~.~Y'.~ :t.gQL9.:: ...~.~ ., .........._ I couldn'[ read the len er. (my glasses) .....J.....4J4D.l .. b.~.y..~.... r.n.. ~... .9.~~~~.: ........................... I can't get OntO the roof. 13 ladder) I ............................................................ _... ..................... We couldn't \'isit the museum. (enough time) We He ..:ouldo'r find his way to our house. (a map) She' can't pa y her bil ls. (any money) .._.... _........... _............ I can't go swimming today. (enollgh energy) Th e~'

couldn't take

an~'

photographs. fa camera ) ..

Comp lete t he questions with have . Some are present a nd some are past. Excuse me, "....~.~....~.... ~9.\A. ....9.Q.t. ... a pen I cou ld borrow? 1 \\;ihy are you holding your fa ce like that? ........................................................ _ ......... a toothache? 3 ................................................... _ .............. a lot of toys when you were a child ? 4 :\: ......... ..................... the time, please? B: Yes, it's ren past se\路en. 5 I need a stamp for thi s letter. ........................... one? 6 When ~'ou worked in your last job, ... your own office? 7 :~ : It started to rain wry heavi ly while 1 was our. B: ..... .............................................. an umbrella?

17.3

Write sentences about you rself. Have you got these things now? Did you have them te n years ago? Write two sentences each time using I've got / 1 ha ve n't got and I had / 1 didn't have. (You ca n also write abou t your family : We 've got ... / We had ... e tc.), IfOU'

ca r l ....J. \路~".9Qt.....Q., ...f9..! ., .... (a bike ) I . .................. .. ta mobile phone) ............................ (a dog) ................... ,..... ,.................... ( a guitar ) ....................................................... ,....................... . (iong hair ) ............ _.... _.. ............................ (a driving licence )

(a

1 3 4

5

6 7 17.4

ten years ago .....L..Q)4..~:t.!:!.M ~.. I.

CL

car

Complete t he sentences. Use an ex pression fro m the list and put the verb into t he correct form whe re necessary. have a break have a cha t have difficulty have a good fli ght .ftave-lttnehhave a pa rty have a nice time have a shower I don't ea r much during the day. I ncyer . nl.l.ve wn.c.h David startS work at 8 o'clock a nd ..................... _ at 10.30. We .. ........................... .................................................. last week. Ir was great - we invited lots of people. Excuse me, can I .......................... ........................... ......... at you r newspaper, please? Jim is away on h o lida~' at the moment. I hope he ................,,,... ................. .. . . ............... . I mer Ann in [he superma rket yesterday. We stopped a nd ............... ~,...................................... ~" ...... .. .-\ : . ............................... ........................... ". .......................... fi nding the book you wa nted? B: ::"'0. I found it OK. Suzanne . ................................................... ... a few weeks ago . It's her second ch ild . A: \'? hy d idn't ~' ou answer the phone? have a baby have a look

1 3 4

5 6 7

S 9

B:

1 .....................

....................

.......... .... ". __ ...... .

10 YOIl meet your friel/d Sally at tile airport. She has Hi. Sally. How aTe

i//S f

arrived. YOIl say:

yo u ~

35


Used to (do) Study this exa mple situation:

Diane doesn't travd much these days. She prefers ro stay at home. But she used to tra\'cI a lot. She used to go away twO or three times a yea r.

=

She used to travel a lot she rravelled a lot regularl y in the past, bUI she doesn't do this any more.

she used to travel

she doesn't travel

past

I

flOW

these days Something used to happen = it happened regularly in the past, but no lo nger happens: o I used to play tennis a lot, but I don't play very onen now. o Dav id used to spend a lot of money on clothes. These days he ca n't afford it. o 'Do you go to the cinema much?' 'Not now, but I used to .' (= I used to go)

We also use used to ... for things that were true, but are not true any more: o This build ing is now a furniture shop. It used to be a cinema. o I used to think Mark was unfriendl y, but now ' realise he's a very nice person. a I've sta rted d rinking tea recently. , never used to like it ~fore . o Nicole used to have very long hair when she was a child . " used to do something' is past. There is no present form. You ca nnot say" use to do'. To talk about the present, use the presenr simple (I do). Compa re:

I)ost present

o o

he used to play he plays

we used to live we live

there used to be there is

We used to live in a small village, but now we live in London. There used to be four cinemas in the town. Now there is on ly one.

The normal question form is did (you) use to ... ?: o Did you use to eat a lot of sweets when you were a child? The negative form is didn't use to ... (used not to ... is also possible ): o , didn't use to li ke him. (or' used not to like him.) Compare ' used to do and' was doing: a I used to watch TV a lot. (= I watched TV regularly in the paSt, but I no longer do this) a I was watching TV when Mike ca lled. (= I was in the middle of watching TV) Do nOt confuse I used to do and I am used to doing (see Unit 6 1). The structures and meanings are different: o I used to live alone. (= I lived alone in the past, bUI I no longer li\'e alone.) a I am used to liviD.&: alone. (= I Jive alone, and I don't find it strange o r difficu lt because I've been livi ng alone fo r some time. )

36

Past continuous (I was doing) -- Unit 6 Would (.. used to) .... Unit 36 Bel get used to (doing) something .... Unit 61


Exercises

Unit 18

18.1 Complete the sentences with use(d) to + a suitable verb. 1 Diane doesn 't travel much now. She .._..\o:':.~ .~... _~....k~y.~. .... a lor, but she prefers to stay at home these da~路s . 2 Liz .................... ....... a motorbike, but last year she sold it and bought a car. 3 \'(/e came to live in London a few years ago. We _....._............... _.. _.......... _.............................. in l eeds. 4 I rarely eat ice-cream now, but I .............................. ........................... it when I was a chi ld. S Jim _._ .... _........................ _....... _...... _......... my best friend , but we aren't good frie nds any longer. 6 It only takes me about 40 minutes to get to work now that the new road is open. It .... _.... _._ ...... _.. _.............. ___._._._._._._._.... more than an hour. 7 There ......... _.......... _._ ........ _......................_.. _... _.. a horel near the airpon, but it dosed a long rime ago. g When ro u li\'ed in New York , .............................. _............................... .... to the theatre very often? 18.2 Matt changed his life style. He Slopped doi ng some thi ngs and started doing other th ings:

srud)'ing hard He sropped going to bed earlr { running three miles every morning

He started

sleeping late going our in the eveni ng { spending a lor of money

Wri te sentences about Matt with used to and did n't use t o.

...t!.~...~.~.g4 ....t.Q....~.tY.~...n.~4 , ... . ..... ....... ..................

2 ....!:!.~ . .9i.4.!!1. .~~~....HL.~ .~....~.:.... ........ ........._.................... 3 4

; 6 18.3

r;:

Compare what Karen sai d five years ago and what she says today : I'm a. hO.lel reception ist.

FIVE YEARS AGO

Ilra...el a lat. I've got lots of friends.,

~

/

,-----~~-------------, My dog died two TO DA )'

I play the piano.

'----- '"

/

--------~----.. -.......

I work very hard these days ~

newspapers.

--

I doo', th k'Ow people ese days.

\

the piano for years.

I dBA't ~a away

I work in a bookshop now.

I've got a dog.

ml;u~R

Now write sentences about how Karen ha s changed. Use used to in the fi rst part of your sentence .

... ..

6 7

8 9 10 ...... Additional exercise 9 (page 3 01 )

(Rest da ys.

Tea's great! I like il now.

1 go 10 a lot of parties.

~n~ \A..~.~ _. 0.. ...k~y.~....~....\P.L .................... ............... _ 2 She Ll sed ............ 3 ............................ ... 4 ....................... ; ..

I haven't been to ' - - a party for ages.

m ;' pY / ' ( ~~ "'''0'' pl,y,d

''Y '; '(\~;::~;;I Idon'll~

I'm "'Y cheese.

r read a newspaper ______ every day now

'-.....

\~ 'J.' ~I neverread

,,,",,0

C

I eat lots of cheese now.

I didn ' t

use to

I

neve r used to

but ......~~.~_ ..4Q~.~ .~.\. ..g9....~.rM:l....~~.9.:J. J!:1.~~.~...~~.., but bur but .............. __ .... _..... _.. _ but .............. _...... but ...................................................................

... ... but .. _...... ................. but ....... ....._............ _... _ ... _ bur _.... _

bllt

37


Present tenses (I am doing /1 do) for the fut ure Presefll continuOIlS (I am doing) with a future meaning

This is Ben's dia ry for nex t week.

He is playing tenn is on Mo nday afternoon. He is going to the dem ist o n Tuesday morn ing. He is ha\'ing dinner with Ka te on Friday. In all these exa mples, Ben has already decided and a rra nged to do these things.

I'm doing something (tomorrow) = I ha ve alread y decided and arra nged ( 0 do it: o A: What a re you doing on Saturda y evening? (Il o t Wh:1I do you do ) 8: I'm going to the theatre. (not I go ) o A: What time is Cathy arriving tomorrow? B: H alf past ten. ('m meeting her at the station. D I' m no t working tomorrow, so we can go o ut somewhere. o Ian isn't playing footba ll next Saturda y. He's hurt his leg. ' I' m going to (do)' is also possible in these sentences: o What are you going to do on Saturday evening? But the present conti nuous is mo re natural for arrangements. See also Unit 20B. Do nOt use will to talk about wha t you have arra nged to do: o What are you doing this evening? (',Ot What will you do) o Alex is getting married next month. (1101 will get ) Yo u can also use the present co ntinuous for an action illst before yOIl begin to do il. This ha ppens especially with verbs of movement (go!eomeJ1eave etc.): o I'm tired. I'm going to bed now. Good.night. (tl OI I go to bed now ) o 'Ti na, a re you ready yet ?' ' Yes, I'm coming.' (1101 I come)

I

I

Present simple (I do ) w ith a future meaning We use the present simple when we talk a bout timetables, programmes etc. (for public t ransport, cinemas etc.): o My tra in leaves at t 1. 30, so 1 need ro be a t the station by 11.1 5 . o What time does the film begin this even ing? o h's Wednesday tomorrow.! Tomorrow is Wednesda y. You can use the present simple to talk about people if their plans are fixed like a t imetable: o I stan m y new job on Monday. o Wha t time do you finish work tomorrow? But the continuous is more usual fo r personal arrangements: o What time are you meeting Ann tomorrow ? (1101 do you meet) Compare:

Present

continuOIlS

JJ resent simple

o What time a re you arriving? o I' m going to the cinema this evening.

38

I'm going to - Units 20. 23

Will - Units 21 - 22

0 Wh at time docs the train arrive? 0 T he film begins at 8. 15 (this evening).

Present simple after when/if etc....... Un it 25


Exercises 19.1

Unit 19 ~

A friend of yours is planning to go on holiday soon. You ask her about her plans.

~_ _ _ _ _ _,

Use the words in brackets to make your questions.

1 3 4

S 6

(where I go?) ~_~~L~.!:... ~~._g~.9-L_ . _____ (how long I go fo r?) ____ _________. _ (when I leave?) .. ____________.___ Igo I alone?) __.______________ ," ___.______ (tr3\'el l by car? ) _____.___.___.__.___ ... _____________. (where I stay? ) _ .•...... ____ .... __.__ ._. _____..•___ ._. _____ .. _._"

~ ,

Scotland . Ten days. Next Frida y. No, with a friend. No, by train. In a hotel.

19.2 Tom wants you to visit him , but you are vcry busy. look at your diary for the next few days and ex pla in to him why you ca n' t come. TO,\L:

Can you come on Monday evening?

YOU: Sorry, but ..... TO~I :

YOU: Tm l:

r.rn....~~9. ... ~~~~.............

\'(' hat about Tuesday evening then? No. not Tuesda y. I .................._...................... And \\ 'ed nesday eveni ng?

..............................

.......... _...... . (I) ...... . (2)

"OU:

.... __ ...... _.. _....................._......................_............... _................._.... ~ ........... _.......... ___ .._ . 13)

TO~I: YOU:

Well. are ~'ou free on Thursda y? I'm a,fraid not . .. ___ ._._.... _.... _............. _._ ............... ___ ......... ___ .. _. __ .

(<I )

19.3 Have you arranged to do anything at these times? Write sentences about yourselF. (this e"eningl .. J:!!L.9~9-QlA.-!... Q.1~_~'{~~._. or ._r!!.'-!:'!Q.t._.M!!.!9_~~9 ....tI1i.5 e.X~ 1 (tomorrow morn ing l I ._______________ ... ________.___ .~~._ _____ _ .3 !tomorrowevening) _ _ _ _ ~. 4 I next Su nday) __ .______ ._______ ... _~ ___ ._______ .___ ... ___ ._______ .... _._. __ .. _ .. ____ _ 5 (choose another day or time l _... ____ ... ____.. _ ........ __ ...... __ .... ___ _. ___._________ ~ __ H.

19.4

. _ ._ _ _ ...

_ _ • _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ... _ _ _

Put the verb into the more suitable Form. present continuous or present simple. 1 I -.~-9~9-- Igo) to the cinema this evening. 2 _...pg_~.~.... ~.~... .f..~ . ).~~.-. (the film I begi n) at 3.30 or 4.30? 3 We ...................... ...................................... (ha"e ) a party next Sam rd3y. Would ),ou like to come? ................ __ .... _.... _ (fin ish) on 3 Ma y. 4 T he art ex hibitio n .. ..................... S 1. • ...... (not I go ) Ollt this evening. I ....................................................... ....... (sta y) at home. 6 ..... _._._._ ........ _. __ ....... ................ (you I do) anyth ing tomo rrow morni ng?' 'No, I'm free. Why?' 7 \'\'e .. _................................... _._ .... _............. (go) to a concert tonight. It .. _. __ .................................... _........... (start) at 7.30. 8 I ... ___ ....... __ ............... _..... _._ .... _.... _...... (leave) now. I've come to S3 )' good bye. 9 .~: Ha"e you seen Liz recently? 8: ~o. but we __ -'_,_,,,_,, ___ ,,, __ ,,_"' __ ,___ (meet ) for lunch next week. to )'0 11 arf! on tbe trai" to London and you ask another passenger: Excuse m~. What time _. ____ .~ ____ .~ __ ... _______ (t his train I get ) to London? t 1 )'0 11 are talking to Helen: Helen, 1 _ _ .___.__ .__ .. __. _ (go) to the supermarket . ._~ __ .~ __ _ (you I come ) with me? 12 )'0 11 and a (riend are watchillg television. YOIl say: I'm bored with th is programme. What time .______ ~._.~" .. __.___ ....... _ (it I end )? 13 '-_______ .__ (not I use) the car this even ing, so you ca n have it. 14 Sue ........ _." ............ _.... _._ .... ~_ ..... _..... _......... _. (come) to see us tomorrow. She _._ .... ~_'" .... _._._ .. (travel ) by train and her train ...... ......... ~ ...... _.... ~ .... _ .............. _.... __ .. (arrive) at 10.15.

...... Add itional exercises 10 - 13 (pages 308-10)

39


Unit

20

(I'm) going to (do) I am going to do something = I have already decided to do it, I intend to do it: o A: Are you going to watch the latc fil m on TV tonight? 8 : No, I'm going 10 have an early night. o 1+.: 1 hear Sarah has won some moncy. What is she going to do with it? B: She's going to buy a new car. D I'm just going to make a quick phone cal l. Ca n you wai t fo r me? o This cheese looks horrible. I'm not going ( 0 cat it. I am doing a nd I a m going to do We use I am doing (p resent continuous) when we say what we have arranged to do - fo r exam ple, arranged to meet somebody, arranged to go somewhe re: o What ti me 3rc you meeting Ann this evening? o I' m leaving tomorrow. I've got my pla ne ticket. I am going to do someth ing = I' ve decided to do it (but perhaps not aITanged to do it): o 'Your shoes are dirty.' ' Yes, I know. l' m going to dean them: (= I've decided to dean them, but I haven't arranged to clean them) o I've decided not to stay here any longer. Tomorrow I'm going to look for somewhere else to sta y. O ften the difference is very small and ei ther form is possible. You can also say tha t 'something is going to happen' in the future . For example: The man can't see the wall in front of him. He is going to walk into the wall. When we say that 'something is going to happen', the situation now makes this clear. The man is walking row~ rd s the wall now, so we can see that he is going to walk imo il.

going

10

fu tuTe bappening

situation now

Some mote exa mples: a Look at those blac k douds! It's going to rain . (the clo uds a re there now ) a I feel te rrible. I think I' m going 10 be 'sick. (I feel terrible now) a The economic situation is bad now a nd th ings are going to get worse.

=

I was going to (do something) I intended to do it, but didn 't do it: o We were going to travel by tra in, but then we decided 10 go by ca r instead, a Peter was going 10 do the exam, but he changed his mind. a I was JUSt going to cross the road when somebody shouted 'StOp!' You ca n say that 'something was going to happen ' (but didn't happen): a I t ho ught it was going to rain, but it didn 't.

40

I am doing for the future -- Unit 19A

I will and I'm going to -

Unit 23


Exercises

Unit 20

20.1 Write a question with going to fo r each situation. I You r friend has won some mone\", You ask:

(what I do wi th it? ) __ .. ~.~....t;r..~...!:i~....9.QY:]9 ....tg....M .. wi.tJ1 it?

2 Your friend is going to a party tonight. You ask: (wha t / wear? ) 3 Your friend has iuS! boughr a new table. You ask: (where I put it? ) ................................................ _....................._....... .. 4 YOuf friend has decided to ha\'e a party. You ask: (who I invite? ) .............. _................... _

20.2 Read the situations and co mplete the dialogues. Use going to. I You have decided ro tidy your room this morning. FRJE~D: Are \'OU going our thi s morning?

YOe:

No. 路....J'_Tf.I....,9.OI!'Ig... tp".. ~, ..!!:.~, ...LqQ.!!! ...... _ ...................................

1 You bought a sweater. but it doesn't fit

YOLl

very wel l. You have decided to rake it back.

FRIE:-:O: T hat sweater is too big for you.

You:

I know. .

................................

3 You ha\'e been offered a iob. but you ha\'e decided not to accept it. FRIE:-:O: I hear you \ 'e been offered a job. YOU: That's right, bur 4 You have ro phone Sarah. It's morning no\i.路, and you have decided to phone her tonigh!. FRJE:-:O: H a\'e you phoned Sarah yet~ YOU:

No . ...

5 You are in a restaurant. The food is awfu l and you've decid ed to complain. FRIE:-:D: Thi s food is awful. isn't it? YO U:

20.3

Yes, it's disgusting. .................................

What is going to happen in these situa tions? Use the words in brackets. I There are a lor of black clouds in the sk\路. (rain ) ......!f~ ...S.Q!!.)9....j;Q ... r.~ ......................................................................,............................................................... _.............................. 1 It is 8.30 . Tom is leaving his house. He has to be ar work at 8.45, but the journey takes 30 minu tes. tJate ) He ....... 3 There is a hole in the bottom of the boat. A lot of water is coming in through the hole. ..................................................................................................................................... ........................... _ (sink ) T he boar ................ 4 lucy and Chris are d ri\路ing. There is very little perrol left in the tan k. T he nea rest petrol station is a long way away. (run our I They .........................................................................

20.4

Compl ete the sente nces with was/were going to + th e following verbs : buy

gi,'c up

have

pho ne

play

~

...

1 3 4

S 6

\'('e ......~.~.~ ...99.l!1.9....W....v.c,1.,~.~ by tra in, but then we decid ed to go by car instead. I .. .. ........ ...... . .......... some new clothes yesterday, but I was very busy and didn't ha\'e time to go to the shops. .\I artin and I ... ............................... ........................... tennis last week, bur he was inj ured. I .. _................. _._ .., ........................................, J ane, but I decided to email her instead. .\: \'il hen I last saw Tim. he .................................... his job. B: That's right. bur in the end he decided [0 stay where he was. We ._.. .............................................. _ .........,._.. a party last week, but some of our friends couldn't come, so we ca ncelled iI.

41


Unit

21

Will/shall 1 We use I'll (= I will ) when we decide to do something at the time of speaking: D O h, I've left the door open. I'll go and shut it. o ' What would you like to drink?' ' I'll have an ora nge juice, please: o 'Did you phone Lucy?' 'Oh no, I fo rgot. I'll phone her now: You cannot use the present simple (I do I I go etc.) in thest sentences: o I'll go and shut the door. (not I go and dlUt) We often use I think I'll ... and I don't think I'll ... : o I feel a bit hungry. I think I'll have something 10 eat. o I don't think I'll go out tonight. I'm too tired.

In spoken English the negative of will is usually won't (= will not ): o I can see you' re busy, so I won't stay long. Do flot use will to tal k about what you have already decided or arranged o I'm going on holiday next Saturday. (not I'll go) o Are you working tomorrow? (not Wi ll you work)

(0

do (see Units 19-201:

We o ften use will in these situations:

Offerillg to do something o Thaf bag looks heav}'. I'll help rou with if. (not I help) Agreeillg to do something o A: Ca n you give Tim this book ? B: Sure, I'll give it to him when I see him this afternoon. Promisillg to do something o Thanks for lendi ng me the money. I'll pay you back on Friday. o I wo n't tell anyone what happened. I promise.

Aski1tg somebody to do somethillg (Wi ll you ...

o Will you

?)

please turn the stereo down? r m trying to concentrate.

You can use won't to say that somebod y refuses to do something: o I've t ried to give her advice, but she won't listen. o T he ca r won 't start. (= the ca r ' refuses' to start)

Shall I ... ?

Shall we ... ?

Shall is used mostly in the questions shain ... ? I shall we ... ? We use shall I ... ? I shall we ... ? to ask somebody's opinion (especiall )' in offers o r suggestions): o Shall I open the window ? (= Do you want me to open the window?) o I've got no money. What sballl do? (= What do you suggest ?) o 'Shall we go?' 'JUSt a minute. I'm not ready yet.' o Where shall we go this even ing? Compare shall I ... ? and will you ... ?: o ShaUl shut the door? (= Do you want me to shut it ?) o Will you shut the door? (= I want you to sh ut it)

42

Will/shall 2 _ Unil 22

I will and I'm going to ..... Unit 23

Ameri can English ..... Appendix 7


Exercises 21.1

Unit 21

Complete the sentences wi th I'll + a su itable verb. 1 I"m toO tired to wa lk home. I thin k ... ,..L'.y.....~.~.... a taxI . ............................... ~ ... on the heating [hen.' 1 'It's cold in this room: 'Is it: 3 ,\: \'(/e haven't gO( any milk.

B: Oh , I forgot

to

buy some. .....................

................ and get some now.

'Sha ll I do the washing-up?' 路~ o, it's all righr. .......................... ... " it later.' -, don't know how to use thi s computer.' ' OK, ................ _....... _ .... _..... you.' 'Wou ld you like tea or coffee?' ........ ....................... coffee, please.' 'Good bye! Ha\"c a nice holiday.' 'Thanks.. . ........................................................... you a postcard .' Thanks for letti ng me borrow ~'o ur camera. ..... ........ _...._ .............................,..... it back to you on ~'t on d a y. OK? 9 'A re you coming with us? ' 路~o. I think ............................................._...._...._ ........ _ here.'

4 5 6 7 S

21.2

Read tile situations and write se nt ences with I th ink I'U ... or I don ' t think I'll ....

2 3 4

5 21.3

It"s a bit cold. The window is open and vou decide to close it. You say: I t:nl.l'lk ...t.'.\.!:- dose. t:n~_.wU}p..ow . . ..................................... , ... .................................,..................................................... _ You a re feeling tired and it"s getting late. Yo u decide fO go to bed. You say: I think . .................... ..... ...,_.... _... ............... ,.................................. ........................ ....................................... A friend of yours o ffe rs you a lift in his ca r. but you decide to walk. You say: Thank ~'ou , but ................ _..... ................................................_.... ....................... ___ .........__ ......._._......._.... _...... You arranged to play tennis today. Now you decide that you don't want to play. You say: I don'r rhi nk ._._ ....... _.__ .... _ .... _.... _._._._._._._._._._..._....._...._...._...._.. _.. ..... _._ .........._ ......................... You were going to go swi mming. I'ow you decide tha t you don't want to go. You say:

Which is correct? (If necessary, study Units 19- 20 firs t.)

I ' Did you phone Lucy?' 'Oh no. I fo rgor.+rhone.f I'll phone her now.' (I'll phone is correct) 2 I can 't meet you tomorrow. I'm pi;Fing I -fll-pla", tennis. (I' m playing is correct) 3 '1 meet I I'll meer you OUTside the hotel in half an hour, OK? ' ' Yes, that's fine.' 4 ., need some money." 'O K. I'm lending I I'l l lend you some. How much do you need? ' 5 I' m havi ng I I'll han: a party next Saturday. I hope you can come.

6 ' Remember to get a newspaper when ~'ou go out." 'OK . I don't fo rget II won't for&t!t.' 7 \'{Iha t time does \'Qur traj n leave I wi ll vOllr t[ain lea ve tomorrow ? 8 I asked Sue what happened, bur she docsn't tell ( won't tell me. 9 'Are \'ou doing I Will \'ou do an~路 t hin g tomorrow evening?' 'No, I'm free. Why?' 10 I don't want to go out alone . Do you come I Will rou come with me? 2 1.4

What do you say in these si tu ations? Write s~ntences with sha ll I ... ? or sha ll we ... ? 1 You and a friend wall[ (0 do something this evening, but you don't know what. You ask your friend . .....~.~.... ~.h~ ....~.~ ...~ ....!?:1!:-.~.... ~y.~r~g? ........................................................... _..... 1 You tryon a jacket in a shop . You are not sure whether to buy it or nOf. You ask a

3

4

5 6

-

friend fo r advice . ................................................................. ......................................................................... .......................................... _ it? h's Helen's birthda~' next week. You wam to give her a present, but you don't know what. You ask a friend for advice. \,{rhat ................... _ ........................................,.. You and a friend are going on holiday (Ogether, but you haven't decided where. You ask him/her. ._._............................. ........................ ......................... _..... ....................................... . You and a friend are going out. You haven't decided whether to go by car or to wal k. You ask hirnlher. ......................_.... ...... ___ or ......... _...._.......... _......... Your friend \vants you to phone la ter. You don't know what time to phone. You ask himlher.

Additional exercises 10- 13 (pages 308 - 10)

43


Unit

22

Will/shall 2 We do not use will [Q say what somebody has already arranged or decided to do: o Diane is working next week. (not Diane will work) o Are you going to watch television this evening? (not Will you watch) For ' is working' and ' Are you going to ... ?', see Units 19-20. But often, when we talk about the future, we are not talking about what somebody has decided to do. For example;

Kate is doing an exam next week. C hris and Joe are talking about it.

~~t:"~u~h::~!Z y~, she'll pass eaSily the uam?

'5~ ~ 0

When we predict a future happen ing or situation, we use willI won't. JOE

CHRIS

Some o o o o o

She'll pass does II ot mean 'she has decided [Q pass', Joe is saying what he knows or thinks will happen. He is predicting the futu re.

mo re examples: Jill has been away a long time. When she returns, she'll find a lor of changes here. 'Where will you be this time next year?' "'II be in Japa n: T hat plate is hot. If you touch it, you'll bum yourself. Tom won't pass t he exam. He hasn't studied hard enough. When will you get your exam results?

We often use will (,II) with: probably , expect (I' m) sure (I) think (I) don't think I wonder

o o o o o o

I'll probably be home late tonighI. I haven't seen Carol today. I expect she'll phone this e\路ening. Don't worry about the exa m. I'm sure you'll pass. Do you think Sa rah will like the present we bought her? I don't think the exa m will be \'ery difficult. I wonder what will happen.

After I hope, we generally use the present (will is also possible): o I hope Kate passes the exam. (or I hope Kate will pass ... ) o I hope it doesn't rain tomorrow. Generally we usc will to talk about the future, but sometimes we use will to ta lk abom now. For example: o Don't phone Ann now. She'll be busy. (= she'll be busy now) I shall ... I we shall .. . Normally we use shall only with I and we. 'you can say: I shall or I will (I'll) we shall or we will (we'll ) o I sbalJ be late this evening. (or I will be) o We shall probably go to Scotland in the summer. (or We will probably go) In spoken English we normally use I' ll and we'll : o We'll probably go to Scotland. The negative of shall is shall not or shan't: o I shan't be here tomorrow. (o r I won't be) Do not use shall with helshe!itlyoulthey: o She will be very angry. (not She shall be)

44

Will/shall 1 _ Unit 21 I will and I'm going to -- Unit 23 Will be doing and will have done The future - Appendix 3 Ameri can English - AppcndiK 7

Un it 24


Exercises

Unit 22

22 .1 Which form of the verb is correct (or more natural) in these sentences? The verbs are underlined.

I Diane isn't free on Satu rday. She' ll work (She's wQrkim;. (She's wo[kinc is correct ) 1 I'll Co I I' m coi ng to a pa rty tomorrow night . Would you like to come too? J I th ink Jenny will get I is geuing the job. She has a lor of experience. 4 J can 't meet you this e\'cning. A friend of mi ne wi ll come I is comiD!: to see me. S A: Have you decided where to go for your holidays? B: Yes, we'll CO I we' re going to h aly. 6 There's no need to be afraid of the dog. It won't bua ( It isn't byrting you. 22 .2 Complete the sentences with will ('II) + the following verbs :

be

1 3 4

S 6 i 8 22.3

come

gel

like

live

look

meet

-pass-

Don't worry abou t the exam. I' m sure you J'!"..EM.~_ ... . Why don't you tryon th is jacket? It .. _._ .... _.... _._.~ .. _.. ___ ._._.................. _ nice on you. You m ust meet George sometime. I think you ..................... ~~ ................. ~ .... ~.~ him . It's ra ining. Don'[ go out. You '~"" ............... ~ ...... _.. ~ ........ ~ .... ~.~ .... ~.~.~. wet. Do you think people ......... ................. _.... longer in the fm ure? Good bye. I expect we ...................... _... _.... _._ .................. _ again before long. I've in\·ited Sue to the party. but I don't think she ..................................... ~ .... _ ..................... \X' hen the new road is finis hed, my journey TO work .. ~ .... ~ ............................................. ~ .... _._ .. much shorter.

Put in will ('II ) or won 't.

1 Ca n you wai t for me? I .. ~ ..~.Q.!~.1_ be \'ery long. 2 There's no need to ta ke an umbrella with you. It _______ ."~._._ rain. 3 If you don't eat a nything now, you ~_ .. ___.__.___ be hungry later. 4 I' m sorry abou t what ha ppened yesterda y. It ________ happen agai n. S I've gOt some incredible news! You ___ ~ ______ . never belie\'c what happened. 6 Don't ask Ama nda for advice. She ____.__ .~ ____. know wha t to do. 22,4 Where do you think you will be at these timeS? Write true sentences abou t yourse lf. Use: I'll be ... or I'll probably be ... or J don't kn ow whe re I'll be (next ,\Io nda y c\'ening at i. 4S) ,'u. b_e oj, l1ol!'.~.:._._. __ ._.~ __.__ ~....~_. __._...._......._.._._...... or ... p.r..9..~~.4d ....~_~._~ ... bg.IJ.I.~.: ......... ~ ... or ..L 4.9..I3.'t . ~.~Q.~ ....W.~ .~~ . J.'.~. J~ ..................... _................................ _._ ................... __ 1 (at S o'clock tomorrow morn ing)

rY:. .

H ............. _ •• _

.. _ . _ .. _

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ . . . . _ . . . . . .. . . _ _ . _

3 (a t 10.30 tomorrow morn ing ) 4 (next Saturda y afternoon at 4.1 5 )

-_.._-_•.••.__.-._._._.•._..._-_........__

5 (this time next yea r ) 22 .5

.......

_

_......... __........__.•.•._... ..._-----

Write questions using do you thi nk ... will .. . ? + the follow ing : be back cost end get married happen -likerain 1 I\'e bough t Rosa this picture, __ P.9_~C?!!....J:h.t.rJ::-_. 5ne'U ~L~."" ___ ". ______ ... ______ ? 1 The weather doesn't look \'ery good . Do you ______________ "______ ? 3 T he meeting is still going on. When do you _____ ."_. _." _____ ? 4 .\ Iy ca r needs to be repaired. H ow much _______ ...... _.... ___ ... ______ ..... _. ____ ._ ? 5 Sall ~' a nd Oavid a re in lo\·e. Do ____ ._____ .~.~_.*._ .. ~.~. ___.__ ............................~. __ .. _. __.__ ......H*._.. _ ? 6 'I'm goi ng out now: 'OK, Wha t time ___ ...... __.__ .___._.. _. ___ ~ ....... ~.~ ... __ .___ .____ ..... _. ___ ._ ?' .. _._._...... _._._.... _....... _...........-... _._ ......... _.... _._._ ... _........ _.......... __ .... _..- ? 7 The futu re situa tion is uncertain , What

- Additional exercises 10-13 (pages 308-10)

45


Unit

23

I will and I'm going to Future actions Study the difference between will and (be) going to: Sue is [3.1king to Helen: ;-----~

l~t's ha~

a party.

~

SUE

HELE:\'

Later tha r day, Helen meets Da ve: Sue and I have decided to have a party. Wt're going to invite lots of people.

will ('II): We usc will when we decide [Q do someth ing a l the time o f speaking. The speaker has nor decided before. The pa rr)' is a new idea.

decisioll now

11

1 1... pas!

11010

flltltre

(be ) going 10: We use (be ) going to when we have already decided to do something. Helen ha d alread~' decided to im'itc tOtS of people before she spoke to Da\'e.

decision before

I

I'm

DAVE

â&#x20AC;˘

past

81

t . ...

II0U:

future

Compa re: o 'Ga ry phoned while you were out.' 'OK. I'll call him back.' 'Ga ry phoned while you were out.' ' Yes, I know. I' m going 10 call him back.' o 'An n is in hospital.' 'Oh really? I didn't know. I' ll go and visit her.' ' Ann is in hospital .' ' Yes, I know. I'm going to visit her this cvening.' Future happen ings and situations (predicting the fut ure) Somctimes there is not much difference between will and going to. For exa mple, you can say: o I think the weather will be nice this afternoon. o I think the weather is going to be nice this afternoon. When we say something is going to happen, we think this is beca use o f the situation Unit 20C). For example: o Look at those black clouds. It's going to rain. (llot It will rain) (We can see that it is going to rain fro m the clouds t hat are in the sky now .) o I feel terrible. I think I'm going to be sick. (" ot I think I'll be sick ) (I think I'm going to be sick beca use I feel terrible now. ) Do not use will in this type of situation. In othcr situations, use will: o Tom will probably get here at about 8 o'clock. o I think Sara h will like the present we bought fo r her. o These shoes 3re vcry well¡made. Thcy'lIlast a long ti me.

46

I'm going to _ Uni t 20

Will -

Uni ts 21 - 22

The future - Appendix 3

1I0W

(see


Exercises

Unit 23

23 .1 Comple te the sentences using will (' II) or going to. I .~: Why arc you turning on the television? ._1~!:'L 99.!!1-9._tQ._wo.W1~ the news. \II watch ) 1 .. : Oh, I' ve JUS t realised. I h:n'cn't gOt any money. Haven't you: \'?ell. don't worry. _. __.____ .~._. ____ .~ .. ____.H._._ )'ou 3 .-\: r\'t' gO t a headache.

.,

"

., .,

Have you? \'{Iair a second and _. _________ ~. __ .__ ._____._.* an aspirin for yo u. (I I get )

4 .-\: \'(/hy are

.,

5

.-\:

6

.,

.. :

some. (I I lend )

)'OU

filling that bucker with

_ _ _ _ '_H •• H __ • ___ "H_ ••

W3tCr:

*._. ______.__.__._. __ the ca r. /I I wash )

1\ '(' decided to repaim this room. Oh, have you: \X' hal colour _...____ ._.... _._ .. ____ ... __ ._._... _._ ... _._ .................. _ it? !},ou I pain t ) Where are yo u going? Arc yo u going shopping? Yes • .__ ._....H.*._. __.___ •. _.. _._ ...................._.... __ ._ ........... something for di nner. (I I buy) I do n 't know ho w to use this came ra. It's ea sy. .. _.......................... ........................ _ yo u. (I I show) \'(' hat wou ld ~' ou like to eat? _._ .............................................._.............................._....... _ a sandwic h, p lea se. (I I ha ve) Did you POSt that tener for me? O h. r ill so rr~·. I com pletely forgot. _.. _... _........ _... .... _............ it now. (I I d o) The cei ling in this room d oesn't look very safe. does it ! :\"0. it looks as if .___ .. _.. __ .. _...... _._._ .... __ ...:_._ .... _..... _.. __ ~ .... ___ d own. (it I fall)

. A:

,

S A: B:

9 .-\: B:

10 .-\:

B:

II .-\: H as George decided what to d o when he lea\"(~s school? B: Yes. E\'e rything is planned . ._ ... _ .. __ a holiday for a few weeks. (he I h;1xe ) Then _. .~ _____ .___________ a com puter programm ing course. (hc I do) 23 .2

Read the si tu ations and complete the sen tences using will (' Il) or going to. I The phone rings and you answer. Somebody wa nts to spea k to Ji m. O LLER: Hello. Can I spea k to Jim. please: '~ ...9-__ et... _. h"1m. ( I I get) YOl': Just a moment. ._..I _._ 1 iT's a nice da~·. so ~·ou ha\'e decided to take a \\·alk. JUSt before yotl go, you tell yo ur friend. YOL': The wearher's tOO nice to stay in. __ . _.___.......... ___ .__ ..... _. ___ .. _._ ... __ ._. __ ........ a walk. (I I take) FRIE:"O: Good idea. [ think _...... __ ........ _... _._....... _....... _... _..... _.... _......... _....................... __ }'OU. (I I join) 3 Your friend is worried beco\ll5e she h as lost an impo rta nt lener. YOt": Don't worry about the Imer. l"m sure ........ _..... _....... _........................................................_.. it. (you I find) FRIE:"D: I hope'so . .. There was a job advertised in the paper recently. At firs t rou were interested, bur then you decided nOt to apply. FRIESD: Ha \'e yo u d ecided \\·hat to do about that job you were inte rested in ? YOt": Yes, .___ ._.......... _._ ..... _ __............................. _.... for it . (I I not I apply) 5 You a nd a frie nd come home \"('" ry late, Other people in the house arc asleep. Your friend is noi sy. ,or: Shh! Don't make so much noise . ._____ .. _.H_ ... _. __.__ .. _... _. everybody up, (you I wake) 6 Paul has to go to the airport to catch a plane tomorrow morning. PACL: Liz, I need somebody (0 take me to the airport tomorrow morning, U Z: That's no p roblem . __ .____ __ yOtl . (II take ) What time is your flight? PAUL:

10,50.

UZ:

OK, ____ ._____ .~ _____ .__ .... _... __ .. _______ ._... __ .__ at about 9 o'clock then. (we I leave)

later that day, JOt' offers to ra k e Paul to the ai rport. JOE: Paul, do you wallt me to take you to the airport ? P.-\UI.: No thanks, J oe . .__ .... _... __ .. _.......... _._._.._ .. _......

H ......................._._._. _ _ ._

.... Addit ional exercises 10-13 (pages 308-10)

•• _

me. (Liz I take )

47


Un it

24

Will be doing and will have done Study this exam ple situation:

These people are standing in a queue to get into the cinema.

now Half an hour from now, the cinema will be full. Everyone will be watching the film . half an

hOIiT

from

flOIl '

Three hours fro m now, the cinema will be empty.

The film wi ll have fini shed. Everybody will have gone home.

--

thref! hOllrs from 110 // '

I will be doing something (futllre continuOl/s) = I will be in the middle of doing it: o This time next week I'll be on holida y. I' ll be lying on the beach or swimming in the sea. D You have no chance of getting the job. You'll be wasting your time if )'ou a pply fo r it.

Compare will be (doling and will (do); o Don't phone between 7 and 8. We'll be having dinner. o Let's wait for Liz to arri ve and then we'll have dinner. Compare will be -ing with other continuous forms: o At to o'clock yesterday, Sally was in her office. She was working. (past) It's 10 o'clock now. She is in her office. She is worki ng. (present) At 10 o'clock tomorrow, she will be in her office. She will be working. We also use will be -ing in a different wa y: to talk about complete actions in the future . For exa mple: o The government will be making a statement aboul the crisis later today. o Wi ll you be going away this summer? o Later in the programme, I'll be talking to the Minister of Education ... o Our best player is injured and won 't be playing in the game on Saturday. In these examples will be -ing is similar

10

.----------later in the programme nl be talking to ..

(be) going to ....

We usc will have (done) (fllftlre perfect ) to say that something wi ll already be complete before a time in the future. For example: o Sall y always leaves for work at 8.30 in the morning. She won't be a[ home at 9 o 'clockshe'll have gone to work. o We're late. The fi lm will already have started by the time we get to the cinema. Com pare will have (done) with other perfect forms: o Ted and Amy have been married for 24 years. (present perfect) Next year they will have been married for 25 years. When their son was born, they had been married for three rea rs. (past perfect)

48

Will _ Un its 21- 22 By then I by the time .... Un it t 20 The future - Appendix 3


Unit 24

Exercises

24.1 Read about Colin. Th en ti ck (.I) the sentences which are true. In each group of sente nces at

least on e is true. Colin goes to work ('\'cry day. He lea\'es home at 8 o'clock and arrives at work at about 8.45. He starts work immediately and conrinues umil 12.30 when he has lunch (which takes about half an hour ), He starts work agai n a t 1.15 and goes home at exactly 4 .30. Every day he fo llows the same routi ne and tomorrow will be no exception.

,....&::::!

2

At 7.45 a he'!1 be leaving the house b he' ll ha\'e left the house he'll be at home .l d he'll be having breakfast ./

8. 15 I~~;;~ aAt he'll be leaving [he house

4~ '

he' ll be having lunch

_

5

b he'll have left the house ( he'll ha\'e arri,'ed at work d he'll be arri\,jng a t work At9.15 a he'll be working b he'll start work c he'll ha\'c started work d he'll be arriving aT work 24,2

Ar12.45 ab he'll have lunch

c he' ll have finished his lunch d he' ll have started his lunch

~ At 4 o'dock â&#x20AC;˘

-

6

a he'll have fi nished work b he'll finish work c he' ll be work ing d he won't have fin ished work

At 4.45 a he'll leave work b he'll be leaving work c he'll ha ve left work d he'll have arrived ho me

Put the verb into the correct form. wil l be (doling or wi ll have (done), Don't phone between 7 and 8, ___.. .w.~:.l,!.. . .P.~....\:).~'y'.l,I3g ..... (we I have ) dinner then. 1 Phone me after 8 o'clock, ___ ____ _.... (we I finish ) dinner by Then. 3 Tomorrow afternoon we' re going to play tenni s from 3 o'clock until 4,30. So a t 4 o'clock, .. __ ._....... _......................................................................... _ ........_ (we I play ) ren nis, 4 ,\: Can we meet tomorrow? ..................... (I I work), B: Yes. bur no r in the a fternoon. 5 B has to go to a lIleetillg which begins at 10 0 ¡clock. It will last abOllt all hOIlT. :\: Will ~'ou be free at 11.30? B; Yes. .. ....................................................... _._............................ Ithe meeting I end) by then. 6 Ben is on holiday and he is spending his money very quickly. If he conti n ues like this, .......................... __ ............ _.... _._ ......................... _ ............... ~ (he I spend ) all his money before the end of his holiday. 7 Do you think .................. (you I sti ll I do) the same job in ten years' rime? 8 Lisa is from New Zealand. She is travelli ng around Europe at The moment. So far she has rra\'elled about 1.000 miles. By the end of the trip,.. ........................... .................. _...................._.... (she I travel ) more than 3.000 miles. ...................... (II stay) at the Lion Hotel 9 If ~' ou need to contact me, ......................................................... until Friday. .......................................................................................... (you I see) Laura tomorrow? 10 :\; B; Yes, probably. \'(/hy? :\: I borrowed this CD from her. Can you give it bac k to her?

__ Additional exercises 12 - 13 (pages 309-10)

49


When I do I When I've done

When and if

Study [his example: "I'll phone you when I get home" is a semen.:" with (wo pans: the IIIllill p,ut: 'I'll phone you' and the w hen-p,nt: "when I get home" The rime in the SCnlCllce is fu ture I" lOmorrow" ). but we use a presellt tense (I get l in the wh en-part o f t he sem ence. We do Some o o o

/lo t

use will in the when-p.lrr of The sentence.

mo rc examples: We'll go out when it StOps raining. (n ot when it will stop ) When you arc in London again, come a nd see us. (not When you will be ) (sa id to a child) What do you want to he when you grow up ? ( ,~ot wi ll grow)

The sa me th ing happens after whi le I before I after I as soon as I umil or till: o I'm going to read a lo t while I'm on holiday. (1I0 ( while I w ill be) o I'll probably go back ho me on Sunday. Before I go, I'd like to visit t he museum.

o Wait here until (or till ) I come back. You can also use the present perfect (have done) after when I after I until I as soon as: o Can I borrow (ha t book when you've finished with it? o Don't say anything while Ian is here. Wait until he has gone. If you use the present perfect, o ne th ing must be complete before the other (so the rwo things do 1Iot happen together): o When I've phoned Kate, we can have dinner. (= First I' ll phone Kate and after that we can have dinner. )

Do not use the present perfect if the rwo things happen together: o When I phone Kate, I' ll ask her about the pa rty. (1Iot When I've phoned ) It is often possi ble to use either the present sim ple or the present perfect:

o I'll come as soon as I finish . o You'll feel better after you have someth ing to cat

or

or

I' ll come as soon as I've fini shed. You 'll fee l bener after you've had something 10 ear.

After if, we normall y use the present simple (if I do I if I see erc.) fo r the futu re: o It's rai ni ng hard . We' ll get wet if we go our. (,:ot if we will go) o I'll be angry if it happens again. (n ot if it will happen) o Hurry up! If we don't hurry, we' ll be late . Compare when and if: We use when for things which a re sure to happen: o I'm going shopping later. (for sure) When I go shopping, I'll buy some food. We use if (1tO t when) for things that will possibly happen : o I might go shopping later. (it's possible) If I go shopping, I'll bu y some food. o If it is rain ing this eveni ng, I won't go o ut . (lI ot When it is rain ing) o Don 't worry if I' m late tonight. (no t when (' m (ate) o If they don 't come soon, I'm not going to wair. (lIot When the)' don 't come)

50

If .... Units 38-40 Even if I ev("n when .... Unit

112D

Unless .... Unit

11 5


Exercises

Unit 25

25.1 Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets. All the sentences are about the future . Use wi ll/won't or the present simple (I see I he plays I it is etc.). 1 I Jik.P.!:!.9,,~.~ __ (phone l you when I .--9.~ -- (get) home fro m work. 2 I want to see Jul ia beiore she ... _____ ,,_, (go) out. ____ .___ (tell) you all abom it when we 3 We're going on holiday tomorrow. I .. _______ ., _____ "_" __._ (come ) back.

4 Brian looks very different no w. \'.;:Then you . .____ (see) him again, you __ .. __.___ ._______ ..'_. ___ (not I recognise) him. j .___ .____ .. _ .. _.,, __ .. _. _____ (you I be) lonely without me wh ile I ____ ._____ .___ ._ (be) away?

6

do something soon before it _. _____ ._.."_. ___ .... __ ._.... ___ .. __.___ (be) tOO late. 7 I don't wa nt to go wi lhout you. I ._._._.. _.. _....___ .~_" .. ".. (wait) until you ._. __ ... __ .... _ .____._._._... __ _ { be ) ready, S Sue ha s applied for the job, but she isn't \'ery well-q ualified fo r it. J ....................................,..,..,............................. {bel surprised if she .................."...................... __ .......... (get) it. 9 I hope to play ten nis tomorrow if the weather ................ _.... _.... _._._........ _... _....... _.. (be) nice. to I'm going out now. If anybody ............... (phone) while I ........._... ......... (be) out. can you take a message? \,"Ie mUSt

H_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25.2 Make one sentence from two. It will StOp raining soon. Then we'll go out. ___w..~.'J:t ..9.~U?\·~t__..~.~._.._. __._..._..._..._.. _..._._" \\·hen ....~.._~.~.P.~....r.:~.,g."..,_..........__._.....______._______ _ 1 I'll fi nd somewhere to li\'e, Then I'll gi\'e you my address. I .______ when

._----_._._--_._---

3 I'll do the shopping. Then I'll come srraighr back home . .__________ .____ after ________. 4 It's going to get dark. Let's go home before that .

.___ ..... _____.__._._

before __.__ .__

5 She must apologise to me first. I won', speak to her until then . _______ ... _..... _...... _ .. _.~._~ .... _.... _.. ___ until __....... _......... _._" ... _... _..... _.. ___ ... ____________._ __ 25.3

Read the situ ations and comp lete the sen tences. 1 A friend of yours is goi ng on ho l ida~·. You want to know what she is going to do. You ask: \'(/hat are you goi ng to do when ... _M~ ....?:!..~.... Q!:l''''r.,~................ ........ _._ .... _. __ ? 2 A friend of you rs is \'isiting you. She has to go soon but maybe there's rime for some more coffee, You ask: \X/ould you like some more coffee before .................................... ,............................................. ? 3 You want to se ll your car. Ji m is interested in bu yi ng it, but he hasn't decided yet. You ask: Ca n you let me know as soon as ................ _.......... _ ............................................................................................., ) 4 Your friend s are going to :-':e\\' Yo rk soon. You want to know where they're going to stay, You ask: \'(/here are ~'o u going to sray when .. _. __ ._.... __ ._. ___ ._. ____.__ .~. ___ ... ___ .... _.~._._._._._....... _............ ? 5 The t ra ffic is \'cry bad in you r town, but they are build ing a new road at the momell[. You say: I think things will be bener when t hey .___ ....... _..,..,__ ..... _..... __ .. _ _ _

25.4

Put in whe n or if. Don't worry .A _ I'm late tonighr. 1 Tom might phone whi le I'm o ut this even ing. _ _ _ _ he does, can you take a message? 3 I'm goi ng to Rome next week . ._____ I'm there, J hope to visit a friend of mine. 4 I rhink Jill wi ll get the job, I'll be \'ery surprised ____ ,.. she doesn't get it. 5 I'm goi ng shopping. "_ _ _ . you wa nt anything, I can get it for you, 6 I'm goi ng away for a few days. I'll phone you __ . I g~ f back. 7 I want you to come to the party. bu r _... _._._"_._ .. _.. you don't want to come, that's all right. S We can ea f at home or• ._._ ................ you prefer, we can go to a resta urant.

_ Add itiona l exercises 12- 15 {pages 309-11}, 32 (page 32 1)

51


Can, could and (be) able to We use can to say that something is possible or allowed, or that somebody has the abiliry to do something. We use can + in(initille (can do I can see erc.): o We can see the lake from our bedroom window. o 'I haven't got a pen.' 'You can use mine.' o Can you speak any foreign languages? o I can come and see you tomorrow if yOll like. D T he word 'play' can be a noun or a verb.

The negative is can't (= cannot): o I' m afraid I can 't'come to the part}' on Friday. You can say that somebody is able to do s?mething, but can is more usual; o We are able to sec the lake from our bedroom window. But can has on ly twO forms: can (p resefttj and could (pas t ). So sometimes it is necessary to use (be) able to . Com pa re: ~

o I can't sleep.

I haven; been able to s leep recently. Tom might be able to come romorrow. Applicants for the job must be able to speak tWO foreign languages.

=

o To m ca n come tomorrow.

o Maria can speak French, Spanish and English.

~

Could Sometimes could is the past of can. We use could especially with: see hear smell taste feel remember understand o We had a lovely room in the hotel. We could see the lake. D As soon as I wa lked into the room, I could smell gas. o I was sitting at the back of the theatre a nd couldn't hear very well. We also usc could to say that somebody ha{l t he genera l abi lity or permission to do something: D M y grandfather could speak five languages. D We were totally free. We could do what we wanted. (= we were allowed to dol Could a nd was able to We usc could for geueral ability. But if you wa m to S3Y that somebody did something in a speci fi c situation, use was/were able to o r managed to (no t could ): o The fi re spread through the building ver)' quick ly, but fortunate ly everybody was able to escape I managed to escape. (1I0t could escape) D We didn 't know where David was, but we managed to find I were able to find him in the end. (1I0 t cou ld fi nd) Com pare: D M ike was an excellent tennis player when he was )'ounger. He could beat a nrbody. (= he had the genera l abi lity to beat anybody) bllt Mike and Pete played tennis yesterday. Pete played very well, but ~路I ike managed to beat him . (= he ma naged to beat him in this particular game) The negative couldn 't (could not ) is possible in all situations: o My gra ndfather couldn't swim . D We looked for David everywhere, but we couldn 't find him. D Pete played well, but he couldn't beat Mike.

52

Could (do) and cou ld have (done) .... Unit 27

Must and can't .... UnIt 28

Can/could you ... ? --- Un it 37


Exercises 26.1

Unit 26

Complete the sentences usi ng can or (be) able to. Use ca n if possible: otherwise use (be) able to.

Gary has travelled a lor. He ..... ~ ..... speak five languages. 2 I haven't .. J).~....~!&... ,~.... _ sleep vcry well recently.

3 Nicole .. _.... ".

.... d ri\'c, but she hasn't

gOt

a car.

4 I used to .... stand on my head, bur I can't do it now. S I can't understand [vianin. j\-c nc\'cr ,____ .. ....... understand him. 6 I can't see you on Frida~·. bur I .................._....... _........._._ .. _.......... meet you on Satu rday morni ng. 7 Ask Catherine aboU[ your problem. She might ............. help you. 26.2

Wr ite se ntences about yourself using the ideas in brackets.

1 (someth ing you used to be able to do ) ...J . . ~.~.~....~....P.~....@.l? ...~....~~9.... ~.~.,..... 1 (something you used to be able to do ) I used .... ............................. 3 lsomething you would like to be able to do)

I'd

.......... .. .

-1 lsomething you ha\'e ne\'er been able to do ) " ve .......................... ...................................

.........................

26.3 Complete the sen tences with canfc an 'tfcould/.couldn 't + the following : «HJte-

1 3 4 5

6 26.4

26.5

ea t

hear

run

sleep

w an

I'm afraid I ..... ~.~.Lgl.~~..... to your party next week . When Tim was 16. he ................. tOO metres in 11 seconds. 'Are you in a hurry:' ' ~o, I' ve gOt plenty of time. I .... . I was feeling sick yesterday. I ...... ............. anything. Can you speak a little louder? I ............ you very well. 'You look tired." 'Yes, I .......... ............ last nighr.'

Comple te the answers to t he qu estio ns with was/were able to .... I ..1,: Did everybody escape from the fi re? s, Yes. although the fi re spread quickly, everybody .....~~.....9.J?(.?...~ ..~~.~~ ....................... .......................... . 2 •.1,: Did ~' o u fin ish your work this afternoon? s, Yes. there wa s nobody to disturb me, so I ..... 3 •.1,: Did you ha\·e.difficu lty fin ding our house? s, :-..:O[ reallr. Your directions were good and we 4 •.1,: Did the thief get away? s, Yes. ~o"one realised what was happening and rhe thief ........... Compl ete the sentences using cou ld, couldn ' t or managed to. ~ I y grandfather tra"elled a lot. He .....~!4..... speak five la nguages. 1 I looked e\'erywhere for the book, but I ..... ~.(4.~\ ..... find it. 3 The~' didn', want to come with us at first, but we .....m@!HJ.f fi ... ~..... persuade them. 4 Lau ra had hurt her leg and ......... ............ wal k very well. 5 Sue wasn 't at home when I phoned, but I .......... _..... ........... contact her at her o ffice. 6 I looked very carefully a nd I ........ ................ see somebody in rhe distance. 7 I wanted to buy some tomatoes. The first shop I went to didn't have a ny, bur I ................................. _......... ..........._ get some in the next shop. S My grandmother loved music. She .......... play the piano very well . .._................ . .. rescue her. 9 A girl fe ll into the river, bur fortun a tely we ...._.... _...._............... 10 I had forgotten to bring m~' camera, so I ...................................................... _._ ........... take any photographs.

53


Could (do) and could have (done) We use could in a number of ways. Sometimes could is the past o f can (see Unit 26): o listen . I can hear something. (now) o J listened. I could hear something. (past) But cou ld is nOI only used in this war. We also use could 10 talk about possible actions or it! the (utJIre (especiall)' to make suggestions). For exa mple: / - - - -___

o

What sha ll we do this eveni ng? B: We could go to, the ci nema.

o

A:

flOll'

What shaU we

A:

When you go to Paris next month, you could stay with Julia. s: Yes, I su ppose 1 could.

Ca n is a lso poss ible in these sentences (' We can go to the cinema.' etc.). With could , the suggestion is less sure.

We could go to the cinema.

We also use could ( 110 t can) for actions which 3rc not rea listic. For example: o I'm so [ired, I could sleep for a week. (nol I can sleep for a week) Compare ca n and could: o I can stay with Julia when J go to Pa ris. (rea listic) o Maybe I could stay with Julia when I go to Paris. (possible, but less sure) o This is a wonderfu l place. I could stay here for ever. (unrea listic) We also use could (not can) to say th at someth ing is possible now or in the furure. The mea ning is similar to might or may (see Unit 29): o The story could be true, bur I don't think it is. (not can be true) o I don't know what time Liz is coming. She could get here at any time. We use could have (done) to ta lk about the past. Com pare: o I' m so tired, I could sleep for a week. (noUl) J was so tired, I could h.n'e slept fo r a week. (past) o The situation is bad, but it could be worse. (now) T he situation was bad, bur it could have been worse. {pasO Something could have happened = it was possible but did lI o t happen: o Why did you stay at a hotel when you were in Paris? You could have stayed with Julia. (you didn't stay with her) o I didn't know that you wanted to go to the concert . J could have got you a ticker. (I d idn't get you a ticket ) o Dave was lucky. He could have hurt ~i m self when he fell, bUI he's OK. We use couldn't to say that someth ing would not be possible now: o I couldn 't live in a big cit}'. I'd hate it. (= it wouldn't be possible fo r me) o Everything is fi ne right now. Thi ngs couldn 't be ben et. For the past we use couldn 't have (done): o We had a rea lly good holiday. It couldn 't have been bener. o The trip was ca ncelled last week. Paul couldn't have gone anyway because he was ill. (= it would not have been possible for him to go)

54

Couldn't have (done) .... Uni t 28B Could and might -- Unit 29C Could I/you ... ? - Un it 31 Could with if - Un its J8C, J9E, 400 Modal verb s (ca n/could/ wili /wouid etc.) .... Append ix 4


Exercises

Unit 27

27.1 Answe r the ques tio ns wi t h a sugges tion. Use cou ld.

Where shall we go for our holidays? \'(lhat shall we ha\'e for di nner ton ight? When shall I phone Angela? What shall I gi,'e Ann for he r birthday? Where sha ll we hang this pictu re?

2 3 4 5

27 .2

~~~~~a~~~ (to Scotland) ....w.~ . . ~.(.4.....gQ... JQ....~.~4:., ... (fi sh) We (now ) You (a book)

(i n the kitchen )

In some of these sente nces, you need could (not ca n), Change t he se ntences w here necessary.

I The story~, but I don't think it is. ......~.L4....~.~_ . _k:\o:I.~ 2 It's a nice day. \Ve can go lor a wa lk. .. ... .PK. (~.9.~.14. gQj~ ..f!.~~.Q.. P 9..~~.i.b.l~l 3 I' m so angr~' w ith him . I can kill him! ...................... 4 If you ' re hungry. we can have di nner now. S It"s so nice here. I can sta y he re all day, but unforrunately I have to go. 6 . \; Whe re's mr bag. H3\'e ~'OU seen it? B: :\10, but it can be in the ca r. i Peter is a keen musician. He plays the flute and he can also play the piano. S ,\: I need to borrow a ca mera. B: You can borrow mine. 9 The weather is nice now, but it can change later. 27 .3

Complete t he sen tences. Use co ul d or could have + a s uita ble ve rb. I .\: What shall we do th is evening? B: I don't mind. We .....~.!4. ....9.Q._.. to the cinema. 1 ,I,: I had a vcry bori ng n ening at home yesterday. B: Why did yo u sta y at home? You ..... . ............................... __ ................., out with us. ......... _..... ___ ...... _................. for it. 3 .-\: T here's an interesting job advertised in the paper. You . B: What SOrt of job: Show me the adl路errisemem. 4 .-\ : H ow was your exam? \'(las it difficult? It wasn't so bad. It _............._ ........................................................... worse. 5 .-\: I gar very. wet walk ing home in the rain last night. . ........_... _.___ .................. a ta xI. B, Why did you walk? You .__.... 6 .-\ : \\Ihere shall we meet tomorrow? B, Well, I . _ .................... _...... _.... __ ..... to your house if you li ke.

"

27 .4

Complete the senten ces. Use cou ldn 't or couldn 't have + these verbs (in t he correct fo rm): -bebe come find gel 路Ii-vewear

...._ ~!-A..14.!".\...~X.!1.., ... in a big city. I'd ha te it. 1 We had a rea lly good holida~路. 路1t C"OI.At.dn't._.~.~X,~...p..~n...... better. 3 I. ........................................... _... tha t hat. I'd look silly and people wou ld laugh at me. 4 We managed to find the restaurant you recommended, bur we ,........................................ ,......... , it without the map fhat yo u drew for us. 5 Paul has to gel up at 4 o'clock every morning. I don 't know how he does it. I ........ _.............. ...... up at that time every day. 6 The staff at the hotel were reall r nice when we stayed there last summer. They .................... ............... more helpful. 7 .-\ : I tried to phone you last week. We had a party and I wanted to invite you. B: That was nice of you, but I ..... __ ................................ _.......................... anyway. I was awa y all laST week. -- Additional exercises 16-18 (pages 311 -13)

55


Must and can't Study this example: My houS( is V(ry near the motorway.

It must bf: very noisy.

YOu ca n use must to say that you believe something is certain: o You've been travelling all day. You must be tired . (Travelling is tiring and you've been travelling all day, so you must be tired .) o 'Jim is a hard worker.' 'Jim ? You must be joking. He doesn't do anything.' o Carol must get very bored in her job. She does the same thing e,very day. o I' m sure Sally gave me her phone number. I must have it somewhere. You can use can't to say that you believe something is nor possible: o You've JUSt had lunch. You can't be hungry already. (People are not normally hungry JUSt after eating a meal. You've just eaten, so you can't be hungry.) o They haven't lived here fo r very long. They can't know many people. Study the structure' Uyoulhe (etc.)

must can't

be (tired I hungry I at work etc. ) be (doing I going I joking etc.) do I get I know I have etc.

For the past we use must have (done) and can't have (done). Study this example: Ma rtin and Lucy are standing at the door of their friends' house. They have rung the doorbel l twice, but nobody has answered. Lucy says:

There's nobody at home. They must have gone out.

They mUSt have gone out.

D I didn't hear the pho ne. I must have been asleep. ' You must have dropped it somewhere.' D Sue hasn't contacted me. She can't bave got my message. D Tom walked into a wall. He can't h~ve been looking where he was going. D 'I've lost o ne o f my gloves.'

Study the structure: Uyoulhe (etc.)

must can't

have

betn (asleep I at work etc.) been (doing I looking etc.) gone I gOt I known etc.

I

You can use couldn't have instead of can't have: D Sue couldn't have got my message. D Tom couldn't have betn looking where he was going.

56

Can't ('I can't swim' etc.) .... Un it 26 Must ('I must go' etc.) .... Units 31-32 Modal verbs (can/could/will/wouid etc.) ...... Appendix 4 American English .... Appen dix 7


Exercises

Unit 28

28 .1 Put in mu st or ca n't.

You've been tra velling a ll day. You _.J!'J.A~g,__ be tired. 2 Tholl restau rant ._ _ _ .___ ._.. _~ be vcry good . It's always fuJI o f people. 3 Th:u restaurant _________ be ,'ery good. Jr's alwa ys empty. 4 I'm sure I gave you the key. You ._______. ha ve it. Have rou looked in yo ur bag? 5 You' re going on holida y next week. You be looking forwa rd [0 it .

6 h ra ined every day during their

holida~'.

so they _______ . have had a vcry nice time.

7 Congratulations on passing your exam. You ________ .____ . be \'cry pleased. 8 You gOt here ,'c ry q uick ly. You ._____ ..,._._.... _ ha\'c walked ,'c ry fa st. 9 Bill a nd Sue always travel business class. so they ._____ ..... _...... _. __ ..... _.. be short of money. 28. 2 Comple te each se nt ence with a verb (one or two words) in the correct fo rm. I I've lost one of my gloves. I must ..... .!1f1:.:~.~_N..Q.P.~...... it somewhere. 1 They ha\'cn't Ill'cd here for vcr)" lo ng. Ther can't ....t t:!.QI-.l.... man y people. 3 Ted isn'T at work TOday. H e must ....., .............................. _........ .. ill . 4 Ted wa sn't at work last week. He must .. _ ........ _.... _...... .................... _.. ill. 5 (the doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. It can't .................. Mary. She's still at wo rk at this time. 6 Sa rah knows a lot about fi lms. She mUSt ..................... "_'.. to t he cinema a lo t. - Look. J ames is pUrling on his hat a nd COilt. H e must ._........................ __ .......... _._ ...... oul. S I left my bike o utside the house last night and now it has gone. Somebod y must _ _ _ .___ .___ it. 9 Amy was in a "e ry di ffic ult situation when she lost her job. It can 't _._._._ .... __ â&#x20AC;˘. __ ... __ ... _ ._ easy for her. 10 There is a man walking beh ind us. He ha s been walking behind us fo r the last twenty minutes. He mUSt _________ us. 28.3

Rea d the situa tions a nd use the words in brack ets to writ e sentences with must have and can't have. The pho ne rang. bur I didn't hea r if. (1/ asleep )

_. .L~~~.t.!!fI:.:~.~__~~_~.~ .,_...........___............ 1 Sue hasn"t p0 ntacred me. lshe / get / my message ) __ Q:l.~_ ..~_t_~.~:f.~...9~....!!I.!:I ....~.~~?~~:......... _..............._. ___ ............................................_....................................................... 3 The jacket ro u bought is very good q ua lity. (it / very expensive ) 4 I ha\'en"t seen Ihe people next door for ages. (they / go a way) 5 I can"t find my umbrella. (I / Iea\'e / it in the resta ura nt last night) 6 Dave, who is usua ll~' very friendly, walked past me without ~pea k ing. (he / see / me) 7 There was a man sta nding outside the cafe. (he / wai t / fo r somebody) 8 liz did the opposi te of what I asked her to do. (she / understa nd / what I said)

-

.._--------

9 When I gOt back to my ca r, [he door was unlocked. (1/ forget / to lock it)

10 I was wo ken up in the night by the noise next door. (the neighbours / have / a party) II The light wa s red, but the ca r didn't stop. (the driver / see / t he red light )

-

Ad dit ional exercises 16 - 18 (pages 311-13)

57


May and might 1 Study this example siruation; You are looking for Bob. Nobody is sure where he is, bur you get some suggestions. ( He may

~ in his o~

He might bt' having lunch.

( Ask Ann. She might

~

(= perhaps he is in his o ffice)

(= perhaps he is having lunch) (= perhaps she kn ows)

We use may o r might to say that something i~ a possibility. Usua lly you can use may o r might, so you can say: o It may be true. or It might be true. (= perhaps it is true) o She might know. or She may know.

The negative forms are may not and might nor (or mightn 't): o It may not be t rue. (= perhaps it isn't t rue) o She might not work here any mote. (= perhaps she doesn't work herel

Study the suucture: Uyo u/he (etc.)

may migh t

(not)

be (true I in his office etc.) be (doing I working I having etc.) know I work / want etc.

For the past we use may have (done) or might have (done): o A: I wonder why Kate d idn't answer the phone. s: She may have been asleep. (= perhaps she was asleep) o A: I can't find my bag anywhere. s: You might have left it in the shop. (= perhaps you left it in the shop) o A: I was surprised that Kate wasn 't at the meeting yeSterday. s: She might not have known about it. (= perhaps she didn't know) o A : I wonder why David was in such a bad mood yesterday. S: He may not have been feeling well . (= perhaps he wasn't feeling well ) Study the structure: Uyoulhe (etc.)

may

might

(not ) have

been (asleep / at home etc.) been (doing I working / feel ing etc.) known / had / wanled I left etc.

Could is similar to may and might: o It's a strange story, but it could be true. (= it may/might be true ) o You could have left your bag in the shop. (= you may/might have left it) But couldn't (negative ) is different from may not and might not. Compare: o Sarah couldn't have got my message. Otherwise she would have replied. (= it is not possible that she gOt my message) o I wonder why Sarah hasn't replied to my message. I suppose she might not have got it. (= perhaps she didn't get it, and perhaps she did)

58

Could - Unit 27 May/might 2 -- Unit 30 May I ... ? -- Unit 37C Modal verbs (can/could/wili/wouid etc.) .... Appendix 4

Might with if __ Uni ts 30B, 3BC, 400


Exercises

Unit 29

29.1 Write these sent ences in a different way using might.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 In 9 10 11

Perhaps Helen is in her office. Perhaps Helen is busy. Perhaps she is worki ng. Perhaps she wams to be alone. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. Perhaps she wem home earl)'. Perhaps she had to go home early. Perhaps she was working yesterday.

~ .. *~~~.!,!~!::!~_~.~_..L!.}.J:lt.LQft~:..*.* _______ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ __

--------_._._._--_._---

sentences 9- 11 use mig ht not. Perhaps she doesn't want to see me. Perhaps she isn't working today. Perhaps she wasn't fee ling well yesterday.

29.2 Complete each sentence with a verb in the correct form .

I '\,(/here's Sam?' Tm n Ot sure. He might ......~.~....b~~.~.9..... lunch .' 2 '\'(' ho is that man with Emil)'?' ' I' m not sure. It might _.... _ ........ _.... ~.~ .......... ~ ....... ~ .... her brother.' 3 :\: Who was the man we saw with Anna yesterday? B: I'm not sure. It may ~._._ ... _.... __ .... _.. __ ........ _.... her brother. 4 .... : What are those people doing by the side of the road? B: I don 't know. They might _~_ .... ____ .___ ~_._. for a bus. S '00 you have a stamp? ' 'No, but ask Simon. He may __ one.' 29.3

Read the situation and make sentences from the words in brackets. Use might. I l ean 'r find Jeff anywhere, I wonder where he is. a (he I go I shopping) ._.He \'YI!.9!:!.LI:!~~Q~2:hQ2P.!!:!9.· _____________ b (he I play I tennis) -..tI_ t \'YI !-9~.t..P.L~!:!'lg....k!It'I(..5 . _ _ _ _ __ 2 I'm (ooking for Sarah . Do you know where she is? a (she I watch I TV I in her room) ._~ _____ ~._ .. __.____.____ .. _. ___ .... ____ ... _M. ___ ._. ___ M_... _. __.__ • b (she I go I out ) ______ ._. _______ ........ _ ....... _ ... __ ... __...~ .... __.__ .... ~ .. __ ..... ____ ....... ___ ._... _ .. _... _.... __ M._ 3 I can't find my umbrella. Have you seen it? a (it I be I in the car) _._._ .......... _.... _.... _._ .... _._ ....... _._ ....__ ._._.... _......._.. __ .... _._._._.M ..•. _.....•..•..•. _._ ... _..•. _.... _ ......... _.........._......... _ ... _ b (you 1 leave I in the restaurant last night I ................. _.........._..................._...........___ .... _..............._....... _._...._ 4 Why didn't Da ve answer the doorbell? I'm sure he was at home at the time. a (he I go I to bed ea rly) .... ........................... _ ............................... _............................ _................ _..... b (he I not I hear I the doorbell ) .......... ...... _................... _................ __ ...... _.M ..........••••• _........................ c (he I be 1 in the sho\ver) ........... _.......... ~ .. _ ... _.... ~_.y...... .......... _............................. _.... _.................................................. _. __

29.4

Complete the sentences using might not have ... or cou ldn't have ... . I .... : Do you th in k Sarah got the message we sent her? 8: Ko, she would ha\'e contacted us. __?b.&_~~~Ltt!?::Y..~.-9g.L!&_ ..... ______.____ 2 .... : I was surprised Kate wasn't at the meeting. Perhaps she didn't know about it. 8: That's possible. _~e \'YI ~.1...not. .h~!LIc ~.!U~·h~1..1L-.__ _ 3 A: I wonder why they never replied to our lener. Do you think they received it ? 8: Maybe not. They .. _ _ ._____._ _ __ 4

A: I wonder how the fire started. Was it an accident? 8: No, the police say it _._ ...... __ ... _____.__.______

H _ _ _ M _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

S .... : s: 6 .... : B:

Mike says he needs to see you. He tried to find you yesterday. Well, he _._. __ ......... ___.__ ... __ ... __._____........ _ vcry ha rd. I was in my office all day, The m a ll you spo ke to - are you sure he was American? No, I'm not su re. He .......... ................. _.... __ ........ _........_... _._ ..._.__ .. ~_.~ ... _

-- Additional exercises 16-18 (pages 311 -13)

59


May and might 2 We use may and might to talk about possible actions or hap~nings in the future: o I haven't decided yet w here to go for m y holidays. I may go to Ireland. (= perhaps I will go there) o Take an umbrella w ith you. It might rain later. t= (Xrhaps it wi ll rain) o The bus isn't always on rime. We might have to wait:l few minutes. (= perhaps we will have to wait) The negative forms are may not and might nOl (mightn't ): o Liz may not go out tonight. She isn't feeling well. (= perhaps she will not go o ut ) o There might not be enough time to discuss everything a t the meeting. (= perhaps there w ill not be enough time) Compare will and may/ might: o I'll be late this evening. (for sure) o I may/ might be late this evening. (possible) Usua lly you can use may or might . So you can say: o I may go to Ireland . or I might go to Irela nd. o j a ne might be able to help you. or j ane may be able to help you. But we use only might (not may) when the situation is not real: o If ( were in Tom's position, I might look for a nothe r job. The situation here is not real because I am not in Tom's position (so I'm not going to look for another job). May is nOt possible in this example . There is also a continuous form: may/might be -ing. Compare this with will be -ing: o Don't phone a t 8.30. I'll be watching the film on television. o Don't phone at 8.30. I might be watching (or I may be watching) the film on television. (= perhaps I'U be watching it ) We also use may/might be -ing fo r possible plans. Compare: o I' m going to Ireland in j uly. (for sure) o I may be going (or I might be going) to Ireland in j uly. (possible) But you can also say ' ( may go (or ( might go) .. .' w ith little difference in meaning. Might as well Rose a nd Clare have JUSt missed the bus. The buses ru n every hou r. What shall we do? Shall we walk?

We might as wtll. Irs a nice day and I don路t wan t to wai t hen: for an hour.

=

We mighl as well do something We should do it because there is no ben e r ahernative. There is no reason nOI to do it. M ayas well is also possible. o 11.: What time a re you going out? 8: Well, I' m ready, so I might as well go now. o Buses are so expensive these days, you may as well get a tax i. (= taxis are as good, no more expensive)

60

Will be - ing __ Uni t 24

May/might 1 -- Unit 29

May I ... ? -- Unit 37

Might with if ...... Un its 3aC, 40D


Exercises 30.1

Unit 30

Write sentences with mig ht.

I Where 3rc you goi ng for rou r holidays? (fO Irela nd???) I haven't decided yet. ,.J ... }~IJ路ght.99. ....tg.. .Jr.~4.:.... .... 2 What son of car are you going to buy? (a Mercedes???) I'm not sure yet. I 3 \'(' hat are you doi ng th is weekend? (go to London???) I ha\'en't decided yet. ... ........................................... ,..................... 4 When is Tom coming to see us? (on Sa tu rday???) He hasn't said yet. .... ..................... 5 Where arc you going to hang that picture? (in (he dini ng room???) I ha\'cn't made up my mind yet. ___......... _....... 6 What is Julia going to do when she leaves school? (go to un iversity???) She's sti ll thi nking about it. .......... .... _......... _........... 30.2 Complete the sentences using might + the following :

bite 2 3 4 5 6 30.3

break

need

"ftltft-

slip

wake

Ta ke an umbrella with you when you go our. It .. _... !!l.~~.~.f.~....... later. Don't make roo much noise, You ........... _............................ ........................ _ the baby. Be careful of rhat dog. Ir .................... ........... you. I don'r think we shou ld rh ro'.... that lerrer away. We ....... it later. Be careful. T he foo tpath is "ery icy. You ..... ~ ..... Don't let the ch ildren play in this room. T hey . something.

Comple te the sentences using might be ab le to or might have to + a suita bl e verb.

I can't he lp you, bur why don't you ask Jane? She ... !!l.!BI:1t.!?~...~.I&....~ ... ):1.~................................. you. ....... ........... ... ..... ............ ....................... you romorrow. 3 rm nor work ing on Satu rda~', but J ......... _...... on Sunday. 4 I can come to the meet ing, bur I . ......... before the end .

1 I can't meet you this evening, but I ..

30.4

Write sentences with might not. I I' m nOt sure that Liz will come ro th e pany.

.....~.~....!!1.t9.t1t.n~....g?~.~....~_..~.~...~ 1 I' m not sure that I'll go our this evening. I ................................................... .................................................................... 3 I'm not sure rhaf we'll get tickets for the concert. \'I;te .............

................................_

..........................................................

4 r m nOI sure that Sue will be able ro come out with us this evening. 30. 5 Read the situations and make sentences with might as we ll.

You and a friend ha"e JUSt missed the bus. The buses run every hour. You say: \'('e'll have to wait an hour for the next bus. ....W~....~.~.~.t.M ..~.~ ... ~.~. 2 You ha"e a frec ticket for a concert. You' re not very keen on the concert, but you decide to go. You sa~' : I . ..................... _._ ro the concert. It's a pity to waste a free ticket. 3 You\'e JUS t painted your kitchen. You still have a lot of pa int, so why not paint t he bathroom too? You say: We ................................... _.... _ ........... _.............................................. _ . There's plenty of paint left. 4 You and a friend are at home. You're bored. There's a fil m on TV sta rt ing in a few minutes. You say: .................................. _.. .......................... ......... ............ .......................... _ There's nothing else to do.

.... Addit ional exercises' 6-18 (pages 3 11-13)

61


Have to and must I have to do something = it is necessary to do it, I am obliged to do it: o You can't turn right here. You have to tum left. You have to tu rn left hert. D I have to wear glasses for reading. o George can't come out with us this evening. He has to work late. o Last wÂŤk Tina broke her arm and had 10 go to hospital. o 1 haven 't had to go 10 the doctor for ages. We uSt do/does/did in quesrjons and negative sentences (for the present and paSt simple): o What do I have to do to get a new driving licence? (not What have I to do ?) o Karen doesn't have to work Sarurdar.s. (not Karen hasn't to) a Why did you have to leave early? You can use have to with wiU and mighu'may: a If the pain gets worse, you'll have to go to the doc[Or. o I might have to work late tomorrow evening. or I may have to work '" (= it's possible that I w ill have to) Must is similar to have to: o It's later than I thought, I must go.

or I have to go.

Yo u can use must to give your own opinion (for example. to say what you think is necessary. or to recommend someone to do something). Have to is also possible: o I haven't spoken to Sue for ages. I must phone her. (= I say this is necessary ) o Mark is a really nice person. You must meet him. (I recommend this) We use have to (not must) to say what someone is obliged to do. The spea ker is not giving his/her own opinion: o I have to work from 8.30 to .$.30 every day. (a fact, nOt an opinion) o Jane has to travel a lot for her work .. But must is often used in written rules and instructions: o Applications fo r the job must be received by 18 May. o (exam instruc.tio,:) You must write your a nswers in ink. You ca nnot use must to talk about the past: o We had to leave early. (not we must) _

Mustn't and don't have to are completely different: You musm't do something = it is necessary that you do not do it (so don't do it ): o You must keep it a secrer. Yo u mustn 1t tell a nyone. (::: don't {ell anyone) o I promised I wou ld be on rime. I mustn't be late. (= I must be on time )

You don't have to do somet hing = you don'r need to do it (bur ),ou ca n if you want): :::J You don't ha\'e to tell him. but rou ca n if you want to. C J don't have to be at the meeting. but I think I'll go anyway.

You can use have got to instead of have to. So you can say: o I've got to work tomorrow. or I have to work tomorrow. o When has Liz got to go? or When does Liz have to go?

62

Must ('You must be tired') - Uni t 28

Must/mustn'tl needn't -

Unit 32


Exercises

Unit 31

31 .1 Complete the sen tences with have to

I

has

to '

had to.

Bill stans work at 5 a.m . ..... H.~J:~.~ ....W....9.~... Y.:p...... at four. (he I get up) 2 ' I broke my afm last week,' ... _J?i4:... !J.~.... h~x~....tg.... 9!? ..... ro hospital?' (you f go) 3 There was a lot of noise from the street. ..................... ........ the window. (we I close) ........ early. (she' leave) 4 Karen can't stay for the whole meeting. S How o ld ..... _................... _.. ................ to drive in your country? (you I be) .................... . (I I hurry) 6 I don't have much time. ..... _.. _ a lot? (he / travel) 7 How is Pau l enjoying his new job? 8 'I'm afraid I ca n't stay long: 'What ti me ...... ........ ~ ........................~ ...................... ?' (you / go) 9 'The bus was late again .' 'How long . ................... ~.~. ........... ~ .... ~ ....... ~ .... ?' (you / wait) 10 There was nobody to help me. f ___ ...... _.. __.... ...... ~.~ ........ ~ .. everything by myself. (1/ do) 31.2

Comp lete the sentences using have to + the verbs in the list. Some sente nces are positive (I have to ... etc.) and some are negative (I don't have to ... etc.): ask do dri\'e ~ go make make pay ~ I'm nO[ working tomorrow, so 1 ..... 4g~~l ...tJ.~y.~ ....t:9.... g~....~P ..... early. Steve didn't know how fO use the computer, so I ._.h.~....!:9.....s..I-).Q.~...... him. Excuse me a moment - I . ............. a phone call. I won't be long. .... them now. I'm not so busy. I have a few things to do, but I I couldn't find the street I wanted. I .................. _.~ .............. ~ ...... somebody for directions. ................. _ to park your car there. The car park is free. You .. _........... .--\ man was iniured in rhe accident, but he ... _... ... fO hospital because it wasn't seflOUS. ........ _ important decisions. 8 Sue has a senior position in the company. She ..... ............................................. 50 miles to 9 \~lh en Patrick stam his new job next month, he work ever~' day.

1 2 3 4 S 6 7

31.3

In some of these sentences, mu st is wrong or unnatural. Correct the sen tences where necessary. 1 2 3 4 S 6 7

It's later than I thoughr. I must go. .... .Q~.... 1h~.Y.~. J.Q..i~ ..P.:!.~9.. .c..Qr..r.lc'.c;n. .. ~ ... I must work e\'erv da v fro m 8.30 to 5.30. ..... !.....~.~.~.~....~ ....~g.~ ~. You must come and see us again soon . Tom can't meet us tomo rrow. He musr work. I must work l a~e yesterday evening. I must get up ea rly tomorrow. I have lots to do. Julia wears glasses. She must wear glasses si nce she wa s very young. ~

..

31.4 Complete the sentences with mu st n't or don 't/doesn't have to. 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10

I don't want am'one to know about our plan. You ......~.~.~~\ ..:.. tell anyone. Richard .. _.M~.S:.ry1 . . ~.~~.~.JQ ..... wear a suit to work, but he usua lly does. .............................. go to work. I can stay in bed tomorrow morning beca use I ...... _.............. _ Whatever you do, you ............ _.......... ~._._....... _.......... ~ .... _........... _............ _ touch that switch. It's very dangerous. There 's a lift in rhe building, so we ......... ............................... ......... climb the stairs. You .............~............. ......................... _.. forge t what I told you. It's very important. Sue ....... .......................................... _ get up early, but she usually does. Don 't make so much noise. We ...... _.. .................................. wake the children. ..... eat (00 much. I'm supposed to be on a diet. I . ............... ......................... You ................................................. _._ .......... _.. be a good player to enjoy a game of tennis.

- Additional exercise 16 (page 311)

63


Must

mustn't

Must

needn't

mustn't

needn't

=

You must do something it is necessary that you do it ; o Don't tell anybody what I said. Vou must keep it a secret. D We haven't got much time. We must hurry. You mustn 't do someth ing = it is necessary that you do not do it (so don't do it); o You must keep it a secret. Vou mustn't tell anybody else. (= don't tell anybody else) o We must be very quie!. We mustn't make any noise.

You needn't do someth ing;: you don't need to do it (but you can if you like); o You can come wi th me if you like, but you needn 't come if you don 't wanr to. (= it is not necessary for you 10 come) . o We've got plenry of rime. We needn 't hulT)'. (= it is nor necessary ro hurry) Instea d o f needn't, you ca n use don'udoesn't need to. So you can say: o We needn 't hurry. or We don't need to hurry, Remember that we say don't need to do, but needn't do (w;thou t to), __

Needn't have (done) Study this exa mple situation: I needn't havt: brought the umbrella,

I think it's going to rain. I'll take the umbrella.

later

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ Pau l had to go OUI. He thought it was going to rain, so he rook the umbrella.

He needn 't have taken the umbrella

But it didn't rain, so the umbrella was not necessar>'. So he need n't ha \'e taken it.

=He took the umbrella, but this was not necessa ry.

~--'

Compare needn't (do) and needn't have (done): o Everyth ing will be OK. You needn't worry, (it's not necessary) o Everyth ing was OK. You needn't have worried . (rou worried, but it was not necessary) __

Didn't need to (do) and needn't have (done)

=

I didn't need to .. , it was not necessary (or me to ... (a nd I knew this at the time): o I didn't need to get up early, so I didn't, o I didn't need to get up early, but it was a lovely morning, so I did. I didn't have to .. , is also possible in these exa mples.

=

I needn't have done something I did it, but now I know that it was nor necessary: o I gOt up very ea rly because I had to get ready to go awa)', But in fact it didn 't rake me long to get ready. So, I needn't have got up so early, I could have stayed in bed longer.

64

Must ('You must be tired') .... Uni t 28 Have to and must .... Un it 31 Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.) .... Appendi)( 4 American English .... Appendj)( 7


Exercises 32.1

Complet e the senten ces usi ng needn 't + th e following verbs:

ask 2 3 4 S 6 32.2

Unit 32

come

explain

-Je&ve..

walk

We've got plenty of time. We ......t:"!.~.~.1 . ~~.~..... yet. I can manage t he shopping alone. You .......... _ with me. We "n ........................ .. all the way home. We can get a taxi. JUSt help yourself jf you'd like more to ear. You .... n....... ............................................... first. We can keep this a secret bcn",een ourselves. We ............................. anybody else. I understand the situation perfectly. You ... further. n

....................

'"

. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .

Complete the sentences with must. mustn ' t Or needn' t.

' \ V1 We haven ' t gO t mue h time. we .. fTI~5t hurry. We've gOt plenty of time. We ......~.~.1 ... hurry. We have enough food at home, so we .... go shopping today. Gary gave me a lener to POSt. I ."_ ..................... remember to pOSt it. Gary gave me a len er to post. I .......... _._ ....... _ ..... forget to post it. There's plenty of time for you to make up your mind. You ..... _ ....... decide now. You ...... _. wash those tomatoes. They've already been washed. This is a valuable book. You . _......... _. __.. look after it carefu lly and you .._............... _.. lose it. A: What sort of house do you want to buy? Something big? ..... _...................... have a B: Well, it ................... _............... be big - that's not so importa nt . But it nice garden - that's essential. n

2 3 4

S 6 7 8 9

32.3

tell

......路. ...... . .....

Read the situations and make sentences with needn't have. Paul went out. He took an umbrella because he thought if was going [0 rain. But it didn't rain . ......!:!.~....~.~.: ~ __ .~.~~~. _.~.~.....~....~~.~r.~.:.. .................. __.... ................ _._ ....... __ ......... _.... _.........._.. _....... _._._ 2 linda bought some eggs when she went shopping. When she gOt home. she found that she already had plenty of eggs. She .... ~ ....... _......... _......... .......~........................................ .................. 3 A colleague got angry with you at work. He shouted at you, which you think was unnecessary. ........................ ...... ~ ............................. _._.............................. _ l ater rou sa~' to him: You ............. _...... _.... 4 Brian had money problems, so he sold his car. A few days later he won some money in a lonery. He ....... ...... . ............. ........ _.......... _ .......................... _.. 5 \Y/e took a camcorder with us on holiday. but we didn't use it in th e end. \Y!e

. ...................

.... _.......... _._ .... _._............................_............ _ ....... __ ....

6 I thought I was going to miss my train, so I rushed to the station. Bur the train was late and in the end I had to wait twenry minutes. ...................... .. 32.4 Write t wo se ntences for each situation. Use needn 't have in the firs t senten ce and could have in the second (as in the example). For could have, see Unit 27 . I Why did you rush? Why didn't you rake your time? r..~ _D~.: t..~~X.~ ....~~h~.:_..Y..~.....~.!4 ...h~x.~ . _~.~... !i~r. titYle. ......................._........ 2 Why did you walk home? Why didn'r you rake a taxi?

... .

3 Why did you stay at a hotel ? Why didn't you stay wirh us? 4 Why did she phone me in the middle of the night? Why didn't she wa it until the morning?

5 Why did you leave without saying anyth ing? Wh y didn't you say goodbye?

- Additional exercises 16- 17 (pages 311-12)

65


Unit

33

Should 1 You should do something = it is a good rhing to do or the right thing to do. You ca n use sho uld to give advice or to give an opinion: o You look tired. You should go to bed. a The government should do more to reduce crime . D 'Should we invite Susan to the party ?' 'Yes, I think we sho uld.' We often use should with I think I I don't think I Do you think ... ?: o I think the government should do more to reduce crime. D I don't think you should work so hard. o 'Do you think I should apply for this job ?' 'Yes, 1 think you should .'

You shouldn't do something =it isn't a good thing to do: o Yo u shouldn't believe eve rything you (ead in the newspapers. Should is not as strong as must or have to: o Yo u should apologise. (= it would be a good thing to do) o You must apologise. I You have to apologi se. (= you have no alternative) You ca n use should when something is not right or what rou expect: o I wonder where Tina is. She should be here by now. (= she isn't here yet, and this is not normal) o The price on this packer is w rong. It should be ÂŁ2.50, not 0.50. o That man o n the motorbike should be wearing a helmet. We also use should to say that we expect someth ing to happen: o She's been studying hard for the exam, so she should pass. (= I expect her to pass) o There are plenty of hotels in the town. It shouldn't be difficult to fi nd somewhere (= I don't expect it to be difficult)

10

stay.

=

You should have done something you didn't do it, but it wou ld ha\'e been rhe right thing to do: o You missed a great parry last night. You should have come. Why didn 't }'ou ? (= you d id n't come, but it would have been good to come) o I wonder why they' re so late. They should have arrived long ago.

=

You shouldn 't have done something you did it, but it was the wrong thing to do; o I'm feeling sick. I shouldn 't have eaten so much. (= I ale tOO much) o She sho uldn't have been listening to o ur conversation. It was private. (= she was listening) Compare should (do) and should have (done): o You look tired . You should go to bed. no w. o You went to bed very late last night. You should have gone to bed ea rlier. Ought to ... Yo u can use ought to instead of should in t he sentences on th is page. We say 'ought to do' (with to): o Do you think I ought to apply fo r this job? (= Do you think I should apply ... ?l o Jack ought not to go to bed so late. (= Jack shouldni go .. . ) o It was a great party lasl night. You ought to have come. o She's been studying hard for the exa m, so she ought to pass.

66

Should 2 .... Unit 34

Should and had better .... Unit 356

Modal verbs (can/could/ will/ would etc.) .... Appendix 4


Exercises

Unit 33

33. 1 For each situation. wri t e a sentence wit h should or shouldn' t + l he following :

1 3 4 j

6

332

.go-awlly-fer-a-few-days-

go [0 bed so latc

look for another job

put some pictures on: the walls

take a photograph

use her car so much

Liz needs a change. Your sala ry is very low. Jack always has difficulty gerring up. What a beautifu l view! Sue drives everywhere. She neve r walks. Bi ll 's room isn't very interesting.

..... ~.h .~.... ~.n~14_..9.Q,.. _w..~ ....f9.!_. ~. ..~.....~~. ',.... _._ . You He . You She

Read the situations and write sentences with I think/! don't thi nk .,' should 1 Peter and Cathy a re pla nnin g ro get married . You th in k it's a bad idea .

.....J.....AA.~ ~.t.#.:!~.....~.~ , ...?h~.4:l.._9~t._~fY!.~ ., .. _.......... _.........._................ _.............._.... _.........._..........._.... _...._....... _._.... _..........__

2 Jane has a bad cold bur plans ro go our this even ing. You don'r think rhis is a good idea. You say to her: ........... ..... _....... ............ _........... 3 Peter needs a job. He's JUSt seen an ad\'errisement for a job which you think wou ld be ideal for him, bur he's not sure whether to apply o r nor. You say to him: I think . ............. _.......... _.... __ .......... _....... _.......... _ 4 The government wa nts ro increase taxes, but rou don't think this is a good idea. 33.3

Complete the sen tences with should (have) + the verb in brackets.

.. .

Diane ......~~.~ .4 ...m.~ the exa m. She's been srudying very hard. (pass) 2 You missed a grea t parry last night . ......r~ ~.~.~.!4....n.~'f.~... ~.T~..... (come) 3 We don't see you enough. You .... _................ ...... _.... and see us more often. (come ) 4 I'm in a difficult posirion. Wha t do ~'o u think I ........................ ..... ? (do) 5 rm sorry that I didn't take your advice. I ........ ......................... ...... what you said. (do) 6 I'm playing tennis w irh Jane tomorrow. She . ......................................................... - she's much better tha n me. (win ) 7 We lost the match. bur we _ ......"-__ ..... "-_._.. We were the better team. (wi n) 8 ' Is ~1 ike here yet ?' 'l'\Ot yet, but he ._ ...................... _ .................. here soon.' (be) 9 I posted the lener three days ago, so it ........................................................ .................... by now. (arrive) 33 .4

...

Read the situations and write sente nces wit h should/shou ldn't. Some of the sentences are I)ast and some are pres ",,!. l"m fee ling sick. I are roo much. I ~.h~l.d..I}'t. .\'].a.ve; eo..ten....~.9 ml)..~.~ 2 That man on the motorbike isn't weari ng a helmet. Tha['s da ngerous. He ..... ~~.~~!4 .. _~g, ....~.w..~.9. ...~....~.~.~.,...... ............................ 3 W' hen we gar to the reStau rant, there were no free tables. We hadn't reserved one. \'{Ie .............. _........................... .........................,....... 4 The notice says that the shop is open every day from 8.30, It is 9 o'clock now, but the shop isn 't open yet. ........ _.. _._........ ......_.......... _....... _... 5 T he speed limir is 30 miles an hour. bu t Ka te is doing 50.

Sh, 6 l au ra ga\'e me her address. but I did n't write it down. Now I can't remember it. I .................. ............................. ........................ ........................... 7 I was dri ving bchind another ca r. Suddenly, the driver in front sropped without warning and I dro\'e into the back of his car. It wasn't my fa ult. The drivcr in fro nt ....................... 8 I walked into a wall. I \\'3S looki ng behind me. I wasn't looking where I was going.

- Additional cxerrises 16-18 (pages 3 11-13)

67


Unit

34

Should 2 ¥ou can use should after a number of verbs, especia lly: demand o D D o

insist

recommend

propose

suggest

They insisted that we should have dinner with them . I demanded that he should apologise. What do you suggest I should do? I insist that something sho uld be done about the problem.

We also say 'It's impon antivitaVnecessary/essentia1 that ... should .. .': o It's essential that ~veryone should be here on time. You can also leave out should in aU the sentences in Section A: o Ie's essential that everyone be here on time. (= that everyone should be here) o I demanded that he apologise. (= that he should apologise) o What do you suggest I do? o I insist that something be done about the problem. This form (beldolhaveJapologise erc.) is sometimes ca lled the subjunctive. It is the same as the infinitive (without to). You ca n also use normal present and past tenses: o It's essential that everyone is here on time. D I demanded that he apologised. After suggest, you cannot use to ... ('to do I to buy' etc.). You can say: D What do you suggest we sho uld do? or What do you suggest we do ? (but not What do you suggest us to do?) o Jane suggested that I (should) buy a car. or Jane suggested that I bought a car. (but not Jane suggested me to buy) You can also use ·ing after suggest: What do you suggest doing ? See Unit 53. You can use should after a number of adjectives, especially: odd

strange

funn y

rypical

-patural

interesting

surprised

surpnsmg

D It's strange that he should be late. He's usualJy on rime. D I was surprised that he should say such a thing.

If ... sbould .. . You ca n say 'If something should happen .. .' . For example: D If Tom should phone while I'm out, tell him I'll ca ll him back later. ' If Tom should phone' is similar to 'If Tom phones'. With should, the speaker feels that the possibility is sma ller. Another example: D We have no jobs at present. But if the situation should change, we'Ulet you know. You can also begin these sentences with should (ShouJd something happen ... ): D Should Tom phone, tell him I'U caU him back later. ¥ou can use I sho uld .. . I I shouldn't ... to give somebody advice. For example: D 'Shall I leave now?' 'No, 1 should wait a bit longer.' Here, I should wait =I would wait if I were you, I advise you to wait. Two more examples: D ' I'm going out now. Is it cold? ' ' Yes, I should wear a coat. D I shouldn't stay up too late. You' ll be tired tomorrow.

68

Should 1 -

Unit 33

America n English -

Appendix 7


Exercises

Unit 34

34.1

Wri te a sentence (beginning in the way show n) that means the sa me as th e fi rst sentence. I "think it would be a good idea to see a specialist,' the doctor said to me. The d octOr recommended that .m.L~.n.~.~m.~.~m.~m~~.~.!44.s.t ....................... 1 'You really must sta y a little longer; she sai d to me. She insisted that I ..... 3 'Why don't you visit the museum a fter lunch ?' I said to them. t suggested that ......................... ............ _.................................................... _.........._............. . 4 'You must pa y the rent by Friday; the lan dlo rd said to us. The landlord demanded that ........... _.. __ ..... .............................................. 5 'Why don't you go away for a few days?' J ack said to me. J ack suggested that ... _._ ........... __ ......

34.2

Are these sen tences right or wrong ? 1 a Tom suggested that ' should loo k ior another job. b Tom suggested that I loo k ior a no ther job. c Tom suggested that I looked for a nother iob. d Tom suggested me to look fo r a nother job. 2 a W here do ~' ou suggest I go fo r m~' holida y? b \,(!he re do you suggest me to go for my holiday? c W here do you suggest I s hou ld go for my holiday? ..

34.3

Ok

Complete the sentences usi ng shoul d + the follow ing : ask

.00.

lea\'e

listen

say

worry

Ir's Strange that he ... .2.h~.!4.: ....~.~ ..... lare. He 's usually on time. ... that, I was going to say the same th ing. about their ch ildren, 4 Isn't it typica l of J oe that he .............. _....... ... without saying goodbye to anybody ? 5 I was surpri sed that they ..... ....... me for advice. What ad vice cou ld I give them ? 6 I'm goi ng to gh'e you a ll some essential information, so it's important that everybody ... _ ......... _ ... _ .............. _ \-er~' carefull y.

2 Ir's funn y that you 3 It's o nl y natura l rhat parents ..................

34.4

u

.............._

..

Use the words in brackets to complete these sentences. Use If ... sho uld ... , 1 I' m going our no\\". .....!.f....T.'?'!I.....~.~.0-:':.(4......p..~.9.!:!~ ... , tell him I'll ca ll him bac k this evening. (Tom I pho ne ) 2 r n' hung the washing our ro dr~' o n the balcony, ca n you bring the wa sh ing in, please? (it I rain ) 3 I rhink e\'eryrhi ng will be OK. ........................... ........ any problems, I'm sure we' ll be able to solve them. (there I be ) 4 J don't want anyone to know where I'm going. .. JUSt say that you don't know. (anyone I ask)

..

Write sentences 3 and 4 aga in , this time beginn ing with Shou ld. 5 ( '; 1 Shou ld ......................... , I' m sure we'll be able to solve rhem. 6 \-1 \ .................. , just say thar you don't know. 34.5

(Section E) Complete the sentences using I sho uld + the followi ng : buy

keep

phone

-wait-

'Shall I lea ve now?' 'f'O, ......I.....s.h 0-:':.\.4.... ~~ ... a bit longer.' 1 'Shall I throw these things away? ' 'No, . .. them. You ma y need them.' 3 'Sha ll I go a nd see PauP' 'Yes, bur _............... ...................... him first .' 4 ' Is it worth repai ring th is TV ser?' 'No, ... ........ a new o ne.'

69


Unit

35

Had better

It's time

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘

Had better (I'd better I you'd better etc.)

=

I'd better do something it is advisable to do it. lJ I don't do it, (here will be 3 danger: a I have to meet Ann in ten minutes. I'd benet go now or I'll be late. D 'Shall I rake an umbrella?' 'Yes, you'd bener. It might rain.' o We'd better stop for petrol soon. The tank is almost empry.

3

problem or

The negative is I'd benet not (= I had ben er not): o 'Are you going out tonight?' ' I'd better nOI . I've got a lot to do.' o You don't look very well. You'd better not go to work today. Remember that:

The form is 'had better' (usually ' I'd better I you'd better' etc. in spoken Engl ish). o I'd better phone Carol, hadn 't I?

.

Had is normally past , but the meaning of had better is present or futu re, not past. a I'd bener go to the bank now I tomorrow.

We say ' I'd better do' (not to do ). a It might ra in. We'd bener take an umbrella. (not We'd bener to take) Had better and should Had better is simila r to should but not exactly the same. We use had better only for a specific situation (not for things in general). You can use should in all types of situations to give an opinion o r give advice: o It's late. You'd bener go. I You should go. (a specific situa tion) a You're always at home. You should go ou t more ohen. (in general- not ' had better go') Also, with had better, there is always a danger or a problem if you don't fo llow the advice. Should only means 'it is a good thing to do". Compare: a It's a great film . You should go and see it. (but no problem if you don't) a The film starts at 8.30. You'd better go now or you'll be late. _

It's time ... You can say It's time (for somebody) to ... : a It's time to go home. I It's time for us to go home. But you ca n also say: a It's late. It's time we went home. Here we use the paSt (went ), but the meaning is present, not paSt: a It's 10 o'clock and he's still in bed. It's time he got up. (not It's time he gets up) It's time you did something = you should have already done it o r started it. We ohen use this structure to criticise or to complain: o It 's time the children were in bed. It's long after their bedtime. o You 're very selfish. IE's rime you realised that you're nor the most important person in the world . You can also say It's about time .... This makes the criticism stronger: o Jack is a great talker. But it's about time he did something instead of just talking.

70

Should 1 .... Unit 33


Exercises

Unit 35

35.1 Read the situat ions and wri t e sentences wi t h had better or had better not. Use the words in

brackets.

2 3 4

S

You're going out for a walk wi th Tom. It looks as if it might rain . You say to Tom: (an um brella) ..... W.~ ~4....~.~ ". ~.~ ....®.....~~~.~r.~.: .............." .........................................._................~ Michael has just cut himself. It's a bad Cut . You say to hi m: (a plaster ) ................................................................ _........................ _...... _.. _.. .. You and Kate plan to go to a restaurant this evening. It's a popular restaurant. You say to Kate: (reser ve) We ................. _._. __ ....... _ ........ _....... _................ _....... __ ...................... _._ ................. _...... _.. _............................... _._ Jill doesn't look very well- not well enough to go to work. You say to her: (,vork) ....._.......... _ ............................ _............ ................. _.......................... _......... ........................ _............................ _._ ................._............ You received the phone bill four weeks ago, but you haven't paid it yet. If you don't pay soon, you could be in trou ble. You say to yourself:

Ipay)

..............................•.........•

.....................• ................•..

.................•

6 You wa nt

to go out, but you' re expecting an important phone ca ll. You say to your friend: ................................................ _.......... _ ................. _._ ................................ _ (go out) I ............................._.... _.. _................... _.... _ 7 You and Liz a re goi ng to the theatre. You've missed the bus and you don't want to be late. You say to Liz: (a taxi) .............................................................................. _._._... ................. _...... _.

35.2

Pu t in had better where suitable. If had bette r is not sui tabl e, use should.

:4. .

I I have an appointment in ten min utes. I ... t~ ..... go now or I'll be late. 2 h 's a great fil m. You ..... ~.!].~J4..... go and see it. You' ll rea lly like it. J I .............. _.......... ....................... get up early tomorrow. I've gOt a lot to do.

4 When people are dri"ing, they ............. _ ................................... keep their eyes on t he road . S I' m glad )"ou came to see us. You ._........ _ ........................ _........... come more often. 6 She'll be upset if we don't invite her to t he wedd ing, so we ........... ....................................... invite her. 7 These biscuits are delicious. You ................. _...... .............. try one. S I th ink everybody ... .............. _..... .... learn a fo reign language. 35.3

Compl ete the se ntences. Some t imes you need only one word, sometimes t wo.

1 a I need some money. I'd better .....9-9...... to the bank. b c d 2 a b c 35.4

Jo hn is expecting you to phone him. You .................................... better phone hi m now. ' Shall I leave the wi ndow open?' ' No, you'd ben er ........................................... it.' \X'e'd better leave as soon as possible, ... ....................... _............. we? It's time the governmeor . . .............................. something about the problem. It's time something .. ...... about the problem. I thi nk it's about ti me you ......................................... about other people instead o f only thi nki ng about yourself.

Read the sit uat ions an d wri te sen ten ces wit h It's t ime (somebody did someth ing). 1 You th ink the children should be in bed. It's already 11 o'clock .

.....! t'~. i:¥ne. ~.~. cl1i.ld..rw were. iYI bed.. . .................... . 1 You haven't had a holiday for a very long time. You need one now. It's time I ..........................._... _........................................._ ..................._.... _........................._................................_......................... _._............ J You're sitting on a t rain waiti ng fo r it to leave the station . It's already five minutes late. 4 You enjoy having parties. You haven't had one for a lo ng time.

5 The company you work fo r has been bad ly managed for a long t ime. You think some changes should be made . 6 And rew has been doi ng the sa me job for the last ten years. He should t ry something else. -.. Additional eKercise 16 (page 3 11 )

71


Would We use would ('d) I wouldn 't when we imagine a situation or action (= we think of something that is not rea l): o II would be nice to buy a new car. but we c can 't afford it. o o I'd love to live by the sea. o D A: Sha Ul tell Chris what happened? B: No, I wo uldn't say anything. (= I wou ldn't say anyt hing in your situation) We use would have (done )" when we imagine situations or actions in the past (= things that didn't happen ); o They helped us a lot . I don't know what we'd have d one (= we would have done) w ithom their help. a I didn't tell Sa m what happened. He wouldn 't have been pleased. Compa re would (do) a nd would have (done): a I would phone Sue, but I haven't gOl her number. (now) I wo uld have phoned Sue, but I didn 't ha ve her num~r. (past) o I'm not going to invite them to the party. They wou ldn't co m ~ anyway. I didn't invite them to the pa rty. They wouldn't hav~ come anyway. We often use would in sentences with if (see Units 38-40): D I would phone Sue if I had her number. D I would have phoned Sue if I' d had her number.

~ Compa re will ( 'II ) and would Cd ):

o I'll stay a o

bit longer. I've gOt plenty of time. I'd stay a bit longer, but I reall y hav~ to go now. (so I can't stay longer) I'll phone Sue. I've got her number. I'd phone Sue, but I haven't gOt her number. (so I can 't phone her )

Sometimes would/wouldn 't is the past of will/won 't. Comp are:

past

present D TOM: I'll phone you o n Su nday. D ANN: I promise I won't be late. D LI Z:

Damn! The car won ', sta rt .

---0.

Tom said he'd phone me on Sundar. Ann promised tha t she wouldn 't be late. liz was annoyed because her ca r wou ldn 't sta rt.

-------------------=

Somebody wouldn't do something he/she refused to do it: D I tried to warn him , but he wouldn 't listen ' 0 me. t= he refused to li st~n) D The ca r wouldn't start. (= it ' refused' to start) You can also use would when you talk about things t hat happened r~gularl)' in the past: D When we were children, we Jived by the sea. In summer, if the w~ather was fine, we would all get up early and go for a swim. (= we d id this regula rly) D Whenever Richa rd was angry, he wo uld wa lk out of the room. With this mea ning. would is similar to u s~d to (see Unit 18 ): o Whenever Richard was angry, he used to walk out of the room.

72

Will ..... Un its 21-22 Would you ... ? ..... Unit 37A Would ... if ..... Units 38- 40 Wish ... would ..... Unit 41 Would lik ~ ..... Un its 37E, 58 Would prtfer I would rath ~r ..... Unit 59 Modal verbs ..... Appendix 4


Exercises

Unit 36

36.1 Write sentences about yourself. Imagine things you would like or wouldn 't like. I (a place you'd love to li\"e ) ..... ~y.~....4? . ~'!'.~ .. ,~~ ... ~~....;?.~ , 2 (3 job you wouldn't like to do) ............ _...._.... _.... _.. 3 (something you wou ld love to do) 4 (somethi ng that wou ld be nice to have) 5 (a place you'd like to go ro )

r4: . .

36.2

Complete the sentences using would + the foJlowing verbs

be

-de-

do

enjoy

enjoy

have

On

the correct form) ;

pass

stop

T hey helped us a lot. I don't know what we ......~~.k!-. . .b..~y.~....4P..!:l.~ ... _. w ithout their help. You shou ld go and see the film. You ......... it. It's a pity you couldn't come to the concert yesterday. You ..... . ......... it. . ..) Sha ll r apply fo r the job or not? What ........ you ..... In my posmon. I was in a hurry when I saw you . Otherwise I ............................ .............. to tal k. We rook a taxi home last night bur gOt stuck in the traffic. It quicker to walk. ...... _ very pleased to see you. Why don't you go and see Clare? She \'(' hy didn't you do the exam? I'm sure you ...................... .... ......... it. In an ideal world, e\"erybod~r ...... _.......... _ .................. _.. _ ........................... enough to eat.

2 3 4 5

6 7

8 9 36.3

be

Each sentence on the rig ht follows a sentence on the left. Which follows which? 1

..J!d like

(0

go to AusfF9l ia OAe day,

1 I wouldn't like 3 4 5 6

to Ii\'e o n a busy road . I'm so rr ~r the t rip was cancelled. I'm looking forward to going out tonight. I'm glad we didn 't go out in the ra in. I' m not looking forwa rd to rhe trip.

h It h It It f h

a b c d e

wou ldn'r have been very nice. would have been fu n. wou ld Be fliee. won't be much fun. wou ldn't be very nice. wi ll be fun.

........K ...

36.4 Wr ite sentences using pro mised + would/would n't. I I wonder why laura is late . ..... ?I:'.~ ... pr.Q!!!.~~.~.... ~.r.~ ~~.~ :.; P.~ ....~., 2 I wonder w hy Steve hasn 't phoned. He prom ised . 3 Why did you tell J ane wha t I said? You ...................... _ 4 I'm su rprised they did n't wait for us. They ...............................

..

..

36.5 Com plete the sente nces. Use wouldn't + a su itable verb. 1 I tried to warn him, but he . ww!.d..n't!i..5te.n to me, 2 I asked Amanda w har had happened, but she ........ .._.............. _... ... me. 3 Pau l was very angry about wha t I'd said and ..................................................... _ to me for two weeks. 4 Martina insisted on carry ing all her luggage. She ................................ _........ me help her. 36.6 These sentences a re about things that often happened in the past. Complete t he sent ences using would + the following: fo rget help shake sha re -walltWhenever Richard was angry, he ......I:'J.~.t4 ... ~.~.... our of the room. 2 We used ro live next to a railway line. Every ti me a trai n went past, the house 3 George was a very kind man. H e ................ always . ...................... yOIl if you had a problem. 4 Brenda was always very generous. She didn't have much, but she what she had with everyone else, 5 You could never rely on Joe. It didn't matter how many ti mes you reminded him to do something, he . .... _.... always . . ............ .


Can/Could/Would you ... ? etc. (Requests, offers, permission and invitations) Asking people to do things (requests) We use can o r could to ask people to do things: o Can you wait a momem, please? or Could you wait a mome nt, please? o Liz.. can you do me a favour ? o Excuse me, could you tell me how to get to the airport?

Notc that we say Do YQU think you could ... ? (no t can): o Do you think you could lend me some money until next week? We also use will and would to ask people ~o do things (but can/cQuld are mo rc usual): o Liz, will you do me a favour? o Would you please be quiet ? I'm trying to concentra te. Asking for things To ask for something, we use Can I have .. ' ? o r Could I have ... ?: o (in a shop) Can I have these postcards, please? o (during a meal) Could I have the salt, please? May I have ... ? is a lso possible: o May I have these postcards, please? Asking to do things To ask to do something, we use can, could or may: D (on the phone) H ello, can I speak to Steve, please? D 'Could I use your phone?' 'Yes, of course.' D Do you think I could borrow your bike? D ' May I come in?' ' Yes, please do.' . May is more fo rmal t han can or could. To ask to do something, you can also say Do you mind if I ... ? o r Is it all right l is it OK if I '" ?: D 'Do you mind if I use your phone?' 'Sure. Go ahead.' D ' Is it all right if I come in ?' ' Yes, of course.' Offering to do things To offer to do something, you can use Can I ... ?: D 'Can I get you a c up of coffee?' 'That would be nice.' D 'Can I help you?' 'No, it's all right. I can manage.' Offering and inviting To offer or to invite, we use Would you like ... ? (not Do you like): D 'Would you like a cup of coffee?' ' Yes, please.' D ' Wou ld yOIl like to come to dinne r tomorrow evening?' ' I'd love to.' I'd like ... is a polite way of saying what you want: . D (at a tourist information office) I'd like some information about hotels, please. D (in a shop) I'd like (0 tryon (his jac ket, please.

74

Can and could - Units 26- 27 Mind -ing .... Unit 53 Would like .... Un its 55A, 588 Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.) .... Appendix 4


Exercises

Unit 37

37 .1 Read the sit uations and write quest ions begin ning Can ... or Cou ld .... 1 You're ca rrying a lot of things. You can't open the door you rself. There's a man sta nding near the door. You say ro him : ._.. ~.!4 ...!;j9iA... g~_ ... #.:!.~... M.Q.r.~ ... ~.~ .L ...... ........................... 2 You phone Sue, but somebody else answers. Sue isn't there. You wa nt to leave a message for her. You say: ", ....................". ......................... 3 You're a tourist. You want to go [Q the station, but you d o n't know how to get there. You ask at your hotel: _.......................... _.......... ............ _..............._.......... _... ..... _......._....... _._ ........... _._....... 4 You are in a clothes shop. You see some trousers you like and you want to try them on. You say to the shop assistant: ..............,..... ........... _._....... _..... S You have a car. You have to go the same way as Steve, who is on fOOf. You offer him a lift. You say to him: _.......... _..................... _..... _................. _.............. _._

37.2 Read the situation and write a questi on using t he word in brackets. J You want to horrow ~'our fri end's camera. What do you say to him? (th i nk ) ._.J?Q....ti~ .... #.').~.....L..~. !4.:....~9.!'X.9.~.... !d.~.t ....~.~~.I 2 You are at a friend 's house and you want to use her phone. What do you say? (all right ) .... !.~._.~ ... ~....r..~ht .. ~ ....\....Y.:.~ .~... ~~.r.... F.h9.n~.L_ ......................... 3 You've wrinen a lener in English. Before you send it, you want a friend to check it for you. What do you ask? (th ink) ....... 4 You want to leave work early. What do you ask your boss? ...................... _....... ............................... (mind ) .. ............ _..... S The woman in the next room is playing music. Ir's very loud . You wa nt her to t urn it down. What do you say to her? (th ink ) .. 6 You're on a fr ain. The window is open and you're feel ing cold. You'd like to close it, but first you ask the woma n next to you. {OK I ..................... 7 You ' re still on t he train. The woman next to you has fi nished reading her newspaper, and ~'ou 'd like to have a look at it. You ask her. (thi nk ) . ............................... 37.3

What wou ld you say in these si tuations?

Paul has come to see you in your fl at. You offer him someth ing to eat. ......w.QY.:~ ~~ ~.~ ~g.'!!.@.~.9 .... ~ ....~ ................................................................. PAUl: No, thank you. I' ve just eaten. You need help to change the film in your camera. You ask Kate. YOU: I don't know how to change the film. KATE: Sure. It's easy. All you have to do is this. You're on a bus. You have a seat, but an elderly man is standing. .You offer him your seat. YOU: ............................ ..................... ~IAS: Oh, that's very kind of you. Thank you very much. You're the passenger in a car. Your friend is drivi ng very fas t. You ask het to slow down. YOU: You're maki ng me very nervous . ....................... _.........._....... _ ....... _................................ DRIVER: Oh , I'm sorry. I didn't realise I was going so fast. You've fi nished your meal in a restaurant and now you want [he bill . You ask the waiter: YOU: ............................... ............................. _...................... _..... .................. _ ? WAITER: Right. I'll get it for you now. A fr iend of yours is interested in one of your books. You invite him to borrow it. FRIÂŁ:\D: This looks very interesti ng. YOU: Yes, it 's a good book. . YOU:

2

3

4

S

6

. . ... . .

,

75


Unit

38

If I do ... and If I did

•••

Compare the~ examples: ( I ) lisa has lost her watch. She tells Sue:

LISA: I've lost my watch. Have you seen it anrwhere? SUE: No, but if I find it, I'll tell you. In this example, Sue fee ls there is a real possibiliry that she will find the watch. So she sa ys:

if I find .. " • I'll .... (2) Joe says:

If I found a wallet in (he Street , I'd take it ro the police sta tion.

I

This is a different type of situation. Here, Joe doesn'r expect to find a waller in the street; he is imagilling a situation tha t will probably not happen. So he says: if I found ... , I'd (= I WQuld) .... (1I0t if I find ... , rtl ... J When you imagi ne something like this, you use if + past (if I found I if there was I if we didn 't etc.). But the meaning is not past: o What would you do if you won a million po unds? (we don 't reall y ex pect this to happen) o I don't rea lly want to go to their parry, but I probably wi ll go. They'd be upset if I didn't go. o If there was (or were) an electio n romorrow, who wo uld you vote for?

For if ... was/were, see Unit 39C. We do not normally u~ would in the if-pan of the sentence: o I'd be very frightened if somebody pointed a gun at me. ('lOt if somebod)' would poi nt) o If I didn't go to their party, they'd be upset. (not If I wouldn't go) But you can usc if ... would when you ask somebody ro do something: o (from a formal letter) I would be grateful if you would let me know your decision as soon as possible. In the other part of the sentence (nor the if-part) we use would ('d ) I wouldn 't: o If you took more exercise, you'd (= you would ) feel better. o I'm not tired . If I went to bed now, I wouldn't sleep. o Would you mind if I used your phone ? Could and might arc also possible: o If you took morc exercise, you might feel better. (= it is possible that you would fee l better) o If it stopped ra ining, we could go o l,lt. (= we would be able to go OU t ) Do not use when in sentences like those on this page: o They'd be upset if I didn 't go to their party. (not when I didn't go) a What would you do if you were bitten by a snake? (not when you were bitten)

76

Will .... Units 21-22 If and when .... Unit 250 If I had known .... Unit 40

Would .... Unit 36

If I knew "" Unit 39


Exercises

Unit 38

38 .1 Put the verb into the correct form.

2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9

10 11

11

They would be offended if I ..... 4!4.,.t:).:t....g.Q...... to their party. (not I go) If you took more exercise, you ..... ~.~.\4.: ...M ..... better. (feel) If they offered me [he job. I think I .......................................................... if. (ta ke) A lot of people would be out of work if the car factory .............. ............................ . (dose down ) If I sold my car, I . ........_.... __ .................... _........ much money for it, (not' get) (in a lift) What wou ld happen if somebody .................... ....................... that red button? (press) I don't think there's any chance that Gary and Emma will get married. I'd be absol utely aston ished if they ..... _._._. __ ....... _....... _.. ___ ........ _....... . (do) Liz gave me this ring. She ...................... _.....*._ ........ _.......â&#x20AC;˘..... very upset if I lost it. (be) Dave and Kate are expecting us. They would be very disappoinred if we ....... _._.. ___ ... _._ ..... _.. _.. _ .... . (nor I come) Would Ste\'e mi nd if I .. _.. ....................... ........ _....... his bike without ask ing him? (borrow) What wou ld you do if somebody .._.... _ ......... _................. _....... _... _ .. in here w ith a gun? (walk ) fm sure Sue .._._... .......... _.......................... _ ....... _.... _.... if you explained the situation to her. (understand)

38.2 You ask a fri end to imagine these si tu at ions. You ask W hat would you do if ... ? I (imagine - yOu win a lot of money) .....~.~....I;':!.w.J4 ... M.~_...4.9.....~. .~w......I;':!.g.r.L.~....(.Q~...Qf...m.g.~.~.L .............._.............._...._._.~............................._......................_ 2 (imagine - you lose your passpon) Wha t ....... _...... _ ..................................................... 3 (i magi ne - there's a fire in the building) 4 (imagine - you ' re in a lift and it StopS bcrween fl oors)

38.3

Ans wer the questions in the way shown.

1 .-\: Shall we carch the 10.30 train? B: No. (arrive too early ) .... J..f. ...~~ ....~9rL.tr..~... J.Q.J.9.....k~~ ..~.~~.4r. ...!M:r.~~....tQg.... ~l:!d.: ..........~ . . 2 A: Is Kevin going to take his driving test? B: No. (fail ) If he ._................................. 3 . \: Why don't we stay at a hotel? B: No. (cosr toO much) If 4 .-\ : Is Sa lly going to apply for the job? B: No. (not I get itl If ._.... _.......................__ ..............._................ _....... _.................. _.............. __ ........ _..............._._.~ ...................................... 5 .-\: Let's tell them the truth. B: No. (not I believe us) If .......................... 6 A: Why don't we invite Bill to the pa rry? B: No. (have ro invite his friends too) ......... _.............. '.*................................._.......*._._._._.......... _...._....-

38.4

Use you r own ideas to comp lete these sentences.

2 3 4 5 6

If you rook more exercise, .... .!;i~.~~t ..@..... ~.!:-.~ .: I'd be \'ery angry if ....... ..... ........... _......... If I didn't go to work tomorrow, ..... .....................* .â&#x20AC;˘... Wou ld you go to the parry if . If you bought some new clorhes, .................... ... . Would you mind if .. ..............................*

77


Unit

39

If I knew ...

I wish I knew ...

Study this example situation:

Sa rah wants to phone Paul, bur she can't do th is because she doesn't know his number. She says:

If J knew his numbt-r ..

If J knew his number, 1 would phone him. Sarah says: If I knew his num be r .... This rells us thai she does,,'t know his number. She is imagining the situation. The real situation is that she doesn't know his number.

When you imagi ne a situation like this, you use if . past (if I knew I if you were I if we didn 't etc.). But the mea ning is present, 1Io t past: o Tom wou ld read morc if he had morc time. (hut he doesn't have much time ) o If I didn't want to go to the parry, I wouldn't go. (but I want to go) o We would n't have any money if we didn 't work. (but we work ) o If you were in my position, what would you do ? a It 's a pity you ca n't d rive. h would be useful if you could . We use the past in t he same way after wish (I wish I kn ew / 1 wish ),ou were etc.). We use wish to say that we regret somet hing, that somethi ng is not as we wou ld like it to be: o I wish I knew Paul's phone number. ~-------~ (= I don't know it and I regret t his) a Do you ever wish you could fly? (you can't fly) o h rains a lot here, J wish it didn't rai n so often. a It's very crowded here. I wish there weren't so many people. (there are a lot of peo.ple) a I wish I d idn't have to work tomorrow, but unfortuna tely I do. If I were I if I was After if and wish, you can use were instead of was (if I were ... I I wish it were etc.). I was / it was are also possible. So you can say: If J was you, ... a If J were you, J wouldn't bu y that coat. . .. if it wasn't so cold. a I'd go out if it weren't so cold. I wish Carol was here. a I wish C arol were here. 0'

We do not normally use would in the if-parr of the sentence o r after wish: a If I were rich, I would have a yacht. (" o t If I would be rich) o I wish I had someth ing to read. (" ot I wish I wou ld have) Sometimes wish ... would is possible: I wish you wo uld listen. See Unit 41. Could sometimes means 'would be able [0 ' and sometimes 'was/were able [ 0': a You could get a better job (you could get = you would be' able to get) if you could use a computer, (you could use you were able to use)

=

78

Could - Units 26- 27 Wish - Unit 41

If I do I jf I did .... Unit 38

If I had known / 1 wish I had known -. Unit 40


Exercises

Unit 39

39. 1 Pu t th e ve rb into t he correct fo rm. If I _.. _~!).~"... (know) his number. I would phone him. 2 I .....~~.~.~.1 . p..<!..!;l ..... (nor I buy ) that coat if I were you . .3 [ ................ _.......... _......... _.......... __ ...... _.. _._ (help) ~' O U if I could, but I' m afra id I can 't. 4 Wle would need a car if we . .......... .............. ..... , (live) in th e country. 5 If we had the choice, we .___ , .... _............ . .... _...... (live/ in the co untry. 6 Th is soup isn't verr good. It ....... _... _................... _...... __. ......... (taste) better if it wasn't so sa lty. i I wouldn 't mind living in England if [he weather ._........................ ......................... ........ (bel better. S If I were you, I . .......... _......... _...... _..........._ (not I wait ). I ................... .............................. (go ) now, 9 You' re always t ired. If you ... _............. _................................................ (not / go) to bed so late e\lery night, you wouldn 't be tired all the rime. 10 I think there are roo man~' cars. If there ............................. _ ......... (not I be) so ma ny cars, ............... _.... _..... _... _ .... (not I be ) so much pollution, there

39.2 Wri te a se ntence with if ... for each situa t io n. \'(/e don't see rou Ver\' often because vou li ve so far awa~'. ....J..f. ..~~.....~.~:~....~.f,....~!?....~....~.~ ~.:.!':l.~.'.4. ....~.~ . ~(:¥. ....~gr.f,...g.~.:.. ............................................. ...................._ 1 This book is roo expensi \'e, so I'm nor going ro buy it. I'd ..... ................ _.... _ ................................... ......... if 3 \'(/e don't go Out '·er~· often - we can't aft"ord it. \Vie

.............. _................ _.... _.... _.... _......................................................

4 I can'r meer you romorrow - I have

to

work late.

Ii It's ra ining, so we ca n't have lunch outside. We .......... 6 I don·t wa nt his ad "ice, and rhar's w h ~' I' m not going to ask for it. j

Ii 39,3 Write sen tences beginn ing I wi sh I I don'r know ma nr people (and I'm lonely). .....I.. ..~.~5..~... J.n~..~Qr..f,.... P.~P~~.:._ .... 1 I don't hare a mobile phone (and I need one ). I wish . 3 Helen isn '[ here (a nd I need to see he r L ............_....... .................... 4 It's cold (and I hate cold weather ). ............................................. j I !i,·e in a big city (and I don'r like it). ................................................................. 6 I can'r go to rhe pa rty (and I'd like (0 ) , 7 I ha"e ro work tOmorrow (but I'd like ro stay in bed ),

8 I don'r know anything about cars (and mr car has JUSt broken down).

9 I' m nor feel ing well (a nd it's nor nice ). 39 .4 Write you r own sentences beginn ing I wish I (somewhere you'd like to be now - on the beach, in New York, in bed etc.) I w ish I ..... ............................................................_........... ........................... 1 (something you'd like to ha,'e - a computer, a job, lots of money etc.)

3 (something you'd like to be able to do - sing, speak a language, fl y etc,l 4 (something you'd like to be - beautiful, STrong, rich etc.)

- Additional exercises 19-21 (pages 313-14)

79


If I had known

•••

I wish I had known

• ••

Study this example situation: Last month Gary was in hospital for a few days. Ra chel didn't know rhis. so she didn't go to visit him. They met a few days ago. Rachel said:

If I had known you were in hospital, I would have gone to sec YOll. Rachel said: If I had known you were in hospital .... T his tells us that she d;dll" know he was in hospital. We use if + had ('d) ", ~o talk about the past (if I had knownlbecnldone etc.): a I didn't see you when you passed me in the street. If I'd seen yOll , of course I wou ld have said hello. (but I didn't see you) o I decided to stay at home last night. 'I would have gone our if I hadn't been so tired. (but I was tired) o If he had been looking where he was goi ng, he wouldn't have walked into the wa ll . (but he wasn't look ing) o T he view was wonderful. If I'd had a camera with me, I wou ld have taken some photographs. (bur I didn't have a camera ) Compare: o I' m nor hungry. If I was hungry, I would eat something. (now ) o I wasn'r hungry. If I had been hungry, I wou ld have eaten something. (past) Do not use would in the if-part of the sentence. We u ~ would in the other part o f the ~ ntence: o If I had seen you, I would have said hello. (not If I would have seen you) Note that'd can be would or had: o If I'd seen you, (I'd seen = I had seen) I'd have said hdlo. (I' d have said = I would have said ) We u ~ had (done) in [he same way after wish . I wish something had happened = I am sorry t hat i[ didn't happen: o I wish I'd known that Gary was ill. I would have gone to see him. (but I didn't know) o I feel sick. 1 wish 1 hadn 't eaten so much cake. (I ate tOO much cake) o Do you wish you had studied science instead of languages? (you didn't st udy science) Do nOt use would have ... after wish: o The weather was cold wh ile we were away. I wi sh it had been wa rmer. (" ot I wish it wou ld have been) Compa re would (do ) and would have (do ne): o If I had gone to [he party last night, 1 would be tired now. (I am not tired now - present ) o If I had gone to the party lasl night, I· would have met lots of people. (I didn 't meet lots of people - past) Compare wo uld have, could have and might have: we would have gooe out. we could have gone out. (= we would have been able to go out) o If the weather hadn't been so bad, we might have gone o ut. (= perhaps we would have gone Out)

80

Had done _ Unit 15

If I do I if I did ..... Unit 38

If I knew / 1 wish I knew -- Uni t 39

Wish -

Unit 41


Exercises

Unit 40

40. 1 Put the verb into the correct form . I didn't know you were in hospital. If .... ~r.!.Q.~.~ .. (I I know), ." L..~~.4t, ,.t!_~.V:.~... .9.Q:0.~ .. (I I go) [0 see you. 1 Sam got to the station just in time (Q catch the trai n to the airport. If ....... .................... (he I mi ss ) the train, _ ....... _.... _....... _......._.... _............... ................. (he I miss) his fli ght. 3 I'm glad that you reminded me about Amanda 's birthday. ....... ............. ......................... ,... (I I forger) if ._._._._._._.. _...._.... _.... .. ......... (you I not I remind ) me. 4 Unfortunately I forgot my address book when I went on holiday. If "........ II I ha\"e) you r add ress, . __................ (I I send ) you a postca rd. 5 :\: H ow was you r holiday? Did yo u have a nice t ime? B: IT w as OK, but . ............................... ..................................... (we I enj oy) it more if ____ ........_.. ..... ...................... ........ (the weather I bel nicer. 6 I took a taxi CO the hotel, but the (raffic was bad . ........... ..... (it /beJ quicker if ..... _.............. _.............. ...................... , (! I walk). 7 I' m not tired. If ....... _ ..... _____........_............._.. _............_...._............. (I I be) tired, I'd go home no w. S I wa sn't tired last night. If ............ ,...................._..................... (I I be) tired, I would have gone home ea rlier.

r4...

40.2

For each si tu ation, write a sentence beginning with Ir. I I wasn't hungry, so I didn 't ea t an~路 thin g . ....J.f....L'4....p..~....~.~.:0.9r.~ ....!.....~.~.!-.4.....1).~.~.~ .. , ~:0....~g.~..@ .!-!'9., 2 The accidem happened because the road was icy. If the road ....... ..................... ,..................................... ................... ,............................. 3 I didn't know that Joe had to get up ea rl y, so I didn't wake him up. If J ................ __..........__ 4 I was able to bu y the car on ly because J a ne lent me the money.

5 Karen wa sn'r injured in the crash beca use she was wearing a seat belr.

6 You didn't have any brea kfast - th at's why you're hung ry now. 7 I didn't get a taxi beca use I didn 't have an y money. 40 .3

Imagine that you are in these situations. For each si tu ation , wri te a sentence with I wish . I Yo u' n~' eaten too much and now ,'ou feel sic k. 2

3 4

5

6

Yo u say: ......l.....'t.iJ.~.t! ....!.... n,~.~.\ ._~r! . . ~.Q. ... ~.~.0......... There was a job advertised in the newspaper. You decided nOt to apply for it. Now you think that your decisio n was wrong. Yo u say : I wish I ..... \X' hen you were younger, you never learned to pia)' a musical" instru ment. Now )'OU regret this. You say: ............................... _......................... ,............................... ,.................. ....................... ,........................................... You've painted the gate red. Now )'OU th ink that red was the wrong colour. You sa~' : ......................... .................................. ......................................... .................... You are walk ing in rhe coumry. You'd like to take some photographs, but you didn't bring your camera . You sa ~' : ..... Yo u ha\'c some unexpected guests. They didn'r phone firsr ro say they we re coming. Yo u are \"e r ~' bu s ~' and you arc not prepared for them. ............................................ You say (10 yourself):

..... Additional exer(,ises 19-21 (pages 3 13-14)

81


Wish You can say 'I wish you luck I every success I a happy birthday' etc. : o I wish you every success in the future. o J saw Tim before the exam and he wished me luck. We say ' wish somebody something' (luck I a happy birthday etc.). But you cannm ' wish that something happens', We use hope in this situation . For example: o I hope you get this letter before you go away. (n ot I wish you get) Compare I wish and I hope: o I wish you a pleasant stay here. o I hope you have pleasant stay here. (not I wish you have)

a

We also use wish to say that we regret sOrTlerhing, that someth ing is not as we would li ke it. W hen we use wish in th is way, we use the past (knewllived etc.), but the meaning is present: o I wish' knew what to do about the problem. (I don't know and 1 regret t his) o I wish you didn't have to go so soon. (you have to go) o Do you wish you lived near the sea? (you don 't live nea r the sea) o Jack's goi ng on a t rip to Mexico soon. I wish I was going too. (I'm not going) To say that we regret somet hing in the past, we use wish + had ... (had known f had said) etc. : o I wish I'd known about the party. I would have gone if I'd known. II didn't know) o It was a Stupid t hing to say. I wish I hadn't said it. (I said it) For more examples, see Units 39 and 40. I wish I could (do something) = [ regret that I can not do it: o I'm sorry I have to go. I wish I could stay longer. (but I can't) o I've met that man before. I wish I could remember his name. (but I can't )

=

I wish I could have (done something) J regret that I could nor do it: o I hear the party was great. I wish J could have gone. (but I couldn't gol Vou can say ' I wish (somebody) would (do somethi ng)'. For example: I wish it would

It's been raining all dar. Jill doesn't like it. She says: I wish it would stop raining. Jill would li ke the rain to stop, but this will pro bably not happen. We use I wish ... would when we would like someth ing to happen or change. Usually, the speaker doesn路t expect this to happen .

We often use I wish ... would to complain about a situation: o The phone has been ringi ng fo r five n:ainures. I wish somebody would answer it. o I wish you would do something instead of just sitting and doing nothing. You can use I wish ... wouldn't ... to complain about thi ngs that people do repeated ly: o I wish you wo uldn't keep interrupting me . We use I wish ... would ... for actions and changes, not situations. Compare:

82

but

o I wish Sa rah wo uld come. (= I wam her to come ) I wish Sa rah was (or were ) here now. (not I wish Sara h would be)

but

o I wish somebody would bu y me a car. I wish I had a car. (no t I wish I would have)

I wish I knew .... Unit 39

I wish I was / 1 wish 1 wert .... Un it 39C

I wish I had known .... Unit 40


Exercises

Unit 41

41 .1 Put in wish(ed) or hope{d), I I ......I:';-!.~~.tJ...... you a pleasant stay here. 2 Enjoy your holiday. I .

" you have a great time. '" you all the best. 4 \'(le said goodbye to each other and ...... _e.... ........................... each other luck. S We're going to have a picnic tomorrow, so I . ............................ _.......... the weather is nice. 6 I ............................................. you luck in your new job. I ............................................. it works out well for you.

J Good bye. I .."..... _.................

41.2

What do you say in these situations? Write sen tences with I wish ... would .... 1 I( s rain ing. You wa nt to go out, but not in'the rain. You say: ......!....~.~~.t! ... ,Y::....~.w.J4 ....~.tgp. .... r..~.~9. :...................... _......... 2 You're waiting for J ane. She's late and you ' re getTing im patient. Yo u say to yourself: I wish . .............................. ........ _......................_.................................... _ 3 You're looking for a job - so far without success. Nobody wi ll give you a job. You say: I wi sh somebody . ..................... _.. ..................... _......................... 4 You ca n hear a baby crying. it 's been crying for a long time and you ' re t rying to study, You say: ..... ~._ ........_ ........ __ ...... ___ ...... __ .............. _.... _...._.... _....... _ .................... _.. _._ .................................... 5 Brian has been wearing the same clo thes for years. You th ink he needs some new clothes. You say ro Brian: ......... For the foHowing situations, write sentences with I wish ... wouldn 't 6 Your friend dri"es "ery fa st. You don't like' this. You sar ro rour friend: I wish you . 7 Joe lea,'es the door open all the time. This anno~' s you. You say to Joe: ................................ 8 A lot of people drop litTer in the street. You don't like this. You sa~' : I wish people

41.3

Arc these sentences right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. I f wish Sarah would be here now. .....J.....~.0..r. ....~W ...~.q.~ ..r.~.~ r.JQ~.: .................... 1 I w ish you would listen to me. ......... _... _ .... _... _ ........ _................... _.. 3 I wish I wou ld have more free time. ........................ _ ...................... 4 I wi sh our flat would be a bi t bigger. S f wish the weather wou ld cha nge . 6 I wish you would n't complain all the rime. 7 I wi sh everything wouldn't be so expensive.

..

4 1.4

Put the verb into the co rrect form. It wa s a stupid thing ro say. I wish I ......r.~t'!:.t...~.?J4........ ir. (II nor I say) 2 I'm fed up wirh rhi s rain . I wish ...... \f.. J'.-!.9Y.!4....~.tQp...... . (it I srop) 3 It's a difficult question. I wish ............... .... .......... the a nswer. (II know) 4 I should have listened to you. I wish ........_... ___ ..... .... your advice. II / ta ke ) S You're lucky to be going away. I w ish .... ................... _ ....... wi th you. (II can I come ) ....................... so rired. (1/ not I be) 6 I ha\'e no energy at the moment. I wish ................. 7 Aren't they ready yet? I wish ................ _......... .......... up. (they I hu rry) S It would be nice to s ta~' here longer. I wish .... ................... to leave now. (we I not / have) 9 When we were in London last year, we didn't have time to see a ll the things we wanted to see. I wish ...... ................... _.... ....... _...... longer. (we I can I stay ) 10 Ir's freezing coday. I wish ... .......................... ........................ so cold. I hate cold weather. (it I not / be) I I J oe still doesn't know whal he wants to do. I w ish ....................... ....... . (he I decide) 12 I really didn't enjoy the parry. I wish ................ _...... ........... ~ ........ _. ____ . (we I not I go )

83


Unit

42

Passive 1 (is done I was done) Study t his exa mple: This house was buill in 1935.

Was buill is possil1e. Com pare acti\'e and passive: Somebody buill this house

In

1935. (act iue)

ooirct

SlfbiU I

I

This house was built in 1935. (pass ive) SNb;tct

When we usc an active verb, we say what the subject does: o My grand father was a bui lder. H e bui lt this house in 1935. o It's a big company. It employs twO hund red people. When we use a passive verb, we say what happens to the subject: o This ho use is quite old. It was built in 1935 . o Two hundred people are employed by the com pany.

When we use the passive, who or what causes the action is o ften unknown o r unimportant: o A lot of money was stolen in the robbery. (somebody siole it, but we don't know who) o Is th is room cleaned every day ? (does somebody clean it ? - it's not important who) If we want to say who does or wllat causes tile action, we use by ... : a This house was built by my grandfather. o Two hundred people are employed by tbe company. The passive is be (is/was etc.) + past participle (done/cleaned/seen etc.): (be) done (be) cleaned (be) damaged ' (be) built (be) seen erc. Fo r irregular past participles (done/seenlknown etc.), sec Appendix t . Study rhe active and passive fo rms o f the present simple a nd past simple: Present siml)le active: clean(s) I see(s) ere.

Somebody dea ns rhis room

e\"e r~' d3~路.

I

This room is cleaned e'lery day.

passive: am/is/arc + cleaned/seen etc.

a

Man y accidents arc caused by careless dri ving. o I'm not ofren invi ted to parties. o How is this word pronounced?

Past simple active; cleaned/saw etc.

Somebody cleaned

passive: was/were + cleaned/seen etc.

This room

o We were woken up by a loud noise during the night. o ' Did you go to the party?' 'No, I wasn't invited : o How much money was stolen in tile robbery?

84

Passive 2-3 - Units 42-43

By - Unit 128

this room

yesterday.

was cleaned yesterday.


Exercises

Unit 42

42 .1 Co mplete the sentences usi ng one of these . . erbs in t he corrcct form , present or past : flUgedamage hold invite make overtake show surround translate write Many accidents ..... fY.~....~.~.~ ..... by dangerous driving. Cheese _..... ............. ................. ... from mi lk. The roof of the building ........ _.. __ ............. in a storm a few days ago. You . ........ __... fO the wedding. Why didn't you go? .. ............. __ ........................ . A cinema is a place where films ..... In the United States, elections for president . ................. _..... _........... every four years. Originally the book ...................... _. ........... __. in Spanish, and a few years ago it n. into English. . ........................ br a lot of other cars . 8 Although we were drh'ing quite fasr. \\'e ".. 9 You can't see the house from the road . It ....................................................... by trees.

2 3 4 5 6 7

42 .2 Write questions using the passive. Some are present and some are past. 1

3 4

5 42 .3

about about about about about

glass. (how I make? ) ..... H.9.~.... ~~ ...9.4.1::$..~.....~.~} television, (when I invent ?) _ ............ _........ _.... mountains. (how I form? ) ...................... Pluto UlIe plallet ). (when I discover? ) silver. (what I use for? )

Put the verb into the correct form. present simple or past simple, active o r passive. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17

42 .4

Ask Ask Ask Ask Ask

It's a big factory. Fi\'c hundred people ..... ~~....~.P.1:Q~ffi..... (employ) there. ......M ....~.9rn..~9:~ ....~ ..... (somebody I clean ) this room yesterday? Water ............... _.......".......... _" ................. (cover) most of the earth's surface. H ow much of the earth's su rface ..' ............. lcover) by water? The park gates ................ .............. (lock ) at 6.30 p.m. every evening. The letter ..................... ..................... (pOSt ) a week ago and it ....... ......... (arrive) yesterday. The boat hit a rock and .. (sink ) quickly. Fortunately everybod y ............. (rescue ). Richard's parents ............. (die ) when he was very young. He and his sister ....................... ............... (bring up) b~' their grandparents. I was born in London. but I ,... .............................................. (grow up) in Ca nada. \'Chile I was on holiday, m~' camera .. ........................................... (steal) from my hotel room. Wh ile I was on holiday, my camera .................. (disappear) from my hotel room. Wh~' ..... ................... ...... (Sue I resign ) from her job? Didn't she enjoy it? \'ii h ~' ............... .......... (Bill 1 sack) from his job? What did he do w rong? The compan~' is not independent. It .......................................... .. (own) by a much larger company. I saw an accidem last night. Somebody ........ (call ) an ambulance but nobody ......................................... (injure ), so the ambu lance .......................... (not 1 need). \'(' herc ... ...... ............................... ................. (these photographs I take)? In London ? .......... ................... ............. (you 1 take) them, or somebody else? Sometimes it's quite noisy h\'ing here, but it's not a pro blem for me ..._.. __ ....... (not 1 bother) by it. I .,,__

Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using somebody, t hey, peop le etc., write a passive sentence. 2 3 4 5 6

Somebody cleans the room e\'crr day. .. ...Th. ~ ..n?Q!!'.....~.~ ..~.~ ._.~.'(q.!:i ... ~., ...... They cancelled all fl ights because of fog . All . ................................................ People don't use this road much. Somebody accused me of stea ling money. How do people learn languages~ Somebody wa rned us nor to go om alone .

85


Passive 2 (be done I been done I being done) 5rudy the following active and passive form s:

In finitive active: (tol do/clean/see etc.

Somebody will clean the room later.

-------,

The room

passive: (to) be + done/cleaned/seen etc. o o o D D

will be cleaned laler.

T he situation is serious. Something must be done before it's t OO late. A mystery is something (hat can't be explained . The music was very loud and could he heard from a long way away. A new superma rket is going 10 be built next yea r. Please go away. I want 10 be left a lon,e.

J' erfect infinitive active: (to) have + done/cleaned/seen etc.

So mebody should have cleaned the room Ir passive: ([0) have been + done/cleaned/seen etc. The room should have been cleaned.

------- ---T

o J haven 't received the lerrer yet. It might have been sent ro the wrong address. o If you hadn't left the car unlocked , it wouldn't have been stolen. a There were some problems at fi rst, but they seem to have been solved.

Present perfect actille: have/has + done etc.

The room looks nice. Somebody has cleaned it

passille: have/has been + done etc.

The room looks nice. It has been cleaned .

I

a a a

Have you hea rd ? The concen has been cancelled . Have you ever been bitten by a dog? . 'Are you going ro the party?' 'No , I haven't been invited.'

Past perfect actille: had + done etc.

The room loo ked nicc. Somebody had cleaned it

passive: had been + done etc.

The room looked nicc. It had been cleaned.

I

a a

The vegeta bles didn 't taste very good. They had been cooked toO lo ng. T he car was three years old but hadn't been used very much.

Present cOllti"" OIlS actille: am/is/arc passive:

a

a

+

(doling

am/is/are + being (done)

Somebody is cleaning the room at the moment . ___________-1â&#x20AC;˘

.10 The room

is being cleaned at the momenr.

There's somebody wa lking behind us. I think we are being followed . (in a shop) 'Can I help you?' 'No, thank you. I'm being served.'

Past continllous actille: was/were + (doling

Somebody was cleaning the room

when I arrived.

I

passive:

a 86

waslwerc + being (done)

The room

was being cleaned when I arrived.

There was somebody wal king behind us. We were being followed .

Passive 1. 3 ..... Uni lS 42 , 44


Exercises

Unit 43

43 .1 What do these words mean? Use it can ... or it can ' t .. . . Use a dictionary if necessary.

If something is I washable, .___Lt. CO.YI be. w(l5l1ed.. 2 unbreakable, it ....... _.. ...................... .. 3 edible, ........ __ ...... __ ...... _....... ____ ..... ...................... _..

4 unusable, . 5 invisible, .................. 6 portable, ............ _, ...

43.2 Comp lete these sentences with the following verbs (i n the co rrect form) : arrest carry cause ..ae- make repair --sendspend

wake up

Somet imes you need have (might have, should have etc.).

I 2 3 4 j

6

7

S 9 43,3

. . IS . serious. . So rnerh"mg must ................................ be c::Lone be fOfC It . ,s too Iate. Th e SlfU3non I haven't recei \'ed the Jener. It might ......r..~y.,~....!?~.....~.~.~ ... to the wrong address. A decision will nor ................................ until the next meeting . Do you think that more money should ............ _................................ ................. _............. on education? This road is in very bad condition. It shou ld ..... _ . ........ a long time ago. The injured man couldn't walk and had to ............... by an iI 's not certain how rhe nre started, but it might . electrica l faulr. ............................ at 6.30 the next morning. I told the hotel receptionist I wa nted to ....... If you hadn't pushed rhe policeman, you wouldn't

Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using

som~body

or they etc., write a passive sentence.

Somebody has cleaned the room . ......Th.~. . .r!?Qp.....htg......~~....~.ffi ..................................................... 1 The~' have postponed the meeting, The '.. 3 Somebody is usi ng rhe computer at the moment. The computer ..... ............. _...... ....... _............ .......................................... 4 I didn 't realise that somebody was record ing our conversation. I didn't rea lise that . ............................. 5 \1,;' hen we got to the stadium . we fou nd that they had ca ncelled the game. When we got to the stadi um. we found that .. . ..................... 6 They are building a new ri ng road round the ci t}'.

7 They have bu ilt a new hospital near the airport. 43.4 Make sentences from the word s in brackets. Sometimes the verb is active, somet im es pa ssive.

..

2 3

4 5 6 7

There's somebod~' behi nd us. (I think / we / follow ) ...... L..!t.!.~ ....~.~:r.~ ~.@.9....:f9.lAQ.~.ffi... . This room looks different. (you I pa int I the walls? ) _...t!.~y.~... !!w..... ~.~....~.~ ... ~.~~.L .. :'vl y car has d isappea red. (it I stea l! ) It ............................................................ :-" Iy umbrella has disappeared. (somebody / take) Somebody ............. ....................... Sam gets a higher sa lary now. (he I promote) He ........... ................... ........................ Ann ca n't use her office at the moment. (it I redecorate) It ..... _.............. The photocopier broke down yesterday, but now it's OK. (it I work I again; it I repair) I [ ...... _ ................._..............................

.............. _..............

It

....................... ..........................

.....................

S When I went into the room, I saw that the table and chairs were not in the same place. .................... ............................... ........................ (the furniture I move ) The ..... 9 The man next door disappeared six months ago. (he I not I see I since then) He ....... ............................... .......................... ..................................................... 10 I wonder how Jane is rhese da ys. (I I nor I see I for ages) I ..... .................. ............. ............... ....... .......................... .................. 1 \ A friend of mine was mugged on his way home a few nights ago. (you I ever I mug? )

-- Ad ditiona l exercises 22 - 24 (pages 314-15)

87


Unit

44

Passive 3 I was offered ... I we were given ... etc.

Some verbs ca n have two objects. For example, give: o Somebody gave the police the informa tion. (= Somebody gave the information to the police) •

, , ,

,

obiter I

I

obitct 1.

So it is possible to make rwo passi ve sentences: o The police wcrc given [he informa tion. or

The information was given

(Q

the police.

Other verbs w hich can have two objects

ask

offer

pay

show

afC:

teach

tell

When we use these verbs in the passive, most often we begin with the person: a I was o ffered the job, but I refused it. (= they o ffered me t he job) o You will be given plenty o f t ime to decide. (= we will give you plenty o f time) o Have you been shown the new machine? (= has any body shown )'ou ?) o The men wcrc paid £400 [ 0 do the work. (= somebody paid the men £400) I don 'I like being ...

The passive of doing/seeing etc. is being done I being seen etc. Compare;

active; I don 't like people telling me whac passive; I don't li ke being [old what to do.

to do.

o I remember being taken to the zoo when J was a child. (= J remember somebody taking me to the zoo) o Steve hates being kept wait ing. (= he hates people keeping him wai ti ng) o We managed to clim b over t he wall without being seen. (= w ithout anybody seeing us )

I w as born ... We say 'I was born .. .' (not I am born ): o I was born in Chicago. ) o Where were you born ? (not Where arc }'ou born ?) p bllt present o H ow many ba bies are born every day?

a"

Get You ca n use gel instead o f be in the passive: o There was a fight a t the party, bur nobody gOt hurt . t= nobody was hu rt) o I don't often get in vited to parties. (= I'm not often invited ) o I' m surprised liz didn 't get offered .the job. (= liz wasn't offered the job) You can use get only when things happen. For example, you cannOl use get in the followi ng sentences: o Jill is liked by everybody. (no t gets liked - [his is nOI a ' happening') o He was a mystery ma n. Very lin le was known about him. (not got known) We use gel mai nly in informal spoken English. You can use be in all situations. We a lso use gel in the fo llowing expressions (which are not passive in meaning): gel ma rried, get divorced get lost (= nOl know w here you a rc) get dressed (= put on your clothes) get changed (= cha nge your clothes)

88

Passive 1- 2 - Units 42-43


Exercises 44. 1

Unit 44

Write these sen t ences in anot her way. beg in ning in t he way shown .

1 T hey didn't give me the information I needed. I .... _N~.~~t... .9~~~... , ~ , ~ . __i,r}.f9.~_~.~...J_ ...!).~.,. 2 T hey asked me some difficult questions at the interview. I ...................................... ............... ........................................... 3 Linda's colleagues gave her a present when she retired. Linda ............... ................................. _........................... 4 No body told me about the meeti ng. I wasn't . 5 HoI\' much wi!! ther par rou for rour work? How much wi ll you ........... _........ 6 I think th ey should have offered Tom the job.

I think Tom ... _.. _...._.......... _.... 7 Has a nybody shown H ave you

}'OU

............... _........... _ what to do?

44 .2 Complete the sentences using being + the following (in the correct form):

giye

invite

-Iteq:t-

knock do wn

stick

treal

Steve hates .__._P.~:g____~_q:>.t. .. waiting. 1 \V,Ie went to the party without . ... them. 3 I !ike gi \'ing presents and I a lso like . 4 iI's a busy road and I do n'T like crossing it. I'm afraid of ........_.. _........... _........... 5 fm an adult. I do n't like ..... _...................... _..... _............ like a chi ld. 6 You ca n't do anything about . ___................................ ,........ _ .......... _..... in a traffic jam, 44.3

When were they born? Choose five of these people and write a sen tence for each. (Two of them were bo rn in the same year.)

Beethoven Agatha Christie Wa if Di s fte ~' 1

Ga lileo Mahatma Gandh i Marrin Lurher King

1452 1564 1770

Elvis Presley Leonardo da Vinci William Shakespeare

1869 1890

1929 1935

+99+

..WgJ..~.J?!<:'>.~.~ .J~~_M.... !?9.~ .. ~ ,..1.9..9.1.,

2 3 4

5 6 .............. 7 And ~' ou? I 44.4

Complete the sentences using get l got + the following verbs (in the correct form):

ask

da mage

-htm-

pay

steal

sting

Stop

use

There was a fight a t the party. but nobody .... .9.9..~... )::1,\-.I.~..... . 2 Alex ........ _........... _...... ...... by a bee while he wa s sitting in the ga rden. 3 These tennis COU rtS don't .. ............................................... very often, Not many people want to play. 4 I used to have a bicycle, bur it .. ............_............. _...... ........... a few months ago. 5 Rachel wo rks hard but doesn't .......... __ ........ _. very m uch. .... by the police as I was driving ho me. One of the lights 6 l ast nig ht I . on my ca r wa sn't working. 7 Please pack these th ings very ca refully, I don't want them to .... _.. 8 People often want to kno w what my job is. I often .._._ ....................._...H_ .......... _....... that question. .. â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ H ....

.... Additiona l exercises 22-24 (pages 314-1 5)

89


Unit

45

It is said that ... He is said to ... He is supposed to ... Study this exam ple situation: Henry is ver), old. Nobody knows exacdy how o ld he is. but: It is said th at

he is 108 years old.

- - - --,

'" is said to be 108 years old. He

0'

Both these sentences mean: 'People say that he is 108 years

old: You can use these structures with a number o f other verbs, especially: alleged believed considered expected xnown reported thought

understood

Compare the twO Structures: o Ca thy works very hard. It is said thai she works 16 hours a da r. o The police arc looki ng for;] missi ng boy. II is believed that the boy is weari ng a white pullover a nd bl ue jeans. o The strike started three weeks ago. It is expecred that it will end soon. o A friend of mine has been arrested. lr is alleged tha t he hit a policeman. o The tWO houses belong to the sa me fami ly. II is said that t he re is a secret tunnel between them.

or

She is said to work 16 hours a day.

or

The boy is belie\'ed to be wearing a white pullover a nd blue jeans.

or

The strike is expected to end soon.

or

He is alleged to ha\'e hit a policeman.

or

T here is said to be a secret tunnel between them.

These st ructures are often used in news reports. For exam ple. in a report about an accident: o It is reported that [WO people were or Two people are repon ed 10 have inju red in the explosion. been injured in the explosion. (Be) supposed to Sometimes (it is) supposed to ... = (it is) said to ... : a I walll to see that fi lm. It's supposed to be good. (= it is said to be good ) a Ma rk is supposed to have hit a policeman, but I don't believe it. Bur someti mes supposed to has a different meaning. We use supposed to to sa)' what is intended, a rranged or expected. Often this is different from the rea l situation: o The plan is supposed to be a secret, but everybod y seems to know about it. (= the plan is intended to be a secret). a What are you doing a t work? You're supposed to be o n holiday. (= you a rranged to be on holiday) a Our guests were supposed to come a t 7.30, but they were late, a Jane was supposed to phone me last night, but she didn't. o I'd better hurry. I'm supposed to be meeting Chris in ten mi nutes.

=

You' re not supposed to do somet hing it is not allowed o r advisa ble: o Yo u're not supposed to park your ca r here. It's priva te parking only. a Jeff is much better after his illness, but he's still not supposed to do any heavy work.

90


Exe rcises

Unit 45

4 5. 1 Write these sent ences in another way, beginning as shown . Use the underlined word each ti me.

th is expected that the stri ke will end soon. The strike .hy ?....~.~.P.~ ....t9.... ~~4 . ~.Q.9..~., .............. _.......... _ 2 It is expected that the weather w ill be good tomorrow. The weather is ..... 3 It is belie\'cd that the thien'S got in through a window in the roof.

The thines

.......................... _.........

...... _._...........

4 It is reponed that man~' people arc homeless after the floods. ~lany people ... _........ ......................... 5 It is thou!;hr that the prisoner escaped by climbing over a wa ll. The prisoner ........................................__ ..... .................................................._... 6 It is ~ that the man was driving at 110 miles an hour. The man .........._ ................................. i It is reponed that the bui lding has been badly damaged by the fire. The building ..........._................ _._ ..................._ ............................ _ ................................................................. _ S a It is uid. that the compa ny is losi ng a lor of money. T he compa ny ......_................. ............................. ................................._.... _....... _.................................... b It is believed that the company lost a lot of money last yea r. T he com pany ..... . ................................................. ............................................................. _.... ..................... ___ ......................... _... _ c It is expected that the company will make a loss this year. The company ..................................... 45.2 There are a lot of rumours about Ala n. Here are some of the things people say about him ; Alan speab ten languages.

3

2

?

He knows a lot of famous people.

~==~~~~==~~==~~ ~~?

(~ Ii< i, "'Y ';,h.)

4

H, h,n."" ,hild",.

5

How" '" "",.heo

he was younger.

.~P' -

Alan Nobody is su re whether th ese th ings a re true. Write sentences about Alan usi ng supposed to. I _... A_1~ ... ~~ ....~.~PP-Q.~.~ ....tg....~E~.j"&.~...~g\!:~~.~ ......................._ ................ _ 2 He .~......

3 4

5 45.3 Complete the sente nces usi ng sup posed t o be + the following : on a diet a Aower my fri end a joke --a~eerer--

2 3 4

5 6 45.4

working

Everybody seems to know about the plan, ~ut it ......~ .. ~.~p.P.9.;?~....!:g.... ~.~ ....Q..,....~.~~. , You shou ldn't criticise me all the time. You ..................................................... ........................ _ I shouldn't be eating this cake really. I . .............................._ I'm sorry for w hat I said . I was trying fa be fu nny. It ...................................................... What's this drawing .: Is it a tree: Or maybe it .............. .............. You shouldn't be reading the paper now. You ....,.............

Write sentences with supposed to + the following ve rbs: arrive block -par-kphone sta rt Use the negative (not supposed to) where necessary. I You ...:r..~ ~.Q~.. __ ~~p.P.9.~.~....!:g.... p.~_~...... here. It's private park ing only. 1 We ._ ....._._ ...._................. _........... .................................. work at 8. 15, but we rarely do anything before 8.30. 3 Oh, I ......... . Helen , bur I completely forgot. 4 This door is a fire exit. You ..._ ................... _ ..................... _.... _.............. it . 5 ), t y train . ...................... ...................._.. at 11.30, but it was an hour late.

_.

...... Additiona l exe rcises 22-24 (pages 314 - 15)

91


Unit

46

Have something done Study this exa mple situation:

The roof of Lisa's house was damaged in a storm. Yesterday a workman came and repaired it. Lisa had the roof repaired yesterday.

This means: lisa arranged for somebody else to repair the roof. She didn't repair it herself.

LISA

We use have something done to say t hat we a rra nge for somebody else to do something fo r us. Compa re: o Lisa repaired the roof. (= she repaired it herself) Lisa had the r oof repaired. (= she a rranged fo r somebody else to repa ir it)

o 'Did you make those curtains yourself?' 'Yes, I enjoy making things.' 'Did you have those curtains made?' 'No, I made them myself.' Be careful with wo rd order. The post participle (repaired/cut erc.) is after the object: have Li~ had Where did you ha ve Your hair looks nice. Have you had Our neighbour has JUSt had We are having H ow often do you have I think you shou ld have I don't like having

object

past participle

the roof your hair

repaired ~'este rdar. CUI ? CUI ? buill. paimed at the moment . serviced ? cleaned. taken.

"a garage the house: you r car that coat my photogra ph

Get something done You can also say 'get something done' instead of 'have something done' (mainly in info rmal spoken English): o When a re you going to get the roof repaired ? (= have the roof repaired ) o I thi nk you should get your hair cut really short. Sometimes have something done has a d ifferent mea ning. For example: o Paul and Ka ren had all (heir money stolen while they were on holiday. This does nOt mean that they arranged for somebody to steallheir money. 'They had all tbeir money Slolen' means o nly: 'All their money was stolen from them'. With this meaning, we use have sometbing dooe to say that something happens to somebody o r thei r belongings. Usua lly what happens is not nice: o Gary had his nose: broken in a fight. (= his nose was broken) o H ave you ever had your passport Slolen ?

92


Exercises

Unit 46

46. 1 Tick (1') the correct sentence, (a) or (b) , for each picture.

3

1

HRAH

I, ) Sa rah is cun ing her hair. Ib l Sa rah is ha ving her hair CUI. 46 .2

SUE

jOH.\'

BIf.L

la) Bill is curting his hair. Ib) Bill is having his ha ir cul.

(3) John is cleaning

(,) Sue is taking a

his shoes. (b) John is having his

photograph. (bl Sue is having her photograph taken.

shoes clea ned .

Answer the ques tions using To have somethi ng done. Choose from th e boxes:

-m y-ear-

my eyes

my jacket

my watch

II

clean

repair

-5er-vie~

\X1hy did you go to the garage? ......T.!?:....~.~'(.~....!!1.~ ....@.!:'.....~.~.~.:......~.......................

test

I

..........................

2 \'\' hy did yo u go to the cleaner's? To .... ...................... _............................... __ ._........_ 3 \'(/hy did ~'ou go to the jeweller's: ....-....._._ .... ___......-...__ ........................................................." ............................................. _ 4 \X' hy did you go to the o pti ci an 's~ ........ __ ......... _._ ... ____ ..... __ ....... __ ._.. __ ................... _............... _.............. _. __ ._... _...__ ._... _ 46.3

Write sen tences in the way shown. 2 3 4 5

lisa didn 't repair the roof herself. She __ !'l~_tt .!.~~.!. ____ ... _____ .. _... _ .... _______ _ I didn', cut my hair myself. I ________ ...... _. ___ ... _____ .. _________ They didn 't paim the house themselves. They ______ ... _____ .. _ ... _.. _...... ___.______ .. ____ .______ John didn't build that wa ll himself. ____._______ I didn', deli\'er the fl owers myself. ___ ._._. ___ .... _. ___________ ...... _ __

46.4 Use the words in brackets to complete the sen tences. Use the structure have somet hing done. We ..... ~~....r..?-.!~9.j!~.!L~.~..~.~.... p..~~_. (the house I paim) at the moment. 2 I lost m~' key. I'll ha\'e to ........... _ ... _ .. ___ .... _ .. ___._......... _._._ .... __ ._._............. _... _ (another key I make). ......................... _..... (your hair I cut)? 3 \'(fhen wa s the la st time yOIl ........... _........... .. ..................... (you I a newspaper I deliver) to you r 4 ................ _...__ ........ _ .... _.. _........_ ...... _ house every da y, o r do you go Out and buy one? j .-\: What are those workmen doing in ~'ou r garden : 6: Oh, we ..... _............. _._.......... ................................ _...... ........ (a ga rage I build). 6 A: Ca n I see rhe photographs you took when you were on holida y? 8: J'm afraid J .............. _._ ............. _.......... ............... _............................................. (not I the film I develop) yet. - This coat is dirty. I must ......... _............... _.._..... _....... __ .. _............ _._._ .............. _... _..... _ (it I clean ). 8 Ii you want to wear ea rrings, why don't you ._._.. _.......... ___ .. _.. _-'._ .. __ ...... ___ .. _ .... __._.............. _ ....... _.__ .. Iyou r ears I pierce )? 9 .-\: I heard you r computer wasn', worki ng. B: That's righ t, but it's OK no\\'. I _ ...... _ _ _ _ _ _ .. _... __ ... _____ ... _ (it I repair ). In these items. use 'have something done' with its second mea ning (see Section 0). 10 Ga ry was in a fi ght last night. He ._110.4- ht..S ~e brok~ (his nose I brea k). II Did I [ell you about Jane? She ____. _... __.__ .._____ ..... _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .. ___ ... __ (her handbag I sleal) last week . 12 Did you hear about PeIC: He ._... _._ .... _ ..... __ ....... _.... _._._ .. _......... _ .... _........ _... __ ......... _ (his car I vandalise) a few nights ago.

93


Unit

47

Reported speech 1 (He said that ... J Study this example situation: You want to tell somebody w hat Paul said. There are two ways of doing t his:

I'm feding W.

You can re~3t Paul's words (direct speech ): Pau l sa id, ' I'm fecling ill.' Or you can use reported speech: Pau l said tha t he was fecling ill.

PAUL

,

,

Compare: direct

Pau l said, '

reported

Paul sa id that

I

feeli ng il l. '

am

,, , b.

In writing we use (hese quotation marks to show direct speech.

was feeli ng ill.

When we use reported speech. the main verb of the semence is usua lly past (Pa ul said that ... I I told her that. " etc.). The rest of the sentence is usually past too: o Paul said that he was feeling ill. D I told Lisa that I didn't have any money.

Vou ca n leave out that. So you can say: o Paul said that he was feel ing ill. or

Paul said he was feeling ill.

In general, t he present fo rm in direct speech cha nges to the past fo rm in reported speech; am/is _ was do/does - did will - would are _ were havelhas - had ca n ..... could wamllikelknowJgo etc. - wantedILikedlknew/went etc. Compare direct speech and reported speech: Later )'OU tell somebody what j enny said. Yo u use reported speech:

You met j enny. Here are some of the things she said in direct speech: ' My parents are very well.'

o

' I' m going to learn to drive.'

o She said that she was going to learn 10 drive.

' I want to buy a car.'

o She said that she wanted to buy a ca r.

'Joh n has a new job.'

o She said that j ohn had a new job.

' ) can 't come to the part}' on Friday.'

fENN),

j en ny sa id that her pa rents were very well.

o She said that she couldn't come to the pa rry on Friday.

' I don't have much free time.'

o She sa id she didn't have much free time.

' I' m going away for a few days. I'll phone you when I gel back.'

D She said that she was going away for a few days and would phone me when she gOt back.

The past simple (didlsawlknew etc.) can usuall r star the same in reported speech, or )'O U can change it to the past perfect (had done / had seen / had known etc.): D direct Paul said: " woke up fee ling ill, so I didn't go to work.' reported Paul said (thatl he woke up feeling ill, so he didn't go to work. or Pa ul said (that) he had woken up fee ling ill, so he hadn't gone to work.

94

Reported speech 2 ..... Unil 48

Reported questions -. Unit SOB

I


Exercises

Un it 47

47 . 1 Yest erday you met a friend of yours, Steve. You hadn 't seen him for a long t ime. Here are some of t he th ings Steve sai d to you: 1 I'm living in London. ~

2 My father isn't very well.

~ 7

~ (~8

3 R"h" 00' M,,' '" 9'tti09

~f:if--------- 9 ~

married nu t month.

,,-----

7'

~

,Steve. '

4 My sister has had a ~

~

S I don't know what

\

'-

-- 10

"'---

Frank is doing. 6 I saw Helen at a party in

I hav(n't seen Diane recently.

I'm nol enjoying my job very much.

Yo, "0 rom, 00' ",y" my if you're ever in london.

p"'"

My caf was stolen a few days 3g0.

t I I want to go on holiday, but I can't afford it. 12 I'll tell Chris I saw you.

June and she seemed fine.

Later that day you tell anot her frien d wha t Steve said . Use reported speech . ..... ~~y.~ .. _~.~ ....t!':I.M.J'!. ~ . _ .~_M_ ... W!.~.9 .. ~..Jond.cn 1 He said that 3 He ............................* ..•..•..•..•.....•..•...• 4

........................................................................................... ~........"

5 ... _._....... ___ ..... __._ 6 7 8 .................... 9 10 II 12

47 .2 Somebody says something to you which is the opposite of wha t they said ea rlier. Comple te the answers. A: That restaurant is expensive. s: Is it? I thought you sa id ......~... ~.~ ..~. ~ 1 ..\; Sue is coming to the party tonight. s: Is she? I though t you said she 3 .-\: Sarah likes Pau l. B: Does she? Last week you said . 4 ..\; I know lots of people. S: Do you ? I thought you said ................ __ .......... _.. _.......... _.......... _.................. 5 A ; Jane will be here next week. s; Will she? But didn't you sa)' .........................- .... ? 6 A; I'm going out this eveni ng. s: Are you? But you said ....... _............................................................................................. _ 7 .... : I ca n spea k a little French. s: Can you? But earlier you said ..................................................... g .-\: I haven't been to the cinema fo r ages. s: Haven't you? I thought you said ... _...............

-- Additional exercise 25 (page 316)

95


Reported speech 2 It is not always necessa ry to change the verb in reponed speech. If you report something and the situation has,,'t changed, you do not need to change the verb to the past: Paul said, ' M y new job is vcr)' interesting.' o direct reported Paul said that his new job is vcr}' interesting. (The situation hasn't changed. His job is still interesting.) o direct

Helen said, ' I wam

(Q

go to

reported Helen told me rhar she wants

ew York next yea r.' to go to New York next

rea r.

(Helen still wants to go to New York next yea r.) You can also change the verb to the past: o Paul sa id that his new job was very interest ing. o Helcn to ld me that she wanted to gO'to New York next yea r. But if you are reponing a fini shed situation, you mllst use a past verb: o Paul left the room suddenly. He said he had to go. (no t has to go) You need to use a past fo rm when there is a difference between what was sa id and what is really true. For exa mple: You met Sonia a few days ago. She said: 'Joe is in hospital.' (direct speech)

Ha.... e you heard?

Joe is in hospital. SONIA

Later that day you meet Joe in the Street. You say: 'I didn't expect to see you, Joe. Sonia said you were in hospital.' (no t 'Son ia sa id you are in hospital', because dearly he is not)

Sonia said

Say and tell

If you say who somebody is ta lking to, use

~cll :

TIll SOMEBODY

o Sonia told me that you were in hospital. (not Sonia said me) o What did you tell the police ? (not say the police) Otherwise usc say: o Sonia said that you were in hospital. (flot Sonia told that ... J o What did you say ?

SAY -sBMEBee짜-

But you can 'say something to somebody': o Ann said goodbye to me and left. (ltot Ann said me goodbye) o What did you say to the police? TeiVask somebody

10

do something

We also use the infiniti . . e (to do I to stay etc.) in repon ed speech, especia lly with tell and ask (for orders and requests): o direct ' Stay in bed for a few days,' the doctor said to mc. reported The doctor laid me to stay in bed for a few da )'s. o direct ' Don't shout,' I said to Jim. reported Iioid Jim nOI to shout . D direct ' Please don't tcll anybody what happened,' Jackie said to me. r eported Jackie asked me not to tell anybody what (had) happened. You can also say 'Somebody said (not) to do something': o Jackie said not to tell anyone. (bitt /tot Jackie sa id me )

96

Reported speeeh - Uni t 47

Reported questions - Un it SOB


Exercises 48.1 Here are

Unit 48

some things that Sarah said to you : l'vl! nrvrr

~en

l '

to the United Statrs.

Jr;::.=~-;::::=~ I ran', drivt'. I don't !ikt fish.

I'm workin9 tomorro w ('vtning.

3 4 S 6 7

8 48.2

Dave wo rks \'ery hard. let's have fish for dinner. I' m going ro bur ;1 ca r. Jane is always short of mo ney. '\1 r sisfer Jj\ 'CS in Paris. I thin k New Yo rk is a grea t place. Let's go OU I Tom or row evening. 1'\,(' never spoken to Jane.

Bu t

Jant has a "try wdl· paid job.

Jane is a fritnd of mint.

But later Sarah says something different to you. What do you say? Sarah

2

don't hay!! any brothers or sisters. )

(O;@ is lazy.) You

.~._

Complete the sen tences with say or tell (i n the correct fo rm). Use only onc word each time. Ann .".~.~ .• goodbye to me and left. 2 •_____ 'H_._.. us aboul your holida y. Did you have a nice time? 3 Do n't JUSt stand there! _____ ._. __ something! 4 I wonder where Sue is. She .__ ._. ____ ._. she wou ld be here at 8 o'clock. S Dan _ _ _ _ _ me that he wa s bored with his job. 6 The doctor _______ ... ___. that I should rest for at least a week. 7 Don't .______ . anybody what I ... ____ ... _.. ___ .. _. . It ·s a secret just between us. 8 'Did she ___ .... _._. __ .... you what happened?' 'No, she didn't ______ .. _ anyt hing to me.' 9 Gary couldn't help me. He ... _........ _._ .............. _. me to ask Ca roli ne. 10 Ga ry cou ldn't help me. He ..... __ ..................... _.. ro ask Ca ro line.

48.3 The following sente nces are direct speech : Don't wait for

me if I'm

--------. Mind your own business.

late.

Please slow down!

Can you open yo.u r bag, please?

Don't worry, Sue. Could you get a newspaper?

Will you marry me?

Now choose one of these to complete each of the sentences below. Use reported speech. Bill was taki ng a long ti me to get ready, so I _~h.~1;Q.J1Wrij..Jc.2. 1 Sa rah was driving tOO fa st . so 1 asked _. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._ __ 3 Sue was nervous about the situation. I rold __ 4 I couldn't move the piano alone, so I _________________________ S The customs o fficer looked at me suspiciously and .. ___._____________________ 6 Tom was goi ng to the shop. so J _... __ .. _ .__ ._. ____._____ ._. ______.___ .__.___ •. _._ .. _•. ______.__ 7 The man started asking me persona l questions, so I .. _.. _._. ____ ... __.___ ._.... __ ....... _...... _._ .... _._._ ... _. ____._ 8 John was very much in Im'e with Mary, so he ._..__ .. _................... _~ .... _._._. _____ ....... _____ .... __ ._... __.___ 9 J didn't want to dela}' Helen, so I .... _.. _._ ...... _ .......... __ ....... _.. _.... _._._. __ ............... _.... _....... __.___ ._.... _._._. ___ .. _._._. ___ - Additional exercise 25 {page 3 16)

• • • . • .

97


Questions 1 In Questions we us ua lly pu r the subject after the fi rst verb: subject + fJerb verb + subject

Tom

will

-

will

you

have

du: house

was

-

have was

o WiIJ To m be here tomo rrow? o H a ve you been working hard? o When was the ho use built?

Tom? ),ou? the house?

Remember that the subject comes after the first verb: o Is Catherine working today? (not Is working Catherine) In present simple questio ns. we use do/does: you

the film

live

-

do

begi ns

-

does

you live? the film' begin?

o Do you Jive near here? o What ti me does the fi lm begin ?

you sell ?

o Did you sell your ca r? o Why did the train stop?

In past simple questio ns, we use did : you rhe train

sold

-

stopped .....

did did

the trai n stop?

But do not use do/does/did If w ho/what etc. is the su bject o f t he sentence. Compa re:

w ho

who mb;rct

Ob;tCI

Somebody telephoned Emma.

Emma telephoned somebody

r - - object - - - -, Who d id Emma telepho ne ?

subject

-----I Who telephoned Emma ?

In these examples, who/what etc. is the subject: o Who w antS something to eat? (not W ho does want) o Wha t ha ppened to you last night ? (not What d id happen) o H o w m an y peo ple came to the meeting? (no t did come) o Which bus goes [0 the centre? (not dOes go) Note t he posit io n o f prepositions in questions beginning WholWha tlWhich/Where ... ?: o Who do you want to speak to? 0 What was the weather like yesterday? o Which job has Ann applied fo r ? 0 Where a re you from ? You can use preposition + whom in fo rmal style: o To who m do you w ish to speak? Isn 't it ... ? I Didn't you ... ? etc. (negative q uestio ns) We use negative questions especially to show surprise: o Didn't you hea r the doorbell ? I rang it three times. or when we expect the listener to agree with 'us: o ' H aven't we met somewhere before?' 'Yes, I think we have.'

!

Note the meaning of yes and no in answers to negative questio ns:

â&#x20AC;˘

h

'

o Do nt you want rogo ro t eparty.

Yes. (= Yes, I wa nt 10 go) N I N Id â&#x20AC;˘ ) o. = 0, on t wa nt to go

Note the word o rder in negative questions beginning Why . . . ?: o Why do n't we go OUt for a mea l tonight? lno, Why we don't go) o Why w asn't M ary a t work yesterday? (not W hy Mary wasn't )

98

Questions 2 .... Un it 50

Question tags (do yo u? isn't it? etc.) .... Unit 52


Exercises 49.1

49.2

Unit 49

Ask Joe questions. (look al his answers before you write the questions.)

2 3 4

(where I li ve? ) ... ~.~~... _ M. .!:i~...~.~.? (born there? ) . .................. ___. (married ?) ... _._ .... _............ _.............. (how long I married ?) _._ ..

In Manchester. No, I was born in London.

5

(children?)

Yes, two boys.

6

{how old I they? )

7 8

(what I do?) ........... _..... __ ........... (what I wife I do? ) .... _.....................

................................ .

Yes. 17 yea rs.

Joe

12 and 15. I'm a journal ist. She's a doctor.

Make quest ions with who or what.

~~~~__~Jl~__~ Somebody hit me. I hi t somebody. Somebody paid the bill . Something happened. Dia ne said something. This book belongs to somebody. Somebody lives in that house. I fell ove r something. Something fell on the floor.

2 3 4 5

6 7

8 9 10

T his word means someth ing. I borrowed the money from somebody. I'm worried about something.

II

12 49.3

Put t he words in brackets in the correct order. All the se ntences are ques tions, 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10

49.4

......~g ... ~.i!;:..llQY.:..~....... Who cUd. ~ov. .................................. ....... . hit? Who .................................................. What ...................................................

(w hen I was I builr I (h is house ) \Vh~. ~.?§.....th~~. ):lOV'5e OI.A.u..t? (how I cheese I is I made ) .................................................................................................... (w hen I invented I the computer I was) . ...................... ............................................................................... _.......... (w hy I Sue I working I isn't I today ) ......................................................... ............................................. (what rime I coming I your friends I a re) ...................... ............................................ (why I was I cancelled I rhe concert ) ....... .......................................................... ................................... (where I your mother I was I born ) ............................................................................. (why I you I to the party I didn't I come) (how I the accidenr I did I happen ) ........... (w hy I this mach ine / doesn 't I work ) .....

Write negative ques tions from the words in brackets. In each situation you are su rprised. 1 .~; We won't see Liz this even ing, B, W h r nor? (she I nor I come / to the party? ) ......!.~.': I: :.~....S:.~.~ ... ~!)1.~g ....~.. J;!::1.~... p.!ÂĽ.~.L ............ 2 .~; I hope we don'r meer Da vid wnighr, B, Why? (you I nor Ili ke I him? ) ............................................ 3 .~; Don't go and see that film . B, Wh y no r? (it I not I good ?) 4 A; I'll have to borrow some mo ney. Why? (you I not I ha"e I any?) ...........................................

"

99


Questions 2 (Do you know where He asked me where ... )

•••

?I

Do you know where ... ? I I don', know why ... I Could you lel1 me what ."' ? etc. We say:

Where has Tom gone?

X

Do you know where To m has gone? (not Do you know where has Tom gone ?)

bllt

When the question (Where has Tom gone? ) is part of a longer sentence (Do you know .. . ? f

J don 't know ... I Can you tell me " . ? etc.), the wo rd order changes. We say: o What time is it ? o Who are those people? a Where ca n I find Linda ? a How much will it cost?

bitt

Do you know what rime il is? I don't know who those people arc. Can you Id l me where I can find Linda ? Do you have any idea ho w much it will COS t :

Be careful wi th dofdoesldid questions. We say: o What time docs the fi lm begin ?

hilt

Do you know what time Ih e fi lm begins? (ll ot

does the fi lm begin)

Please explain what you mean. I wonder why she left ea rly.

o What do yo u mean ? o Why did she leave ea rly?

Use if or whether where there is no other question wo rd (what, wh y elC.): o Did an ybody see you?

bllt

Do you know if anybody saw you? or ... whether anybody saw you ?

He asked me where ... (reponed questions) The same changes in wo rd order happen in reponed questions. Compare: o direct

reported o direct

T he police offi cer sa id to us, ' Where are you going T he police offi cer asked us where

~.

we were going

Cla re said , ' What t ime do the banks close ?' I

reported

Clare wanted to know what ti me the banks closed

In reported speech t he verb usually changes to the past (were, closed elC.). See Unit 4 7. Study these examples. You had an interview fo r a job and these were some of the questions th e interviewer asked you: Are you willing to t ra vd ?

Why did you apply for the job?

Wha t do you do in your spare t ime?

How long have you been work ing in your presen t job?

Later o o o o o o

100

you tell a friend what t he interviewer asked )'ou. You use reported speech: She asked if (o r whether) I was wi lling to tra\'el. She wanted to know w hat I did in my spare ti me. She asked how long I had been working in my present job. She asked w hy I had a pplied fo r the job. (o r ... why I a pplied ) She wanted to kno w if (or whether) I could speak any fo reign languages. She asked if (o r whether) I had 3 d ri ving licence.

Reported speech - Units 41 - 48


Exercises

Unit

50

50. 1 Ma ke a new sentence from t he qu estion in brackets. 1 (Where has Tom gone: ) Do you know _.~!!~_~._IQr.L't:!.M_-9Q..I1~.L._. __.__ .~~ .... _._.*"_._._... __ 1 (Where is the POSt office? ) Cou ld you tell me where __ ~_*.*.*. ___ .*... __ .. _ _ ._•. _____ • __ 3 (\,(/hat's the time? ) 1 wonder __ ___.__ _ 4 (\X/hat does this word mean? ) I want to know _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

5 6 7 S 9 10 II 12 13 14 15

------

(What time did they leave? ) Do you know (Is Sue going out tonight ?) I don't know _ (\'(Ihere does Caroline he? ) Do you have any idea ________ *. ______ ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ (\'(lhere did I park rhe car?) I ca n't remember _",_, ____________ .H'H._ *._*. _____ _ (Is there a bank near here? ) Can you tell me ._.. ___ ,, ____.___.*_... _____ .* __.___._.*.*______ .. _ (What do you want? ) Tell me _. ____ ... _....___ .*. __ ... _.... _... _____ ._. __ ...... ____ .. _........___.____ ._. ________ ._ (\,(/hy didn't Kate come to the parry?) I don't know _... _...... _............. ___ ...._._._ ... _____ .. _ ...... __ .___ .... _ (How much does it COSt to park here? ) Do you know .. _.......... _. __.............._._ ....... _............... __.___._....... _.... _._._._ .. _ (Who is tha t woman ?) I have no idea .......... _....................................................... _....... _........ (Did Liz get my letter?) Do you know ._._._ ........... _._._._._................... _.... _ .. _..... ___ ._................................................ (How fa r is it fO the airport? ) Ca n you tell me .... _............................................................ _...........................

50.2 You are making a ph one cal l. You want to speak to Sue, but she isn't th ere. Somebody else answers th e phone. You want to kn ow three th ings:

(J) Where has sh e gone? (2) When will she be back? and (3) Did she go out alone? Complete the conversation:

.-\: Do

~'ou

.__________ .__._ ? ( 1)

know where ___._... _____.._ __

B: Sorry, J've got no idea . .-\: Never mind. I don't suppose you know _ _ ._______________________ . . (21 8: No. I'm afraid not . .-\: One mo re thing. Do you happen to know ._____.___._ _ __ 8: J' m afraid I did n't sec her go o ut . .-\: O K. Well. than k you an~'Way. Good bye. 50.3 You have been away for a while and have just come back to your home town. You meet Tony, a frie nd of you rs. He asks you a lot of qu est ions: How are you?

5

Why did you rome back?

6

1

7

3

How long have you been back?

4

What art you doing now?

8

Tony

Where are you living?

Are you glad to be back?

Do you have any plans to go away again?

9

Can you lend mt somt money?

Now you tell another fri end wh at Tony asked you. Use reported speech .

.._me. _b.Q~__I_w(l.$_' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ me _____ _ . _ - - - _ . -----_.

----_..-_._-3 H, - - - -----_._--. 4 .. __________________ •_ _ _ _ . 5 _______________ . ----_. -----------_._._._...Ji.~_ ~~.~

1 He asked

6

---------.----_..

_--_. --_............._.

7 ._ .._..______ ................ _ ............ _..__....__ .. _.... __....................._........ _.......__ .. _ ................._ ............... __ .._..__ _ 8 9 -

Add it ional exe rcise 25 (page 316)

101


Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) I think so /1 hope so etc. In eac h of these sentences ,here is an auxiliary verb and a main verb:

She The hotel

Where

have

lost

can't

come

w"'

built

do you

li ve?

my keys. to the party. ten years ago.

I

I

In these exa mples havelcan 'r/wasldo arc auxilia ry (= helping) verbs. You ca n use an auxiliary verb when you don't wan t to repeal somethi ng: o ' H ave you locked (he door?' ' Yes, I have .' (= I have lock ed the door) o George wasn't working, bur Janet was. (= Janet was lvo rkillg) o She could lend me the money, but she won 't. (= she won't [eltd me the money) Use do/does/did fo r the present and past simple: o ' Do you like on ions?' ' Yes, I do.' (= I like oniolls ) o 'Does Si mon live in London ?' ' He did, but he doesn't anr more.' You ca n use a uxilia ry verbs to deny what somebod y sa ys (= say it is not true); o 'You' re siuing in my place.' 'No, I'm not.' (= I'm not sitting b, ),Ollr place) o ' You didn't lock the door before you left .' ' Yes, I did .' (= I locked the door) We use ha ve you ? I isn't she? I do they ? etc. to show inte rest in wha t somebody has sa id or to sho w surprise; o ' I've JUSt seen Simon.' ' Oh, have you ? H ow is he?' o ' Liz isn't very well today.' ' Oh, isn't she? What's wrong wi lh her?' o 'It rained every da y during our holiday.' 'Did it? What a pit)'!' o 'Jim a nd Nora a re geuing married.' 'Arc they? Really?' We usc a uxilia ry verbs w ith so and neither; o ' I'm feeli ng t ired.' ' So am I.' (= I'm ~ee lin g tired too) 0 " never read ne wspapers.' 'Neither do I.' (= I ne\'e r read ne wspapers either) o Sue hasn't gOt a car a nd neither has Martin . Note the word order after so a nd neither (verb before subject ); o I passed the exa m a nd so did Paul. (fla t so Pau l did ) Instead o f neither, you can use nor. You can also use not ... eilher; 0 '1 don't know.' ' Neither do I.' or 'Nor do I.' or ' I don't cither. '

~

I think so I I hope so etc. After some verbs you can use so when you don't wa nt to repea t something: o ' Are those people English ?' ' I think so.' (= I t hink the)' are English ) o ' Will you be at home this evening? ' ' I expect so. (= I expect 1'1/ be at home ... ) o ' Do you thi nk Kate has been invited to the pa rt)'?' ' I suppose so.' In the sa me way we say: I hope so, I guess so a nd I'm afraid so. The usual negative form s are: I think so I I expect so I hope so I I' m afra id so I I guess so I suppose so 0 '15 that woma n American ?' o ' Do you think it will rain?'

102

American Engl ish - Appendix 7

I don't think so / 1 don 't expect so I hope not I I'm afraid nOI I I guess not I don 't suppose so or I suppose nOI

' I think 50./ 1 don'llhink so.' ' I hope so. I I hope nOI .' (IIOt I don't hope so)


Exercises

Unit 51

51. 1 Complete each sentence wi th an auxi liary vc rb (do/was/could etc.). Sometimes the verb must be

negative (don 't/wasn't etc.). I I wa sn't tired. but my friend s .

\'Iiet:~.

1 I li ke hOI weather. but :l,.nn

.......... _......... ' Is Colin here ?' "H e fi ve minutes ago, bu t I think he's go ne ho me now.' liz said she might phone later this c\-ening, but [ don't th ink she ' Are ~'OU and Chris coming TO the parry?" 'I . . .... , but Chris ..... I d o n't know whether to a pply for the jo b o r nm. Do you think I ... _.. _.... ................ ? i -Plea se d o n't tell anybod y what I sa id.' 'Do n't worry. I . ___.__ ........ _...... .. 3 4 5 6

8 -You nc\"cr listen to me:

9 ' Can you play a music;J.l instrumenr ?' 10 -Please help me: T ill so rry. I 51.2

2& 3

5

~:

Sue

6

/

1"01 hungry. I'm nOt tired . I like football. I didn't enjoy (he film . I' ve ncver been to Austra lia. I thought the ex.un was ea ~~

>.~.. A-.r~.-.~-9<.< .. , ~3~....-J.~1,!!1-....-n-o-.-.---~

... A.r~.t1.' ~,. il~3 ,J.. ,.W!'..............._....... You

You are talking to Ti na. If you 're in the same position as Tina . reply with So .. . or Ne it her '" as in the first example. Otherwise. ask questions as in the second example .

.

2 ~

)

4

5 6

51.4

':\0. btl[ I wish I .. if I ,................ . but I .

Yo u never agree with Sue. Answer in th e way shown.

4

5 1.3

,.

-Yes. I

Tina

I'm fee ling [ired. I work hard. I watc hed telev ision !.lst night. I wo n't be a t ho me tom o rrow. I like reading. I read a lot. I'd like to li\'e somewhcre e lse . [ ca n't go out tonight.

.....5:q .. ~.....L............................ .PQ....M~..?....~.AA....4P.,.. .M~ ..M..?.

You

In these conversations, you a re B. Read the information in brackets a nd then answer with I think so. I ho pe not etc. I {Yo u don't like rain. I .-\ : Do you think it will rai n ~ B: (ho pe) ... I ~0P..~ ... YlQ~ ...... , ... 1 (Yo u need more money qu ickly. ) .-\ : Do you think ~'o u 'lI get a pa~' rise soo n? II: (hope) 3 (Yo u think Diane wit! p robab[~· get the jo b that she applied for. ) .-\ : Do you think Diane will get the job? II: (expect ) .......•.. _....... 4 (Yo u're no t sure whether Barba ra is ma rried - proba bly no t. ) A : Is Barb:1Ta marri ed~ B: !think ) .. __ .......... 5 IYo u a re the receptionist at a hOtel. The hotel is fulL) .-\ : Have you gOt a room for tonight ? B: (a fra id ) 6 (Yo u're at a p a rr~·. You have to leave ea rl y.) .-\: Do you havc to lea ve a lready? B: (afraid ) . .................... ..................... - (Ann no rmall y work s e ve r~' da~·. M o nda y to Frida ),. To mo rrow is Wednesday.) .-\: Is An n wo rking tomo rrow? R: (suppose) 8 (Yo u are going to a pa rty. You can't stand J o hn . ) .-\ : Do you think Jo hn will be at the party? R: thope) 9 (Yo u' re not sure wh at time the concert is - prob.lbl y 7.30. ) .~ : Is the concert at 7. 30 ? B: (think ) .. _.......

103


Question tags (do you? isn't it? etc.) Study these examples: haven' t

setn

No, I'm afraid not.

Kate today. have you?

Have you? and wasn't it ? are qllestion tags (= mini-questions that we often put on the end of a sentence in spoken English). In question tags, we use an auxi lia ry verb (have/was/will erc. ). We use do/does/did for the present and past simple (see Unit 5 1 ): o ' Ka ren plays the pi ano, doesn't she?' 'Well , yes, but not vcr)' well. '

o 'You didn't lock the door, did you?'

'No, I forgot.'

Norma lly we use a negative question tag after a positiflc sentence:

... and a positive question tag after a negative sentence:

positive sellfCllce + negative tag

negatil'e sentellce... positil'e tag Kate won't be late, will she:

Kate will be here soon, won't she? There was a lot of traffic, wasn't th ere? Michael shou ld pass the exam , shouldn 't he?

.

.

They don't like us, do they ? You haven't got 3 ca r, have you ?

I

Notice the meaning of yes and no in answer to a negative sentence: Yes. (= Yes, I am goi ng out ) N I . o You re no t gomg out today, a re you : N o. 1= 1 0, am not gomg OUt ) The mea ning of a question tag depends o!,! how you sa}' it . If your \'oice goes dow". r o u are no r really aski ng a question; you arc o nly inviting rhe listener to agree with you: o 'It's a nice day, ~?' 'Yes, beautiful.' o 'Tim doesn't look well today, d~' 'No, he looks very tired.' o She's very funny. She's got a g reat sense of humo ur, has But if the voice goes liP, it is a real q uestion: o 'You haven't seen Lisa toda)',~?' 'No, I' m afraid I haven't.' (= Have you by chance seen Lisa today? ) Yo u ca n use a negative sentence ... positive tag to ask for things o r information, or to ask somebody to do somethi ng. The voice goes lip at the end of the tag in sentences like these: o 'You ha ven't got a pen,~? ' 'Yes, here you a re.' o 'You couldn't do me 3 favour, ~? ' ' It depends w ha t it is.' o 'You don't know where Karen is, ~?' 'Sorry, I have no idea.' After let's ... the question rag is shall we: o Let's go for a walk, shall w' ? (the voice goes lip ) After Don't ... ,the question tag is will you : o Don't be late, Will you ? (the voice goes dow,, ) After I'm ... ,the negative question tag is aren't I? (= am I not? ): o I' m right, aren 't I?' 'Yes, you are.'

104

Auxiliary verbs (have/do/can etc.) ...... Unit 51


Exercises

Unit 52

52 .1 Put a q uestio n tag on the e nd of these sent ences.

Kare won'r be late. . wilL she You"re ti red, You've gOt a ca mera, You weren't listening. Sue d oesn't know .- \nn. Jilek 's on holiday. Kate's applied lo r the job, You can speak German. He won"t mind if I use his phone. There 3rc a lo t of peo ple here. Ler"s go ou t tonight. T his isn 'r \"t.·r~· imeresring. I'm t OO im patiem. You wo uldn't tell an~· on e . Helen ha s lived he re a lo ng rime. I shou ld n't have lost m~' temper. He 'd IH.'\·er Illet her before. Don 't drop that V,l se.

1

,, 4

5 6

S 9 10

" 11 13 14

15 16 1-

IS

ru-en't H()I,.l

?

No, she's never late. Yes. a li n te. Yes, rvc gor tWO actually. Yes, I was!

No, they've nc\'cr met. Yes. he's in POrfugal. Yes. but she won't get it. Yes, but not very nuently. 1\'0. of course he won'r. Yes. more than I expected . Yes. rh,l[ would be gr(':lt.

No.

n Ot

very.

Yes. you aTe sometimes.

No, of course not. Yes, 20 years. No. but nevcr m ind. No, thar W;I S rhe firs t rime . No, don't worr)·.

52.2

Read the situation and write a sentence with a question tag. In each sit uation you are aski ng your friend to agree wi th you . I You look OUt of the window. The sky is blue and the SLin is shining. What do rOll sa r to your friend~ (nice d a~' l 1t'5 (L mao ~ ) Isn't. i.t? 1 ,"o u·r<.- with a friend OU Tside a resTau raru. YOu' re looking a t the prices, which arc very high. \'fhat d o ~'ou sa~'? (expensi\'e ) It 3 '1 'ou and a colleague ha\'e just fini shed a training course. You really enjoyed il. W hat do you say to ~'our coll eag u e ~ (great ) The cou rse ..............._... ~ Your friend's hair is much sho rrer th;ln when ~'o u last mct. \X' hat do you say to her/him? Ihave l your hair 1 Cut ) You 5 You and a friend are listening TO a woman singi ng. You like her voice very much. What do you sa~' to your friend: ta good "oice l She 6 You are trying on a jacket in a shop, YOLI look in the mirror and you don 't like what r Oll see . \X!hat do yOll say to your fr i e n d~ (not 1 look 1 very good ) h You a nd a friend a re walk ing O\'cr a small wooden bridge. The bridge is very old and somc p3rfS a re broken. What do ~'OU sa ~' ? (not I ,eery safe) This bridgt'

52.3

In these situations you are asking for information, aski ng people to do th in gs etc. I You need a pen. Perhaps Ja ne ha s got one. Ask her. Jo..ne.)

!:IOtA

~(l.ven' l;; gol;; (L pen , ~(Lve. l:jCXA?

1 Joe 3 4

5 6

IS JUSt going o ut. Yo u \\'a nt him to get some sta mps. Ask hUll . Joe. you You 're lookmg ior Dia ne. Per haps Kate knows where she is. Ask her. Ka te. ~' O\l You need a bicycle pump. Perh3ps Helen has got one. Ask her. Helen. Ann has a ca r a nd you need a lift to rhe station. Perhaps she' ll rake yo u. Ask her. :\nn . You're look ing for your keys . Perhaps Robert h ~l S seen them. Ask him. Robert,

105


Verb + -ing (enjoy doing

I stop doing etc.)

Look at tht:se exa mples: o I enjoy reading. (no t I en joy to read )

o Would you mind closing rhe door? (tlot mind to close) o Chris suggested going to rhe cinema. (no t suggested to go) After enjoy, mind and suggest, we use -ing (n o t

(0

•••

J.

Some mOre verbs that a re followed by -ing:

stop fini sh o D o o o

postpone consider

admit

avoid

im agine

deny

risk

fan cy

Suddenly everybody stopped ta lking. There wa s si lence. I'll do the shopp ing when I've fin ished cleaning the fl at. He tried to avo id answering my question. J don't fanc), going o ut th is evening. (= I'm not enthusiastic abo ll t it) Have you ever considered going to live in another count ry?

T he negative form is nOt -ing: o When I'm on ho liday, I enjoy not having to get up earl}" We also use -ing after: give up (= stop) put o rr (= postpone) go on / carryon (= continue ) keep or keep on 1= do something continuously or repea tedly)

o I've given up rea ding newspa pers. 1 think it's a waste of time. o Jenny doesn't wanr to retire. She wants to go o n working. lor ... o You keep inrerrupting when I'm talking!

or

to carry on working.) Yo u keep on interrupring ...

With some verbs you can use the structu re verb + somebody + -ing: o I can't imagine George riding a motorbike. o You can 't stop me doing wha t I want. o 'Sorry to keep you wa iting so long.' 'That's all right.' Note the passive form (being doneJseen/kept etc,): o I don't mind being kept waiting. (= I don·t mi nd people keeping me ... ) When you are talking a bout fini shed actions, you can say having done/stolen/said etc. : o They ad mitted having stolen the money. But it is not necessary to use having tdone ). You can also say: o They admitted stealing the money. o 1 no w regret saying (or having said ) what I said . Fo r regret, see Unit 568 . After some o f the verbs on this page (especially admi t/deny/suggest ) you ca n also use that ... : o T hey denied that they had stolen the money. (o r They denied stea li ng ... J o Sam suggested th at we went to the cinema . (o r Sa m suggested going ... J

106

Suggest .... Unit 34 Being done (passive) ...... Unit 446 Verb + to ... .... Unit 54 Verb + to ... and -ing .... Units 55e, 56-58 Regret I go on - Unit 568 Go on I ca rry on I keep on - Un il 141 A


Exercises 53.1

Unit 53

Complet e each sentence with one of the foll owi ng verbs (in the correct form) : -9nswef-

apply

be

forget

listen

Jive

losc

make

read

try

use

write

He tried to avoid ..-..~.~.~.~.~9.- ... my question. I Could you please Stop ,_.... ..... ____ ....._..... _..... so much noise? 3 f en joy.............. .................... co music. 4 I considered .... for the job. bur in the end I decided against il. 5 H ave you fin ished ........ ... the newspaper yet ? 6 \'/e need to change our routine. \1/e can't go on .................... ......... like th is. 7 I don't mind you ................................... _........ the phone as long as ~'O U pay for a ll your calls. 8 .\I y memory is getting worse . I keep ...... ................ th ings. 9 I\'e put off ..... .. the lener so many rimes. I reaJJy must do ir today. 10 \X' hat a stupid rh ing to do~ Can you imagine any body ................ ,.......... ,_......... __..... so stupid ? 11 r\'e given up .......... to lose weight - ir"s impossible. 11 Ii ~'O ll invest you r money on the srock markel , you risk _................................... ,.. Lf. n

53.2

•••••

Comple te the se ntences for each situation using -lng. ( What shall we dO?}-

1

( DO yOu want to play tenn is? ~

3

( You were dr ivi ng too fast. ~

.t? ! ~

,

-{ 1;10, not really. )

a

~

{ Yes. it's true. Sorry!)

4 ( WhY don't we go for a swim? ~

f(

~

{

5

t3

~

-{ No. I didn't! )

( You broke the CD Player. ):,..

6 ( can you wait a few minuteS? }

She suggested ......9.9!r.!9,...tQ ... _

{we could go to the zoo.)

~ ~

t!.!e

2.02......... ,....._._

He didn 't fancy She admirted ........................... _.. ..

She suggested

Goo' ;''',)

He denied

-{ 5ure. no problem.)

They didn't mind

53 .3 Complete the sentences so that thev mean the same as the first sentence. Use - lng . 1 I (a n do what I wanr a nd vou ca n'T Stop me. ) "ou ..... ~.~.~ ... ,s..tP.p..... !'!.I. ~....~9 ....~~.~.. _.!. ...~.o/).~., .. ,_................. ,................................... ,...................................,...... 1 It's not a good idea to tra,·el during the rush hour.

..

It·s bener to a void ....................., 3 Shall we paim The kitchen next weekend instead of this weekend? Shall we postpone ..... ,................ ..... ....... umil 4 Could you ru rn the radio down, please? Would ~'ou mind .... ,..................... ,............................ _ 5 Please don'r interrupt me all the time. \'I;lould you mi nd . 0 "

53.4

................. .

,

, ?

Use Vour own idea s to co mplete these sentences. Use -j ng. 1 She's a very interesting person. I always enjoy ..... ~.~9. ... ~....~.~........................ ................................ , 1 l"m not feeling very well. I don't fancy 0

3 4 5 6

... _

•••• _ . _ . . . . . . . . . . .

.. ...... . .. . _._ . .. . ..

I" m afraid there aren't any chairs. I hope you don't mind _ h was a beautiful day, so I suggested . ........................ Ir was very fun ny. I couldn't srop ........................ \lly car isn't very reliable. Ir keeps

107


Verb + to ... (decide to ... / forget to ... etc.) offer agree refuse

decide plan a rrange

ho pe manage

descn'c

fail

forget

afford

promise Ihrcau:n learn

After these ver bs you ca n use to ... (jllfillitive): o If was late, so we decided to lake a taxi home. o Simon was in a difficulr situation, so I agreed to help him. a How old were you when you lea rnt to drive ? (or lea rm how ro drivel o I waved to Karen. bUI failed to anract her anemian . The negative is not to ... :

o We decided not to go out because of. the weather. o I promised not to be late. After some verbs to ... is not possible. For exa mple. enjoy/think/suggest: o I enjoy reading. (not enj oy to read) o Tom suggested going to the cinema. (1I0t suggested to go) o Are you thinking of buyi ng a car? (1I0t Ihinking to bu y) For verb ... -ing, see Un it 53. For verb + preposition + -ing, see Unit 62. We a lso use to .. . after: appear tend seem

pretend

claim

Fo r example: D They seem to have plenty of money. D I like Da n, but I think he tends to talk tOO much. D Ann pretended nOi to sec me when she passed me in the Streel. There D D D

is also a ComimlOlIS infiniti\'e (to be doing ) a nd a perfect infinitive (to have done): I pretended to be read ing the newspaper. (= I pretended that I was reading ) You seem to have lost weight . (= it seems that you have lost weight ) Marti n seems to be en joying his new job. (= it seems that he is enjoying it l

After dare you can use the infinitive with or without to: D I wouldn'T dare to tell him. or I wouldn't dare tel l him. But after dare not (or daren't ), ro u mU St usc the infinitive withom to: o I daren't tel l him what happened. (1I0 t I daren't to tell him ) Afte r some verbs }'OU can use a question word (whatlwhetherlhow etc. ) + to .... We use this Structure especiall y after: ask decide know remember fC?rget explain learn understand wonder We asked H3ve }'OU decided I don't kn ow Do you understand

how where wheth er what

to the sta tion. to get to go fo r you r holida ys? to apply for the iob o r no r. to do ~

Also showltcJlJaskiadviseiteach somebod)' whatlhow/w here 10 do something: D Ca n somebod y show me how to change the film in Ihis camera? D Ask J ack. He'll tell you what to do.

108

Verb + - ing .... Uni t 53 Verb + object + to ... (want etc.) ..... Unit 55 Verb + to ... and -i ng ..... Units sse, 56-58


Exercises 54.1

Unit 54

Complete the sen tences for these situations. ( Shall we get married?

1

'>~

(PleaseheI P me.}.J '1;

3 ( Can I carry your bag for you?

~ {-y-,,-,-"-",-,)

The\' decided ..... ~ ... .9.~.~

She agreed ................................... ..

}.t!) ~(

(let's meet '118 o'clock. ~~ [ } {

5

6

( What's your name? }~ ( Please don't te ll anyone.

}l)

No, thanks. I can manage. )

O~, fine. )

~-

!l'I. ~r.~

~.~...~.~.~~.~:~ ............................................ They arranged ...................................

~l l'm not going to tell you. )

She refused

~{ I won't, I promise. )

She promised ...

54.2 Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. I Don', forget to pos t the 1cner [gave ~·o u. 1 There wa S:1 lot of traffic. bur we managed . _, to the a irport in time. a car. 3 Jill has decided not ..f \\"'e'vc got a new computer in our office. I ha"en't learnt .. ,................. _ ................................................ it yet, 5 KaTen failed a good impression at the iob interview. 6 \'fe were all afraid to speak. :--':obody da red .... _ . .............................. anything.

54 .3 Put the verb into the correct form, to .. . or - ing , (See Unit 53 for verbs + - ing,) I \X' hen l"m tired . I enioy wo.1:d1m9 .. tele\·ision. It's relaxing. (watch ) 1 It was a nice day, so we decided ............... for a wal k. (go) ............................. for a walk? (go) 3 It 's a nice da~·. Does an~· one fanc~' ~ f m nor in a hurr~ '. I don'r mind . ...................................... . (wair) .......................................... ou t very often. (go) 5 They don'r ha\'e much mo n e~·. They can't afford . It's driving me mad. (hark) 6 1 wish that dog would StOp - Our neighbou r threa tened the police if we didn't Stop the noise, (call) S We II'ere hungr~-, so I suggested .............. d inner ea rl y. (have) 9 H urry up ! I don't want to risk . ___ .............. the train. (miss) 10 I" m still looking for a job, bur I hope ............... _.. _.. something soon. (find) 54.4

Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets. I You\'e lost weight. (seem) ..... X9« ,,~ ~ .... ~ _ ~_~~.!;-;.. J-9.~~ _ ,~.~~.~:....... __ 1 Tom is worried about somethi ng. (appear) Tom appears _ ........................................... . 3 You know a lot of people, (seem) You 4 .\ I ~· English is gerring berrf'r. (seem) 5 That car has broken down. (appear) 6 David fo rgf'ts things. (tend) - They have soh-ed the problem. (claim )

54.5 Complete each sentence lIsing what/how/w hether + the followi ng ve rbs : do ·getgo ride sa ~' usc Do you know .....hQ~ Jp get

to J ohn's house?

1 Ca n you show me .. 3 4 S 6

.... _._ ..... _.... , ....... _ th is washi ng machine? Would you know . __ _"................. if there was a fi re in the build ing? You'll never forget , ............................................................. a bicycle once you've learnt. I was really astonished. J didn't know . ............................................ . I've been invited fa the p:1rr~', but J haven't decided ........................................... ...... ............................* or not.

- Add itiona l exercises 26-28 (pages 317-19)

109


Unit

55

Verb (+ object) + to ... (I want you to ... etc.) ask

wanl expect

beg

These verbs

arc~

verb ...

would like would prefer

help mea n (= intend )

foll owed by

10 .. '

(infinitive). The structure can be:

to ...

verb + object + to ...

0'

o We expected 10 be late. o Would you like to go now? o He doesn't wanl to know.

o We expected Dan to be late. D Would you like me to go now?

o He doesn't want anybody to know.

Do not say 'want that': ' o Do you want me to come with you? ("ot Do )'ou want that I come)

After help you can use the infinitive with or without to. So you ca n say: o Can you help me to move this table? or Can you help me move thi s table? tell order

remind warn

force invile

encou rage persuade

leach enable get ( = persuade. a rrange fo r)

These verbs have the structure verb ... obiect + to ," : o Ca n you remind me to phone Sam tomorrow? o Who taught you to drive? o I didn't move the piano by myself. I got somebody to help me. a Jim said the swi tch was da ngerous and warned me nm to touch it. In the next example, (he verb is passive (I was warned I we were told C(c. ); a I was warned not to touch the switch. You cannot use suggest with the structure verb + ob;ect + to ... ; a Jane suggested that I should ask your advice. (n ol Jane suggested me to ask ) After advise, recommend and allow,

two

structures are possible. Compare;

verb + 路 ing (wi thout an object) o I wouldn't advise/recommend staying in that hotel. o They don't allow parking in front of the build ing.

verb + obieer + to ... o I wouldn't advise/recommend anybody to stay in that hotel. o They don't allow people to park in fro nt of the building.

Stud y these examples with (be) allowed (pass ive ); a Pa rking isn't allowed in front of the 0 You aren't allowed to park in front of build ing. the buildi ng. Make and let These verbs ha ve the structure verb + o b;ecl + in{initil1e (wi thout to ): a I made him promise that he wou ldn't (ell anybody what happened. (no l to promise ) a Hot weather makes me feel tired. (= causes me to fee l tired ) a Her parents wouldn't let her go our alo ne. (= wouldn't allow her to go ou t) a l et me carry your bag for you. We say 'make somebody do' (not to do), but the passive is ' (be) made to do' (with a We were made to wait for two hou rs. (= They made us wait ... )

110

Suggest - Units 34, 53 Tell/ask somebody to ... - Un it 480 Verb + - ing - Unit 53 Verb + to ... _ Unit 54 Verb + to ... and -ing .... Uni ts 56-58 Help - Unit 57C

10);


Exercises

Unit

55

55. 1 Complete the questions. Use do you want me to ... ? or would you like me to ... ? with these verbs (+ any other necessary words) : ~elend repeat show shut wait Do you want to go alone. or ._dA._!:i.~~_~L!!,_~._i;9_c;Q!!'IJ1_!'Y_~_u..~__ ._.___.____ .. ____.___ 1 Do you have enough money. or do you wam ______ "___ ._____ .H ___ .• h_ ••• ___ .__ ._. ___ .• _. ___ .> Shall I leave the window open. or would you _______"___.______._____ " Do you know how to use the machine. or would .___.____._____________._ _ _ _ 5 Did you hea r what I said. o r do __._____.__.______________________________ 6 Ca n I go now, or do ___ ._. _____ .. ___ ._-:-_.________________________.___________

?

? ' ? ? '

55.2 Com plete the sen tences for these situations.

I

£1J

( l">tho 'DO')

1

~ ~ ~ ThaI would be nice. )

Why don't you come

and stay with us?

3

( Can I

U~ your phone? ). ~ ~ 8

fJ 4,-< }.1lA

( Be careful. ).

5 ( can

you

~~

give me a hand?

They invited him ...........................

She wou ldn't let ....... .

Don:1 worry. I will. )

She \varned _.......... ~ ................ ~ .......

sa

55.3 Complete each second sen tence so th at the mean ing is simila r to the fi rs t sentence. \I y father said I could use his car.

1 I was sur prised that it rained. ] 4 5 6 -

Don't StOp him doing what he wants. Tim looks older when he \\'ea rs gla sses. [think you should know the truth. Don't let me (orget to phone my sister. At fim I didn't want to apply for the job, but Sa rah persuaded me. S .\l y lawyer said 1 shou ldn't s a~' anything to the police. 9 I was told that I shouldn't belie\'e everyd1ing he says. 10 Ii you\'e gOt a car. you are able 10 get around more easily.

\I y fa ther allowed __'!!£:_!;g_.!:t.}..~ ...!'J.~ _~'_ __ ... __ ... _ , didn't expect ....... ___ .... _-. .........".. ~_ ......... ___ ............... ___.__._ Let .......... _.... _..................... _ ....... __ .......... _ ......... __ .... _ _ _ _ ... _ Tim's gla sses make ........ I wanr .. __ ...... _. __ ............ __ ._..................... _...... _......... Rem ind ._. __. ................ _.......... _........................ . Sara h persuaded H ..... _

~1 y

...... _

... _

....... _ _ _ _ ............_

... _ _ _ _ _

lawyer advised

I was warned ..... Having a car enables .. _._. __ ... _..... ___ ....... ____ .... _.. _.......... _... _.

55.4 Put the verb int o th e correct form: infinitive (do/ mak e/ea t ctc.), to + infinitive, or -;ng. They don'r allow people _W_~L. in from of the building. (park ) 1 I\ ·c ne\'er been to Iceland, bur I'd like __ .___ ._________ there, (go) .3 I'm in a difficult posi rion. What do you advise me ___.___._.. _. ____ ~...... ? (do) 4 The fi lm was very sa d. It made me __ _._._,, __ . (cry) 5 Dia ne's paren ts always encouraged her _______ .. ___ ._._.M_....... hard at school. (study) 6 I don't recommend .__ in that restau rant. The food is terrible. (eat) - She sa id the letter was personal and wouldn't let me ....... _...M_...... __._... __ .M_......... it. (read) S We arc not allowed ........... _.M._ ... _.... _._M_.M ... _.M...__. personal phone catls at work. (make) 9 '1 don't think Alex li kes me: 'What makes yOLl ............................................._ that?' (think) M

.......... __ ..... _

••• _

. . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ •••

e ...

-- Addit ional exercises 26-2 B (pages 311- 19)

111


Unit

56

Verb + -ing or to ... 1 (remember/regret etc.) Some verbs are followed by -ing a nd some are followed by to . Verbs usually followed by -ing:

admit avoid

consi der deny enjoy

fan cy finish

postpon e

imagine

SlOp

k eep (on )

suggest

Verbs Llsually followed by to ... : afford agree arrange deci de deserve

ri sk

mind

For exa mples, sec Unit

~3.

Some verbs can be followed by -ing o r

fail forgel

o ffer

hope

lea rn

prom ise refusc

manage

threaten

plan

For c:.:a mples, see Unit 54 . 10 ".

with .. difference of meani ng:

remember I remember doing something = I did it a nd now I remem ber thi s. Yo u remember doing something after you ha ve done il. o I know I locked the door. I clea rl~' remember locking il1= I locked 11 , and now I remember thIS) o He cou ld remember drivi ng along the road JUSt before the accid ent, but he couldn 't remember the atcld ent itself.

remembered to do something = I remembered th a t [ had 10 do It. so I did It. You remember to do something before ~'OU

J

dOlT.

c I remembered 10 lock the door. but I fo rgot 10 shut the Windows . ( = I remembered Ihal I hJ.d [Q Io.:k It. and so [ locked It ) o Please remember to post the len e r. 1= don', fo rge, 10 POSt It)

regret I regret doing someth ing I'm sorr y about it: o I now regret saying shouldn't have said o It began [Q get cold wearing his coat.

= I did it and now wha t I saId. I it . and he reg ren ed no t

[ regret 10 say I to tell ~'ou I to inform you = I'm sorry th aI I ha "e 10 sa~' [etc. ): c (fro m ,I (o rm,Jllef(er) ,'re regret 10 info rm ~ou that we cannol offer ~Ou the lob.

go on Go o n doi ng someth ing = continue with the same thing: o The p resident pau sed for a moment and ,hen went on talking. o Wle need to change. \Vle can', go on living like this. __

Go on to do so rncthl1lg = do or sa~' sorneth mg new: D After dl scussmg the economy. the preSIdent then went on to la lk .lbout fore Ign poh.:~路.

T he following verbs ca n be follow ed by -ing o r to ... : sian continue intend bother begin So you ca n say: D It ha s started raining. or It has started to rai n. D Joh n intends buying a house. or John intends to b u y o Don 't bother locking the d oor. or Don'l bother to lock . But normally we do not use -ing after -ing: D It's staning to rain . (flot It's sta rting raming)

112

Verb + -iog -

Uni t 53

Verb + to .. ..... Units 54- 55

Other verbs + 路 iog or to .. ..... Un its 57-58


Exercises

Unit 56

56.1 Put the verb into th e correct form . - iog or to '" . Sometimes eit her form is possi ble. I They denied .__ ~~.9..4.!:!g ..... the money. (steal) 1 I don't enjoy ._____._.__ ,. __ \'c ry much. (drive) 3 I don't want .... __.__________ OUf tonight. I' m tOO tired. (go) 4 I can't afford _____________ our ronight. I don't have enough money. (go) 5 Has it STOpped .. _.... ____.__ .. ___._ ret? (rain ) 6 Ou r team was un lucky to lose the game. We deserved __ . (win ) 7 Why do you keep .___________ me questions? Can't you leave me a lone? (ask) 8 Please StOP "H •• _._. __ ._. _ _ _ _ •_ _ _ • me q uesrions ! (ask ) 9 I refuse ...... __ .. _.. _ .. _... _____ .. _ .. any morc "questions. (a nswer) 10 One of the boys admirred the window. (break ) I I T he boy 's father promised ._.... _._ .... _ .......... _....... _._ ...... fo r the window to be repaired. (pay) 12 If the compan~' continues _ .. _... _............ _.. _....................... money, the fac tof}' may be closed. (lose) ........ _.... _._ ............. _.... _ her,' (tell) 13 'Does Sa rah know about the meeting?' ·~o, I fo rgot .. 14 T he baby began ................. _............................... in the midd le of t he night. (c r y) 15 Jul ia has been ill. bUl now she's begi nning .... ...................... ..... _..... better. (get) 16 I" ve enjoyed ............................. _................. you . I hope .................. you agai n soon. (meet, see) H

56.2

. . . . _ . _ _ . . . . . . . _ _ ••••• _ _ ••••••• _ _ . . . .

Here is some information about Tom when he was a child, He was in hospital when he was fo ur. 4 Once he fe ll into the river. 2 He went to Paris when he was eight, . S He said he wanted to be a doctor. 3 He cried on his tim dar a t school. 6 Once he was binen by a dog. He can s till remember I , 2 and 4. But he can ' t remember 3, 5 and 6. Write sen te nces be ginning He ca n remember ... or He can ' t re member ....

.~_~ L~~P.!·L!?~.9..J!I__l1os..P.~~L"" n e.!LI:1~.~_fc.Y....!"-'_... _______ ..... __ ... ___._ __ 2 _______ ._.. _______._____________.__.___ .________ .. _._. __.______________ 3 .___._._._... _._ .. _. __ .. __________._._._._._.. _...__._.__.__.__.__._... _._._. ______._________ _ 4 __ ._...... _... _.... __ .... __ ... ___ .. ___ .. ___ .____ .... _. ____ .___ ..... _... _._._ ... _.... _... _._ .. __ .... ____ ..... __ .__ ... __ .. _ ... _. _____ .__ _

56.3

Complete each sentence with a verb in the correc t form, - ing or to .... 1 a Please remembe r ..... ~ ....tp2::...... the door w hen you go Out. b .-\: You lem me some mom'~' a few mon th s ago. 1\; Did I? Arc you su re? I don't remember .......................... ... _.... _...... you any mo ncy. c A; Did you remember ........................ _............................ your sister? 8: Oh no. I completely fo rgot. 1" 11 phone her tomorrow. d When ~' o u see Sre\·e. remem ber _.... _ ......... him my rega rds. e Someone must have taken my bag. I dearly remember ... __.__ .... ___ ... ____ ... ____ .. it by the window and now it has gone. 1 a I belie\'e rhar what I said was fair. I don't regret ._. __ .______ ._.. it.

b I knew they were in t rouble. but I regret _________ .__ .. I did nothing to help them. 3 a Ben joined the company nine years ago. He became assistant manager after twO years, and a few years later he went on __________ manager of the company. b I can't go on ... ______ .________ here any more. I want a different job, c \'(/hen I came into the room, liz was read ing a newspaper. She looked up and sa id hello, and then went on ... _._ ............ _._. __ ._..._.~ her newspaper.

-- Additional ('xer('ist's 26 - 28 (pages 3 17-19)

113


Verb + -ing or to ... 2 (try/need/help) Try

10 .••

a nd try -ing

T ry 10 do =attempt to do, make an effort to do: o I was vcr)' tired. I t ried to keep m~' e~'es open. bu t I couldn'(. o Please try to be quiet w hen you come horne. Everyone will be asleep. Try also means 'do somethi ng as an experi ment or test". For example: o These cakes 3rc delicious. You should fr y o ne. j= you shou ld have one ro see if you like il) o We couldn't find anywhere to stay. \'(,Ie fried c\'cry hotel in the town, but they WCTe all full. (= we went to evcry horel to sec if they had a room )

If Ir)' (with this mea ning) is followed by a \'erb, we say Iry -ing: o

The photocopier doesn't seem to be working. R: Try pressing the green button. (= press th e g reen button - perhaps thi s will he lp to solve the problem ) A:

Compare: D I tri ed to move the rabie, but it wa s too he:n ·y. (so [ couldn 't move in D [ didn't like the way the furn iture was arranged. so [ tried mO\'ing the table to the o ther side of the room. But it still didn't look right, so [ moved it back again. Need to ". and need -ing 1 need to do something = it is necessary for me 10 do it : D 1 need to take more exercise. D He needs to wo rk ha rder if he \\"anrs to make progress, D 1 don't need to come to the meeting, do I? Somet hing needs doing = it needs to be done: D The batteries in the radio need cha nging. (= they need to be changed ) o Do YO ll think my iacket needs cleaning: (= ... needs to be clea ned ) o It's a difficu lt problem. II needs thinking a bout very carefull y, (= it needs to be thought about ) Help and can't help You can sa y help to do or help do (with or without to ): o Everybody helped to clean up after the parry. or Ever)·body helped clea n up .. , o Ca n YO LI help me to mm'e this table: or Ca n you help me move ... I can 't help doing something = I can't stop m~'self doing it: o I don', like him, bu t he has a lot of problems. 1 can', help feeli ng sorry for him . o She tried to be serious, but she couldn't help laughing, (= she cou ldn 't stOp herself laughing) o I'm sorry I'm so ne rvous, I can't help it. (= I can 't help being nervous)

114

Verb + - in9 -

Unit 53

Verb + to ... -- Units 54-55

Other verbs + - in9 or to ".. -

Units 56, 58


Exercises

Unit 57

57.1 Make suggestions. Each lime use t ry + one of the following suggestions : phone his onicc mo\'c th e aerial "€hange-the-bIlHCfteslurn it the olher way take an aspiri n

\\ The radio isn't working. I wonder what 's wrong wirh il. I can'l open the door. The key won', lurn . The TV picture isn'T vcry good. What ca n I do abou t it? [ ca n'l con l :1C[ Fred . He's not home. \,(/hat sha ll I do: I' ve got a terrible headache. I wis h ;1 wou ld go.

1 3 4

"

5

Have you Trv

_.Jo:!'4__cj,~g,"g

tne ba.tWte..s?

,--_.__._,----

..

-

Ha ve you tried \\;/hy don't you

Have

~'Oll

,

..

~

..

~.-.

... .....

,,-,,_.

--

~-.

-- -----~.---

_-_._. __.-.-...•.•.. .....•-..-

--

....... ...... ... ..... ........ ,,---....-...• '

~

57 .2 For each picture. write a sentence with need(sJ + one of the fo llowing verbs :

.aean-

CUI

empty

pamt

lighten

tN!l~ """~ 4~ ~ 3

V'

~

.

iMc..

,~

1 3 4

S

This jacket is d irty. It. nud..s Th(" room isn't very nice. The grass is \'ery tong. h The sc rews are loose. T he bin is full.

sa

c.I.w..ru.rl.9 .

57 ,3 Put the verb into the correct form .

!:o keep (keep ) m~' e~'es open , but I co uldn 't. b I rang th e doorbell. but there wa s no answer. Then I tried (knock ) on the door, but there W;1 5 still no answer. c W'e tried (pur ) the firc out bur without success. Wle had to call the fir e brigade. (ask) Gerry, d Sue needed to borrow some money. She tried but he wa s sho rr of money too. e I tried (reach ) the shelf. but I wasn't tall enough, f Please lea\'e me alone. I'm trying (concelllratc).

I a I wa s \'ery tired . I tried

1 a I need a change. I need

(go) away fo r a whi le. grandmother isn't able to look after herself any more, She needs (lookl after. c The windows are dirry. The~' need __ _.~_ (clea n ). d You r ha Ir is getting I"ery long. h needs ________ lcut l. _. ____ li ron) that shirl. Ir doesn't need e You don't need liron). b

~ Iy

\' er~' lo udly. I couldn't help ._ (overhear ) what they said. b Can you help me ........ ~ ..... _........ _... (get l the d inner read y? c He looks so funn y. \\;' hene\'er I see him, I can't help ...•.......... ........ . (sm ile). d The fi ne wea ther helped (make) it a very enjoyable holida y.

3 a They were talking

115


Unit

58

Verb + "': ing or to ... 3 (like / would like etc.) Like I love I hale When you talk about re~ated actions, you can use wing or to .. ' after these verbs. So you can say: o Do you like getting up earl y? or Do you like to get up early? o Stephanie hates fl ying. or Stepha nie ha res to fly. o J love meeting people. or I Jove to meet people. D I don't like being kept waiting. or ... like to be kept waiting. o I don't like friends call ing me a t work. or ... friends to call me at work.

but ( I) We use wing (" ot to ... ) when we talk about a situation that already existS (or existed ),

For example: o Pa ul lives in Berl in now. He likes living there. (H e likes living in Berlin = He lives there

and he likes it) o Do you like being a student ? (You are a sludem - do you like it?) o T he o ffi ce I worked in was horrible. I ha ted working there. (I wo rked there a nd I hated it)

(2) T here is someti mes a difference between I like to do and I like doing:

=

I like doing someth ing I do it a nd I enjoy it: o I like clea ning the kitchen. (= I enjoy it.)

=

I like to do something I thi nk it is a good thing to do, but I don't necessarily enjoy it: o It's not my favou rite job, but I like to clea n the kitchen as often as possi ble. Note that en joy and mind a re always followed by -ing In ot to ... ): o I en joy cleaning the kitchen. (not I enjoy to clea n) o I don 't mind clea ning the kitchen. (no t I don-t mind ro clea n )

~

Would like I wo uld lo ve I would ha te I would prefer Would like I would love etc_ are usually fo llowed by to ... : o I'd like 1= would like) to go a way fo r a fe w days. o Would you like to come ro dinner on Friday? o I wouldn 't like to go on ho lida y alo ne. o I'd love to meet your fa mily. o Wo uld you prefer to have dinner now or late r? Compa re I like a nd I would like (I'd like): o I like playing tennis. I I like 10 play tennis. 1= I like it in general) o I'd like to play tennis today_ (= I wa nt to pl ay today)

-

Would mind is always fo llowed by -ing (no t to ... J: o Would you mind closing the door, ple;3sc?

=

I would like to have done something I regret now that I didn't o r couldn't do it: o Ir 's a pi ty we didn -t see Va l when we were in london. I would like to have seen her again. o We'd like to have gone away, but we were too busy a t home. You ca n use the sa me str ucture after would love I would hate I would prefer: o Poor o ld Da vid! I would hate to have been in his posit ion. o I'd love to have gone to the pa rry, but it was im possible.

116

Enjoy/mind _ Un it 53

Would like -

Units 37E, 55A

P~fe r """

Uni t 59

American English ...... Append Ix 7


Exercises 58.1

Unit 58

Write sentences about yourself. Say whether you like or don't like these activities. Choose one of these verbs for each sentence : like I don', like lo\'c j fl~' 1 ... I d,on't W::t. f41t.n9 · 1 [play ca rds) ,) lbe alone) ...._..

hale

or

enjoy don 't mind .~~~~._.~_~.g>_1.4i~_._. ___.___.___ ._... __ ._. ____ ... ____ _

-----------------------------------

4 (go to Illuseums ) j Icook )

58.2 Make sentences from the words in brackets. Use - iog or to ,... Sometimes either form is possible. I Paul li\'cs in Berlin no \\'. II's nice. H e likes iT.

[he ! like l !i ,'c I rherel He W::es. li..v~9_ .._~,~!:.: ..._... ... _._ .... __ ._._.............. _.... _._._. __ ... _..... __ ....... _.... _.............. _.... _... 1 Ja ne is a biology 1,,;!C her. She likes her iob. {S he I like I readl ! bio logy ! She ......... _............................ 3 J oe always ca rries hi s cam era with him and takes a lot o f pho tog raphs. ' he / Ii ke 1 ta ke I pho tograph s! ........................................_...................................... 4 1 used to wo rk in a su permarket. 1 didn"t lik e it much. n I not I like 1 \\'o rk 1 (here ) ._.... _.... _.._. __ ..... 5 R,lc hel is st ud~' ;ng med ici ne. She likes it. (She 1 like I st ud y I medicine! 6 Dan 15 fa mo us" but he doesn 't like it. the I not J like I be I famou s ) - Jen ni fe r IS a I'ery c,lUtious pe rson. She doesn"t rake m a n ~' r isks. (she I no, / llke f take I risks! ___ .____________ _ S I don", li ke surprISes. II I like ' kno w " hmgs' m adl'ance )

58.3 Complete each sentence with a verb in the correct form , - in9 or to .... In one sentence either fo rm is possible. I It's good to \"I SlT o ther places - I enjoy __l:ro..v~9 _ 1 ' \'('ou ld ~'ou li ke do wn ?' ":-\ 0. thanks" 1" 11 stand: 3 I" m nor q wte ready yet. Wo uld ~'OU mind ................. _........... a little longer ? 4 Wh en I was :l child. I ha ted ........ to bed early. j When I ha l'e to catch a tra in. I"m a lw a ~' s wo rried tha t r ll miss it. So I like .................... to the sta tio n in pl e nt ~· of rime. b u s ~·. I don't lik e ir when th ere"s noth ing to do. 6 I enIO~' - I I\' O U ld love ._ to yo ur wedding, but [" m a fraid it isn't possible. S I don ', li ke in this pa n o f to wn. I wa nt to Illove somewhere else. 9 Do you ha ve a minute : I"d like ....... _..... _ to you abo ut something. 10 If there"s bad news and good news" I like .____ .. _.__ .... _. __ ... _.... _._ ....... _.... _.. _.. _. the bad news first. 58.4 Write sentences using would .". to have {done). Use the verbs in brackets. if 's a pit~· I couldn 't go 10 the wedding" (like) .. !._.~!¥..~.J~.~... ~...!:!!-."!'..~..99_t:l~_t:Q.J.b.~._!'Jeddj~.:.. 1 It ·s a pi ty I d ld n't see the programme. (like) __ .. ___ .. ______________________ ~ 3 4 5 6

r ill gla d I didn"t lose my watch. ~ h a tt' ) _._. ______ .___ ._____ ... _ .. _. __________ .__ _ [t 's a p it~· [ d idn't meet your pare nts. (Iove l __________________________ _ r m g lad I wasn't a lone . (1l0t ! lik e) _________________________ _ It "s a pity I could n"t tra\'e! b~' tra in. (prefer ) .. __ .________ .____ ... _____ .______ ._____ .. ___ ._._. ___ ._._

- Additional exercises 26-28 (pages 3 17- 19)

117


Unit

59

Prefer and would rather Prefer

10

do and prefer doing

You can use ' prefer 10 (do)' or 'prefer . ing' to say what you prefer in general: o I don't like ci ties. I prefer 10 live in the country. or I prefer living in the country. Study thc d ifferences in structure after prefer We say:

bill

o o bllt 0 o

I prefer I prefer I prefe r

somethi ng doing someth ing to do something

to something else. to doing somethi ng else. Tal her rhan (do ) somethi ng else.

I prefer this coa na the coa l you were wearing reste rday. I prefer driving 10 travelling by t rai n. I prefer 10 drive Talh er than travel by train. Sarah prefers to li Ye in the country rather tha n (live) in a city.

Wou ld prefer (I'd prefer ... ) We usc would prefer to say wha t somebod y wams ;n a speci fic situa tio n (not in general): o ' Wou ld you prefer tea o r coffee ?' 'Coffee, please: We say 'would prefe r to do something' (1I0 t doing): o 'Sha ll we go by train?' ' I'd prefer to drive: (1Iot I'd prefer dri\路ing) o I'd prefer to stay at ho me tonight rather than go 10 the cinema, Would rather (I'd rather .. ,) Would rath er (do) = would prefer (to do), We use wou ld rather + i1l{initivt (witho ut to). Compa re: o

o

'Sh II

' " j 'l'd prefer to dri\'e: y t ram , ' : (/10t to dfive . ) , I'd rat her dfive ' Would you rather have tea or coffce?' 'Coffee, please: a we go

b

The negative is ' I'd rather not (do something)': o I'm tired , I'd rather not go ou t this cvening, if ro u don't mind. o 'Do you want to go o ut this evening?' ' I'd rather no t: We sa y 'would rather do something than do something else': o I'd rather stay at home tonight th a n go to the ci nema, I'd rat her you did something We say ' I'd rather you did something' (Ilo t I'd rathe r you do ), For example: o 'Shall I stay here ?' ' I'd rather you came with us: (= I would prefer this) o 'I'll repair you r bike tomorrow, OK?' 'I'd rather you did if today: o 'A re you goi ng to tell [hem what happened?' 'No. I'd rather they didn 't know: o Sha ll I tell them, or would you rather they didn't know? In this structure we use the past (came, did etc.), but the meaning is present 1Iot past. Com pare: o I'd rather make dinner now. I'd rather you made dinner now, (/l ot I'd rather you make) I'd rather you didn't (do something) = I'd prefer you nOt to do it: o I'd rather you didn't tell anyone what I said , o 'Sh311 1 tell Linda what happened?' ' I'd rath er you didn't.'

, 118

Would prefer .... Unit 58B

Prefer (one thing) to (another] .... Un it 136D


Exercises 59.1

Unit 59

Which do you prefer? Wri te sentences using 'I prefer (somethi ng) to (somethi ng

elser Pu t t he

verb in to the correct form where necessary. (drive I {ravel by train ) ..... !.... p.r.~.fu....4.r.~ ,0.9 ... t;q....t!.~Y.~9 ....~!rl. ...P:.~ .:._ 1 (basketball I football) I prefer . .............................. ,........................................................... _ 3 (p hone people I send emails )

.......... ____.......

I ,.............................................. ,...................__..................................................... ro .................................... 4 (go to the cinema I watch videos at home )

Now re write sentences 3 and 4 using the struct ure 'I prefe r t o (do something)'.

59.2

!.. ..p.r~fu....~. 4!~:-:. ~._. r..~~.... ~.~.....!:l.:~:(.~ ...~~ ... ?:~_:.... _...................................................................................... I prefer to ................. _ ................... _ .......................

5

(Ij

6

II I

7

1-' 1 ...................................... ..................................................................................... _... ............... _.. __.â&#x20AC;˘....

.....

Write sen tences using I'd pre fer , .. an d I'd rather .. , + th e fo llowing : eat a t ho me stand

1

3 4 5

6 7 8 9

gel a laxi go for a swim

go alone --waiH ~Wat-t'f-

Shall we walk home? Do yOll want to eat now? Would you like to watc h TV? Do ~' Oll want to go to a restaurant? Let's lean' now. Sh.tll we p l a~' tennis! 1 th ink we should decide now. Would you like to sit down? Do ~'ou want me to come with you?

wait a few minutes thi nk about it fo r a whi le (prefer ) Irather ) (rather ) (prefer ) (rather) (rather) (prefer ) (rather ) (prefer )

listen to some music

.....!.:.4. . .f?t~w.....4>...9.~....~....~.~ :.... I'd. ro..tner wo.it till.

I.oJ;er

Now use the same ideas to complete t hese sen te nces using th an a nd rathe r t ha n. 10 II 12. 13 J4 59 .3

I'd I'd I'd I'd I'd

prefer prefer rather prefer rather

ro go for a swim . .................................... .............................. ............................... ................... _ ear at home .................................................................................. ........................................................................................... to think about it for a while . listen to some music .

Com plete the sen tences using would you ra tht;r I ... . Are 2 Are 3 Are 4 Are

59.4

to get a taxi .... .t~.~ .. tYI(U'I wruk .... ~g.~.~.: ..............................................................................................................

you you you you

going going going going

to ro to to

,

make di nner or ..... ~0:'!.\4.: . ~~.....t~.~ .. I ~o..d..e. . it ...................... tell Liz what happened or would you rather .......................................................................... do the shopping or . ................................. ................................... . ............... . .................... â&#x20AC;˘ phone Di ane or

, ,

Use you r own ideas to com pl ete these sen t ences.

2. 3 4

S 6

'Shall I tell Ann the news ?' 'No. I'd rather she ..... ~.~.4. r.,1 . know.' Do you want me to go now or would YOIl rather I .. ' __ .................... here? Do you want to go out thi s eveni ng o r would you rather . ....... a t home? T hi s is a private lette r addressed to me. I'd rather you . _..... read it. I don'r really like these shoes. I'd rather they ............................................. a d ifferenr colour, .-\ : Do you mind if 1 turn on the radio? B: I'd rather you _____ ................. __ ........ . I'm trying to sntdy.

- Addit io nal exercises 27-28 (pages 3 18 -1 9)

119


Unit

60

Preposition (in/for/about etc.) + -ing If a preposirion (in/for/about erc.) is followed br a ,路('rh. the verb ends in . ing:

Are you intercSlcd I'm not vcr)' good Sue must be fed up What arc the advantages Thanks vcry much How Why don't you go out Carol went (Q work

prepositioll

I'crb (-ing \

'"

work ing learning srudyi ng. h;wing ilwiting

"with of fo' about instead of in spite o f

Illt't'nng

sifting feel ing

for us? languages.

a car? me 10 your pany. for lunch tomorrow?

1 at home all the rime ? Ill.

You can also say 'instea d of somebody doing someth ing', 'fcd up wi th people doing something' etc. : o [' m fcd up with people felling me what to do. Note the use of the foll owing preposition s + -ing: before -ing a nd aflCr -i ng: o Before going out, I phoned Sa rah. IIIDt Before to go Dul ) o What did you do after le ~w in g sc hool? You can also say ' Before I went au{ .... and .... after you left x:hool' . by -ing (to sa y bow something happens); o The burglars gOt imo the hou se by breaking a window and climbing in. o You can improve your English by rea ding more. o She made hersel f ill by not ea ring properly. o l\llan y accidenrs are caused b~' peo ple drivi ng too fast. witho ut -ing: o We mil ten kilo metres w ithout s[Qpp ~ng . o It was a stupid thing to say. I said it with out think ing. o She needs 10 work without people distu rbing her. tor ... without being distu rbed. I o I have enough pro blems oi my own without 11 :\\'ing to worry about yours. To -ing (look forwa rd to doing something etc.) To is often pa rt o f the infillitive (to do I to see etc.): o We decided to go o ur. o Wo uld you like to mect for lunch tomo rrow? But to is a lso a /Jrepositioll (li ke inlfo r/abou lifrom etc. ). Fo r example: o We drove from Londo n to Edinburgh . o I prefe r tea to coffee. o Are you looking forwa rd to the weekend ? If a preposition is followed by a verb, the \'erb ends in -ing: in doing abou t meeting without stopping (etc. 1 So, when to is a preposition and it is followed by a ve rb, you must say to -ing: o I prefer d ri vi ng to travell ing by train. (1Io t to tra vel) o Arc you looking fo rwa rd to going on h o lida~' ? (no f loo king forward to go )

12 0

Be/ get used to -ing ... Unit 61 Verb.,. preposition.,. .ing - Unit 62 In spite of ... Unit 11 3 Prepositions --- Un its 121- 136

While/when -ing -

Unit 68B


Exercises

Unit 60

60.1 Comp lete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. I \,\/ n }' is it usefu l to ha ve a C;H~ \X' hat arc the advantages oi ho..V'U'l9 0.. c.o.r . .2 I don'r intend to appl~' for the job. I have no intenrion of 3 Helen has a good memory fo r na mes. Helen is good <IT ... :\ Iark won't pass the e;'::l m. H e has no chance. :'\ Iark has no chance of 5 Did ~'OU get into trouble because ~'OU \\" e Te late? Did ~路o u get into trouble for 6 We didn't eat at home. We went TO a reSt;lUf.U1t instead . hmead of - \X'e gm imo the exhibi tion. \'\'c didn't han' ro queue. \X'e gOt imo the exhibition without 8 Our team played we ll. bur WI' lost the gamt'. Our ream lost the game despite

,

60.2 Comple te the sentences using by -ing . Use the following (with the verb in the correct form) : d ri ve 100 fast break a wirtdttwbo rrow too mu ch mo ney tu rn a key pUi some pic(Urcs o n the walls sla nd o n a chair 1 3 4 5 6

60.3

60.4

The bu rglars gar into the hou se bB brwt.n9 I \\"a s able to reac h the rap sheli You StMt rhe engine oi a car Ke\路jn gOt himself into nnancia l rrouble You ca n put people's li\'es in danger \,\Ie made the room look nicer

Gt

wi.nd..q,\;l "

Complete the sen tences with a su itable word . Use only one word each time. I We ran ten kilometres without swppi.楼lg 1 He left the hotel without hi s bill . 3 It's a nice morning. Hall' about for a walk? 4 We were a ble to tra nslate the letter into English \\'ithout ....... ,...... ......................... a dictionary. 5 Befo re to bed, I like to have a hot drink. 6 Ir \\"as a long io urney. I wa s I"t;,ry tired :lfter ... on a train for 36 hours. - I wa s anno~'ed because rhe decision was made without anybody . .. ................... me, the sa me io b for ten路ycars, I felt I needed a change. g .-\fter 9 We 1051 ou r \\' a ~' because we wc m srr;lighl on instead of ............................... ............ left, 10 I like these photographs ~'ou took. You're good aT ........................ .... photographs. For each situation. write a sentence with I' m (not) looki ng forward to. I You are going on ho1ida~' next week. How do you feci?

I'm Looking forwo.rd w 90019 on hoUdp*L................... 1 Diane is a good fri end of ~' oll rs and shc is coming to visit }'OU soon. So you will see her again soon. How do ~' ou feel: rill ............................. ................................_. ...... . 3 You are going to th e demist tomorrow. You don't ('nio), going to the dentist. H ow do you feel? l'lll not ................................................,................... _.... _ 4 Ca rol is a student at sc hool. She hates it, but she is le;w ing school next summcr, H ow does she feel? ,.......................... ........................,............ 5 You've arranged ro play tenni s romorrow. You like Tenni s a lor. How do you feel?

....... Additional exercises 26-28 (pag es 311- 19)

121


Be/get used to something (I'm used to ... ) Study this example situation; Lisa is America n. bm she li ves in Brit.lin . When she fir st drm'e ;1 car in Bri ta in. sh(' foun d it very difficu lt because she had (Q dri\'C o n the left, not o n the right. Dri ving o n the left was srnlllgc and d ifficult (or her because: She wasn't used She wasn't used

10

10

it . driving o n the left.

Bur a fter a lot of practice. driving on the left beca me less stra nge. So:

She got used

10

driving

011

the left.

Now it's no problem fo r Lisa: 10 driving on the left.

She is used

I'm used to something = it is not new or Strange for me: o Frank lives a lo ne. H e d oesn't mind this because he has lived alone for 15 years. It is n Ot strange for him. He is used to it. He is used 10 living alone. o I bought some new shoes. They feh a bit strange a t first beca use 1 wasn't used 10 them. a Our new flat is o n a very busy sn eet. I expect we' ll gel used to the noise, but at the moment it's very d isturbing. a Diane has a new job. She has to get up much earlier now than before - at 6.30. She find s this difficult because she isn't used to getting up so ea rly. a Barbara's h usband is o ften away from home. She doesn't mind this. She is used to him being away. After be/gct used you canno t use the i nfi nit~ ve (to do f to drive etc.). We say: a She is used to driving o n the left. ( Ito t She is used to drive) When So we o o

we say '1 am used to something" 10 is a prepositioll , nOI a pa rt of the infinitive. say: Fra nk is used to living a lone. (1I0t Frank is used to live) Li sa had to get used to driving on the left. (1I0 t get lIsed to drive)

Do not confuse I am used

10

doing and J used to do:

I am used to (doing) something = it isn't strange or new fo r me: o I am used 10 the weather in rhis co unt r~'_ o I am used to driving on the left because I\-e lived in Bri ta in a long time. 1 used 10 do something::: I did it regularly in the past but no longer do it. Yo u can use this o n l~' for the past, not fo r the present. The structure is ' I used 10 do' (not ' I am used to do' ): a I used to drive to work every da y. but these days I usually go by bike. D We used 10 Jive in a small \-illage, but now we lh'c in l o ndo n.

122

Used to (do) -

Uni t 18

To + -ing -- Unit GOC


Exercises

Unit 61

6 1. 1 look agai n at the Situa llo n In SeCIJon A on the opposite page (,lisa is America n . .'). The foll owing situa tions are similar. Co mp le te th e sente nces using used to. I Juan is Spanish and wenr to Ji\'c in England. In Spain he usually had dinner late in the {'vening, but in England dinner was at 6 o'clock. This was very early for him and he found it very st range at fi rst. ..... dinner so \X' hen J uan first wem to England. he ...... it. Now he finds it early. but after some time he normal. He ," __ ............. at 6 o'clock.

1 Julia is a nurse. A li ke it.

~' ear

ago she started working nights. At first she found it hard and didn't

She .... _.__ _

nights and it took her a few monrhs to ,............................................. _................................... it. :\ow, ,tfrer:l year, she's q uite happy. She nights.

6 1.2

What do yOll say in th ese si tu at ions? Use I'm (not) used to ... J You lil'e alone. You do n't mind this. You h:II'e al\\'a~'s lived :llone. f RIE:-:O: Do ~' ou get a bit lonel~' sOlnt路times? yoc: :"{o . ... .J.:.I!I... y.~.~ ....~.....4:y.~.~9. ... ~.I!~., 1 You sleep on the floor. You don 't mind this. You have always slept on the floor. fRI ESO: \'\"ouldn't you preier to sleep in a bed? YOL': ;\0, I . ..................... . ..................... . .................. 3 You han;, to work long hours in ~'our job. This is not a problem for you. You have always worked long hours. FRIESD: You have to work I'cry long hours in ~'our job, don't rou? YOl ': Yes. but I don't mind that. I . . .................. 4 You usually go to bed early. Last nighr yOll wenr to bed very late (for YOll) and as a result you are n:ry tired rh is morning. f RIE:-:O: You look tired rhis morning. YOl ': Yes, ....................................................

61.3

Re ad t he SItuat Ions and compl e te th e sentences lIsi ng used t o. Some friends oi yours have just moved into a flat on a bus~' Street. It is very noisy. They'll hal'e to ..... 9~....~.S:.g4..... ~.. Jb.~ .......,Q!搂.~ ,. ....................................................................... _............ 1 The c hildren at school had a new te:lcher. She was diiierem from the teacher before her, but this wa sn't a problem for the child ren. They soon 3 Sue mO\'cd frOIll a big house to a much smaller one. She found it stra nge at first. She had to .................................,.................. in a much smal ler house. 4 Some people ro u know from Britain are going to live in your counrry. What will they have to get used to~ The~" 11 hal'e to .

6 1.4 Comple te the se nten ces usi ng o nly on e word each time (ste Section C) . Lisa had ro get used to ... 4r..~.y .~.,g ..... on the left. 1 \X'e used to .....4-.y~..... in a sma ll village, but now we live in London. 3 Dan used to ....... ................. a lot of coffee. ~ow he prefers tca. 4 I feel very full after that meal. I'm not used TO .......... so much . j 1 wouldn't like to share ;tl1 offi.:e. I'm used to .... my own office. 6 1 used to .. a car, but 1 sold it a few months ago - \X' hen we were chi ldren, we used to . swimming very often. S The re used to ..... _.... .................... ....... a cinema here. but it was knocked down a few yea rs ago. 9 rill the boss here! I'm not used to told what to do. -- Add itIOna l exercises 2G-2 8 (pages 317- 19)

123


Verb + preposition + -ing (succeed in -in.g accuse somebody of -ing etc.) Many verbs ha ve the structure lIerb + prepositioll (in/for/about etc.) + object . For example: verb + prepositioll + object \'(Ie [alked I about You must apologise for

rhe problem. what you said.

I

If the object is another verb, if ends in -ing: fJerb +

\'ill' talked You must apologise

prepositioll

+

-ing (obiect)

about for

going to America. nor tell ing rhe truth .

Some more verbs WiTh this structure: ~-------,---,~--~~~

succeed (in ) insist (on ) think (of) dream (of) appro ve (of)

decide (against ) feci (l ike) look forward (to )

Have rou succeeded They in sisted rm th inking I wou ldn't dream He docsn'r approve We have decided Do you feci I'm looking forward

on

find ing a job yet ?

on of of of

p.t ying fo r Ihe meal. buying a house. asking them for m o n e~路. swea ring. movi ng to london. going out Tonigh t : meeting her.

againsl like '0

I

You can also say 'approve of somebody doing something', ' look forward to somebody doing something': o J don', approve of people killing animals fo r fun. o We are all looking forward to Peter coming home. The fo llowing verbs can have the strucrun: verb

fJerb congratulate (on ) accuse (of) suspect (of) prevent (fro m) stop (from) th ank (for ) excuse (for) forgive (for )

-I-

[ congratu lated They accused Nobod~' suspected What prevented The rain didn't StOp I forgot 10 thank Excuse Please forgive

-I-

obiect

object

-I-

preposition

-I-

IJrel)ositioll

-I-

on of ." the geneml of Liz

us

from from

them me me

fo' fm fo,

you

路i ng: -I-

路 ing (object)

getting .\ new job. tell ing lies. being .1 spy. coming to sec us: enio~' ing our holtd J~" helping me. bei ng so I.\le, not wfIllng to you.

You ca n say 'SlOp somebody doing' or 'stop some body from doing': o You can't stop me doing what I want. or You ca n't SlOp me fro m doing what I wam. Some of these verbs are o ft en used in the passill(!. For example: o We were accused o f telling lies. o The genera l was suspected o f being a spy. Note that we say 'apologise to somebody for .... : o I a pologised to them for keeping them waiting, (llot I apologised them)

124

Decide to ........ Un it 54A Preposition

-I-

- ing ...... Unit GO Verb

-t

preposi tion ..... Units 132- 136

I


Exercises

Unit 62

62.1 Complete each sentence uSing only ont' word .

l Ou t neighbours apologised fo r ._~~.~9._ so much noise. 2 I fee/lazy. I don't feel/ike _. ____ ._. ___ ._ any work. J I wanted to go Oll l alone. bur Joe insisted on .. ____ , with me. 4 I'm fed up with my job. I'm thi nki ng of .. __ ._____._, ____ something else. S We have decided against _. _____._______ ,_ a new car beca use we can't really afford it. 6 I hope you get in touch with me soon. I"m look ing forwa rd to ___ ._. __._______ ._.... from you.

7 T he weather was extremely bad and this prevented us from .___ ._. __ ... ____ .. out. 8 The man who has been arrested is suspected of _. ___ .. _... _...... _._. ___ .. a false passport. 9 I thi nk you should apologise TO Sue for __ ........ _..... __ .. ___ ._._... so rude ro her. to Some parenn don't a pprove of thei r c hildren ......... _... _._._ ................. _... a lot of television. I I I'm sorry I can't come to your parry, but than k you \'ery much fo r _......................................... me. 62.2 Complete each sentence using a prepositio n + on e of the followi ng ve rbs (in th e correct form) ; carry cause escape .gointerrupt li ve see so lve spend walk Do you feel ......~_~ ... 99:~9. ..... ou t this e\"ening? 1 It took us a long time. bu r we fi nally succeeded .... ............... _._ ................. _..... _. the problem. 3 I' \"e always d reamed .... ___ ._... _.......... _.... _ ........... _.. __ ._......._ in a small house by the sea.

4 The d, ;,'" of the mh" '" mused me .............._.................._...... __ .. __ the m;dent . 5 There's a fe nce arou nd the lawn to Stop people ________ ._.... __ .__ ._____ ._... o n the grass.

6 Excuse me __ ......... _____.____. you. but may I ask you something? - Where are you thinking

__ ._____ ._. rour holiday this yea r ?

8 The guards weren't able to pre\'enr the prisoner ._.______________ .. __.___ . 9

~ I }'

bag wasn't very hea\'y, bu t Da n insisted __________ .__________ it for me,

10 It's a pity Pau l can't come to the pany. I was rea lly looking forwa rd _. ____________ him.

62.3

Com plete the sen te nces o n t he righ t. I

I i'

roc

It was nice of you to help me. Thank.s very much.

Ke\lin thanked ......~.~ ...:f9.r...J:'J~l:~.9....!:!.~~.....-....

.

"E.n.\"

2

~ I'll drive you to the

Tom insisted .

--, station. I insist. :IS.\"

3

I

r OL"

TQ.\I

rt

\al..

6

Jenny thanked _ _ .______ ._... ___ _

I'm sorry I didn't pho ne earlier.

Kate apologised .. ____________

KATE

I {) ,,( r QU

II was n i~ of you to come 10 see me. Thank. you. JE.\"1o.T

5

rou

Dan congratu lated me ...... _.................. _............... ~ ....

D AS

4 SUE

I hear you got marr ied. Congratulations!

y,""

"''''h.)

JANE

..... AdditIOna l exerCiseS 27-2 8 (pages 318-19)

125


Expressions + -ing When these expressions are followed by a verb, the \'crb ends in -ing: It 's no usc J II 's no good o There's nothi ng you can do about the situation. so it 's no usc worrying about it. o h 's no good trying TO persuade me. You won't slicceed.

There's no poin! in o T here's no point in ha ving a car jf you nc\'cr use ir. a There was no point in waiting any longer, so we went . But we usua lly say ' the point o f doing something'; o What's the point of ha ving a car if you never use it ?

If 's ( not) worth o I live only a short walk from here, so it's not worth taking a taxi. o Ou r flight wa s very eMIr in the morn ing. so it wasn't worth going to bed. You can sa y that a film is worth seeing, a book is worth read ing etc. : o Wh:1t W;l S rhe film like? \X'a s it worth seeing? o Thieves broke inro the house but d idn't t3ke :ln~路 th ing. There was nothing worth slealing.

Have difficulty -ing, have trouble -ing We say ' have difficulty doing something' (1Io t to do ): o I had no dirficulty find ing a place to li\路e. (1Iot difficu lty o Did you have any difficulty getting a visa: o People often ha ve difficu lty reading my writ ing.

10

find )

You can also say ' have trouble doing something': o I had no trouble finding a place (Q li\'e. We use -ing after: a waste of money / a waste o f time o It was a waste of tim e reading tha t book. It was rubbish. o It's a waste of money buying things you don 't need . spend/waste (time) o He spent hours tTr ing (Q re pair the clock. o I waste a lot o f rime day-d reaming. (be) busy

o She said she couldn 'r sec me. She \\'as roo busy doing o ther things. Go swimming / go fi shing ere. We use go -ing for a number of acti\'ities (especia lly spons ). FOTexam ple, you ca n say: go swim mi ng

go sai ling

go fi shing

go climbing

Also go sho pping, go sigh tseeing o o o o

126

How often do you go swimming ? I'd like to go skiing. When did you last go shopping? I've never been sailing. (Fo r gone and been. see Unit 70 .)

go skiing

go ioggin g


Exercises

Unit 63

63 .1 Make se ntences beginni ng Th ere's no point .... I \,\/hv ha\'c a ca r if

VOll

ne\'er use it?

__Th.~Sr~L~""~t,. Y::I.._n.~~g_.~C&¥_..\:£.JJ~_._I'l~,!,_q__~_~.~_i&.:. ___________.__.____.__

1 \X'hy wo rk if you don't need money?

__

3 Oon'[ try ro study if you feci ti red .

.._--_.

.

4 \\;' hy hurry if you\'c got plenty of time? 63 .2 Complete the sentences on the right.

1 3 4

5 6

Shall we get a taxi home? If yO ll need he lp. why don't you ask Oil\"e? I d o n'r rea ll y want to go our to nigh l. Shall I phone Liz now?

Are you going TO complain abour what happened? Do ~' O U ever read newspapers? Do you want to keep these old clothes)

1'\0, it isn't far. It's nm worth ..... 9~JM9 ....~ ...~~.~...... . It's no use ....................."................._._._._ ........_...... . He won't be able to do anything. \'(/ell , stay at home ! There's no point ...................... .................................. if you don' t w an t to. No, it's no good ............ _.... _....... _.... __ ......._._ ..... _......... now. She won'( be af home. ~o . it 's not worrh ... _._. __ .... __ ._... __ ._..... _.. _.... _..... ~obod y will do anything about it. :-';:0, I think it's a wa ste .. ____ •. ~o,

let's throw them away. They're not worth

63.3

Write se ntences using di fficulty. I I managed to get a \'isa , but it wa s difficult. I had difficulty .... g~.tt~ .JL~~~_. ______ ._.... ___ . 1 I find it hard to remember people's names. I han~ difficulty .______ ..... _.. _........ _..... _.. _.............. __ ...... _... __ ._........... ___ .... ___ ..... _.. _..... ____ .. __ ..... _ ..___ ... __ . 3 Lucy ma naged to get a job wi thout difficulty. She had no ....... _......................... _. __ ._.. _...... _._ ..............._ 4 It won'( be diffic ult to get a ticket for the game. You won't ha\'e an~' ................ _...._................ _

63.4

Com plete the sen t ences. Use only one word each t ime. I It's a wa Ste of mone~' ..... ~. ~!!.!g .. _ t hings ~' ou don't need. 1 [\'ery morn ing I spend about a n hour .. . .............. __ ............. _ the newspaper. 3 ' \X'hat's Sue doing?' 'She's goi ng away tomorrow, so she's busy .......•.... _........ 4 I thi nk you waste tOO much time _ ....... ___ .... __ .... ___ .___ . television. S There's a beautifu l view from that hill. It's worth ________________. to the tOp. 6 It's no use __ .____ .__ .. __ ._____ for the job. I know I wouldn't get it. - J USt s t a~' cal m. T here's no point in _________ . angry. H ...... _

63.5 Complete these sentences with the followi ng (with the verb in the correct form) ; go ridi ng -go-sailinggo shopping go skiing go swimming Ba rry li\'('s b)' rhe sea and he's gOt a boat, so he o ften _9J!~§._.~_@~~_ . 2 It was a \'err hot day, so we ._.... _______ ._._ ... _. _____ in the lake. 3 T here's plenty of snow in the mountains, so we'lI be able to .... _............ _....................... __ .__ .. __ .... _. __ .

4 H,]," h" gOI IWO hom, . She ............ .........•._...•........•.....•........• "gubdy. 5 '\X' here's Dan?'

' H e's .......... _...........

..... Additional l'xercisl'S 27-28 (pages 318-19)

........... _ . There were a few th ings he needed to buy.'

127


To ... for ... and so that ... (purpose) I

We use to ... to say why somebody does something (= the purpose of an action): o ' Why are you going out ?' 'To pOSt a letter,' o A fr iend of mine phoned to invite me to a part)'. o We shouted to warn everybody of the danger. We usc to , .. to say why something exists (= its purpose): o This wa ll is to keep people ou r of the garden. D The president has a team of bodyguards to protect him. We use to ... to say what can be done or must be done with something: o It's difficuh to fi nd a place to park in the centre. (= a place where you can park) o Would you like something to eat ? o Ha ve you got much work to do? (=' work that you must do) o I get lonely if there's nobody to talk to. o I need something to open this bottle with . Also money/rimC/chance/opporluniry/energy/courage etc. to (do something): o They gave us some money to buy some food. o Do you have much o pportunity to practise your English? o I need a few days to think abou t your proposal. For ... and to ... Compare: for + "0/111 o I'm going to Spa in fo r a holiday. o What would you /ike for dinner? o Let's go to the pool for a swim .

to + l'crb c; rm going to Spai n to learn Spanish. (n o t fo r learn, Ilot (or learning) c \'? hat wou ld you like to eat ~ a Lefs go to the pool to have a swi m.

You can say ' for (somebody) to (do something)': o There weren't any chairs for us to sit on, so we had to sit o n the fl oor. You can use for ~i n g or to , .. to talk about the general purpose o f something, o r what it is generally used fo r: o Do you use (his brush for washing the dishes? (o r ... to wash the dishes?) You can use What ... for ? to ask about purpose: o What is this switch for? o What did you do that for ?

So that Sometimes you have to use so that for purpose. We use so that (llot to ... J especia lly when the purpose is IIcga/h ,c (so that ... won'llwouldn 't ): o I hurried so that I wouldn't be late. ~ = because I d id n't want to be lare l o Leave ca rl)' so that you won't (or don 't ) miss the bu s, wi th can and could {so that ... canlcould l: o She's lea rn ing English so thai she can study in Ca nada. a We moved to London so that we could see our friends more o ften,

128


Exercises

Unit 64

64.1 Choose from Box A and Box B to make a new sentence with to ....

A-·'-shouted-- - - --

2 1 had to go to the bank 3 I'm saving money 4 I wenl into hospital 5 I'm wearing tWO sweaters 6 I phoned the police

B, -- - - - - -- - - - - , I want to keep warm I wanted to report that my ca r had been stolen I want ro go (0 Canada I had to have an operation I needed to get some money

-I--waHted-ta-wa m-people-of-f-he-danger-

._ 1 .~!!~.~_tg_!'~. __ ~M_.Q£_ ...~~._.4M9.Q.'_:_. __.___ .. _.. ___ ._._.. ___ .. __________ .__ _ 1 I had to go to the bank .. __ .... _._. __.__ .... _._._._...___ ... ____ ._.... _____ .. _________ ._. ___.______ ._. ______ 3 I .. _._ ..........__ .. _...... __ ._. ___ ._... _ .. _... ___ ..... _._ .... ___._._....... _._._. __ .... __ ._._. __ ._... _. __.__.__ .... _. __ ._. ____ ... _"~"" ~_ H •• _

5 6

•• _ _ • •

•• _ . " ....

.~ .............."".".................... ~ .......... ~ ..... ~ .....

64 .2 Complete these sentences using a sui tabl e verb. I T he president ha s a team of bodyguards ..... tQ._.I?!Q~t. .. him. 1 I didn't h3\'e enough time ................"........... _... ....... ,,_... the newspaper today. 3 I came home by t:n:i. I didn't ha\'e the energ~' .......... _._ ........................,,_._........ __.__ ..... . 4 '\'\:'ou ld ~'O ll like something ..... _......... _.. _...... ~ __ ._.. ____ .......... _.. __ ? ;Yes, please. A cup of coffee.' 5 \'(Ie need a bag ._.. ~.~._ ........ _ ...... __ ... _.. _._. ___.__ 'these things in. 6 There will be a meeting nexI week _______________ thc problem. - I wish we had enough mone~' .__ .________ ... _. ______ .. anmher car. S I saw Helen at the parry. but we didn't have a chance .. _._. __ .___. 10 each o ther. 9 I need some ne w clothes. , don'[ ha\'e an~'fhing nice ___.________.____ " . 10 They've JUSt passed thei r exa ms. They're having a parry ... ________ ... ____ ._ _ _ . I I I can't do all this work alone. I need somebod~' ____ •. ________ me. 64.3

Put in to o r for. I I'm going to Spain .....f9.!:.._. a hol ida~·. 1 You need :1 101 oj experience ._._...... _..... _..... this job. 3 You need a lot of experience ........... __ ........ _ do th is job. 4 W'e'lI need 1110re time .......................... make a decision. 5 I went to the dentist .. ...... a check -up. 6 J had to put on my glasses ......... read the lener. ..... readi ng? - Do you howe to wear glasses S I wish we had a garden ............. ........ thc chi ldren ..."._.......... "...... play in.

64.4

Write sen tences with so that. I I hurried. I didn't want to be late . ._.. m.J'!.~!!L.e.~L~.9..j;!:l~m!.....~.!¥.J4~.~L~.~ _1~..~.:.. __.__ ...... _._._.____.__._ 1 I wore warm clothes. I didn't want to be cold. I wore _. __________._.. _... __ ._.... __ ... _ ... ______________________ ___ .... ___ .__ .. ____ _ ~.

3 I left Dave my phone number. I wanted him to be able to contact me. I _____..____...._....____ . _ _ _..____...____..__ .... __..____ _ 4 \'('e whispered. \X'e didn't want anybody else to hear our conversation . .. _ _ _ _ _ ._______ .___ ._____ nobody ._ _ _ _ ... ___ .___ ...... _~._~ __ .__ .~_. _ _ _ 5 Please a rrive early. We want to be able to start the meeting on time. Please .. ~ ___ ~._ ... __ ~ _____ .___ ... ____ .__ ... __ ..... ____~ .... __ ......... __ .. __ .. ___ .__________ 6 J ennifer locked the door. She didn't want to be disturbed.

- I slowed down. J wanted the car behind me to be able to overtake.

129


Unit

65

Adjective + to

• ••

Difficult to understand etc. Compare sentences (a ) and (b):

o Jim doesn't speak very clearly.

(a ) It is difficult 10 understand him "- - - - - - - - - { (bl He is difficuh 10 undcrsland .

Sentences (a ) and (b) have the same mean ing. Note thai we say: o He is difficult 10 understand. (1I0 t He is difficult 10 understand him. )

You ca n use the sa me structures with: eas)' hard impossible dangerous good interesting exciting

safe

expensive

cheap

nicc

o Do you think it is safe (for us) to drink this water? Do you thi nk th is water is safe (for us) to drink ? (1I0t to drin k it) o The questions in the exam were very difficult. It was impossible to answer them . The questions in the exam were very difficult. T hey were impossible 10 answer. (" ot to answer them) o Jill has lots of interesting ideas. It's interesting to talk to her. Jill is interesting to talk to. (not to talk to her. ) You can also use th is structure with adjective ... nomt: o This is a difficult question (for me) to answer. ("ot to answer il) (ll"s) nice o f (you) to ... You can say ' It's nice of somebody to do something': o It was nice of you to take me to the airpon. Thank you very much. You can use many Olher ad jectives in this way. For exa mple: kind clever sensible mean silly stupid careless unfair

considerale:

o It's silly of Mary to give up her job when she needs the money. o I Ihink il was very unfair o f him to criticise me. I'm sorry to ... / 1 was surprised to ... etc. You ca n use adjective ... to ... to say how somebody reacls to something: o I was sorry to hear that your fa ther is ill. You can use many other adjectives in this way. For example: happy glad pleased sad disappointed surprised amazed

astonished

relieved

o Was Julia surprised to see you ? o h was a long and tiri ng journey. We were glad to get home. The first / the next (elc.) ... to ... You can use to ... after the firsrlthe last, the next, the only, the second (elc.): o If 1 ha ve any more news, you will be the first (person ) to know. o The next train to arrive at platform 4 will be the 10.50 to Cardi ff. o Everybody was late except me. I was the only one to arrive on time. You ca n say that something is surclcertainllikelylbound to happen: o Carla is a very good student. She's bound 10 pass the exa m. (= she is sure to pass) a I'm likel y to be late home this evening. (= I wi ll probably be late home)

130

Afraid/interested/sorry .... Unit 66

If ....... Unit 84C

Enough and too ... adjective .... Unit 103


Exercises

Unit

65

65.1

(Section A) Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown . 1 It's d ifficu lt to understand hi m . He .....!§.....~.~ ...~....~.~.4&r..$ .W.4:., . Th is machine is _.. .2 It's easy to use thi s mac hi ne. 3 It was very d ifficult to open the window. The window 4 It's impossible to translate some \\'ords. Some words 5 It 's expensive to maintain a car. A ..... That 6 II's not safe to stand on that cha ir.

65.2

(Section A) Complete the second se ntence. Use the adjective in brackets and to ... as in the {'xa mple. I [ couldn 'r answer the q uestion. (difficult) It was a ......4if.f. ~.\4: ... ~.\!-.~.$M.~....t9. . @_~.~.~~ .................. _ 1 herrbody makes tha t mistake. (easy) It's an .............. _............... _........... _... __ .... .. 3 1 like living in this place. (nice) l1's a ........................... 4 \'i/e enjoyed watching t he game. (good ) It was a

65.3

(Section B) Make a new se ntence begi nning It ... . Use one of these adjectives each time : careless

inconsiderate

-kind-

mce

Sue ha s offered to help me . .... !f~ . . ~.k!4...g.f ... ~.~ ....tP.....9.ffu.... tP.....~.~ ... ~,~ :_ ................................ __ ._

1 You make the same mistake again and agai n. It ..... ................_... ........................... . 3 Dan and Jenny im'ited me to sta~' w ith them. 4 T he neighbou rs make so much noise ;u night.

65.4

(Section C) Use the follow ing words to complete t hese sentences : sorry I hear

glad I hear

pleased I gel

surprised I sec

We ..... ~.~~ ... ~.ffi ... 41....9¢... ~'our letter last week. .................... that you' re keeping well. 3 \XTe ............ ... _....... _._.... Pau la at the pa rry. We di d n't expect her to come. 4 I ..... ....................................................... that your mother isn't well . I hope she gets better soon.

1 I gOt your message. 1

65.5

(Section 0) Complete the second sentence usi ng the word s in brackets -+- to ... . 1 Nobody left before me. (the firs t ) I was ......#.:I.~.... f.!!.~t.... 2~.~.Q.I:).. e ..... _............. _ 2 E\'erybody else arrived before Paul. (the b st j Paul was the .......................... 3 Fiona passed the exam. All the other students failed. (t he on ly ) Fiona was .............. _.............................. 4 I compla ined to the restau rant manager about the service. Another customer had already complai ned . (the second ) I wa s ... 5 ~eil Armstrong walked on the moon in 1969. Nobod y had done this before him. (the fi rst ) Neil Armst rong was

w_leG.. . .

65.6

(Section E) Complete these sentences usi ng the words in brackets and a suitable verb. I Diane is a \'ery good student. She .....!§..... !?~.n4 ... tP. . . P.~.~ ..... the exam. (bound) 2 I'm not surprised you're tired. After such a long journey you ..... ......... ti red. (bound ) what you tell him. (sure ) 3 Andy has a very bad memory. He ............................................... ......................... ...... _... _ . (not likely) 4 I don't think you need to ta ke an um brella. It 5 The holidays begin this weekend. T here ..... a lot of traffic on the road s. (likely )

131


To ... (afraid to do) and preposition + -ing (afraid of -ing) Afraid to (do) and afraid of (doling I am afr aid 10 do something = I don't wanr 10 do it because it is dangerous o r thc result could be bad. We use afraid 10 do for things we do intentionally; we can choose to do thelll or not: a This pan of town is dangerous. People are afraid to wal k here at night. (= they don't want to walk here because it is dangerous - so they don't ) o James wa s afraid to tell his pa rents what had happened. (= he didn't want fO tell them because he knew they would be angry, worried etc.)

=

I am afraid of something ha ppening it is possible thar something bad will happen (for example, an accident), We do nor use afraid of -ing for things we do intentionally: o T he path was icy. so we walked vcry ca refully. Wle were afraid of falling. (= it was possible that we would fall - ll ot we were afraid to fa ll ) a I don't like dogs. I'm always afraid o f being bitten. (I/ot afraid to be bi n enl

So, you are afr aid to do somethi ng because you ate afraid of something happening as a result : a I was afraid to go near the dog beca use I was afra id o f being bitten. Interested in (doling and interested

10

(do)

---

I'm interested in do ing someth ing = I'm thin king of doing it, I would like 10 do it: a Let me know if you're interested in joining the club. (1101 10 join ) a J tried to sell my car, bur nobody was interested in buying it. (nol to buy) We use interested to ... 10 say how somebody reacts to what they hear/seeJread/learn/know/find . For example, ' ) was interested to hear it' = I heard it and it was interesting for me: a I was interested to hear that Tanya has left her job. a Ask Mike for his opinion. ) wou ld be interested to know w hat he th inks. (= it would be

interesting fo r me to know it) T his structure is the same as surprised to ... / glad to ... etc. (sec Unit 65C): o I was surprised to hear that Tanya has left her job. Sorry to (do) and sorry for/about (do)ing We use sorry to ... to say we regret somethi ng that ha ppens (see Unit 65C ): o I was sorry to hear that Nicky lost her job. (= I was sorry when I heard t hat ... J o I've en joyed my stay here. I'll be sorry to leave. We also say sorry to ... to apologise at t he time we do something: a I'm sorry to phone you so late, but I need to ask you something. You can use sorry for or sorry about (doing something) to apologise for something you did before: o I'm sorry for (or abo ut ) shouting at you yesterday. (not sorry to shout) You ca n also say: o I'm sorry I shouted at you )'esrerday. We say: I wanl to (do l/ I'd like to (do) I fa iled to (do) I allowed them to (do)

bur but but

I'm thinking o f (doling I I dream o f (doling J succeeded in (doling I pre\'enred them from (do ling I stopped them from (doling

For exa mples, see Units 54-55 and 62.

132

Verb ... preposition ... - ing .... Unit 62

Adjective + preposition ..... Units 130- 131 Sorry about/for -- Unit 130


Exercises 66.1

Unit 66

Use the words in brackets to write sentences. Use a fraid to ... or afra id of -il1g. T he streets are unsafe at night. (3 lot of people / afraid I go I Out) .....A...JR.~....9..f...~P.!&....?r..~ , ..!?::fr~....P.? ... 9Q....~.~~............_.................. __ .... _.. 1 We wa lked very ca refully along the icy path.

..

(we I afraid I fal l) .... .w.~ t-!._~.~ _ .. ~fr~_ ..9.f....f~9 3 I don't usually carr~' m~' passport with me. I afraid 1 lose I it) 4 I thought she wou ld be angry if I tOld her what had happened.

o

(II afraid I tell I her) .......... ...........................

......................

5 We rushed to the station . (we I afraid I miss / our train )

............... _....... _ 6 In the middle of the film there was an especia lly horrifying scene. (we f afraid f look ) ............................................................................... . ........................ 7 The vase was very \路aluable. so I held it carefully. (I / afraid / drop / if ) ..................... . ..................... . 8 I thought the food on my plate didn't look fresh. .................................................................................................................................... a (II afraid I eat I it) ........................ b (i / afraid I get I sick ) .................. _.... _ 66.2

Comple te th e sentences using in ... or to .... Use these verbs : -buyget know look read lii!an 1 I' m tryi ng to sell m~' car. bur nobody is interested ..... ~ ... ~~H.l!l9 ..... it. 1 Julia is interested ..... .. ... her own busi ness. 3 I was interested . .. ................. ~'our letter in the newspaper last week. 4 Ben wan ts to stay sing le. He's nOt interested . .. married. S I met ~'I ark a few d ays ago. You ' ll be interested ........................................................................ that he's just got a job in Pa ris. 6 I don't enjo~' sightseeing. I' m nor interested ........................................................ at old buildings.

66.3

Com plete each sentence using sorry for/about

or sorry to .... Use the verb in brackets.

I'm ..... ~Qr.r!;i ... ~... .P..t:.9.Y.!~ ... ro u so late, but I need to a sk you something. (phone) 1 I was .................... ..................... _ ... ... that ro u did n't get the job you applied for. (hear) ..................... ;;111 those bad things about you . I didn't mean them. (say) 3 I'm 4 I'm ....................................... ~路o u , but do ro u have a pen I could borrow? (d isturb) 5 .............. the book ~'ou lent me. I'll buy you another one. (lose)

rm

66.4

Co mplete each sente nce using the verb in brackets. J

a We " 'anted ..... !;Q....~y.~..... the bui lding. lIeave) b \'(/e weren't a llowed .................... ........... the building. (leave ) c We were prevented ........................................................... the building. (leave)

2 a Peter failed ...................................................................... the problem. (so[ve ) .... the problem . (solve) b C hri s succeeded . .......................

-

3 a b c d

I'm thinking .................... .......... away next week. (go ) I' m hoping .... _ ................................................ away next week. (go) I'd [ike ........ away next week. (go ) I' m looking forward . ...................... away next week. (go)

4 a b c d

He len Helen Helen Helen

wanted .......................................... ........................ me lunch. (buy ) promised , ............................................... _................ me lunch. (buy) insisted .................... __............. __ .............._........ _... me lunch. (buy) wou ldn 't dream ...................................................................... me lunch, (buy)

Add itional exercise 27 (page 318)

133


See somebody do and see somebody doing Study this example siruation: Tom gal into his car a nd drove away. You saw this. You can sa y: o I S3 W Tom gel inro his car and drive awa y. In this structure we use get/drive/do to get I to drive I to do).

CIC.

(1I0 t

Somebody did something

T

+

I saw tbis

I

I saw somebody do something

TOM

But after a passive ('he was seen' erc. ), we use to: a He was seen to gCI in the car. Study this example situation:

Yesterday you saw Kate. She was waiting for a bus.

I

You can Say:

o I

I

S3W

Kate waiting fo r a bus.

In this structure we use -ing (waiting/doing erc. ): Somebody was doing something

I

+

I saw this

J

I saw somebody doing something

Study the difference in meaning berwecn the

tWO

structures:

I saw him do something = he did something {past simplel and I sa w thi s. I saw [he complele action frOIll beginning to end: . D He fell off the wall. I saw this, - I saw him fall off the wall. a The accident happened , Did you see it: ...... Did you see the accident happen!

I

I saw him doing something = he was doing someth ing (pas t CO llfiIlIl OIl S) and I saw rhis. I saw him when he was in the middle of doi ng it. Th is docs not mean that I saw the complete action: a He was "walking along the street. hid ' I saw hlnl walkmg along the street. rove past In my ca r, I saw t h IS W en

I " "

Sometimes the difference is not important and you can use either form: a I've never seen her dance. or )'n' ne"er seen her dan cing. We use these structures with see and hear, and a number o f other verbs: o I didn't hear you come in, (you came in - J didn 't hear this) a Liz suddenly felt somebody touch her on the shoulder, a Did you notice anyone go out ? o I could hear it raining. (it was raining - I cou ld hea r it) The missi ng children were last seen playing near t he river, a Listen to the birds singing! o Can you smell something burning? o I found Sue in my room reading my letters,

/ I

a

134


Exercises 67.1

Unit 67

Complete the answers to the questions.

l\ 2

3 4

S 6 7

67 .2

;1

Did anybody go out? Has Sara h arrived yet? How do you know 1 took the money? Did the doorbe ll ring? Can Tom pla~' the piano? Did I lock the door when I wenr out? H O II" did the Il'oman fall?

I don't thi nk so . I didn't see ..!!!,~~g<4l ...~9. .QÂĽt.. . ..... ...............-......... Yes, I think I heard he, ,_... I know because [ saw you ............... .......... .......................... I don't th ink so. I did n 't hear . ............... .............. ..... ... I've never heard . ........â&#x20AC;˘-._._.... _. .... _._ .. _- .......... ........_.... .... .-_ ..... ......... . .................. Yes, I saw ..-.... I don't know. I didn't see ... ......-... ............... - .. ...... ........ _

_

In each of these situat ions you and a friend saw, hea rd or smelt some thing, l ook at the pict ures and complete the sen t ences, 1

look! There's Dave and Helen,

~. -

V

look! There's Kate.

3

~

S

6

lislen! That's Bill.

......W.e,.....~.~....~....~~9 ....f9r.. a.

took! There's linda.

btl. !!.......................................................................

1 \'(!e saw Dave and Helen 3 \'(!e saw ................................. 4 We heard ........................... ....................... 5 We could ................................ ............................................_.................................................

............................. in a restaurant.

6 67 .3

Complete these sen tences. Use the follow ing verbs (in the correct form) : cry expl ode ride run say .smg- slam climb ~.. crawl

1 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11

sleep

tell

Listen to rhe birds ..... ~.t,t:Ig.f.:I:').9..... I d idn't hear you ..... ~!!1..e,...... In, We listened to the old man ......................................... his story fro m beginning to end. Listen ! Can you hear a baby ..................... I looked OUt of the window and saw Dan ............. his bike along the road, I thought 1 heard somebody ...................................... ' Hi ', so I looked round. We watched rwo men .................... _...... ....... across the ga rden and .... ........................... th rough an open window into rhe house, Exerybody heard the bomb ...... ................ . It was a tremendous noise, Oh ! I can feel something ...... up my leg! It must be an insect. 1 heard somebody ........................................... the door in the middle of the night, It woke me up. When we gOt horne, we found a cat .... _............................... .... on the kitchen table.

135


Unit

68

-ing clauses (Feeling tired, I went to bed early.) Study these situa tions: Joe was playi ng football. H e hurt his knee. You can sa)':

o Joe hurt his knee playing football . You were feeli ng tired. So you went to bed early. You can say: o Feeling tired, I went to bed early.

'Playing foo tball ' and 'feeling tired' are -ing clauses. If the -ing clause is at the beginning o f the scnrencc (as in the second example), we w rite a comma (,) after it. __

When two things happen at the same rime, you can use an -ing clause. o Kate is in the kitchen making coffee. (= she is in the kitchen a"d she is making coffee) o A man ran QUI of the house shouting. (= he ran QU I of the house a,td he was shouting) o Do somethi ng! Don't juSt stand there doing nothing!

We also use -ing when onc action happens during another action. We use -i ng for {hc longer action: o Joe hurt his knce playing football . (= while he was playing) o Did you cut yourself shaying ? (= while you were shavi ng) You ca n also use -ing after while or when: o Jim hurr his knee whi le playing football. o Be ca reful when crossing the road. 1= when you are crossi ng) When one action ha ppens before another action, we use ha\'ing (done) fo r the fi rst action: o Having found a horel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner. o Having finished her work, she went home. You can also say aftcr -ing: o After fin ishing her work, she went home.

If one short action fo llows another shorr action, you can use the sim ple -ing form (doing instead of haying done) for the first action: o Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door. These structures are used more in written English than in spoken Engl ish. You can use a n -ing clause to explain someth ing, or to say why somebody does something. The -ing clause usually comes at the beginning of the sentence: o Feeling tired, I went to bed early. (= because I felt tired ) o Being unemployed, he hasn't got much mone~路. (= because he is unemployed ) o Not having a car, she finds it difficult to get around. (= because she doesn't have a ca r) o H aying already seen the film nvice. I didn't want to go to the cinema. (= because I had already seen it n\'icej These structures are used more in written English than in spoken English.

136

-ing and -ed clauses .... Unit 91


Exercises

Unit

68

68.1 Choose from Box A and Box B to ma ke s entence.;s~.~U~se:..:'~n~-~;~n~g~c~I'~u~s~c~._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ A

I -K-e-(e-wa~ 1 Diane was sitring in an armchair. 3 Sue opened the door ca refull ~·. 4 Sarah wem out.

B She was trying nor to make a noise. She looked at the sights and took photographs. She said she would be back in an hour. She was reading a book.

5 Linda was in london for tWO ~·ears. 6 Mary walked around the town.

She WAS m8k~fee.. She worked as a tourist guide.

_~_.~M.. ...\!L~!:t~ ... ~~.~!L!!'E~.g~._________ .___ .___ .__ .__ "_. __ .. 1 Diane was sirri ng .. _._._. __ ._.. ___ ._. __ ... ___ ........_.___ .. _ .____ .... __ .. _. __ .. _.H .. ___ ... __··_..·· ___·_· _____ •__ 3 Sue ._. ___ ._. __ ,, __ ........ _... _..... _. __ ._._._._._ .... ___._.. _ .. __.___ .... _._._.__.____.__ ~_._._~ .... ___ .. ~ .. _.... ~ ... _.- ...."." __ ~ . _

5 ...... _.........._.~ .............. ~ ............. _..............

6 68.2

Make one sentence f rom two using an - ing cla use. I Joe was playing footba ll. He hurr hi s knee . ......~.9..~.. ~.~.r.~. ht§: ..~.n ~... ~!!.'.9. ... fQ9.~~ .............. _.............. 2 I was watching television. I fell asleep. I ....................... ............................_.................................. .......................... ..................................... _............................................ ................ __ .... _._

3 A friend of mine slipped and fe ll. He was gwing off a bus . .-\ friend of mine .. ~ .... ~ .. _... _._._._._._._._. __ .... __ .. _._... ___._._._._._.. _._.__ .~ ___....~._~ .... ~ __ .*"•• _. __ .*H•• _ _ .. _____ ·_ _ _ 4 I was walking home in rhe rain . I gOt I·ery wet. I _________. ___._.. _ _ _ _ .. ___ ....... __ .... _________.__.. ____.__ _ 5 laura was dril'ing ro work

~·esterday.

She had an accident .

._ - - - - _ ... _--------_._-

6 Two firefighters were overcome by smoke. They were trying ro pur out the fire .

_-_._-_._.__...._---

.

68. 3 Make sentences beginn ing Having ... . I She finished her work . Then she went home. .. _.~~Y~._f..i!'!I§..\':I_~_.b*~L~9.!1;.•_~b$.d::!~t.!1@lJ._._ 2 \\" e bought our tickets. Then we wenr into the theatre.

3 They had dinner and then they conti nued their journey. 4 After rd done the shopping, I went for a cup of coffee. 68.4

Make sentences beginn ing - ing or Not - ing (l ike those in Sect ion OJ. Sometimes you need to begin with Having (done someth ing) . I I felt tired. So I wenr to bed early.

._E~~..l;r£4, L"~"t.l9_ p£4 . ~!!J.... ..... __..........._....._.... _~...__._._.__.._._......._......._ _

1 I thought rhey might be hungr}'- So I offered them somethi ng to ea r.

__•.•._._•.__._.•--.•_---_.----_._-

3 She is a foreigner. So she needs a visa to work in this country.

_._......_.

4 I didn't know his phone number. So I wasn't able to contact him.

5 Sarah has tr31'elled a lot. So she knows a lot about other countries. 6 I wasn·r able ro speak rhe local language. $0 I had trouble communicating. 7 We had spent nearly all our money. $0 we could n·t afford to Stay at a hotel.

137


Countable and uncountable 1 A nOll n can be COlmtable or lm coutttable: COlllltable o I eat a ba nana every day. D I like bananas.

~. ' , ,:\'I,' ~

UI/col/mable o I eat rice e\'ery day, o I like rice,

~ , â&#x20AC;˘

RICE ~

a n III/cOlli/table noun,

=-

~

Banana is a cOli/liable no un.

Rice

A countable no un can be singula r (ba na na ) o r plural (ba nanas)"

An uncountable noun has only one form (rice),

We can use n umbers with counta ble no uns. So we ca n say 'one banana', 'tWO bananas'

\Y!e can not use numbers wi th uncounra ble nouns, We cannot say 'one rice' , 'tWO rices' etc.

etc. Exa mples of nou ns usua lly countable: o Kate wa s singing a song. a There's a nice beach ncar here. a Do you have a fen-pound note? o It wasn't you r fau lt. It was an accident .

o There are no batteries in the ra dio. o We haven't got enough cups. You ca n use ala n with singu lar countable nouns: a beach

a n udenl

a n umbrella

You can no t use singu lar countable nou ns alone (wi tho Ut airheJrn y etc.): o I wam a ba nana. (110 t I want banana) o There's been an acci dent . (1I0t T here's been accident)

IS

Exam ples of nouns usually uncountable; o Kate was listening to (some ) music, o There's sa nd in m~' shoes, o Do you ha \'c an y mo ney? o It wasn't ~'our fa ult , It was bad luck. o T here is no electricity in this house , D We ha\'en't got eno ugh \\'at~'~'.'_ _ _ __

You can nOt normally use alan with uncountable no uns, W'e do not sa~' ';1 sand', 'a music' , ';1 rice', But you can often use ;1 .. , of. For cxample: a bowl I a packet I a grain of rice You ca n use uncountable nouns alone (without the/my/so me etc. ): o I eat rice e \' e r ~' day, o There's blood on you r shi rL o Can you hea r music ?

Yo u can use pll/ ra l counra ble nouns alone: o I li ke bananas, (= ba na nas in general ) _ _ _ _,.I o Accidents ca n be prcvenrcd,

138

You ca n usc so me and a ny with plura l countable nouns: o We sang some so ngs, o Did you buy any a pples?

Yo u can use some and any with uncountable nou ns: D \Yle listened to some music. C Did you buy any apple juice?

We usc ma ny and fe w with plura l countable nouns: o We did n'l take many photographs, o I have a few things 10 do,

\X'e use much and little with uncounrabJe nouns: ::J We did n't d o much sho p ping, I have a little wo rk to do,

Countable and uncou ntable 2 .... Un it 70 Children I the children .... Unit 15

Some and any -. Un it 85

Many/much/few/little - Un it 87


Exercises 69.1

Un it 69

Some of these sentences need a/an . Correct the sentences where necessary. 1 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Joe goes everywhere by hike. ~

.....H~....!':1.~.!:'!.1 . g9.~....!!....@".:. ..........................

H elen was listening ro music when I arrived. \'('c went to very nice restaurant laSt weekend. I dean my teeth w ith toOthpaste. I use toothbrush to clean my teeth. Can you tell me if there's ban k near here?

.....9.~..

. . . ...................

:vl y brother works fo r insurance company in London. I don't like violence. Can you smell paim? \'(/hen we were in Rome. we s ta~'ed in big horel.

We need petrol. J hope we come to petrol station soon. I wonder if yOIl can help me. I ha n' problem.

I like you r suggestion. It's ve ry interesti ng idea. J o hn ha s got inren'iew fo r job tomorrow. 15 I like volleyba ll. It路s good ga me. 16 Liz doesn't usually wea r jewe ller~路. 1- Ja ne was wearing beautifu l necklace .

69.2

Complete the sentences using the follow ing words. Use ala n where necessary. -ll芦.Klentimen'lew

biscuit key

blood moment

coal

-music-

decision question

electricity sugar

It wasn't your fault. It was ......~_ .. _~.~. 1 Listen ! Can you he.:IT . m LA5~..... , 3 I couldn't get into the house because [did n't have .. _.... 4 It's \'ery warm today. \X/hy are you wearing ............................. 5 Do ~' ou take ..".............. ................................. in ~路 otJr coffee ? 6 Are you hungry? \X'o uld you like ............................................... with your coffee? 7 Ou r li\'es would be \'ery difficult without . ...................... S ' I had .. __ .... .................. _.__ ...... fo r a job yesterday.' 'Did you? H ow did it go?' 9 The heart pumps .. through the body, \0 Excuse me. bur can I a sk yOll II I' m nor ready yet. Can you wait ........... ____............... _ ... , please? . soon, 11 We ca n't delay much longer, We ha l'e ro make

,

,

69.3 Complete the sentences using the following words. Sometimes the word needs to be plu ral (-s), and somet imes you need to use a/an . aI r patience

day people

friend

-pRetegfflJffl-

language queue

letter space

meat umbrella

I had my camera, but [ d idn't take any ..... P:\:I~gr~.~_~ 2 There are sel'en ...................... ................ in a week . 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 [0 11 12

,-\ \'egerarian is a person who doesn 't eat .... Outside the c inema there wa s .................................. ............. of people waiting to see the film. I"m nor very good at writing ............... of mine, La st night I went Out with some . There werc I' e r ~' fc\\' ........... ............. in rown today. The streets were al most empty, I'm going out fo r a walk . I need some fresh . Gary ;l lways wants things q uickl y. He hasn't gOt much 1 think it's going to rain. Do you have ........... ................. _ ........................ _.......... I could borrow? Do you speak a ny foreign .__ ....................... ) Our flat is very small. We h,l\'cn't gOt much ......."

139


Unit

70

Count able and uncountable 2 Many nou ns can be used as cou ntable or uncountable nou ns, usuall y with a difference in mea ning. Compare:

COlin table o Did you hea r a noise just now? (= a specifi c noise) o I bought a paper to read. (= a newspaper) o There's a haif in my soup! (= o ne single hair) o You ca n Stay with us. There is a spare

room. (= a room i n a house)

o I had some interesting experiences whi le I was travelling. (= things that happened to me) o Enjoy you r trip. H ave a good time!

Uncollntable o I can't work here. There's toO much noise. (1Iot too many noises) o I need some paper to write on. (= material for writing on ) o You've got very long hair. (not hairs ) (= all the hair on you r head) o You can't sit here. There isn't room. (= space) o They offered me the job becau se I had a lot of experience. (ll ot experiences) ::J I can't wait. I haven't gO( time.

Coffee/tea/juice/beer etc. (d rinks) are normally uncounta ble: o I do n't like coffee very much. But you can say a coffee (= a cup of coffee) , twO coffees (= t\vo cups) etc. : o Two coffees a nd an orange juice, please. The fo llowing nou ns a re usually uncountable: accommodation advice baggage

behaviour bread chaos

luck luggage news

damage furniture information

permissio n progress scenery

traffic weather work

You cannot use alan with these nouns: o I'm going to buy some bread, or '," a loaf of bread . (lIot a bread ) o En joy your hol iday! I hope you have good weather, (,to t a good weather) These nouns are not usua lly plural (so we do nO( say ' breads', 'furnitures' erc. ): o Where are you going to put all your furniture ? (no t furniture s) o Let me know if you need more information. (nor informations) News is uncountable, not plural: o The news was very depressing. (not T he news werc ) Travel (nolln) means 'travelling in general' (uncountable). Wc do not say 'a travel' to mean a trip o r a journey: o T hey spend a lot of money on travel. o We had a very good trip/journey, ( ,,~t a good travel) Compare these countable and uncountable nouns:

UnCal/ mabie

Ccmlliable

o

o

I'm looking for a job. o What a beautiful view! o It's a nice day today, o We had a lot of bags and cases. o These chairs a re mine. o That's a good suggestion.

---

140

Countable and uncountable 1 .... Uni t 69

I'm looking for work. ("0 1 a work l What beautiful scencry! It's nice weathcr today. o We had a lot of baggage/Juggage o This furniture is mine. o That's good _ advicc. _ _ _ _.--J

o o

American English -. Appendix 7


Exercises

Unit 70

70. 1 Wh ich of the underl ined pa rts of these sente nces is correct? I 'Did you hearlloise:1 a nojse JUSt now?' 'No, I didn't hear anyth ing.' (~is correct ). 2 a If you wam to know the news. ~'O U C,1n read paper ( a paper. b I want to print some docu ments. bur the printer is out of paper ( papers. 3 a I thought there was somebod.\· in the house because there was lieht I a liCht 011 inside. b Light / A light comes from the sun. 4 .\ I was in a hurry th is morn ing. I dido 'r have rime I a rime for breakfast. b ' Did you enjoy your hQl i da~' ?' -Yes, we had wonderful ri me I a wonderful time.' 5 T his is nice room I a nice roolll . Did you decorate it you rself? 6 Sue was very helpfu l. She g:l\'t' li S some \'er~' useful ad,'!,e I ad\'jces . 7 Did you have njce weather I a nice weather w hen you were away? S We were very unfortunate. \X'e had bad luck I a bad luck. 9 Is it d ifficu lt to find a work I job at the moment? 10 Our travel I journe\' from Paris to :-' Ioscow by train was very tiring. 1 I When the fire alarm mng. there was toml chaos I a total cbaos. 11 I had to bur a I some bread because I wanted to make some sand wiches. 13 Bad news don"t I doesn"t make people happy. 14 Your hai r is / You r hairs a fe tOO long. You should have it I them cut. 15 The da mage I the damages caused b~' the storm will cost a lot to repair. 70.2

Complete Ihe sentences using the following words. Use the plural (-s) where necessary.

advice info rmation

chair jo b

ex perience

experience

fu rniture

..J.uggtlge· permI SSIon progress I d idn"t have much ..J~99.r;s~ ". - just tWO small bags .

hai r wor k

2 T hey"1I tell ~' ou a ll you \\'anr to know. The~" 11 give you plenty of ...... J There is roolll for e\-er ~' bod~' to sit down. There are plenty of ..... 4 W.'e have no ................... ............... ........... , not even a bed or a table. S 'What does Alan look like?' "He's gOt a long beard and verr short . ............................ 6 Ca rla's English is better than it \\·a s. She"s made . - :-'Iike is unemplo~·ed. H e can"t get a ..... .. 8 .\Iike is unemplo~·ed. He can't get ............. 9 If you want to lea\"{> ea rly" ~'o u have to ask for 10 I didn"r know what to do. So I asked C hris for ......................... I I I don"t rh ink D,ln will get the job. He doesn"t have enough . 12 Paul has done man~' interesting things. He cou ld write a book a bout his .... 70.3

What do you say in these si tuations? Com plete each sente nce using one of th e words from Section B. Your friend s ha\'e just arri\'ed at the station . You can"t see any ca ses or bags. You ask them: H a\'C .... .!j ~ ... 9.Qt.~~ ....~.9.9.M ~..

2 You go into rhe tourist rd like ............ _ 3 You a rc a student. You Can you gi\'e me 4 You want to watch the \X' hat time .................... _.... j You are af the top of a

..........................................,

)

office. You want to know abou t placcs to see in the town. You say:

want your reach er to advise yOLl aboUT which courses to do. Y Oll say: ........ ............ ....................... ......................... news o n T V, bur you don't know w hen it is on. You ask your friend: ............................. .................................... ........................... ? mountain. You can see a very long way. !r's beautiful. YOLI say: lr .......................... .......................... _.... ... ......................... ............... _ , isn't it? 6 You look our of rhe window. The weather is horrible: cold, wet and windy. You say: What ........... ........... .......... .................. ................. _ ............................ _....... ........ !

141


Countable nouns with a/an and some Countable nouns can be singular or plural: , dog dogs

a child some children

the evening the evenings

an umbrella twO umbrellas

this pa rty these parties

Before singu lar countable nouns you can use alan: o Goodbye ! Have a nice evening. o Do you need an umbrella? You cannot use singu lar countable no uns alone (without althe/my etc.): o She never wear.s a hat. (1101 She nevcr wears hat) o Be ca refu l of the dog. (t/ot Be careful o f dog) o What a beautifu l day! o J've gal a headache.

We use alan ... to say what kind of thing or person something/somebody is: o That's a nice table. fn the plural we use the no un alone (flot some .. . ): o Those are nicc chairs. ('lOt some nice chairs) Compare singular and plural: o Dogs arc anim als.

o A dog is an animal. o " m a n optimist. o Tim's father is a doctor. a Are you a good driver? a Jill is a really nice person. a What a lovely dress!

:J \'(le're optim ists.

::J ~..t05r of m y friends are students. :J Are they good studen ts? :::J Jill's pa rems 3re rea lly nice people. =:! What awful shoes!

We say that somebody has a long nose I a nice face I blue eyes I small hands erc. :

a

:J Jack ha s got blue eyes. ' llot the blue eyes)

Jack has got a long nose. (no t the long nose)

Remember to use alan whell you say what somebody's job is: a Sandra is a nurse. (not Sandra is nurse) a Would you like to be an English teacher? You can use some with plural countable nouns. We usc some in

1'\\10

ways.

( 1) Some = a number of I a few of I a pair o f:

a a o

I've seen some good film s recently. (not I've seen good film s) Some friends of mine arc com ing to stay at the weekend. I need some new sunglasses. (= a 'Jew pair of sunglasses)

Do not use some when you arc talking about things in genera l (sec Unit 75): o I love bananas. (not some bananas) o My aunt is a wri ter. She writes books. (not some books) Sometimes you can make sentences with or without some (with no difference in meaning): o There a re (some) eggs in the fridge if you' re hungry. (2) Some = some but nor all : a Some children learn very quickly. (but not all children) a Tomorrow there will be rain in some places, but most of the country wi ll be dry.

142

Cou ntable and uncountable .... Units 69-70

Nan and the .... Un it 72

Some and any .... Unit 85


Exercises 71. 1

Unit 71

What a re these things? Use a dictionary if necessary. an 3nt: ... .J~.' ~_ ....~....~.s..~.:.... 2 an ts and bees? ....Tr..~'T.~....!!I.s., ~~.:..

7 Earth, Mars, Venus and J upiter?

3 :1 cauliflower ? .......................... 4 chess? ....... .......... _......... __ j :l \路jolin. a trumpet .tnd a flute:

8 a tulip? .............................................................................................. 9 the Nile, the Rhi ne and the Mississippi?

... _._ .........*._...............__..............

10 a pigeon, an cagle and a c row? 6 a skyscraper?

Who were these people?

71.2

1 I Beerho\"en? .....H~....Io;.!M ,.\l,_...<Pf.l'IP9~~.,... _. 12 Shakespc3 re?

15 Yla ril yn M o nroe?

13 Albert Einstei n?

16 Ehois Presley and John Lennon?

14 \X'ashingron. Lincoln and Kennedy?

17 Van Gogh, Renoir and Picasso?

Read a bout what t hese peopl e do, a nd say wha t th e ir jobs are. Choose from : chef

interpreter

journalist

-nur~-

plumber

surgeon

travel agent

waiter

Sa rah looks after patients in hospita l. ..... ~.~~.~.... ~ .. .r!~.r..~ .~., ,..................................,..................................................... . Gar~' works in a restaurant. He brings the food ro rhe rabIes. He ..... ........................ . 3 .\13rtin<\ arranges people's holidays for them. She . ........................... ....................................................... . 2

4 K"'n wMks 'n , hosp'''1. H, op",,,s on p,opl,. ........................................................................................................ . 5 6 7 S

71.3

Jon3tha n cooks in a restaurant. ....................................................... ............................................... ............................................... , Jane writes articles for a newspaper, ...................................... _....... _ ........................... Da\'e insta lls and rcpai rs watcr pipes. ........................................................................................................................ . Linda rranslates what people are sa ri ng from one language into another, so that they can understand each orher. ..................... . . ............................................................. ,............ ..

Pu t in a/ a n or som e whe re necessa ry. If no wo rd is necessary. lea ve th e space empty. I've seen .. _. ~!?!!'..~..... good film s recently. 2 \X' hat's wrong with ~'ou? Have you gar ..... ~..... headache? 3 I know a lo t of people. ~'I ost of them a re ......: ...... students . .. When [ was . . ........... child, I used to be very shy, 5 \Xlo uld ~' ou like to be ... _..................... actOr? 6 Do you collect .......................... stamps: 7 \,(lhat _.............. _ ........ bea utifu l ga rden ! . S .......... _.... birds. for example the penguin, cannot fly. 9 Do you en joy going to ....................... concens? 10 I\'e been walking for three hours. I've got ....... _ ... sore feet. II I don't feel \'er~' well this morni ng. I've got .......................... sore throat . 12 ~ I aria speaks .............. _ En glish. bur nor very much . 13 It's a pity we don't have ........................ camera. I'd like to rake ............... _......... photograph of tha t house. 1-1 Those 3re ................. nice shoes. Where did you get them? 15 I' m going shopping. I want to buy . new sh(){'s. 16 You need ......... _..... ......... vIsa to \']S]t .... .................. countries, but not 311 of them, 17 Ja ne is ........... teacher. Her parents were . ............... teachers too, IS I don't believe him, He's ............ liar, He's always telling ..... __ .. lies .

143


Unit

72

A/an and the Study th is example: I had a sandwich and an apple fOr lunch. The sandwich wasn't very good,

but the apple was nice. r---'"

Joe says'3 sa ndwich', 'an apple' because this is the first ti me he tal ks about them.

Joe now says ' the sandwich', ' the apple' because Karen knows which sandwich and which apple he means - the sa ndwich and the apple that he had for lunch.

JOF.

Compare a and the in these exa mples: o A man and a woman WCf C sitting opposite me. T he man was America n, bu t I think the woman was British. o When we were on holiday, we stayed at a hotel. Sometimes we ate at the hotel and sometimes we went to a restaurant.

We use the when we are thinking of a specific thing. Com pare ala n and the: o li m Sa t down o n a chair. (perhaps one of many chairs in the room ) Tim sa t down on the chair nearest the door. (a specific chai r) o Paula is looking for a job. (not a specific job) Did Paula get the job she applied for ? (a specific job) o Have you gOt a ca r? (not a specific car) I cleaned the ca r yesterday. (= my car) We use the w hen it is clea r in the situation w hich thing o r person we mea n. For exa mple, in a room we talk about the light I the Hoor I the ceili ng I the door I lhe ca rpet etc. : o Ca n yOll rurn off [he light. please?' 1= the light in this room) o I took a taxi to the station. 1= the station in tha t town ) a (in a shop) I'd like to speak to the manager, please. (= the manager of this shop ) In the same way, we say (go to) the bank, the post office: a I have to go to the bank a nd then I'm goi ng to the pOSt office. (The s peaker is usually thinking of a specific bank or post office.) We also sa y (go to ) the doctor I the dentist: o Caroli ne isn't very well. She's gone to the doctor. (= her usual doctor) o 1 don't like going to the dentist. Compare the and a: o I have to go to the bank today. Is there a bank near he re? o I don't li ke going to the dentist. My siste r is a dentist. We say 'once a week I three times a day I ÂŁ 1.50 a kilo' etc. : o ' How often do you go to the cinema?' ' About once a month.' o ' H ow much are those potatoes?' ' ÂŁ 1.50 a ki lo .' o Helen works eight hours a day. six days a week.

144

Alan - Uni t 7 1 The - Un its 73-78


Exercises 72.1

Unit 72

Put in alan or the. I This morning I bought ._~__ newspaper and .. _. ___ ... __ magazine . .______ newspa per is In my bag, but I can't remember where I pur _. ___ magazine. 1 J Sl W __ .___ ._ accidem this morning. _____ "_ ca r crashed inro _. ___ ". ___ tree. _. __ driver of _____ car wasn't hun. but ____ car was badly damaged. 3 There are tWO cars parked outside: __ ._ _ blue one and ____ grey one. blue onc belongs to my neighbours: I don't know who __ .___ owner of ._. ____ grey onc is. 4 ~ t r friends live in ____ old house in ____ small village. The re is _ _ _ beau tiful garden behi nd _._ .. ____ .. _.. house. I would Jike to have .__ .. _. ____ ga rden like that. n' _ _

72 .2 Put in a/a n or the. 1 a This house is vcry nke. Has it got _ ..... garden? b If's a beautiful day. l et's sit in ............. ga rden. ................ garden is so small. c I like living in rhis house, bur it's a pity that 2 a Ca n rou recom mend .... _ .................... good restauranr ? b We h3d dinner in ......... _._ ............ \'e r~' nice resraunlnt. c We had dinner in ... _..... ..... besr restaurant in town. 3 a She has ...... _.. __ ........... _. French name. but in fact she·s English, not French. b What's ...... __ ........... name of that man we met resterdar? c We stayed at a very nice hotel- I can't remember __ .. _._._. ___ name now, 4 a There isn't _~.~"_._._ airport nea r wRere I live, __ .___ nearest airpo rt is 70 miles away, b Our flight was delayed. \X'e had (Q wait at _ _ _ .. airport for three hou rs, c Excuse me, please, Ca n you tell me how to get (Q ____ .____ airport? j a 'Are you goi ng away next week ?' ';":0. ______ week after nex t: b I'm goi ng awa~' for _ _ _ _ week in September. c Gary has a parr-ti me job, He works three mornings __.___ week,

72,3

Put in a/an or the where necessary, I \'('ou ld you like ~ 2 How o fren do ~' o u go to dentist? 3 Could you close door, please ? 4 I' m sorry. I didn't mean to do that. It was mista ke, j Excuse me, where is bus sta tion, please? 6 I ha\·e problem, Can you help me? 7 I'm JUSt going to POSt office. I won·t be long, 8 There were no chai rs, so we sat on floo r. 9 H.~I\·e you finished with book f lent ~·Oll? 10 ~t y sister ha s JUSt gOt iob in bank in ~·tan c h estc r. 11 We li\'e in small flat in ci ty centre. 12 There's supermarket at end of meet I Jive in,

72.4 Answer these questions about yourself. Where possible, use the structure in Section 0 (once a week I three times a day etc.). I How often do ~'ou go to the cinema? Th!~Q-:_~!,"_~~~~~~-,-2 How much does it COSt to hire a car in your countr)' ? __Abot.tUZ.O G. d..oJj . 3 How often do you go to the ci nema? ________ .__ __ _ ._ __ _. ____ ... __ _ 4 How often do you go away on holiday? ._. ___ .. _ j What's the usual speed limit in towns in you r coumry? __ ~. ____ .___ ._ _ .~ ... ~ __ .__ .... ~.~._ .. __ 6 How much sleep do rou need? ._. __ ._.~ ____ ._.. ~ ... _ .___ .~_._. __ .~ .... __.__ .~ ...... _.... _._.~ ....... _.~ ....... _......... ~ __ ... ~ __ _ 7 How often do you go ou t in rhe evening? .... _. ..... ~_ ............. ~ ........................ _._ .......... ~ __ ........ ~. __ .__ ._._._ 8 How much television do ~'o u watch (on average )? ................. _......... __ ~ ............. _ .. ~ .... ~ .. __ .~. __._.___ ._._. __..__ ...... Additional exercise 29 (page 319)

145


The 1 We usc the when there is o nly one of something: o What is the longest river in the world? (there is only one longest ri\'er) o The ea rth goes round the sun and the moon goes round the earth. a Have you ever crossed the equator ? o I'm going away at the end of this month. Don', (orger the: o Paris is the capital of France. ('lot Paris is capira l of ... ) Bur we use alan to say what kind o f thing something is (see Unit 7 1B). Com pare the and a: o The sun is a sta r. (= one of many stars) o The hotel we stayed at was a very nice hotel. We say: the sky, the sea, the ground, the 'c oumry, the environment . o We looked up at all the stars in the sky. (1I0t in sky) o Would you like to live in the country? (= not in a town) o We must do more to protect th e environment. (= the natu ral world around us)

But we say space (without the) when we mean 'space in the universe'. Compare: o T here are millions of stars in space. (n ot in the space) o I tried to park my ca r, but the space was tOO small . We use the before same (the same): o Your pullover is the same colou r as mine. (" o t is same colour) o 'A re these keys the same ?' 'No, they' re different: We say: (go to) the cinema, the theatre. o I go to the cinema a lot, but I haven't been to the theatre for ages. When we say the cinema I the theatre, we do not necessari ly mea n a specific cinema or thearre. We usuall y say the radio, but television (without the ). Compare: o J listen to th e radio a lot. hilt I watch television a lor. o We hea rd the news on the radio. bllt We watched the news on tele\路ision. The television = the television set: o Can you rum off the television, please? Breakfast

lunch

dinner

We do 1I0t normally usc the with the names of meals (breakfast, lunch etc.): o What did you have for breakfast ? o We had lunch in a vcr)' nice restaurant. o What rime is dinner ? But we usc a if there is an adjective before. breakfast, lunch etc. : o We had a very nice lunch. (not We had very nice lunch ) Platform 5

Room 126 etc.

We do no t use the before " 0 1111 + nWllber. For example, we say: o Our train leaves from Platform 5 . (1I0t the Platform 5) o (in a slJop) Have you gOt these shoes in size 43 ? (1Iot the size 43) In the sa me way, we say: Room 126 (in a hotel ), page 29 (of a book), question 3 (in an exam), Gate 10 (at an a irport) etc.

146

A/an and the -

Unit 72

The 2-4 ..... Un its 74 - 76

Names wi th and withou t the -

Un its 77-78


Exercises

Unit 73

73 .1 Put in the or ala n where necessary. If no word is necessa ry, leave the space e mpty.

_-=-.

I .-\: \X!here did you han' lunch? 8, \'\'e wenr to ~*.~._. resrauranr. 1 .... : Did you have _____ nice holiday? 8, Yes. il was best holiday rye ever had. 3 .-\: Where's nearest shop? 8:

There's one at

end of this street .

..J A: Do you otten lislen to ____ .'** radio? B: :-;0. In fact I haven't gOI ____ .. ~_ radio . . 5 A: Wou ld you like to tra\'el in .. __ 'H ____ ._. space? B: Yes. I'd lon~ co go to **.*...* _ _ ._" moon. 6 ,\: Do you go [0 ._..... _.*........* ... ci nema H'ry often? 8, :\"0. not vcry often. But I watch a lor of fi lms on ............. _* .. television. 7 .. : It was ._......... _._ ......... nice da~' yesterday, wasn 't it ? 8, Yes. it wa s beautiful. \'\'e went for a walk b~' ........ sea. 8 :\: \'(' ha t did ~'OU ha ve for ............................ brea kfast th is morning? s: Nothing. I never eat ............................ breakfast.

9

.~:

Excuse me. where is .....

H ... _

•••• _

.......

Room 25. please:

h 's on .... _.................... second floo r. 10 .... : We spent a ll our money because we stayed ar .__ .... _._. ___ most expensive hotel in town. s: W hy didn't ~'ou Slay at _. _ _ _ cheaper norel? B:

73 .2

Put in t he where necessary. If you don't need th e, leave the space empty. tl1e cmema ' . ages. t en 10 ~ ______ tor 11 "uaven -be 1 I lay down on _____ g round a nd looked up a t ___ .. _... _ sky. 3 Sara h spends most of her free time watching ______ ._ television. 4 _ _ _ _ teJe\'isio n was on . bur nobody was walching it. 5 Lisa a nd I arrived ar __ .... ___ same rime. 6 H a\"l~ you had .H_...H. ___ ........ dinner ~'et? - You'lI nnd .. _.... informa tion you need ar ___ .. _ .. _._._. top of .. _........ ____ page 15. 8 What's .................. _....... capital c ity of Canada: _.H._.H._

73 .3

Put in t he or a/a n where necessary. (See Unit 72 for a/an and the if necessary.)

~ is.m.s ..... Th.~....~.~!"!.... ~~.....~....~.~ .,.. ............................ ........ _............................ Paul lives in small \'illage in country. . ................. ....................... .\Ioon goes round ea rth evcry 27 da ys. ........................ _ ........................ _.~ ............. _....... ................... _ I'm fed up with do ing sa me thing every day. ................... _....... _._ .......... _._._ ....... _...... _............. _....... _.... _. __ ........ Ir was \'ery hot da .\·. It was hon est day of year.' ............. _... _...................... _........................................ _._ .. _ I don'r usually ha\'e lunch, bur I a lways eat good breakfast. _.. _........ _.. If you li\'e in fore ign country. you should try and learn language. __ .... 8 \'('e missed ou r Irain beca use we were waiting o n wrong platform." _____ ~. ________ .__ .__ _ 9 :\"ext uain 10 London lea\'cs from Platform 3. _._.-... ___ .__ _ I 2 3 4 5 6

H ..... _

. . . . _ . _ _ . . . . . . . . H . . . H •••• _ _

H ••• H . . . . . . . . . . . _

73.4

••• H . H •••••• _

••• _ • • • • _

...._

... _ . _ _

Complete Ihe senlences using the fo llowing. Use the where necessary.

1 3 4 5 6 7 -

•• _H.H ......... _

breakfast ci ncma -dinnergatc Gate 21 question 8 sea .\ . L ' . ~. 'y r dU'lnu . ."\re you gomg OUt lOIS cvenmg. eSt a ter __ .___ .__ . There was no wind. so _ .... ____ ._._. ______ was ver), calm. The lest wasn't 100 difficult. but I couldn't answer .. _____ ._______ _ 'r m going to _ ... _.~_. ______ .. _ ....... ____ ._ tonight. ' 'Are rou? What are you going to see?' I didn't ha ve time for _.... ___ .......... ~. __ ......... _......... ~ .. this morni ng beca use I was in a hu rry. O h, .. _.. _. __ .. _._ .... ___ .... __ ........ __ ..... _ is open. I must h,l\'e fo rgotten to shut it. (a irport atll/OII1lCemel1t) Flight AB I 23 to Rome is now boarding at ...... ____ ._._. ___ ._................ _....

Additional exercise 29 (page 319)

147


Unit

74

The 2 (school/the school etc.) Compare school and the school: ALISO."

Alison is ten years old. Every day she goes to school. She's at school now. School begins at 9 and fini shes at 3 . .

Today Alison 's mother wa nrs 10 spea k to her daughter's teacher. So she has gone to the school to see her. She's at the school now.

We say ;1 child goes to school or is at school (as a pupil ). We a f C not nccessari1r think ing of a specific school. We afC th in king of school as a general idea.

Alison's mother is not 3 pupil. She is nOt 'at schoor. she doesn't 'go to school'. If she wants 10 see Alison's teacher, she goes to th e school (= Alison's school, a speci fic bu ildi ngl.

We use prison, hospital, university, college and church in a simi lar way. We do not use the when we a fC th inking o f the genera l idea of these places and what they are used for. Compa re: o Ken went ro the prison to visi t his brother. (He went as a \'isitor, nor as a prisoner. I ::J Jane has gone ro the hospital to visit Joe. She's at the hospital now. (as a \'i siror!

o Ken's brother is in prison for robbery. (He is a prisoner. We arc not thi nki ng of a specific prison.) a Joe had an accident last week. He was taken to hospital. He's still in hospital now. (as a patient ) o When I leave school, I want ro go to universi ty/College. o Sa lly's fat her goes to church e\"ery Sunday. (to a religious se rvice)

o Excuse me, where is the uni versity. please? (= the university buildings) o Some workmen went ro the church ro repair the roof. (nOI for a religious ser\'ice )

With most other places, you need the. For example, the cinema, the bank (see Units 72C and 73D). Bed

work

home

We say go to bed I be in bed etc. (llot the bed ): D It 's time ro go to bed now. D Do you ever have brea kfast in bed ? bllt 0 I sa t down on the bed . (a specific piece of furn itu re) go to work I be at work I start work I finish work etc, ("ot the work ): o Chris didn't go to work yesterday. o What time do you usually fi nish work ? go home I come home I arrive home I get home I be at home etc, : o It's late. l et's go home. o Will you be at home tomorrow afternoon? We say go to sea J be at sea (without thel w hen the mea ning is 'go/be on a voyage': o Keith works on ships. He is at sea most of the ti me. bllt 0 I'd li ke to live nca r the sea . D It ca n be dangerous ro swim in the sea.

148

The -- Un its 72 - 73, 75- 78 Prepositions (at school American English "'" Appcndix 7

I in

hospital etc.) -

Un its 123 - 125

Home -- Unit 12G[


Exercises

Unit 74

74. 1 Com pl ete each sentence usi ng a preposition (to/at/in etc.) + onc of these words :

bed 1 3 4 5 6 7 8

home

-hespttal-

hospital

prison

school

university

work

Two people were injured in the accident and were laken .. ~.~....b.9..~~ .................... _................................ In Britain, children from the age of five have to go ................................................. _ ..................... .\ 'lark didn't go our last night. He stayed ....... __.... _ There is a lot of traffic in the morning when everybody is going ......... ............................ Cathy's mother has just had an operation. She is still When Julia [eaves school, she wants to study econom ics ................................................................................................ . Bill never gets up before 9 o'clock. It's 8.30 now, so he is still If you commit a serious crime, you could be sent ..._ ............................... _......... ............................

74.2 Complete the scntences with the word given (school etc.). Use the whe re necessary. I (school) a Every term parents are invited to . .. !;!1.~....s..~.99.~ ... to meet the teachers. b Why aren't )'our children at ..... ~~.9.9~ ... today? Are they ill? c When he was ~'ounger, Ted hated .......................... _ ................................. d What time does ....................... ....... usually sta rt in the mornings in yo ur cou ntry? e . . . : How do your children get home from ...................... _ ..... ? By bus? B: No, t he~' walk. ...... ..................... ........................... isn't very far. f \X' hat SOrt of job does Jenny want to do when she leaves ? g There were some people wa iting outside ............... _._... .......... _... _....._ ... to meet their children.

2 (un iversity) a In your country do many people go [0 .... .....................• ) b If you want to get a degree, ~'ou normally have to stud~' at ...................... .................... . c This is only a small [Own, but ...... . ............................ is one of the biggest in the country. 3 (hospital) a :\'Iy brother has alwa~'s been \'ery healthy. He's never been in ................... ............................................. . b When Ann was ill, I went to ..... ................... ................... to visit her. When I was there, I met Lisa who is a nurse at .................................................................... _ . c Peter was injured in an accident and was kept in .......................... ....................... for a few days. 4 (ch urch) a John's mother is a regular churChgoer. She goes to ..................................................._._ .... every Sunday. b John himself doesn't go to ...................... _ ................... _.......... c John went to to take some photographs of the build ing.

S (prison) a In some places people are in . . ...................;.... _ ......................... because of their political beliefs. b A few dars ago the fire brigade were ca lled [Q .................................................................... to pur out a fire. c The judge decided to fine the man £500 instead of sending him [0 ... ....... .................... ................

6 (home/work/bed) a I like to read in ........ .............. ...................... before I go to sleep. b It's nice to travel around, but there's no place like ............................................................ ! c Shall we meet after ......................................... ....................... tomorrow evening? d If I'm feeling tired, I go to . ............................. ................................ early. e What time do you usually start ..................... _............................ __ ..... in the morning? f The economic situation was very bad. Many people were out of ...................................... 7 (sea) a There's a nice view from the window. You can see b It was a long voyage. We were at ... ....................................................... _. for fou r weeks. c I love swimmi ng in .

- Additional exercise 29 (page 319)

149


Unit

75

The 3 (children / the children) When we are talking abou t things or peop le in genera l, we do fto t use the: o I' m afraid of dogs. (no t the dogs) (dogs dogs in genera l, not a specific grou p of dogs) o Doctors are paid more than teachers. o Do you collect stamps? o Crime is a problem in most big cities. (no t The crime) o Life has changed a 101 in the last fhirry yea rs. (flot The life) o Do you like classical music I Chinese food I fast cars? o My favourite sport is football/skiing/athletics. o My favourite subject at school was history/physics/English.

=

We say ' man people I most books I most cars' erc. (not the most ... J: o Most hotels accept credit cards. (Ilot The most hotels) We use the when we mean specific things o r people. Com pare:

/11 general (without the )

Specific IJeolJle or r!Jillgs (wirh thc)

o C hildren learn from playing. (= chi ldren in general )

o \'(/e rook the children to the zoo. (= a specific group. perhaps the speaker's children )

o I couldn 't li ve without music.

o The film \\,asn'r \'e r ~' good, but I liked the music. (= the mu sic in the film )

o All cars have wheels.

o All the cars in this car park belong to people who work here.

o Sugar isn't very good for you.

o Can you pass the sugar. ple3se~ (= the sugar on the table )

o English people drink a lot of tca. (= English people in general )

o T he Engl ish people I know drink a lot of tea. (= only the English people I know. not English people in genera l)

The difference between 'something in genera l' and 'something specific' is not always very dear. Compare: III general (wi thout the)

SIJecific people or things (with the )

o I like working with people. (= people in general) o J like work ing with people who are lively. (nor all people, bur 'people who are lively' is still a general idea) .

o I like the peopl e I work with. (= a specific group of people )

o Do you like coffee? (= coffee in general) o Do you like Strong black coffee? (not all coffee, bur 'strong black coffee' is still a general idea)

150

The 1-2 _ Units 73-74

The + adjective (the young

o Did you like the coffee we had after dinner last night ? (= specific coffee )

I the English etc.l -

Uni t 76


Exercises 75.1

Unit 75

Choose four of the se thlllgs and write whether you like them or not:

boxing malhs

cats opera

fas t food restaurants small children

football rock music

-hol- west,herzoos

Begin each sentence with onc of these :

(like ... I I don't like ... I love ... I I hale ...

I don't mind ..• I'm interested in '" 1 I'm not interested in _..

_L4g., 't kk~-12Q.;.._~~~_~~.a._~:.~~td1 ,..,.. ___._._____.____.__.____.__.__.__.__......__.............__.__ _ 2 ..•.... ____________ .____.____.___ ... ___ .. __ ..• _..___ ...... __ .•.•.. __.____.____.__._____ .. __ ". __ .____ _

75.2

COnl lllete the sentences using the forrowing. Use the where necessary.

flhet-bas ketball{rhe) questions /thc) history

rlh e) grass (the l meat (thc ) water

(rhe) p:lIicncc

-ffhe+-informalion· (the ) spiders

(the) people (the) shops (the) lies

~Iy favo urite spon

2 3 4

5 6 S 9 10 II 1.2 75.3

is .. _.~.~~ .@.~ ... _ . ..,JJ:').!;:....~.~r.!r..~.~...., we were g1\'en wasn·t correer. Some people are afraid of .......... ___........ _. ___ ..... __..__ ................ _... A H"getarian is somebody who doesn"t eat .,.... _... ......... _._._ .......... _. . The test wasn't \'ery difficull. J answered ._...... ___ ... _." ... _. __ .. ___ .~. _____ .. without difficulty. Do you know ,..... ________________. who Jj\'e next door? _. _____ . _____ is the study of Ihe past. George ;llways tells the truth, He ne\'er tells .___ ... _. ________._____ , It was late when we arrh'ed in the IOwn, and ___._ _ .________ were shut, __ "__ ~_ ... ____ ... ______ in the pool didn"t look very clean, so we didn't go for a swim, Don", sit on ____ ... ___ ._. ________ . It 's wet after the rain, You need ._.. _ .... _... __ .*... _ _ .. __ ._.... _._ ....... _ 10 teach young childrcn.

Choose the correct form, with or without the.

r m afraid of do~s I-Ihe-dogs: t.d.Qgs, is correct ) Can ~·ou pass."h I rhe salt, please? (tbe sa lt is correct) Apples I T he apples are good fo r you. Look at apples I the apples on that tree! T hey're \"ery big. \X'omen (The wOlllen Jj\'e longer than men I the Oleo, 1 don't drink [eal tbe rea, I don"t like it. We had a vcry good meal. Vegetables I The vegetables were especia lly good. Life {The life is st range sometimes. Some very strange things happeo. I like skjjo~ I rhe skjimL~' but rm not very good at it. \'(/ho arc people I tbe people in this photograph? What makes people I the people violent? Whar causes a~~ressio!ll the il,,~ressjo!l? All books I All the books on the tOP shelf belong TO me. Dan', stay in that hotel. Ir's very nois)' and beds I (he beds are very uncomfortable. :\ pacifist is somebody who is against war I (he war. Fim World War I The Fim World War lasted from 1914 until 19 18. r d like to go to Eg)'pt and see Pvra mjds I the Pnilmjds. 1- Someone gave me a book about history I thc his[Q[\' of modern an I the modern 3rt, 18 Ron and Brenda got married, but marrjaGe I (he marria~e didn't last very long. 19 '\'Iost people I The most people bel ieve that marriage I [he Olil[[ia~c ilnd fami ly life I the family life are the basis of sociw' I the society" 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 S 9 10 11 11 13 H 15 16

..... Additional exercise 29 {page 3t9}

151


Unit

76

The 4 (the giraffe / the telephone / the piano etc. ; the + adj ective) Study o o D o

these sentences: The giraffe is the tallest of alt animals. The bicycle is an excellent means of transport . When was the telephone invented? The dollar is the cu rrency (= the mone),) of the United States.

In these exa mples. the ... does not mean one specific thing. The giraffe = a specific type of animal , not a specific giraffe. We use [he (+ si ngular countable noun) in this way to talk about a type o f an imal , machine etc. In the same way we use the for musical instruments: o Can you pla y the gu itar? o The piano is my favo urite insrrumen t.

Compare a and the: o I'd like to have a piano. o We saw a giraffe at the zoo.

bllt bllt

I can't pla y the pian o. The girafre is my favou ri te ani mal.

Note that we use man (= human beings in general I the human race) withou t the: o What do you know about the origins of man? (llot the man ) The + ad jective We use the + adjective (wi thout a noun ) to talk abou t groups of people, especiall y: th e young the old the elderl y

th e rich the poor the ho meless

the sick the disabled the un employed

the blind the deaf

the injured th e dead

=

The young = young people, th e rich rich people etc. : o Do you think the rich should pay higher taxes? o The govern men t has promised to pr{)\'ide more money to help the homel ess. These expressions arc always pillral in mea ning. For example, you can not say 'a young' or 'the injured' for o ne person. You must say 'a roung person ', ' the inju red woman ' etc. Note that we say 'the poor' (not the poors), 'the young' (no t the you ngs) etc, The + nationa lity You ca n usc the + nationality ad jectives rhar end in -ch or -sh (th e French I the English I th e Spanish etc.) The mean ing is ' the people of that country': o T he French are famous fo r their food, 1= the people of France) The French I the English etc. are plural in meaning. We do not say 'a French I an English', You have to say a Frenchman I an Englishwoman etc. You can also use the + nationality words end ing in -esc (the Chinese I the Sudanese I the Japa nese etc,): o T he C hinese invented printing. But these words can also be singular (a Ja panese, a Sudanese etc.). Also a Swiss (si ngular) and the Swiss (= the people o f Switzerland ) With other nationalities, the plural noun ends in -so f or exa mple: an Italian ..... Italians a M exican - Mexicans a Turk ..... Turks With these words (Itali ans etc. ), we do not normally use the to ralk about the people in general (see Unit 75).

152

A/an and the ..... Un it 72

The 1-3"" Units 73 - 75

Names with and without the -

Un its 77- 78


Exercises

Unit 76

76.1 Answer the questions. Choose the right answer from the box. Don't forget the. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 1 3 4

birds

,1IIim" fs

tiger

elephant

rabbi t

cheetah

gi raffe

kangaroo

I a b c 2 ;1

rcllrrencies ---,

invelltiOlls

eagle swa n parrot

penguin

telephone

0 \\"1

telescope

wheel laser

eura

robin

helicopter

rypew nrer

rou ble yen

dollar

peso ru pee

.....~.~... 9!!~m

\,\' hich \X' hich \X' hich Which

o f the an imals is tallest? animal can run fastest? of these :m irnal s is found in Australia? of these birds has a long neck? b \X1hich of these birds can not ny? c \X1hi..:h bird flie s at night?

3 a \X' hic h of these invemions is oldest? b c 4 a b c 76.2

\X/hich one is most recent: \X' hich one was especiall~' im porta nt for astronomy? Wha t is the currenc~' o f Ind ia ? \X' hat is the currency of Canada? And the cu rrency o f ~' our couorr~' ?

Put in t he or a. \Vhen wa s. the telephone im'eored? 1 Can you play ............................ musical instrument: 3 Jill plays ... \'iolin in an o rc hestra. 4 There was ,... . . piano in the corner of the room. 5 Can you pla~' ...... _... plano: 6 Our society is based on . ____ ...... fa m i l~路. 7 \lartin comes from __.................... _.. large fam il y. S ._._.. _..... _........... compu ter has changed the way we li \"e.

76.3 Complete these sentences using t he + the followi ng : injured poor rich sick unem ployed

-)'QUAg-

......Th.~.. B.1>Y:.n9. ...

1

3 4

5 76.4

ha\'e the future in thei r hands. Ambulances arrived at the scene of the accident and took . ................................ to hospital. Life is all right if ~'ou ha\'e a job, but th ings arc not so easy fo r . Julia has been a nurse a ll her life. She has spent her life caring for ...... ........................... In England there ;s an old srory about a man called Ro bi n Hood. It is said that he robbed .................... .............. and gave the mo ney to .................................. _._ .................. _ .

What do you call the people of these co un t ries? a ile

2 3 4

; 6 7

8

Ca nada Germany France Russia China Bra zil England and your country

l}erSOIl

(alan ... J

....Jt._..(p..n.~ .......................

the I}eaple i,l general ..(,.o.,n.~;? .................................. .

153


Unit

77

Names with and without the 1 We do ftot use the with names of people (, He len ', ' Helen Taylor' etc.), In the sa me way, we do normally usc the with names of places. For exam ple:

110 1

CQll/illel1ts

cQ llllfries. states etc.

islands cities. t OW/IS etc. mounlains

Africa (llot the Africa ), Europe. South America France (1Iot rhe France). Japan. Swi tzerland, Texas Sicily. Bermuda. Tasman ia Cai ro, New York. Bangkok Everest, Etna. Ki lima nja ro

But we use the in llaE!lcs with Republic, Kingdom, States etc. : thc Czech Republic thc United Kingdom (the UK) thc Dominica n Republic the United Stalcs of America (th c USA) Compare: o Ha ve you been to Canada o r the United States ? When we use MrlMrs/Captain/Doctor erc. + a name, we do not use the. $0 we sa y: Mr J oh nson f Doctor Johnson I Captain Johnson I President J o hnson etc. (no t the ... ) Uncle Raben I Sai nt Catherine I Princess Mari a etc. (not the ... ) Compa re: o We ca lled the doctor. We called Docto r Johnson. ('lo t the Doctor J oh nson) We usc mo unt (= mountain) and lake in the same way (withou t the): Mount Everest (ll o t the ... J Mount Erna La ke Superior l ake Consta nce o They live near the lake. They live near Lake Consta nce. (1Iot the Lake Consta nce) We use the the the

the wi th the names of ocea ns, seas, rivers and canals: Atlantic (Ocea n) the Red Sea the Amazon Indian Ocean the Channel (between the Nile Mediterranean (Sea) France and Britain ) the Suez Cana l

We use the with the names of descns: the Saha ra (Desert ) the Gobi Oesen We usc the with 1)lural names of people and places:

people count ries g rolll}S of islands 1II01lllt(lill ranges

o

th e Ta ylors (= rhe Tay lor fam il y), th c Joh nsons th e Netherlands, th e Philippi nes. the United Sta res Ih e Canaries I lhe Cana ry Isl:lilds. the Bahalll:ls th e Rocky ~\'l ountains I the Rockies. the Andes. the Alps

The highest mountain in the Al ps is Mont Blanc.

We say: b ll t no nhern Brazi l (witho llt the) the north (of Brazil) the south路 east (of Spain ) b llt south-eastern Spai n Com pare: o Sweden is in no rthern Europe; Spain is in the south . Also the M iddle EaSt, the Far EaSt We also usc no rth/south etc. (wi thout the) in the names of some regions and countries: North America South Africa Note tha t o n ma ps, the is not usually included in [he name.

154

Names with and without the 2 ...... Unit 78


Exercises

Unit 77

77 .1 Put in the where necessary. Leave the space em pty if the sCn tenCt: is already complete. I \X' ho is . n. Doctor Johnson: (the sentence is com/J/ete without the) 1 [was ill, so I wem to sec ,._ ...... docror. 3 The most powerful person in ............... .......... Uni ted Sta tes is .

4

........ Presidenr Kennedy

5 Do ~'Oll know ..." 6 Do you know

InlS

.......... president.

assassinared in 1963 .

...... \,\' ilsotls? They're a very nice couple. ...... Professor Brown's phone number ?

77 .2 Some of these sentences are correct, but some need t he (someti mes more than once), Correct

the sentences where necessary. 1 herest was first climbed in 1953. 2 .\ Ii lan is ~ of h al~路. 3 .-\irica is much larger than Europe. 4 La st year I visited ~ I exico and United Srares. 5 South o t" England is warmer rhan north. 6 Portugal is in western Europe. - France and Brirain are sepa ra ted by Channel. S Jim has travelled a [at in ~ I iddle Ea st. 9 C hicago is on Lake ~ I ichigan. 10 :\"ext yea r we're going skiing in Swiss Alps. [I UK consists of Grea t Britain and Northern [ TI.~land. 11 S('~'chelles are a g roup of islands in Indian Ocean. 13 Africa's highest mountain is Kiliman jaro (5895 metres\. 14 Ri"er Volga flow s inro Caspian Sea.

._. m....#'!.~ . ~.9..tj;h ..Qf..J~ ........................._.. .

77.3 Here are some geography questions. Choose the right answer from one of the boxes and write the if necessary. You do not need all the names in the boxes. Use an atlas if necessary.

2 3 -4 5 6 S 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

cOlltinellts

cOlllltries

ocealls alla seas

/1101l1/lains

rillers ana callaIs

:\fri.::a Asia Au str;tlia Europe :\"orrh America Sou th Ame rica

Canada Denmark Indonesia Sweden Thailand Unired Sra res

~a--Atic-

Alps Andes H imalayas Rockies Urals

Rhine Amazon Danube T hames Nile Volga Suez Cana l Panama Canal

Indian Ocean Pacific Black Sea ~ I edirerranean

Red Sea

What do you have to cross to rra vel from Europe to America? ..t:lJg, ....A~.~ \X' here is Argentina ~ .................... _ ........, ... Which is rhe longest river in Mrica? ... ........................................................................... Of which country is Stockholm the capital? Of which country is Wash ingron the capital? What is the name of rhe mountain range in the west of North America? What is the name of rhe sea berween Africa and Europe? Which is the smallest cominem in the world? ...................................... Whar is the name of rhe ocean between North America and Asia? What is t he name of tht.' oct.'an between Africa and Australia? W hich river flows through Londo n ? Which river flows through Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade? ........................... _... Of which country is Bangkok the ca pital ? ..................... What joi ns rhe Atlantic and Pacific Oceans? .................... Wh ich is the longest river in South America?

155


Names with and without the 2 Names without the We do not use the with na mes of most city srrccrs/roadslsq uareslpa rks etc. : Wall Street (no t the ... ) Fifth Avenue H yde Park Queens Road Broadway Ti mes Square Na mes of impon a nr public buildings and institutions ffor example, ai rpons, stations, universities) are often n vo words: Manchester Airport H a rvard University The fi rst word is the na me of a place ("M a nchester') or a person (' Harva rd'). These names a re usuall y without the. In the same way, we say: Victoria Sta tion (/l ot the ... ) Can terbury Cat hedral Edinburgh Caslle Buckingham Palace Cambridge University Sydney H arbour Compa re: Buckingham Palace (1I0 t the .. . j bllt the Royal Palace ('Royal ' is a n adjective - it is not a na me li ke 'Buckingha m', ) Most other buildings ha ve names with the, For example:

hotelslres taII ra fitS theatres/Cjllemas m IIselll1lslgalferies ollJer buildings

the the the the

Sheraton Hotel, the Bombay Resta ura nt, the Ho liday Inn Pa lace T heatre, the O deon (ci nema 1 Guggenheim Museu m, the Hayward Gallery Empire State (Building), the \'(/hite H ouse, the Eiffe\ Tower

We often leave out the no un: the Sheraton (H otel ) the Palace (The-am :)

the G uggenheim

( ~Iu seum)

Some names a re only the + 1101111, fo r exam ple: the Acropolis the Kremlin the Pentagon Names with of usually have the. For exa mple: the Bank of Engla nd the Museum or Modern An the Great Wall of China the Tower of London Note that we sa y: the Uni versity o f Cambridge

but

Cambridge Uni versity (withollt th e)

Ma ny shops, restaurants, hotels, banks etc. arc na med aft er the people who starred them, These na mes end in 路's o r -5. We do not usc the with these names: lloyds Bank (I/ ot the .. ,) Brown's Restau rant Macy's (de partment store) Chu rches a re o ften na med after saints: St John 's Church (llo t the St Johns C hurch)

St Pa trick's Cathedral

Most newspa pers and many organisations ha ve names with the:

newspapers orgoltisatiollS

th e Wash ingtOn POSt, the Financial Ti mes. the Sun the European Union, the SSC 1= Brit ish Bro;ldcasring Corpora tion I, the Red Cross

Na mes of com pa nies, airlines etc. a rc usually without the: Fiat (not the Fiat ) Sony British Airways Kodak IBM Yale Uni\'ersity Press

156

Names with and withou t the 1 - Unil 77


Exercises 78.1

Unit 78

Usc the map to answer the quest ions. Write the na me of t he place and t he street it is in . Use th e if necessa ry. (Remember that on ma ps we do not norm ally use the.)

2 3 4

Is there a cinema near here? Is there a supermarket near here:

Is there a hotel nea T here?

6 7

Is there a ch urch Is there a museum Is there a bookshop Is there a park

8

Is rhere a restau rant neaf here?

5

near nea r near near

here? here? here? here:

Yes. ...... ~.~.. _ P4_~.r.! . ~ . ~.~ .~.t _.~ !:r_t!&_~ ..............................._ . Yes, ...................................... _.... , ...... in Yes, ... __ ._ .................................... In ........................................................ Yes, ............................... Yes, ..................................

Yes, ..... _ Yes, .....

............................................. ilt

{he end of

There are two. 0' .

78 .2 Where are the following? Use the where necessary. Acropoli s Broadway Bu ckingham Palace Kremli n \'\'hile Ho use G alwick Ai rpo n .....T\1.'!!.~.:'!....~'!.: fI:!.~ ... is in :-':cw York . ......... ..................... is in Pa ris. is in London. 4 ........ _......... .................... _ ........ is in \X'ashingron.

2 3

Eiffc1 To wer -l=imes-SquaFe-

5 ........................................... 6 7

8 ....................................

. .., is in Moscow. ........... is in New York. .... ............................ is in Athens. ................................. is near London.

78 .3 Choose t he correct fo rm, with or withou t th e. I Havc \'ou e\'er been

to

Bfi tlsh-,\.luseum路/Ihe British Museu m ? (the British M uscum is correct)

1 Hyde Park / The H \'de Pa rk is a very large park in centra l London . 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Another park in centfal London is Sc lames'S Pa rk / the St James's Park. Grand Hotel 1 The G rand Hote l is in Baker Street I the Baker Street. Dublin Ajrport 1 The Dubljn Airoorr is situated about 12 kilometres from the city centre. Frank is a student at Liverpool University I the l.iverpool University. If you're looking for a deparrment store, [ would recommend H arrison's Ilhe Harrison's. If you' re looki ng for a place to have lunch, 1 would recommend Ship Inn 1 the Ship Inn. Sta tue of Li berry I T he Statue of Liberty is at the entrance to New York Harbour I the New York Ha rbour. You shou ld go to Science i\ iuseuID I the Science Museum. [t's very interesting. John works fo r IBM 1 tbe IB." I now. He used to work fo r British Telecom I the British Telecom. 'Which cinema are you going to this evening?' 'Classic (The Classic.' I'd like to go to Ch ina and sec Grear Wall 1 the Grear Wall. 'Which newspaper do you wanr?' ' H wlld I The Herald.' T his book is published by Cambridge Universir\" Press I the Cambridge University Press.

..... AdditIonal exercise 29 (page 319)

15 7


Unit

79

Singular and plural .

Sometimes we use a plural noun for one thing that has twO parts For example-

~~

~

trousers (two legs) also ieansltightslshom/ panrs

r"

pyjamas

(top

Q lld

~ gb sses

~ binocul ars

at/

SCIssors

bottom )

These words are plur,!I , so they take a plural verb: o M y trousers are tOO long. (llot my trousers is) You can also use a pair of + these words:, o Those arc nice jeans. or That's a nice pair of jeans. (llo t a nice jeans) o I need some new glasses. or I need a new pair o f glasses. Some nOll ns end in -ics, but arc not usually plural. For example: athletics economics electronics gymnastics ma lhs 1= mathematics) o Gym nastics is my favourite sport. (llot Gymnastics arc)

phys ics

politics

News is nor plural (see Unit 70B): a What time is the news on television? (llot are the news) Some words ending in ~s can be singular o r plural. For exa mple: means a means of transport many means of transport series a television series twO television series species a species of bird 200 species of bird Some singular nouns are often used with a plural verb. For example: audience commiu ee company family firm go\'ernmenl

staff

team

These nouns are all groups of people. We often think of them as a number of people (= they ), not as one thing (= it). So we o ften usc a plural verb: D The governmenl (= they) want to increase taxes. D The staff at the school (= they) are not happy with their new working condition s. In the same way, we often use a plural verb after the name of a sports team or a company: D Italy arc playing Brazil next week (in a football match). D Shell have increased the price of perrol. A singu lar verb (The government wants ... I Shell has ... etc.) is also possible. We use a plural verb with police: D The police are investigating the murder, but haven't arrested anro ne ~路el. (" ot The police is ... hasn't) Note that we say a police officer I a policeman I a policewoman ( /lo t a police). We do not often use the plura l of person (' persons'). We normall y use people (a plural word l: D He's a nice person. bllt T hey are nice people. (/lo t nice persons) D Many people don 't have enough to eal. (/lOt ~<f a n y people doesn't ) We think o f a sum of money, a period of time, a distance etc. as o"e-thing. So we use a singular verb: D Twenty thousand pounds (= it) was stolen in the robbery. (Il ot were stolen ) D T hree years (= it) is a long time to be without a job. (Ilo t Three yea rs arc) D Six miles is a long wa y to walk every da y.

158

American English .... Appendix 7


Exercises

Unit 79

79.1 Complete each sentence using a word from Sections A or B. Someti mes you need a or some . )

_

.\ ,1)' eyesig hT isn'T ve r~' good . I need ..... 9!:9::s..~.~f?: ..... . A:;."e.cies ' . I I 1..1.. I.. l.. .. ...... .. ... .... .1::.. ... .... .......... IS a group ot :Hllm;l S or p ants [liar ua ve tile same CnaractenstlCS .

3 Footballcrs don't wear trousers when they play. They wea r ._... 4 S 6 -

S There are a lot oi American T V

9 W h ile we were 79.2

,............. ___ ............. _._... _........... .

The bicycle is . ............... of transport. The bicycle and the elf art' . ................ ..................... , of transport. I want to cut this piece of ma teria l. I need ..... .... .................................. . .-\ friend of mine is \\Tiring .... of art icles for the local newspaper. Ollt

__ ______. shown on Bri tish television,

wa lk ing. we saw rnan~' di fferent ,

......... of bird.

In each example the words on the left are connected with an act ivity (for exa mple. a sport or an academic subject) . Write the name of the activity. The begi nn ing of the word is given. ca lculate

a lgebra

equation

2 gove rnment election mlmSter trade employment 3 finance 4 runnrng

throwing ru mpmg g ravity heat 6 exercises somersau lt pa ra llel bars \:omputer si licon c hip \'ideo ga mes

5 light

p

e........ a .... _ ph ..... . gy .......

eL.

79 .3 Choose the correct form of the verb, singular or plu ral. In one sentence eit her the si ngular or plural verb is possible. I Gymn:lstics is I jIft'- m y f:H"ourite SpO rt. (is: is correct) 2 T he trousers you bought fo r me doesn't I do n't fit me. 1 The police wanr I wams to inrervie\\' tWO men about the robbery last week, -+ Ph ysics was 1 were m~' best subject at school. 5 Can I borro\\' ~'our scisso rs~ .\I ine isn"t I aren't sh arp enough . 6 Fo rr unatd~' the news wasn't I w eren't a s bad 3 S w e ex pected, - \X'here d oes I dQ your f'lmily h e: S Three days isn't I are n"t long enough ior a good hol id a~'" 9 J .:::an"r find m~' binoculars. D o ~'OU know where it is 1 the)' are? 10 It's a ni.:::e place to \'isir. The people ~ ver~' friendly. I I Does I D o the police know ho w the accident happened? 12 I do n't like \'ery ho t weather. Thirt~, degret's ~ tOO hot for me,

79 .4

Most of these sen tences are wrong. Co rrect the m where necessa ry. ~ :l lo ng tinte ro

2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 II

be without a job .

The govern ment wallt to inc rea se taxes, Susan was wearing a black je.ms. Brazil a rc pla ying lt al~' in a football march next week, I li ke Martin and Jane, The(re ,'err nice persons. I need m ore than tcn pounds" Ten pounds aren' r enoug h, rm go ing to buy a new pyjama. The cormni rrec haven 't made a decision yer. T here w as a po lice di recting traffic in the Street, Wha t is the police going to d o? Th is scissors isn't very shar p .

.....Th.~.~...li~;?.....~.. ,.?.::...!g.!:lg...W!!g路.... 'O~ ... (~y;J.!:lJ.~,h ..f!.!.$.9....f.Q.r.r.f.f.(L

159


Noun + noun (a tennis ball / a headache) You can use twO nouns together (' JO lin + nOlln) to mean o ne thinglpcrsonlidea etc. For exam ple: a tennis ball a bank manager a road accident income lax the cit)' centre The first noun is like an adjective. It rells us what kind o f thing/person/idea erc. For example: a tennis ball = a ball used to pia)' tennis a road accident = an accident tha t happens on the road income tax = tax tha t you pay on your income the water temperature the temperature o f the water a l o ndon doctor = a doctor (rom london

=

Illy lire story

=the Story of my life

So you can say: a television camera a television programme a television studio a television producer (these arc all different things or people to do with television) language problems marri age problems health problems work problems (these arc all different kinds of problems) Compare: garden vegetables (= vegetab les thaT a re grown in a ga rden) a vegetable garden (= a garden where vegetables are grown ) Someti mes The firST word ends in -ing. Us u all~' these are things used fo r doing someth ing; a frying pan (= a pan for frying) a washing machi ne a swimming pool a dining room Sometimes there are more than twO nouns Together: o I waited at the hotel receplion desk . o We wa tched the World Swimming Championships o n tele\';sion. o If you want to play table tennis (= a game), you need a table tennis table (= a table). When two nouns are logether li ke Ihis, sometimes we wri te them as one word and sometimes as two separate words. For exam ple: a headache toothpaste a weekend a car park a road sign There are no dea r rules for this. If you are not sure, w rite two words. NolC the difference between: a sugar bowl (perha ps empty ) and a bowl of sugar (= a bowl with sugar in it ) a shopping bag (perhaps empty) and a bag of shopping (= a bag full of shopping) When we use 11 0 1111 + /1 0 1111 , the fi rst noun is like an adiect;ve. It is no rmall r singu lar, but the mea ning is o ften plural. For exa mple: a bookshop is a shop where rou ca n buy books. an apple tree is a tree that has apples. In the sa me way we sa)': a th ree-hour journey (= a journey tha t takes three ho urs) a ten-pound note (llot pounds) a fou r-week cou rse (1Iot weeks) two 14-year-old girls (1Io t yea rs] a six-page lener (1Io t pages) Compare: o It was a four-wee k course. bitt The course lasted four weeks.

160

-'s and of ......... Unit 81

A week's holiday

I three

weeks' holiday el c. """ Unit 8lE


Exercises 80.1

Unit

80

What do we call these things and people?

.-\ ticker fo r a concert is .....!!-.__ <;9..!.'\~ .. _44:.~ .

1 Problems concerning health are .....n.ffi~....P.:r.<;>~.~.~..... 3 4 5 6 S 9 10 11 12 13

,-\ magazine about computers is " PhoTOgraphs taken on your holiday are your ........................................................ Chocolate made with milk is ...................................... _ Somebod~' whose job is to inspect factories is A horse that runs in races is ........... ,........ _.......... .-\ met' for ho rses is . .-\ hotd in c('nrral Londo n is ................ . The results of ~'our exa ms are your T he carpet in the dining room is .,_..... .. .-\ sca ndal in\'o l\'ing an o il company is ............................................ ___ ......... ............................................................................... . \,(rorkers at a ca r factory are ......... _........ _... 14 A scheme ro improve a road is 15 A cou rse that la sts h,'e da~' s is . 16 A question that ha s rwo parts is

1- .\ g;.! who ;, ,,'路en '"'' old ;, ...... . 80.2

Answer the questions using two of the following words each time : ~

belt

number

-r-oae-

card room

crectit seat

editOr shop

fo reca st weather

newspaper window

Thi s can be caused by bad dri"ing,

1 If ~'ou' re sta~路 jng a t a hotel. ~'ou need to remember this, 3 You should wear thi s \\路hen you're in a car. 4 You can often use this to pa~' for things instead of cash.

a ........................................

5 If you want to know if it's going to rain. rou can

the ..... . ....................................................................

read or lisrt'n to this. 6 This perSOIl is a tOp journalist. - You might Stop ro look in this when you're walking along a street. 80,3

your a ......................

a ...

Complete the sentences using the following :

15 minute(s l six mile(s )

60 minute(s) six mile(s )

two houris ) 20 pound(s )

fiv e day{s) fj,'e course(s)

twO year (s) -t-en--pagefst

500 year{s)

-4-S0-page(iJ-

Sometimes you need the singular (day/page etc.) and sometimes the plural (days/pages etc.).

I 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 11

It's q uite a long book . There are ... ..1.?.Q... .P..~~s. A few days ago I receivcd a .....~.::-.P:~~ ... lettcr frolll Julia. J didn't have any cha nge. I onl~' had a ...... note. At work in the morn ing I usually have a ............ _............................... _..................... break for coffee, T here arc ...................................................................... in an hour. It's on ly a .... _........ _~...... . .... flight from London to Madrid. It was a vcry big meal. There wcre . . ................... Mary has juSf started a new job. She's gOt a ...... ..................... .......... contracr. T he oldest building in the city is the ................ _.... ..... castle. I work .............. ........................ ........ a weck. Saturda y and Sunday a re frec. We went for a long walk in the cou ntry. We must have walked We went for a ...................................................................... walk in the country.

161


Unit

81

-'s (your sister's name) and of ... (the name of the book) We usc -'s (apostrophe + 5) mostly for people or ani mals: a Tom's computer isn't working. ("ot the com puter of Tom) a How old are Chris's children? (no t the children of Chris) o What's (= What is) your sister's name? o What's Tom's sister's name? o Be ca reful. Don 't step on the eat's tail. Note that you ca n use ·'s without a followin g noun : o This isn't my book. It's my sister's. (= m~' siste r's book) We do nO( always use ·'5 for people. For example. we would use o f ... in this sentence: o Wh::n was the name of the man who phoned you? ('the man w ho phoned you' is long to be fo llowed by · '5)

toO

Note that we say 3 woman's hal (= a hat for a woman), a boy's name (= a name fo r a boy I, a bird 's egg (= an egg laid by a bird) erc. With a singular noun we use · 's: m y sistcr's room (= hcr room - one sister )

Mr Cartcr's house (= hi s house )

With a plural noun (siste rs, friends etc.) we put an apostrophe at the end of the word (-s'): my sisters' room (= their room - two or m o re sisters) the Carters' house (= their house - Mr and M rs Ca rter )

If a plu ra l noun does not end in -s (for example menlwomenlchild renlpcople) we use ·'s: the men's changing room

a children 's book (= a book for child ren )

Note that you can use -'s after marc than one nou n: Jack a nd Karen 's weddi ng Mr a nd M rs Carter's house For things, ideas etc., we normally use o f (. .. o f the book I ... of the restaura nt etc.): the door of the garage (,to t the garage's door ) the name of thc book the owner o f the rcstaurant Sometimes the structu re n a ill/ + n Ol/1I is possible (see Unit 80): the garagc door the restaurant owner We sa y the beginningfcndJmiddle of ... , the roplbono m of ... , thc frontlbackJsidc of ... : the beginning of the month (llot the month's beginning) the top of the hi ll the back o f the ca r You ca n usuall y use -'s or o f ... for an organisation (= a group of people). So you can sa ~' : the government's decision or the decision of thc govcrnmcnt the company's success or the success of the company It is also possible to use ·'s fo r places. So you can say: the city's streets the world's populatiQn Italy's prime minister

You can also use -'s with t ime expressions (yesterday I next week etc.): o Do you still have yesterday's newspaper? o Next week's meeting has been cancelled. In the sa me way, you can say today's I tomorrow's I this e\'ening's I Monday's erc. We also use ·'s (or Os' with plura l words) with periods of time: o I've got a wcck's holiday starring on ~·I o n day. o Ju lia has gOt thrce wccks' holiday. o I live nea r the station - it's only about tcn minutes ' wal k.

162

The garage door (noun + noun) ..... Unit 80

A three-hour jou rnev, a ten-pound note - Uni t 800


Exercises 81.1

In some of these sentences, it would be more natu ral to use - 's or - '. Change th e underlined parts where necessary.

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 II 12 13 14 15

16 17

1S 19 81.2

Unit 81

Who is the Qwner of tbis restaurant? \X' here a re [he chi ldren of Chris? Is Ihis the umbrella of \'our fri end ? \'?rite your name at [he tOP of the pazc. ]"\'C nen~T m er the daughter of Charles. Have ~路ou met [he SOD of :-'la[\" and Dan ? \X'(' don"t know tbe ca use of [he problem. Do we still have the newspaper of yesterday? \,\' hat"s tbe name of this meet: \X' ba t is the cost of a ncw com puter? The friends of \ ' OU[ children are he re. T he garden of o ur neiGhboyrs is \'e ry nice. [ work o n the ground noor of the building. The ha ir of Bil l is wry long. I cou ldn't go to the pa m ' of Cathe rine. \,'har's the name of the woman whQ li ves next door? Have ~'ou seen tbe car of the parems of :-'1 ike ? \Vh at 's [he mea ninc of tb is expression? Do ~'ou agree with the economjc polio ' o拢'rhe covernment?

What is another way of saying these things? Use - 'so .....?:-....~.om~'~....!:lO.t .. _.............................. .

a ha t for a woman

1 a name fo r a boy 3 clothes for c hildren 4 a school ior girls 5 a nest for a bird 6 a magazine for women

81.3

Read each sentence and write a new sentence begi nn ing with the underl ined words. I The meeti n ~ tomorrow has been ca nce lled . .....Tg.~gn路.-Q~. ~.....~~tH.~ 9....~.~.... ~~!:!....~.~

2 The SIo rm last week caused a lo t o f damage, La st .................................................................................... 3 T he only cinema in [he rown has closed down. T he . .............................................. ............................................. 4 The weather in fu:.i.Gtin is "e r~' c hangeable . . 5 Touri sm is the main

industr~'

in tbe recion,

81.4 Use the information given to comple te the sentences. If I lea ve my house at 9 o'clock and dri ve to the airport, I arrive at about I I. So it's about ..... ~.Q ....t!~!::~..'....4!..~:'!'. ~..... from my house to the a irport, (d ri ve) 2 If 1 leave my ho use at 8.40 and walk ro the centre, 1 get there at 9 o'clock. So it's ...................................................................................................... from my house to the cenrre. (walk ) 3 I"m going on holiday on the 12th. 1 h;lVe to be back at work on the 26th. So I've got ..... ................................................................................... . (holiday) 4 I went to sleep at 3 o'clock this morn ing and woke up an hour la ter, After that I could n't sleep. So last night I o nly had ......................... _................ . (sleep)

163


Myself /yourself /themselves etc. Study this exa mple:

GQfSttv~.)

Steve imroduccd himself to the mlle r guests.

We use mysclfJyoursclflhimsclf erl". (re{1e:C;IIC when the slIbject a nd object are the same: I

pronOlllls l

Steve introd uced himself STEVf:

The reflexive pronoun's a re: singular: myself plural: ourselves o a o o

yourself (o ne person) yourselves -(IIIaTe than aile person)

himsclflherseiflirsclf themselves

I don't wa nt you to pay for me. I'll pa y for myself. (not I'll pay for me) J ulia had a great ho liday. She re311~' enjoyed herself. Do you ta lk to yourself someri mes? (said to Ollt! /)crsoll) If you want more to eat, help yourselves. (said to more than O llt! /Jerson)

Compare: o It's nor our fault. You can't blame us. o It's o ur own fau lt. We should blame ourselves. We do not use myself etc. after feeUrelaxlconcentrat elmeet: o I feel nervous. I can't relax . o You mUSt try and concentrate. (1I0 t concentrate yourse:lf) o What time shall we meet ? (1I0t meet ourselves, 110t meet us) We normally use wash/shave/dress w itho llt myself etc. : o H e got up, washed, shaved and dressed . (I/ o t washed himself etc.) You can also say get dressed (He got dressed ). Compare -selves a nd each o th er: o Kate and Joe srood in front o f the mirro r and looked at th emselves. (= Kate arid Joe looked at Kate al1d Joe) o Kate looked at Joe, Joe looked at Kate. They looked at each other.

each other

You can use one another instead of each other: o How long have you and Bill known each other? or ... known onc another? o Sue and Ann don't like each other. or ... don't like one another. o Do you and Sarah live nea r each o th er? or ... near one another? We also use myself/ yourself etc. in another way. For exa mple: o ' Who re paired you r bike for rou?' 'I repaired it myself. '

I repaired it myself = I repaired it. not anybody else. Here, myself is used ro emphasise 'I' (= it makes it stronger ). Some more examples:

o I'm not going to do )'our work for you. You can do it yourself. (= )'ou, not me)

o Let's paint the house ourselves. It will be much cheaper. o The film itself wasn't very good, but I loved the music. o I don't th ink Liz will get the ;ob. Li'z herself doesn't think

she' ll get it. (or Liz doesn't

think she'll get it herself. )

164

Get dressed I get married etc..... Unit 440

By myself I by yourself etc...... Un it

83C


Exe rcises

Unit

82

82.1 Complete the sentences using myself/yourself etc. + the fo llowing verbs (in the correct form) : blam e bu rn en joy ex press hun -intf6<'itteeput S t C\ ' C ..._.I!.)Y:~.~ ... ~.~.~.!~H ... fa {he other guests at the parry. 1 Bill ft'll do wn some steps, bur forrunately he didn 't 3 h isn't Suc's fault. She really shouldn't .. .. ........ _....... ...................... ___ .."..,__.................................. in my positio n. 4 Please tr~' a nd understa nd how I feel. 5 The children had a great time at the beach. They really .... _____ .. __ ......................................................... 6 Be careful! Th at pa n is \"t' ry hot. Do n't ........................................................................................ . 7 Sometimes ' ca n't sa y ex ac tl ~路 what I mean. ' wish I could ... ........................................................... better.

82.2 Put in myself/yoursel f/ourselves etc. or me/you/us etc. I Jul ia had a g reat ho liday. She en jo yed .....~.~~ ~f

2 h 's no t m~' fa ult. You can 't bla me .................................... _ 3 Wha t I did wa s rea ll y bad . I'm ash,lmc-d of ........................... 4 \"\/c-\ 'e gOT a problem. I hope ~' O U ca n hc-lp .

5 ' Can I ta ke anothc-r biscuit ?' 'Of co urse. Hel p ................................................... l' 6 You must mect S;Ir;Ih. 1"11 introduce . ................... . ... to her, 7 Do n't wo rry abo ut us. \'\'e ca n loo k a iter k e ~' to our house so tha t they could let ...................................................... 111. 9 I didn't want an ybody to see the lerrers, so I burned .................................................... .

S I gave them a

82.3 Compl ete th ese sentences. Use myself/you rself etc. only where necessa ry. Use the following

verbs (in the correct form ): concentra te

defend

dry

feel

meet

relax

-sna-ve-

wash

~1:1rtjn decided to grow a beard beca use he was fed up with ......:?:.~.O':-.'f..i!.!9

2 I wa sn't \'ery well

ye st e rd a ~路.

but I ............................................................................. much bener toda y. ........................ with a rowel. I tri ed to STUdy, but I couldn't . ..... ............................................... , If some bod y aTtac ks ~'o u, you need to be a ble to ........................ _ [Om going o ut with C hris this e\路ening. We're ................................................................................. at 7.30, You're alwa ys rushing a rou nd. \\/ h ~' do n't you sit do wn and ........................................................................ ? The re was no water, so we couldn "t ..................................................................... ,

3 I climbed OUt o f the swimming pool and 4 j

6 7

8

82.4 Complete the se nt ences with -selves or each other. 2 3 4 j

6

7 8 9

How long ha"e you a nd Bill kno wn ..... ~.. other , If people work toO hard, they C;In make .................................................................. ill . I need you a nd you need me . We need ................................ .............................. . In Brita in friend s o ft en give ............................................................ presents at Christmas. So me peo ple a re very sel fi sh. Th e~' o nl y think o f ........... _......... . Tracy a nd I do n't see ....................................................................... very o ftc-n (hesc- da ys. We couldn't get back into the hou se. We had locked .. ......................... ..... o ur. They've had an arg ument. T hey're nOt speaking to ............................._...... ... at the moment , We'd never met befo re, so \\"c- introduced ............................................ ............ to ................................................................. .

82 .5 Complete the answers to the questions using myself/yourself/itself etc:,

~ 2 3 4 j

Who repaired the bike fo r you ? Who cuts Brian 's hair fo r him ? Do you want me to POSt that letter fo r you? Who told you that Linda was going awa y? Ca n you phone John for me ?

....... Additional exercise 30 (page 320)

______~a~__~

Nobody, , .... .r..~.'l.i:r.~...~...!!'g~.~.f., No bod y. He CUts ................................................... No, I'll .................... ...................... Linda .................................................................................................. _ Why ca n't you ..................................................... )

165


A friend of mine my own house on my own I by myself A friend o f mine l a friend of Tom's ere.

We say '(a fri end ) o f mineJyours/hislhcrs/oursllhcirs': o I'm going to a wedding on Saturday. A fri end of mine is gcning married. (1Iot a friend of me) o We went on holiday with some friend s o f ours. (/tot some friends of us ) o Michael had an argument wi th a neighbour o f his. o It was a good idea of you rs to go to the cinema. In the same wa y we say '(a fr iend) of my sister's' (3 friend ) o f Tom's' etc. : o That woman over t here is a friend of my sister's. o It was a good idea of Tom 's to go to the cinema. My own ... I your own ... etc.

We use my/yourlhislhcr/itslour/thcir before own : my own house your own car hcr own room (ll ot an own hou se, an own car etc.)

=

My own , _, I your own ... erc. someth ing that is only mineJrou rs, not shared o r borrowed: o I don't want to share a room wi th anybody. I want my own room. D Vick y and George wou ld like to have their own house. o It's a pit)' thar rhe flat hasn't got its own parking space. D It's my own fauh that I've gOt no money. I buy toO many things I don't need . o Why do you want to borrow my ca r? Why don't rou use your own ? (= your own car l You can also use own to sa y that you do something yourself instead of somebod y else doing it for you, For example: o Bria n usua lly cuts his own hair. (= he CU tS it himself; he doesn't go to the hairdresser'S) o I'd like to have a ga rden so that I could grow my own vegetables. (= grow them myself instead of buying them from shops) 8RlAN On my own / by myself On my own and by myself both mean 'a lone'. \'(/e say: my/you ,

on

his/her/its our/thei r

1

I

own

=

bv

mysel f / yoursdi Isingular ) himself J herseli / itself ou rselves / yourselH's (plllr,,/) / themsekes

1

o I like living on my own / by myself. D ' Did you go on holiday on your own I by ~'o urself ?'

' No. with a friend.' of the cafe. D Learner drivers are not allowed to dri \'e on their o wn J by thcmsch'CS. D David was sitting on his own I by himself in a corner

166

Myselr/yourselr/themselves etc. -- Unit 82


Exercises 83.1

Unit

83

Write new sentences with the same meaning. Change the underlined words and use the

structure in Section A (3 friend of mi ne etc.). I [ al11 meeting one of !D\' friends tonigh t. 1 \Ve met one of \'ou r relarjn's. 3 Henry borrowed one of m\' books. 4 Liz in\'ited sO lll e of her friend s to her Oat. S W'e bad dinner with one of our neiGhbours.

6 I wenr on holiday wi th twO of

OJ\'

We meta .................................................................. Henry.

Liz ................................................

friend s.

- Is that 111.10 o ne of \"Our friends ? 8 I met Doe oj lane's fri end s at the parry. 83.2 Com pl ete the sentences using my own

-bedfoom

bu siness

opimons

I your

own ctc. + the follow ing:

pri" a rc beach

words

I sha re.1 kitchen and bathroom , bur I hU\'e .....f.".!:l... g.~.~ ....~.~!:".QQ.~ ................................................. 1 G,lr~' doesn't think the same as me. He's gOt . .................................................................................................................... . 3 Julia is fed up with \\'orking ior other peop le. She wants to starr ................................................................... . 4 \\'e s ta ~'ed at a luxury hotel by the sea. T he hotel had . . .................................................... j In the test we Iud [Q re,ld a story, ,tnd then write it in ..................................................................................................... .

I you r own etc, my car? .....~!! ... gp.~ ~.t.. 9.~ ...~.~.~... !!~.!': .g.~.~ .. C4.1":............................................

83.3 Complete the sentences using my own

Why do you wan t to borrow 1 How ca n ~'ou bla me me? It's not my faulf. It's ........................... .................. _................................................. 3 She's <1 h\'ays using my ideas. \X/hy ca n't she use 4 Please don't worr~' <1bout my problems. You\'e gOt ........ S ! can't make his decisions for him . He must make _ ........................................................................... _.........................

83.4 Complete the sentences using my own bake -a Hmake write

?

I your own etc. Use the following verbs:

Brian ne\'er goes ro the hairdresser. He ..... w~~.....\:1.~~.... Q~n ...h!;4!. ... _. 1 .\Iary doesn't often bu~' clothes. She u s uall~' ........ .................. 3 We don't often buy bread . We u s uall~' .................................................................................................................................................. ..................................................................... . 4 Pau l is <1 si nger. He sings songs wrirren by other people, but he also

83.5 Complete the sentences using on my own I by myself etc. Did you go on h o lida~' on .....!:l0.-:':.r::... .9.~.~ .... 1 I' m glad I live with orher people, I wouldn 't like to live on ................... .. 3 The box W<1S roo he<1\' ~' for me ro lift by .. ................................. .. â&#x20AC;˘ 4 '\'(/ho W<1S Tom with when ~'ou saw him?' 'Nobody. He W<1S by ._... S Very you ng children should not go swimming by ........................................... . 6 I don't think she knows many people. When I see her, she is always by 7 I don't like st rawberries with cream. I like them on ................................................. __. 8 Do you like working with other people or do you prefer work ing by . ................................................... ? 9 We had no help decorating the fl at. We did it complete1~' on . ................................ . [0 I went out with S<111y because she didn't want to go aLIt on .................................................. .

167


There ... and it ... There and it

Yt"S, I know. I wtnt therr ~

last night. U's wry good.

We usc there ... when we talk about something fo r the first ti me, to say that it exists: o There's a new restaurant in King Street. (llot A new restauran t is in King Street) a I' m sorry I'm late. Th ere was a lor of traffic. (1I0 t h was a JOt of tra ffic) o Things arc more expensive now. T~cre has been a big rise in the COS I of living. It = a specific thing, place, fa ct, situation etc. (bu r see also section 0: o We went co the new resta urant. It 's vcry good. (It = rhe restaurant) o I wasn't ex pectin g them to cOllle. It was a complete surprise. (It = that they came) Compare there and it: o I don', like this town. There's nmhing to do here. It's a boring place.

There also means 'to/:lI/ in tha t place': o T he new restaurant is vcr}' good. I went there (= to the restaurant) last night. o When we gm to the party, there were already a 101 of people there (= at the parry ). You can say there will be I there must be I there might be I there used to be etc. ; o Will there be man}' people at the parr}"? o ' Is there a flight to Paris th is e\'ening?' 'There might be. I'll phone the ai rport. ' o If people drove more carefull y, there wo uldn 't be so many accidents. Also there mUSt have been, there should ha\'e been erc. : o There was a light on. There must have been somebody at home. Compare there and it; o They live on a busy road. Th ere must be a lor of noise from the traffic. They live on a busy main road. h must be very noisy. o There used to be a cinema in King Street, but it closed a few years ago. That bui ldi ng is now a supermarket. It used to be a ci nern:1. You ca n also say there is surclcertainllikelylbound to be ... : o There is bound (= su re) to be a flig ht to Paris this evening. We also use it in sentences like this: o It 's da ngerous to walk in th e road . We do not usua lly sa}' 'To walk in the road is dangerous'. Normally we begin with It Some more exa mples; o It didn't ta ke us lo ng to get here. o It 's a pi ty (th at) Sandra can't come to the party. o Let's go. It 's not worth waiting any longer. We also use it to talk about distance, time and weather: o How far is il from here to the airport. o What day is it roday? o It 's a long time since we saw you last. a It was windy yesterday. (but There was a cold wind.)

168

It's worth I it's no use J there's no point .... Uni t 63A There is + - ing/-ed ..... Unit 97

Su re to J bound to ... etc..... UM 6SE


Exercises

Unit 84

84.1 Put in t here is/was or it is/was. Some sentences are questions {is t here ... ? I is it ... ? etc.} and some are nega tive (isn't/wasn't). I The journey took a long time . ... J}:I.~.~.... ~~ ... ;1 lot o f traffic. 1 Whar's the new reStaurant lik,,: ., .. !.~....!f ... good? 3 ......................................... a hookshop ncaf here?' ' Yes, ,... one in Hill Street.' 4 When we got to the cincm.l , . __ .. ................................... a queue oUTside. ___._ .. a very long queue, so we decided not to wait.

S I cou ldn't see anything. .. completely d ark. 6 ._.... _.... _.........._ trouble at the club last night. T hey had to call the police. - How fa r ............... ..................., ,....... from ;-' Iila n to Rome? S ...................................................... Keith's hirrhda~' yesterday. \'('e had a parry. ... three years since I last went to the theatre. 10 I wanted to visit the mu seum, hut ...... enough time. 11 .... time to lea\'e?' ·Yes . .................................................... nearly midnight.' 11 A few days ago ..... .. ........ a sto rm . ...................... a lot of damage. J3 ................................................... a beautiful day ~·este rd ay. \'(Ie h'ld ,1 picnic. 14 an~· thin g on tele\'ision, so I turned it 011 15 .............................................. an accidem in King Street, but .................................................... very senous. 84.2

Read the first sen tence and t hen wri te a sentence beg inning There .. . . The roads were bus~' toda~·. 1 This soup is \'ery sa lty. 3 The box was empty. 4 The film was very \·talem. S The shops were I'cry cro\\·ded. 6 I li ke this town - it's lil·e ly.

84.3

.... Th.~.t;. .. ~~...~ ..lpt...Qf.. . kp.,ff.~, ............................................................................. There ............................................. .................................................... in the soup, ......................................... in the box .

Comp lete the sentences. Use there wi ll be. there would be etc. Choose from : will

ma y

~wou l4-

wouldn't

should

used to

(be) going to

Ii people d ron' mo re ca rciul1~', ..... ~.~.t;..... ~~.\4...... ~.~ ... fcwer acci dents . .............................................. _____......... _................. some in the fridge.' 1 'Do we ha\'e a ny eggs:' 'rm no t sure . ................................................................ _............. _.. any problems. 3 I think e"erything will he OK . I don't think ............ a storm. 4 Look at the sky. S ' Is there:t school in The \'ilbge?' ':--:or no\\'. .................................. .......................... one, but it dosed .' 6 People dri\'e tOO fa St on this road. I think ............................................... ............................ a speed limit. - If people weren't aggressil·e. . ........ ........... .......... ...... any wars. 84.4

Are t hese sente nces right or wro ng? Change it to there where necessary.

1 1 3 4

S 6 7 8 9

10 11

The~' li \'e on:t bus~' ro:td. ~ a lot of noise. La st winter iT wa S very cold and it was a lor of snow, It used to be a church here. but it was knocked down . \Vhy was she so unfriendl y? It must have been a reason, [t 'S a long way from m~' house to the nearest shop. A: \'(' here can we park the c:tr? B: Don't worry. It's sure to be a c:tr park somewhere, .-\fter the lectu re it wi ll he an opportunity to ask questions. [like the placc where [ li\'e, bur it would be nicer to Jive by th c sea. I was told that it would be somebody to mect me at tht" st:ttion, bur it wasn 't an y b od ~·. T he situation is sti ll the sa me. It has been no ch,1I1~c. [don't k now who'll win, bur it's sure to he a gc,od g,HllC.

..Th.~_~....~.\:':.~.t)~....~....!P..t....9.f.. nOL-se ....................................................... .......................... _.........

169


Unit

85

Some and any In general we use some (also somcbody/someoneJsomclhing ) in positive senlenccs and a ny (a lso anybody etc.) in negative sentences: some a We bought some flowers.

any

o He's busy. He's got some work to do. o There's somebody at the door. a I'm hungry. I want something to ea r.

o o C o

\'(/e d id n't buy 'ln~' flowers. He's lazy. He nevcr does any work . There isn't anybodY :lf the door. I'm l10t hungry. I don't want an~'lhin g to

ear.

We use any in the foll o wing sentences beca use the meaning is negative: o She went our without any money. (she didn't take an y money with her) o He refused to cat a nything. (he did n" eat anything) o Hardly anybody passed the examination. (= almost nobody pa ssed) We use both some and any in questions. We use some to ta lk about a person or thi ng {hat we know exists, or we think exists: D Arc you waiting fo r somebody? (I think you arc waiting for somebod y) We use some in questions w hen we offer o r ask for things: D Would you like something to eat ? (there is somethi ng to eat) D Ca n I have some sugar, please ? (there is pro bably some sugar I can have) But in mOSt questions, we use a ny, We do not know if the thing or person exists: D ' !-lave you gOt a ny luggage?' 'No, I haven't.' D I ca n't find my bag, H as anybody seen it: We often use a ny aftcr if: D If thcre are a ny leners for me, can rou send them on to {his address? D If anyone ha s any questions, r ll be pleased to answer them, D Let me know if you need anything, ' The fo llo wing semences have the idea of if: D I'm sorry for a ny trouble I've caused, (= if I have caused any tro uble) D Anyone w ho wants to do the exam must tell me by Friday, (= if there is anyone ) We also usc any with the meaning 'it doesn't matter which': D You can take a ny bus, They all go to the centre, (= it doesn't matter which bus you take ) D 'Sing a song.' 'Which song shall I si ng?" 'Any song , I don 't mind.' (= it doesn't matter which song) D Come and see me any time you want, D ' Let 's go out somewhere.' 'Where shall we go?' ' Anywhere. I JU St want to go out." D We left the door unlocked. Anybodr could ha\'e come in. Compare something and a nythi ng: D A: I'm hungry. I want something to eat, B: What would you like ? A: I don 't mind, Anything. (= it doesn't marter what) Somebody/someonelanybody/anyone a re singu la r words: D Someone is here to see you. But we often usc they/them/their after these words: D Someone has fo rgotten thei r umbrella. (= his o r her umbrella ) D If a nybody wantS to lea ve ea rly, they can , (= he o r she ca n)

170

Not ... any .... Unit 86

Some of I any of ,.. -- Unit 88

Hardly any .... Uni t IO I C


Exercises 85.1

Unit 85

Put in some or any. I \X'e didn't buy ..... ~.iL. . 110\\"ers. 2 Th is en"ning I' m going our with ............................................. friends of mine. 3 :1..: Han: you seen ................................ .......... , good films recently? IS: :\0. I haven't been to the cinema fo r ages. 4 I didn"t ha\'t' ..... . ....................... money, so I had to borrow .....

S Can I h,l\'c ..... _.... _..____ 6 7 S 9 10 85.2

85.3

........ mil k in m)' coffee. please?

I W;15 roo tired to do ..................... work. You can cash these traveller's cheq ues at ......................... _... _............. ban k. Can yOll gh"e me , ..................... ....... information about places of interest in the town? Wlith the special tourist train ticker. you can travel on ........................................... tra in you li ke. If there are ..... _... _.. _.... .. words you do nor u nderstand, use a dictionarr"

Com plete the sentences with some- or any- + - body/ -thing/- where . I [was toO sur prised ro s a~' ._ .. ~.!i~.l!.!g ._.. . 1 T here"s ........... _....... _...... _.......... at the d oor. Can you go and see who it is? 3 Does ...................... _ ................... mind if I open the window? 4 I wasn"t iecling hungry, so I didn"t eat .......... ........................... " j You must be hungr~路. \X'ould you like ......... .... ........ to eat? 6 Qu ick, let"s go! There's .......................................... coming and I do n or want . ..................................... to see us" - Sarah wa s upset about ........................... and refused to talk to ........................ S This machine is wry e:lSY to use. ....................... _.... C:l ll learn to usc it very quickly. 9 There was h ardl~' ... ___ ....... _ ......................... on the beach. It was almost deserted . 10 ' Do you li\'e _ ............................. near Joe?" "No, he lives in another parr ofrown.' I I "Where shall we go on holida y:" ' Let "s go .................................... _.... warm and sun n r.' I l T hey staY:lt home all the time" Th e~' never seem ro go ._ ........................... 1.3 I" m going our now. If ........................... ................. phones while I"m our, can rou tell them I' ll be back at 1 1.30? 14 \\ ' h~' are you looking unde r the bed? Have ~'Oll lost ............................. ? ] j T he police han.. asked that ........................................... who saw the accidem should contacr them. 16 "em I ask yOll ' "Sure. W ha t do you wam ro ask?' ]- Sue is \'ery secreth路e. She never tells ................................................. _ ..................................... . (2 words) Comp lete t he sentences. Use an y (+ noun) Or anybodyfanything/a nywhere.

1 / 1 3

\'(' hich bus do I ha\'e to catch? Which day shall I come? Wha t do ~'ou want to ear?

4

Where sha ll I si t ?

5

Wha t son of job ;lre you look ing fo r ? What rime shall I phone tomorrow? Who shall I ilwite to the parry? Which newspaper shall I buy?

6

8

,'-------------~

.....~~.!:I....~.~.~ ... . They all go to rhe centre. I don't m ind .

........................... . I don't m ind. Whatever you have. It's up to you. You ca n sit ..... yOll like. ................................................... . It doesn'[ maner. ... ..... . I' ll be in a ll da y. I don"t mind. ...................... .......... _......... you like . ........................ ........................... .................... . Whatever they have in the shop.

171


Unit

86

No/none/any

Nothing/nobody etc.

No and none

We use no + 1101111. No =nOl a or not any : o We had to walk home because there was no bus. (= ,here wasn't a bus ) o Sue will have no difficulty finding a job. (= Sue won', have any difficulty ... ) o There were no shops open. (= There weren't any shops open.) You can usc no + "01111 at the beginning of 3 semence: o No reason was given for the change of plan. We use none withollt a noun: o ' How much money do you have? ' ' None.' (= no money) o All the rickets have been sold. There are none lef!. (= no tickets left) Or we use none of ... : o This money is all yours. None of it is mine. After none of + 1)llIral (none of the students, none of them etc.) the verb ca n be singular or plural. A plural verb is morc us ual: o None of the shops were (or was) open.

Nothing

nobody/ no-one

nowhere

You can usc these negative words at the beginning o f a sentence or alone (as answers to questions): o Nobody (or No-one) came to visit me while I was in hospital. o 'What happened?' 'Nothing.' o 'Where are you goi ng?' 'Nowhere. I'm staying here.' You can also use these words after a \路erb. especially after be and ha\'e; o The house is empty, There's nobody living there. o We had nothing to eat. Nothing/nobody etc. = not + anything/anybody etc. : o I didn't say anything. (= I said nothing.) o Jane d id n't tell anybody about her plans. (= Jane told nobody ... ) o They haven't got anywhere to live, (= They've got nowhere to li vc.) With no thing/nobody etc., do lI ot use a negative verb (isn't, didn 't ele.): o I said nothing. (n Of I didn't say nothing) o Nobod y tells me an)'thing. (lIot Nobodr doesn't tell me ) We also use any/anything/anybody etc. (without not) to mean 'it doesn'r matter which/what/who' (see Unit 850). Compare no- and any-: o There wa s no bus, so we wa lked home. You can take any bus. The~' all go to路 the centre . (= it doesn't matter which ) o 'What do you want to ea r:' 'Nothing. I'm not hungry.' I' m so hungry. I cou ld cat anything. (= it doesn't matter what ) o The exam was extremely difficu lt. Nobody passed. (= everybody failed ) The exam was vcry eas)'. Anybody could have passed. (= it doesn't marter who) After nobody/no-one you can use they/them/their (see also Unit SSE): o Nobody phoned, did Ihey? (= did he o r she) o No-one did wha t I asked them to do. (= him or her) o Nobody in the class did their homework. (= his or her homework)

172

Some and any .... Uni l 85

None of ... -- Unit 88

Any bigger

I no better etc.....

Un it 1068


Exercises

Unit 86

86.1 Complete these sentences with no, nonc or any. I It was a public holiday. so there were .....!!Q._.• shops open.

1 I haven't got _ clnlj ._. mone~·. Can you lend me some? 3 \'(Ie had to walk home because there were ____ ._.......... _......... _ taxis. 4 W/e had to walk home because there weren't ______ ._._.,,_ taxis. 5 ' How many eggs have we gOT~' . .. _____ ... _____ . • Do you want me to get some ?' 6 \'t,le took a few phorogra phs. but .. __ ._,_._______ . of them wcre ver), good. - \X/hat a stupid thing to do~ .__.___ ._.___ ._, intelligent person would do such a thing.

S I'll try and answer

~

questions you ask me.

9 J couldn't answer _....... __ ._._._._._._._._._.... of the questions (hey asked me. 10 \Vie cancelled the party beca use ._. __.___ .... __ ....... _...... of the people we invi ted we re able to come. II I tried to phone Chris, but there was .... _...... ..... _.. answer. 86.2 Answer t hese questions using none/nobody/nothing/ nowh ere.

____-----.lI7L-----~ \X/h.\[ did you do~ \'(/ho were you talking to? How much luggage h,1.\"e you gOt? \,(/here arc you going? How man y mistakes did you make? How much did ~'ou pay?

1

3 4

5

6

. Ng~'!'l , . . . . . . .

"

Now answer the same questions using complete sentences with any/anybody/a nything/ anywhere. -

8

til

_1

cL.4.~~LM..JY.1~ ~!!!9_'-_ ... __ ... __ --._-_._-. __----.--.----.--_________.__

! , 1 _________

9

86.3 Complete these sentences with no- or any- + - body/ - t hing/-wh ere.

1

3 4 j

6 7 8 86.4

I don't want _... P.:!l.!:i!:J1UJ9..... to drink. I' m not thirsty. The bus was completely empt~·. There was ... ....... on it. 'Where did you go for ~'our holidays ?' ..... .................. . [ stayed at home.' [went to the shops, but I didn't buy ................................. 'What did you bu y:' ' . .......... . I couldn't find ............................ _............. I wanted .' The town is still the same as it was years ago: .. _....................................... has changed. H a\"l~ you seen my watch ? I can't find it ..... _..... __ ........ _._ .. _....... . There wa s complete silence in the room. _._._.... _.*.*.*_ .... _. ___ .__ sai d ,_......* ....*.*...............___ .

Choose the right word. I She didn't tdi lle bod ~" 3n\'bod\' about her plans. (anybody is correct ) 1 The accident looked serious. but fortunately nohody I anybody was badly injured. 3 I looked out of the window. but I couldn't sec no-one I anyone. 4 ~I y job is \'ery easy. Nob(xh" Anybody could do it. S '\,\' hat's in that box?' ';\"orhing' Any rhin~. h 's empt)': 6 The situation is uncerta in. Nothing I Anyrhing could happen . - I don't know nothjng I annbjnc about econoll1i~s.

- Additional exercise 30 (page 320)

173


Unit

87

Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty We use much and lillie with tmcomztable nou ns:

much lime

much luck

little energy

We use ma ny and fe w with plural nouns: many fri ends man y people few cars

litl le money few countries

We use a lo t o f I lo ts of I plenty of with both ItIlCOlmtabfe and plural no uns: a lo t of luck lots of time plenty o f mo ney

a lot of friends

lots of people

plenty of ideas

Plen ty = more than enough:

o There's no need to hurry. We've got plenty of time. Much is unusual in posilive sentences (espec!a ll)' in spoken English), Compare:

o We didn't spend much money. We spent a lot of money. (1I0 t We spent much money) o Do you see David much ? bUI I see David a lot. (" ot I sec David much)

bill

We use many a nd a lot of in a ll kinds of o M a ny people drive too fast. D Do you know many people? D There aren't ma ny tourists here.

sentences: or A lot of people drive too fa st. or Do you know a lot of people? or There aren't 3 lot of to urists here.

Note that we say ma ny years I many weeks I many days ("ot a lot of ... ): o We've lived here for many years, (1Iot a lot of years) little and few (without a) are negative ideas (= nor much I not many): o Gary is very busy with his job, He has linle lime for o ther things. (= nor much time. less time than he would like) o Vicky doesn't like living in London. She has few friends there. t= nOI many, not as ma ny as she would like) You ca n say very little and very fe w: o Gary has very little rime for other thi ngs. D Vic ky has very few friends in London. A little and a few have a more positive meaning. A little = some, a small amount: o Let's go a nd have a coffee, We have a little ti me before the train lea\'es, (a little time = some time, enough rime to have a coffee) o 'Do you spea k English?' 'A linle. ' (so we can ta lk a bil ) A few some, a small number: o I en joy my life here. I have a few fr ie nds a nd we meet quire often. (a few friends = not many but enough to have a good time) o 'When was the last rime you saw C lare?' 'A few da ys ago.' (= some days ago )

=

Compa re: o He spoke Iitde English, so it was difficult 10 communica te with him. He spoke a little English, so we were able to communicate with him. o She's luck y. She has few problems. (= not man)' problems) Things arc not going so well for her. She has a few problems. (= some problems ) You can say o nly a little and o nl y a few : o Hurry! We only have a little time. (lto t o nly little rime) o The village was very small. There were o nly a few houses. (flot only few ho uses )

174

Countable and uncountable ...... Units 69-70


Exercises

Unit 87

87. 1 In some of these sen tences much is incorrect or unnatural. Change much to many or a lot (of) where necessary. Write 'OK' if the senten ce is correct. I \'\'e didn 't spend much money.

2 Sue dri nks much tea. 3 Joe always PUtS much salt on his food. ~

4 We'll ha\'c to hurry. We haven't S It COSt much to repai r the ca r.

6 S 9 10 87.2

gO t

much rime.

Did it COSt much to repai r rhe ca r? I don'r knOll' much people in th is rown. I use the phone much at work. There wasn't much tra ffic thi s morning. You need much mone~' TO travel round the world .

Complete Ihe sentences using plenty (of) + the following :

hotels

money

room

things to sce

'Iime-

to learn

There's no l1 ('cd to hurry. Th ere's .....I?~.~D~ ... g.f ...~.~..' 2 He's gOt no fi nancia l problems. He's got ... _ .................... _............................................................... _. 3 Come and sit with us. There's .... 4 She knows :t 1m, but she still ha s .. _._ ....._.. __ ........ ___ .. S It"s an interesting town to ,路isi t. There _._._ .. _... _. __ 6 rm sure wc'l! find somewhere to stay. __ ._. ____ ... _... _ 87 .3

Put in much/many/few/li ttle (one word only) . I She isn't "er~' popular. She has .~._. friends.

.2 Ann is "ery busy these days. She has .__.__.______. free rime. 3 Did you rake ___ ._._. ___.______ ._ photographs when you were on hol iday? "' I'm not very busy today. I h3" en't got _.. ______ ._. ___.__ to do. S This is a ,'crr modern ciry. There a re ._" _______ old buildings. 6 The weather has been very dry receml~路. \X'e\ 'c had __ ._.... _._ ... _____.__. rain. - 'Do you know Rome?'

'~o,

I haven't been there for ._...".. _.... ______ ~_._. yea rs:

87.4

Put in a where necessary. Write 'OK' if the sentence is already complete. I She's lucky. She ha s few problems. 2 Things are not going so well for her. She has few problems, .....~ ...~....P.r!?~.l&P..~.................... 3 Ca n ~'o u lend me few dollars? "' There wa s Uule tra ffic. so the journey didn't take very long. S I can't give yOll a decision yet. I need liule time to think. 6 It was a surpri se that he won the march. Few people expected him to win. I don't kn ow much Spanish - ooly few words. 8 I wonder how Sa m is. I haven't seen him for few months.

87.5

Put in little I a little I few I a few. I Gary is very busy with his job. He has _ li.ttie_ time for other things . .2 Listen ca reful/y, I'm going to gin' you _ __. __ ._ advice. 3 Do you mi nd if I ask you ________ .. _____ questions? 4 It"s not a vcr)' interesting place to \'isit, so _... __ ._. ___.___ tourists come here. S I don't thi nk J ill would be a good teacher. She's gOt _____._______ patience. 6 ' Would you like milk in your coffce?' ' Yes, _..... ________ ._... _.... ___ .' - This is a very boring place ro li\'e. Therc's ....... __ .~_ .. _ .. _.. _.... _. __ to do. g ' Ha ve you ever been 10 Paris?' 'Yes, I've been there ..... _.. _... _._._._._._._ .... _... times.'

17 5


Unit

88

.,- - A

All / all of most / most of no / none of etc. all

some

any

most

much/ma ny

littleffew

no

You can use the words in (he box with a noun (some food I few books etc.): o All cars have wheels. o Some cars ca n go faste r than others. o (011 a tlotice) NO CARS. (= no ca rs allowed)

o Many people drive tOO fast. a J don't go out very often. I'm at home most days. You cannot say 'all of ca rs', 'some of people' erc. (see also Section B): o Some people Jearn languages morc f'asi i}, than others. (/10t Some of people)

II

Note that we say most (llo t the most):,

o Most tourists don't visit this pa rt of the town.

all

some

any

most

( IIOf

much/many

The most TOu rists)

liute/few

half

nonc

You can usc the words in the box with o f (some of I mOSt of ctc.~ . We use some o f I most of I none of etc. + thc!this/thatlthesc/thosclmy ,.. erc. So you ca n say 'some of the people', 'some of those people' (bllt 1I0t 'some of people'): o Some of the people I work with are nor very fr iendly. o None o f this money is mine. o Have you read any of these books? o I was sick yesterday. I spem most of the day in bed.

\

I

You don't need of afrer all or half. So you can say: o AU my friends li ve in Los Angeles. or All of my friends ... o HaJJ this money is mine. or Half of this money ...

I

Compa re: o All flowers are beautiful. (; all flowers in general) AU (of) the flowers in Ihis garden are bea utifu l. (= a specific group of fl owers) o Most problems have a solution. (= most problems in general) We were able to solve most of the problems we had. (= a specific grou p of problems ) You can usc all of / some of / none of etc. + itluslyoulthem : o ' How ma ny of these people do you know?' 'None of them. I A few of them .' o Do any of you wam to come to a parry tonight? o 'Do you like (his music?' 'Some of il. Nor all of it.' We say: all of us / a\l of you I half of it I half of them etc. You can not lea\'e am of before itluslyoufthem : o All of us were late. (1Iot all us) o I haven't finished the book ret. I\ 'e only read half of it . (1Io t half it ) You can a lso use some/most etc. alone, w ithout a noun: o Some cars have four doors and some have rwo. o A few of rhe shops were open, but most (of them ) were dosed. o Half this money is mine, and half (of il) is yours. (lIot the half)

176

Some and any ..... Unit 85 No and none -- Unit 86 Mueh/many/little/few All ..... Units 90, 110C All of whom / most of which etc . ..... Unit 96B

Unit 87


Unit

Exercises 88.'

88

Put in of where necessary. leave the space empty if the se ntence is al read y complete. } .-1)) .~ ....::-._.. C,:JrS h:JI~ .,.)u·t'Js. Il'b.!'seNIRNct' /:r dJ I.'!?d)'cm....p}e)C'J 2 :"one .....Qf ... this moner is mine. ~ ~mt. ._......... _.... _.. _.. n\mo;. ?>.I\! " \:'1:': \;"'okm._ 4 Some . ........ _.... the films I've seen recently have been very violent. 5 Joe never goes ro museums. He says that all ......... _._ .......... _.. museums are boring. 6 I think some .......................... people watch toO much television. 7 'Are any . ...... _. those letters for me? ' 'No, they' re all for me.'

S Kare ha s lived in London most ...................... _..... her life. 9 J im has lived in Chicago all ............................ his life. 10 ,\ ·Iost _..... _............. _... days I ger up before 7 o 'clock.

88.2

Choose from the list and com plete the sentences. Use of (some of / most of etc.) where necessary. accidents th e players European countries my dinner birds her fri end s my spare time th e population her opinions the buildings ·Ihese bool.s ~"" 2 3 4

S 6 7 S

I ha\'en'r read many .......Qf ..fu.~.:?~ ... j:l9.C?t.:? ... All ..... ~:? ... have wheels. I spend m uch ................................ ................................. _ ga rdeni ng. .\ ·Iany . ....................................._ ...... __ are caused by bad driving. It's a historic rown . \<I an~' .................................................... are over 400 years o ld. \Vhen she got married, she kept it a secret. She didn't tell any . ..................... _.............................................. . ;":Ot many people Ih'e in the north of the cou ntr~·. .\ ·Iost ..... ......................... _ live in rhe so uth. ;":Ot all ............................................. _...._ ..... _...... can fly. For exam ple, rhe penguin can't fly.

9 Oue ",m pl"d badl,· and los< ,he game.

~o",

.....

. .............................................. played well.

10 Ju lia and I haH' \"er~' different ideas. I don'r agree with many ............................... ........................... . I I Sarah rra\'els a lo t in Europe. She has been to most ........................................................................................ 11 I had no appetite. I cou ld onl~' eat half . ........................................................................... .

88.3 Use your own ideas to complete these senlences. I T he build ing \\'as damaged in the explosion. All ..... ~.~ ..~.\!.I.4P.~.:? ... were broken . holida~·. We spent most of ....................................................... _........ _ on the beach. ............... _ wanted to come. 3 I went to the c inema b~' myself. ;":one of ............. 4 The test " 'as difficult. I could only answer half .. S Some of .......................... _ ......................... .. yOll took .at the wedd ing werc vcry good . ................. I gave you?' 'No, therc's sti ll some le ft.' 6

1 \X'e had a \'ery lazy

88,4

Comp lete the sen tences. Use : all of / some of / none of + it/the m/ us (a li of it

I some

of t hem etc.)

T hesc books are all J anc's . ..... NC?:r.&....Qf....fu.~ .... belong to me. 2 'How many of these books have you read?' ...... ............. .................................. . Everyone.' 3 We all gOt wet in the rain because . ......................... had an umbrella. . IS mme. 4 Some of th is mon e~' is ~'our s and . S I a sked some people for directions, but was able to help me. 6 She im'ented the whole story from beginning to end. ..................._...... ...... was true. 7 :-\Ot all the tourists in the group we re Span ish. ........................ ......................................... were French. 8 I watched most of the film , but not ...................................................................... .

177


Both I both of neither I neither of either I either of We use bOlhlncithcr/eithcr fo r two th ings. You can use these words with 3 11 0 1111 (both books. neither book etc. ). For exa mple, you a re going out to ea t. T here a re two possi ble restau r:mrs. You say: o Both restaurants are very good. ( /lo t The both restaurants) o N either restaurant is expensive. o We can go to either restaurant. J don't mind. (either = onc o r the other, it doesn't matter which one)

Both of ... I neither of ... I either of ". We lise both o f I neither o f I either o f + th elthcsc!myffom 's ... etc. So we say 'both of the restaurants', 'both of those resta urants' etc. ( b ll t /fo t both of restaurants): o Both of these restau rants are very good. o Neither o f the restaurants we went to was (or were) expensive. o I haven't been to either of those restau ra nts. ~= I h;l\'en't been to one o r rhe o ther) You don't need of after both . So you can say : o Bo th m y parents are from Londo n. or Both of my parelll s .. . You ca n usc bOlh o f I neither of I either of + us/you/them: o rtalking to twO people) Ca n either o f yo u speak Spanish? o I asked two people the wa )' to the sta tion, btu neither o f them could help me. Yo u must sa y 'both of before us/you/them: o Bo th o f us were ver)' tired. ~ Ito t Both us were ... J After neither of ... a singular or a pillral verb is possible: o Neithef of the ch ildren wants (or wa nt) to go to bed. You can also use both/neither/either alone, withollt a noun : o I cou ldn't decide which of the twO shirts to buy. I liked bo th . (or I liked both of t hem. ) o 'Is your friend British or American?~ ' Neither. She's Austra lia n: o ' Do you wa m tea or coffee?' ' Either. I do n't mind.' You can say: both ... and ... neith er ... nor ...

a

Both Chris and Par were late.

a

1 was hOlh tired and hungr y when I arri ved hOllle.

o N eith er Chri s no r Pat ,"u ne to the parry.

o ei ther ... o r ...

To m said he wo uld cont<1ct me, but he neither WforC no r phoned.

o I'm nor sure where .\ lari:l'S frolll. She'S ei ther Sp:lIlish or halian . o Either you apologise o r I'll ne\'c r speak to you again.

Compare either/neitherlboth (tWO things) and a n)'/no nelall (mo re than two ):

o

There arc tWO good ho tels here. You could stay at either of them.

o We tried (wo hotels. Neither of them had a ny rooms. Bo th o f them were fu ll.

I

178

Neither do I I I don't either -

Unit SI C Both of whom

o There arc Ill any good hotels here. You could sta y ,H any of rhem.

C \,\'e tried a lo t o f hotels. None of them had any rooms. All of them were full.

I

I neither

of whieh -

Un it 96B

Both -. Unit IIOC


Exercises

Unit

89

89.1 Complete the sentences with both/neither/eith er. 'Do yOll want rea or coffee?' 路_.. J~@..~,:L ... . 1 really don't mind.' 1 -What day is it roday - t he 18th or rhe 19th?' ' ...................................... . /r's the 20th: 3 .... : Where did yOll go for your holidays - Scorland or Ireland ? B: We went to . __ ............ . A week in Scotland and a week in Irelan d. -4 ' \X' hen shall I phone, in the morning or afrernoon?' . ...... . I'll be in all day.' 5 ' \'(Ihere's Liz? Is she at work or at home?' ......... ................. . She's away on holiday:

89.2 Com plete the sentences with bothfneith er/either. Use of wh ere necessary. f!.9.f!1. ... my parents are from London. to the town cemre, you can go along the footpath by the river or you can go along the ro'ld. You can go ................................... way. I tried Iw ice to phone George, bu r ..... ............................ rimes he was our. ................................................ _. Tom's parents is English. His fa rher is Polish an d his mother is Italian. [ saw an accidem th is morn ing. One car drm'c into the back of another. Fortunately .......... dri\'er was in lured. but ............................................. cars wcre badly damaged. 1\, got twO s;stm , ,,d, b,Oth" ~ I ,路 b'oth" ;s wo,k;ng, but ..... ................. my s;"'tS are stiIJ at school.

1 To get 3 4 5

6 89.3

Comp lete th e sentences with both/neither/eit her + of us/th em. I asked rwo people the war to the station, bur ......r...~.V....9.f....!t.!.~ ... cou ld hel p me. 1 I was im'ited [Q two parries last week , bu t I couldn't go to 3 There were two \\'in dows in the room . It was \"er~' wa rm, so I opened 4 Sarah and I play rennis togerher regu larly, bur ....... .................................. _ ....... can play very well. 5 I tried two bookshops fo r rhe book I wanted. bur . ......... had if.

I either .. . or ... ... .J~I.9..!t.! ....(,.hr~:?: ....w..4:...P..AA . .~~.~... ~.,

89.4 Write senten ces with both ... an d ... / neither .. . nor ...

1 3 4

5

Chri s was late. So was Par . He didn't wrire and he didn't phone . ... .Jl~....t1.e.4;b.~ . ~.r.9.1& ..~.9..t .. P~g.I'\.~ Joe is on holida~' and so is Sam . .................. Joe hasn't gOt a car. Sam hasn't got one either. .............................................._ ................................................ .. Brian doesn't watch T V and he doesn't read newspapers.

6 It wa s a boring film. It was long too, The film .. ................................. - Is that man's name Richard? Or is it Robert? It's one ofrhe two. T hat man's name ........ S I h,m~'n'r got time ro go on hol iday. And I ha~en'r got the money. I\'c got .. _ ......... ........... 9 \,\/e can leave today or we can leave tomorrow - wh ichever rou .prefer. We . ...................................... _.........

89.5 Com plete the sentences with nei th er/either/none/any. \'('e tried a lot of hotels. but .....!:19.n.~..... of them had any rooms.

1 I took twO books wi th me on holiday, but I didn't read

. of them. 3 I took five books with me on holiday, but I didn't read ....... ............ .. of them. 4 There are a few shops at rhe end of the street. bllt ..... ...................... of them sell s newspa pers. 5 You can phone me at ..................... ........ time during the e\'en ing. I'm always at home, 6 I can meet you next .\ 路Ionday or Friday. Would ....... ........... of those days be convenient fo r you? ... of us had a key. - John and 1 could n't get into rhe house because .._.

179


All, every and whole All and everybody/everyone We d o nOf normally use all to mean evcrybodyfe vcryone: o Everybody enjoyed the party. ("ot All enjoyed) But we say all of us/you/them (1I0t everybody of ... j: o All o f us enjoyed the parry. (not Everybody o f us) All and everything Somerimes you can use all o r everything; o I'll do ali i can ro help. or I' ll d o everything I can to help.

You can say 'a li i can' /'a ll you need' etc., but we do nor normally use all alone: o He thinks he knows everything. (1I0t he knows all ) o Our ho liday was a disaster. Everything went w rong. (ll o t All wem wrong)

But you ca n say all about: o He knows all about computers. We also use a ll (1I0t everything) to mean 'the only rhing(s)': o All I' ve eaten today is a sandwich. (= the o nly thing )\ -c ea ten today ) Every I everybody / everyone / everything are sillgular words, so we use a si'lgular \'erb: o Every scat in the theatre was taken. o Everybody has arrived. (lIo t have arrived ) But you can use they/them/their after everybody/everyone: o Everybody said they enjoyed themselves. (= he o r she enjoyed himself o r herself) Whole a nd a ll

=

Whole complete, entire. J\olosf often we use whole w ith sillglllar nouns: o Did you read the whole book ? (= all rhe book, not JUSt a parr of it ) o Emily has lived her whole life in Sco:rland. o I was so h ungry, I a re a whole packet of biscuits. (= a complete packet ) We use the/my/her etc. before whole. Compa re whole and a ll : the who le book / a ll the book her whole life / a ll her life We do not normally use whole with /Ol eomltable nouns. We say: o I've spent all the money you gave me. (1I0t the whole money ) Every/alVwhole with time words We use eyery to S3 Y how often something ha ppens (every da~' I e\'ery M o nday / every ten minutei / eyery three weeks etc. ): o When we were on hol iday, we went to rhe beach every day. ( ,tOt a ll days) o The bus seryice is excellent. There's 3 bus e\'ery ten minutei. o We don't see each other very often - about e\'ery six months. All d ay / the whole day = the complete day from beginning to end: o We spent a ll day / the whole day o n the beach. o Dan was vcr}' q uiet. He did n't say a word all e\'ening I the whole e\'ening. Nme that we sa y all day (1I0 t a ll the day), all week ( ,tot all the week) etc. Compa re all the time and eyery time: o They neyer go out. They are at home all the time. (= always, continuously) o Eyery time I see you, you look different. (= each rime, o n eyery occasion )

180

Countable and uncountable _ Unit s 69-70 AliI all of .... Unit 88 Evt'ry one "" Unit 91D All (word order) .... Un it IIOC

Each and every .... Unit 91


Exercises

Unit 90

90.1 Complete these sentences with all, everyt hing or everybody/everyone. I It was a good parry. .~ .. ~_'!~9..~ ._. enjoyed it. 2 _~ I' ve eaten today is a sa ndwich.

3

___ .. _..

h 3S

thei r fau hs.

~'obody

is perfecr.

-t :-":othing has changed. __________ is the same as it was. 5 Kate told me _._H. __ "H _____.__. 3bom her new job. Ir sounds quite interesti ng.

6 S 9 10 11 12 13 14

Can ___ .. write thei r names on a piece o f paper, please? \,\Ihy are you always thi nking about money? Mone~' isn't _._ .. ______ .____ , . [ didn't h:wt' much money with me. ___ ._•.. ___ ._...... __ [ had was ten pou nds. \'(' hen the li re alarm rang. _ ... _.H.H .•......_.H_...... left the build ing irnmed i:ncly. Sue didn't say where she was goi ng. . .......... _....... _... _ she said was that she was goi ng away. \'(/e ha\'e com pletely d ifferem opinions. I disagree with .............................. ~ ............. she says. We all did well in t he examination . .......... __ ................. _.... _.... in o ur class passed . We all did well in the examina tion. ............................ .... o f us passed. \,\/hy a re you so lazy? \X1hy do ~'ou expect me to do ............................................. for you? H_.HHH _ _ _ H. _ _ _

90.2 Write sentences wi th whole . I read the book from begi nning to end . ....1. r~ tne. wno(.e. bool:: .

2 Everyone in the team played well. T he ._._.......... _... _... _....... _.... _. __ .. ____.___ ..... _ ......... _.. _..... _.... _.... _.. ___._.. _ ........................ _____ .___ ...... _......... _... ~. ___ ._____ .. __

3 Paul opened a box of chocolates. When he 'fi nished ea ting, there were no chocolates left in the box. He a re ................. _ _ ... ________ .... __.___ .___ ............. _ ...... ______ ...... _... _....... __ ._ _ _ _ _ .__

4 The police came to the house. T hey were look ing for someth ing. They sea rched everywhere, e\'ery room. The~' _ _ ._._.... __.______ ._._... _ _ ._ ._......... _. 5 heryone in Dave and Jane's fa mily plays tenn is. Dave and Ja ne play, and so do all the; r chi ldren. The _____ .~ __ .__ ._. ____ .__ .__ ._._._. ........ _.. ______ .______ ... _ _ _ __

6 .-\ nn worked from

earl~'

in rhe morn ing umillafe in the evening.

- Jack and Jill wem on hol i da ~' ro the seaside fo r a week. h rained fro m the beginn ing o f the week to (he end. It .... _ .. ___ ._........................ _._. __.__ ... _ ............................. _.......................... __ ._... _._............

Now write SentenceS 6 and 7 again using all instead of whole. S \&1 An n ........._................................ ............................. _ ........_.... _._ ........... _......... _....... _.......................................... _............. 9 I - I ........_ ........._ ............................................................................ ................ 90.3 Complete theSe sentenceS using every with the fo llowing: fi \'e minutes ·ten-minutesfou r hours six mo nths

four years

T he bus service is very good. T here's a bus .:....~~~.H. ... ~.n ... ~.!!.!.~.~.~.. _............._.... _............................_._._ .. 1 Tom is ill. He has some medicine. He has to rake it _._ .. _........... _. __ ._....... _. __ ...... _......... _._ ... __ .................... _._ ....... _ 3 T he Olympic Ga mes take place __ ...... __ ._... _...... _ ..... ____ ............... ___................................ _.................. _.............. _ .. 4 \'(Ie live near a b u s~' airport. A plane fl ies over our house ._.. _... _.... __ .............. __ ._~ ... _... ______ ... __ 5 ;"I artin has a check-up with his dentist _ ..... ____.__ ... "~... ___ .~...... _. __ ... _ ........ _.... __ .. _ .. _. _______ 90.4

. . • •

Which is the correct alternative? I've spent {hr-whQlt-,UOOfy / all the money you gave me. (a ll tbe money is correct) 1 Sue works every da)' , all d;p's except Su nday. 3 r m tired. I've been work ing hard all the day I all day. 4 If was a terrible nrc. Whole bui lding I T he whole bui ldinc was destroyed. 5 I've been t rying to phone her. bur every ti me ( all the ti me I phone the li ne is busy. 6 I don't like the weather here. It rains every time I all [he time. - \'(' hen I was on holiday, all m\' luggaGe / my whole lUGGage was stolen .

.... Additional exercise 30 (page 320)

181


Each and every Each and every 3re similar in meaning. Often it is possible to usc c3ch o r C\'cry: o Each rime (or Every time ) I see you, you look different. o There's a telephone in each room (o r every room) of the house.

But cach and every are nor exactly the same. Study the difference: We usc each when we think of things separately, one by one. o Study cach sentence ca refully. (= study the senrences one by one )

Wic use c,'cry when we think of things a s a

group. The meaning is similar to all. a Evcry sen tence mU ST h:l.\'e a verb. (= all stille-net s in genera l)

x

mh=X+X+X+X

c\'err =

Each is Illorc usua l for a small number: o There were four books on the rable. Each boo k was a different colou r. o (in a card gamc) At the beginning of

the game, e3ch player has three cards.

XXXXXXXX

X~xXXxXIXx X

XXx1<x

X XXX

X

Evcry is more usual for a large number: o Kate lo\'es read ing, She has read every boo k in the library, (= all the book s ) o I would like to visit every cou ntry in the world, (= all rhe countries I

Each (bu t not evcry) can be used for twO thi ngs: o In a football match, each team has eleven players,

---

(110 /

even' team l

We use every (nol each) to say how often something happens: o ' How o ften do you use your computer ?' ' Every day.' (1Iot Each day ) o There's a bus every ten minutes , (llot each ten minutes) Compare the Structures we use wi th each a nd every: YOli can use each with a nOlln: each book each student

You can use e,"ery with a notln: e"ery book el'ery student

You can use each alone (wi thom a noun ): o None of the rooms was the same, Each (= each room ) was d ifferent. Or you can use each o ne: o Each o ne was different,

You can't use el'ery alone, bur yOll ca n say e"ery o ne: o ,-\: H:,we ~' o u read all these book s? II: Yes. e\'ery o ne,

You can say each of (the .. , I these .. , I them etc, ): D Read each o f these sentences carefuJJ ~', D Each of the book s is a differem colour, D Each o f th em is a different colour,

You (an S<l y everyone of , .. " JIlt lI o t of): ::J rl'c rcad e,'ery o ne of those books. (1I0 t cI'ery of those books) I've rea d e ,'e r~' o nc of them,

e\'e r~'

=

---..I

You can also usc each in the middle or at the end of a sentence, For example: o The students were each given a book, (= Each student was given :I book. ) D These oranges cost 15 pence each. Everyone and every o ne Everyone (one word) is only for people (= el'erybody). Evcry o ne (two words) is for things or people, and is simi lar to each o ne (see Section Bl. D Everyone enjoyed thc parry. (= Everybody .. ,J D Sarah is invited to lots o f parties and she goes to everyone, (= to every party )

182

Each oth er -

Unit 82e

All and every -

Unit 90


Exercises 91 .1

Unit 91

l ook at the pictures and com ple te the sentences with each or every.

6

7 TRA IN S TO LOIIIIlON

9:15

10 : 15 1\ : 15

14 =15 15 : 15

16 : 15

12 : 15

17 : 15

13 : 15

18 : 15

[~._ .... player has three cards. 1 K;l tt" has read ......~.'!..~ ..... book in the library.

3

.......... side of a sq uare is [he same length.

4 .......................... seaT in the thea tre was taken. 5 There are six apartmenTS in the buil di ng.

6 There 's a tra in co London .......................... hour. - She was wearing tour rings - one on . S Our fomba ll [(,31ll is playing well. \\'ie\'c won 91.2

.......... one has a balcony. fi nge r.

........ game this season.

Put in each or every. There were four books on the rable. £o..cl1 ... book was a different coiour. 2. The Olympic Games are held ......e..'!:.~H ... iour years. 3 ............................ parent worries abour their children. 4 In a game of tennis there are twO o r iour players. ................................ player has a racket. S ;";icola plays \· oJle~· ball ...... ........... Th ursday e,'ening. 6 I understood most of what the~' said bu r not ........ _........ word. - The book is d ivided inro five pans and ....... of these has three sectio ns. S I get p;l id .................. _... _................... four \\"t·eks. 9 We had a grea t weekend. I en ioyed . minure of ir. 10 I tried to phone her rwo or three times. bur ........................ ................... time rhere was no repl y. 11 Ca r seat belts S,1\"e li\·es. ........... _.. driver should wear one. 12 ({rom 011 exom) Answer all fin' questions. \\hire your answer to . ....................... question on a separa te sheet of paper.

91 .3

Com plete the sentences using each. The price of o ne of those oranges is 30 pence. Those ..... Q:r.li':!:!g~~ ..~.~. .~Q. .. .P~....~ 1 I had ten pounds and so did Soni<l. Soni<l <lnd I . .......... ............... 3 One of those postca rds costS 80 pence. Those ." ...................... . 4 The hotel was ex pensi\·e. I pa id £ 120 and so did you . We . ............................... .

9 1.4

Put in everyone (1 word) or every one (2 words). Sa rah is invited to a lor of panics and she goes to ......~'f..~~ . Qr.~.... 2 As soon as ..... . . ......... ...... had arrived, we began the meeti ng. 3 I asked her lots of questions and she ,lnswered . ...... _............................................. correctly. ......... lik es her. 4 She's very popular. S I dropped a fr<l Y of glasses. Unforruna rel), .... ...... broke.

183


Relative clauses 1: clauses with who/that/which Look a t this exam ple sentence:

The woman

who lives next door is a doctor. L - ,,,latil,t dallY ~

A dause is a pa n- of a sentence. A relative clause tells us which person or thing (or w hat kind o f person or th ing) the speaker means: o The woman who lives next door ... ('who lives next door' tells us which woman) o People who live in the country ... ("who live in the country' tells us what kind of people )

We use who in a rehitive clause when we are tal king about people (not things): the

WOlll3n -

she lives next door - is a doctor

I _

The wom3n wh o li ves next door is a doctor.

-

we know a lor of people - thfY live in the country

'

We know a lot of people who live in Ih e co umry. o An a rchitect is someone who designs buildings. o What was the name of (he person who phoned you ? o Anyone who wallis to apply for the job must do so by Friday.

You can also use tha t (i nstead o f who ), but you ca n路t use which for people: o T he woma n that lives next door is a doctor. (,ZO f the woma n which) Someti mes you m ust use who (II0t that) for people - see Unit 95. When we a re talking about t hings, we use that or which (1I0 t who) in a relative clause: where is the cheese? - it was in the fridge

I Where is the cheese { ~~~:h

}

.

was in the frid ge?

o I don't like stories that have unhappy endings. (or sto ries which have ... ) o Ba rba ra works fo r :l compa ny that makes furniture. (or a company which ma kes furn i(Urc) o T he machine that broke down is working again now. (or The machine which broke down) That is mo re usual tha n which, but sometimes you must use which - see Unit 95.

=

What ' the thing(s) t hat'. Compare what and that: o What happened was mr fa ult. (= t he thing tha t happened) o Everything [hat happened w as my fa ult. (no t Everything wha t happened ) o T he machine that broke down is now working again. ("ot T he machine w hat broke down ) Remem ber that in reia t;\'e clauses we use who/that/which, not hc/she/theyli t: o I've never spoken to t he woman who lives next door. (no l the woma n she li,'cs)

184

Relative clauses 2-5 .... Units 93-96


Exercises

Unit 92

92 .1 In this exercise you have to explain what some word s mean. Choose the righ t meaning from the box and then write a sentence with who. Use a dictiona ry if necessary. steals from

he/she (

;1

~ d oesn .( LI' . God I.K" U~ \'e In is not br.wt"

buys something from <1 shop pays rent to live in a house or flat

shop

h Jh esc

(

breaks into a house to steal things expects the worst to happen

( .1 narc h i teet I ~_.~.I}~~_~-1§_>-Q!!I.eo~.~_.~!:!P_.A&~~_._~!!t_t!4!.lg ~.:.._._. ___ ._ .. __ ._._. ___ .________ _

1 13 burglar ) A burglar is sonlcone _' __'_"_' __ "'_'~"'_'_' __ '__ '_""_"'"'_' __ "___ "'H"_'_._.•. ____ .__ .. _. _____ _ 3 13 customer) 4 13 shoplifu' r ) j

ta coward )

6 (an atheist ) (3 pcssimisr) S (3 tenant )

92.2 Make one sentence from two. Use who/that/which . I :\ girl was injured in the acci denr. She is now in hospital. ._..Th~...9!fl, " !.-!.~9.~.M....~j~t~...!!.)....~.~...~.~.t..~~....r.!Q~.,..~ ..n.9..~~., ..._._ ............. ,.............._._._.__ ..._............._ 1 A waitress served us. She was impolite and impatient. The ___. ,. ___ ._. __.________._____ .... _... __ ... _...... _...... _... ____.____ ....... _._ ....... _.... _._. __.__._.____ ._._.....,..... 3 A building was destroyed in the fire. It has now been rebuilt. The --_____ ._. _____ ... _____._.__ ._._.. _.. _. ________ .J Some people were arrested. The~' h3\'e now been released. The . '_ _ _ .__________________._.. ______.___.__.__ .. _......... _________ _ H . . . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ H ..... _

•• _ _ _ __

5 A bus goes to the airporr. It runs every half hour.

The _ _ _ _._.•. __ • ____ .• _____ •__ .... ___ •. __.__._____ ._•. _.._____._____ .. _.. _ 92 .3

Complete the sentences. Choose the best ending from the box and change it into a relative clause. -tHHakes fumifl:lreit gi\'es you the meaning of words if C;lll suppOrt life it cannot be explained

1

3 .J

5 6 S 92 .4

Barbara works for a company ..... ~.?:t:....~.~ ,~.~ ..:fun:,,~r.~ ........................ . .................. The book is ,lbout a gi rl ................................................................... ,........................ ............................................................ \X' hat happened to the pictures ............................... .............. _ ........ _.... ................................................ _.... _._ .... _.... _ A m ~·s ter~· is something .H......_.•. _....._...... ,........................... _.•.. __ .• _.... _._._ •. _._ •. _............................................_ ..•.. _.•.. _........._... _.. The police h<l\'e caugh t the men ... _.. _.... _ .. _... __ .. _.... _........... _.... _.............. _ ............ _..................... _.............................. _...... _... _ .\ dictionary is a book _. __ ... _ ..... _.. _. __ ._. __.__.__ ....... _... _.... _ ... __ ... _... _. ___.__ ...... ~_. __ .. _. ____ .... _. __ .... _._._ .. __ Alexander Bell was the man __ '". ____.______.___________________ It seems that the earth is the only planet

' •

. . .

Are these sentences right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. I I don't like ~ unhappy endings . __~!:9.rt.e.~..JhG.t n~~ _______ 1 What was the nanle of the person who phoned you? __~____.____________ 3 Where's the nearest shop who sells newspapers? _________._______.__.._ _ __ .J The driver which caused the accident was fined £500, .... _....... _...... __ ... _. __ ._. ___ ....... _....... _._ .... ___ ._._....... _... _ 5 Do you know the person that took these photographs? ... _.......... _.......... 6 We live in a world wha t is changi ng all the time. - Dan said some things about me that were not true. S What was the name of the horse if won the ra ce? H .. _

••• _

•• _

.... _

......................_

... _

•• _

.... _ ... _ _ _

185


Relative clauses 2: clauses with and without who/that/which look at these example sentences from Unit 92: o The woman who lives next door is a doctor. (or The woman th at lives ... J I

who (= the woman) is the subiect

The woman lives next door. o Where is the

ch~se

tha t

was in the fridge: (or the cheese which was ... )

I

The cheese was in [he fridge.

that (= the cheese) is the subject

You must usc who/that/which when it is the subject of the relative clause. So ),ou ca nnot sa ~' 'The woman lives next door is a doctor' o r 'Where is the cheese was in Ihe fridge?'. Sometimes who/that/which is the object of the \'erb. For example: o The woman who I wanted to sec was awa y on holiday. i who (= the woman) is the object I wamed to see the woman I is the sllbject o Have you found the keys

that

you lost? You lost the keys.

that (= the keys) is the object you is the subject

When who/that/which is the object, you can leave it out. So rou can say: o The woman I wanted co see was away. or The woman who J wanted to see ... o Ha ve you fo und the keys you lost ? or ... the keys that you lost? o The dress Liz bought doesn't fit her very well . or The dress that Liz bought .. , o Is there anything I can do ? or '" anything that I can do? Note that we say: the keys you lost (1Iot the keys you lost them ) the dress liz bought (n ot the dress Liz bought if) Note the position of prepositions (i nftoffo r etc.) in relative clauses: Tom is talking to a woman - do you know her: , -

.- Do

yO li

' slept _

know the woman (who/that ) Tom is talking to in a bed last night - it wasn't \wy comfo rtable

,

The bed (that/which) I slept in

last night wasn't ve ry comfortable,

o Arc these (he books you were looking for? or '" the books that/which you wete '" o The woman he fell in lo ve with left him after a month, or The woman who/that he , .. o The man I was sining next !O o n [he plane talked all [he time. or The man wholthat I was sitting next to .. , NOie that wc say: the books you were looking for (1Iot the books yo u were looki ng for them) You cannot use what in sentences [i ke these (see also Unit 92C): o Everything (th at ) they said was true. (" ot E\'erything what the}' said} o I gave her all the money (that ) I had, (1Iot all the money what I had)

=

What ' the thing(s) that' : o Did you hear wh at they said ?

186

Relative clauses 1 -

Uni t 92

(=

the things that (hey said )

Relat ive cla uses 3-5 -

Units 94- 96

Whom -

Un it 946


Unit 93

Exercises 93.1

In some of these sentences you need who or that. Correct the sentences where necessary. 1 ~ is 3 doctor. ._ThJ~~... !::l.~~:~U~?h!?' ....~~J_X!~~L4QQr__ ._... _ 1 Ha\'c you found tile keys you 10s(: _.Q~ __ "~~ ____ "H*'*'*''' ___ ' __ '''M _ _ _ _ ' _

.3 The people we met 10m night were vcry nice. 4 5 6 8 9 93.2

The people work in the office are \'cry nice. The people I work with are \'cry nice. What have }'OU done with the money 1 gave you? What happened to tile mone~' was on the table? What's rhe worst film you"ve {,H'r seen: \l;/hat's th~ beSt thing it has ever happened to you?

... ~ ____ ''' __ '*''' ___ M._*_. _____ _

_H_. __________·__·_·_____·_·_·__·_ *_* ... __ . _ _ .... _ _ _ _ _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~.*

______.______ ._... __ .___ * _ _ . _ _ _ __.__._.__._....* __ M_· ____________·_·_ _. __ ... _...... _._.~.~ ....*.*. __ ._. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ••. _ __ ....... __ .. _.. _. ___ ._._.... _. _______.___.__ ..

What do you say in these situations? Complete each sentence with a relative clause. I Your frie nd lost some keys. You want TO know if he has found them. You say: 2

3 4

S

Ha\'e you fou nd ..... ~. ~ ....~.~~.. Jj~._.!P.~.L ....... _............... _................ _ ...................... _.... _....... _._ ....... _..._._. A friend is wearing a dress. You like ir. You tell her: I like the dress ...... .. ........................... _........................................ ..\ friend is going to see a film. You wam to know the name of the fil m. YOIl say: \l;lhat'S the name of the fi lm .. _..... ..... _..... _._......._................... _................. _........................................... _._......._...._.... _... You wanted (Q visit a museum. It was shut w hen you gOt there. You tell a friend: The mus~um ._.......... _............ _..... _ ............ _..... _ ....... _.......... _......... _ ....... __ .. _..... _ was shut when we got there. You ;O\'ited some people to your party. Some of them couldn't come. You tell someone: Some of the people ._____ ... _. __ ....... __________.___.________ .... _. ___ ._ couldn't come.

,

6 Your friend had to do some work. You want to know if she has finished. You say: Hav~

you finished the work _._. _____._______ .___.___.___ .__._____ ?

- You hired a Ca r. It broke down after a few miles. You tell a friend: The ca r _.. __.__ .. ___.__ ._._._._._._._. _______ ._.__.______._ broke down after a few miles.

S You stayed at a hotel. Tom had recommended it to you. You tell a friend: We stayed at a hotel _. _______.__ ._________________.___ ._.. ____.______.____._.. _ . 93 .3 Complete each sentence using a relative clause with a preposition . Choose from the box.

we went [0 a party last night I work with some people -yotl vere-looki-ng-for-some-books-

you can rely on Ga ry I applied for a job I S3\\' you wit h a man

Are these the book s .... ~~ .... I;:!~.~ ...!Pg.~ .1!.!9....:fu.!: ) 1 Unfortunately we could n't go to the wedding _ .................. _...... 3 I enjoy m}' job. I like the people ................... 4 S 6 -

we w~ re invited to a wedding you told me about a hotel

,

What's the rl3me of that hotel ... _._._ ......... The party .................. _._._._. __ ._._.... _.......... _.... _.... _....... _.. _._._ ...._... _ wasn't ver}' enjoyable. I didn't get the job ......... __ ........ ____ ... ______ ._. __ .... _. __.__ ....... __ .. __ . Gary is a good person to know. He's somebody .. _. ___ ._.. _.. _.. __ .. _ .. _. _____ .... ___ .___ . S \Xlho was that man ___._____ ._.... _____ ._. _______.__ in the restaurant?

93.4

Put in that or what where necessary. If the: sentence is already complete, leave the space empty.

I I gave her all the money _ - _ I had. (all the money thai I had is also correct) 1 Did you hea r w"o.t they sa id ? 3 They give their children e\'erything .__.__.____. _ they want . .. Tell me __._._. _____ ._.... _ you want and I'll try to get it for you. S Why do you blame me for everything ._._._._._._._. ___ ... _ goes wrong? 6 I won't be able to do much. but I'll do __ ... _... _.... _... _.... __ ._._. I can. 7 I won't be able to do much. but I'l l do the best _.. _ ...... _.......... _._._ .......... I can. 8 I don't agree wi th ......................... _............... you've JUSt said. 9 I don't trust him. I don't belic\'e anything .. _.... _.... ......... he says.

187


Relative clauses 3: whose/whom/where Whose

We use whose in relative clauses instead of hisJhcrl1heir: we saw some people -

their car had broken down

We saw some people

whose car had broken down.

I

We use whose mostly fo r people: o A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. (her husband is dead )

o What's the name of the man whose car you borrowed ? (you borrowed his ca r) o I met someone whose brOlhcr I went to school with. (I wem ro school with hislher brother) Compare who and whose: o I mer a man who knows you. (he knows you) o I met a man whose sister knows you. (his sister knows you)

Whom

Whom is possible instead of who when it is the obicci of the \'crb in the relative clause (like the sentences in Unit 93B): o The woman whom J wanted to see was away. (I wanted to see her)

You can also use whom with a preposition ( 10 whom I from whom / with whom etc. ): D The people with whom I work are very nice. (I work with them ) But we do not often use whom in spoken English. We usually prefer who or Ihal , or nothing (see Unit 93). So we usually say: D The woman I wanted 10 see ... or The woman whollhal I wanred TO see ... D The people I work wilh ... or The people who/thaI I work with ... Where You can use where in a relative clause to'ta lk about a place: the restaurant - we had dinner -

.- Th e restaurant where

there - il was near th e airport

we had dinner was ne<lr the <lirport.

D I recently went back to the lawn where I grew up . (o r ... the town I grew up in or ... the town Ihal I grew up in) D I would like to li\'e in a place where there is plenty of su nshine.

_ !

We say:

the day I the year / the time etc.

someth ing happens or h h- h I at somet Ing appens

D Do you remember the day (that ) we went to the zoo? D The 10151 lime (that ) I saw her, she looked fine . D I haven't seen them si nce the year (that) they got married. We say: I.hc reason

something happens or . that/why somethmg happens

!

D The reason I'm phoning you is to ask your advice. (o r The reason that I'm phoning I The reason why I'm phoning)

188

Relative clauses 1-2

-+

Units 92 - 93

Relative clauses 4-5

-+

Units 95-96

Whom .... Unit 96


Exercises

Unit 94

94.1 You met these people at a party:

3~1 own a restaurant.

2

77---1

-j •

f..1v ambition is to climb Evtresl.

5

The next day you tell a frie nd about these people. Complete the se ntences using who or whose.

I met somebody .. _.~.r.Q~.~....!!l.Qth.~ ..~.!':.~~. .4:e:_t.f!.~{~.~ ....~.tp.r.~~ ....... 2 J 1l1et a man _................................ _.............. 3 [mel a woman ........... _._._ .. _.... _..........................._._._... _. __ ........ _.

a u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

4 I mer somebody .... __ .... ___.__ ........... 5 I met 3 couple ...... ___ ... __ ... __.________._._-.:.__ ................ __ .. ____._.__ ._. ___ ........ _......... _ _ _ _ .... __.___ . 6 I met somebody ____ ... ____ ... _______ ". ___ ._._.... __ ._........ __ ._._. _____ .. _ ... _......... _.......... _____ ......... ____ _ H .............._ _ . ... _

...... _. _ _ ..................._

...................._ _ _ _ _ _ _ .... _._ .....H ......................_ . _ _ • ___ ._

94.2 Read the situations and complete the sentences using where.

2 3 -I-

5

You grew up in a small town. You went back there recen tl y. You tell someone this. I recently went back to the sma ll town _ LoJl1er.&.J._9I.!~~U~'p' ___ .... __._____ . You want to buy some postca rds. You ask a friend where you can do this. Is there a shop nea r here ......"........................ _______...... _... _... _._ ... _ .... _... _ .. ___ .. _ _ .... _................. __ .. __ ? You work in a fac t o ~·. The factory is goi ng to close down next month. You tell a fri end: The factory _._ ..... _................ _................... __ ... _.._......... _................... _............. is going to close down next month. Sue is stayi ng at a hotel. You want (Q know the name o f the hotel. You ask a friend: Do ~' o u know the name of the hotel . ............... _ ................. _..................... _ ....................... _.... J Yo u play football in a park on Sundays. You show a friend the park. You say: Th is is the park ... ........................... ..................................................................................... on Sundays.

94 .3 Comp lete each sentence using who/whom/whose/where. W1har's the name of the man ......~.~.Q~!L .. ca r you borrowed? 1 A cemetery is a place .......... _._ ......................... _.. people are buried. 3 ..\ pacifist is a person ................ __ ...... _............. believes th.u all warS are wrong. -I- An o rphan is a child ._....... __ ... _................ _ parents are dead. 5 \'(' hat wa s the name of the person to ____ .. _... ____ you spoke on the phone? 6 The place _ .. ____ .. ____._. we spent our holidays was really beautiful. - This school is on ly for children . ____.___ ... _ ._ first language is not English. 8 T he woman with _...... _._._. __.__ ... __ he fell in love left him after a month. 94.4 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. They are like the exa mples in Sections 0 and E.

rll always remember the da~·

_J....£.t:r.~~

1TIe£..!:!.QI!-_ ___.______________._.____

2 I' ll never forget the time .__ ... __ .•. _.. __ ._...._.... ___ .. _... _._. ___ ."...... _... ___ ._......... _....... _ ..... _.. _._ .... __ ..... _... ___ ....... _.. .

.> The reason ". __._.. _... _.... _................. _.... _._ .......... _._...... _._._..................,, __...... _ was that I didn't know your address. -I- Unfortunately I wasn't at home the even ing ..................... _............................. _...............................__ .. _.............. __ ............. 5 The reason ........................................ ........_._......... ...................................... _ is that they don't need one.

6

189


Unit

95

Relative clauses 4: extra information clauses (1) There arc twO types of relative clause. In these examples, the rclati,'c cla uses are underl ined. Compare:

Type 2

T)'pe 1

o The woman wbo lives neX[ door is a doclO[. o Barbara works for a company Ih..ar makes fUro jlUfC. D We stayed 31 the hotel (that! \ 'O U recommended.

:::; \I y brother Roh. who liyes in Auma !i\!. is a doctor. o Colin fOld me about his new job. ~ he's eojoyj nl; \W\' Illuch, o We stayed a l the Park Ho tel, wbicb a friend of ours recommended.

In these examples, the relati ve clause tells YOll which person or thing (o r what kind o f . person or thi ng) the speaker means: 'The woman who lives next door' tells li S Ivbicb woman. 'A compa ny that makes furni tu re' rells us what killd of com pan>'. 'The hotel (that ) Ann recom mended' tells us which hotel.

10 these exa mplcs, th e relative clauses do om rell you which person or thiog the speaker mea os. \,\/e already know which thing o r perso n is meant: 'M y brother Rob', ' Colin's ncw job' and 'the Park Hmcl'. The relari\'e clauses in these sentences give us extra ill(orlll,lfioll abom the person o r thing.

We do not usc commas (,J wi th these clauses: o We know a lot of people who Ij\'c in London.

We use commas (.) with these clauses: o '\ I y brother Rob, who lives in London. is a doctor.

In both types of relative clause we use who for people and which fo r things, But: TYIJe 1 You can use that: o Do you know anyone wholthat spea ks French and Italian? o Barbara works for a company which/that makes furniture,

Type 2 You cannot use that: D Jo hn, who ( 1I0 t that l speaks French and [t.1Iial1, works as a tOuri st guide. D Colin told me about hi s new job. which (llo t rh :lt ) he's enjoying \'e r~' much.

You can leave out who/whichlthat when it is the o bject (sec Unit 93): o We stayed at the horel (th,lf/whic h) you recommended. o This morn ing I met somebod y (who/that) I hadn 't seen for ages.

) 'o u cannol le:l \'c OUt who or which:

We do not often usc whom in this type of clause (see Unit 9 4B).

Yo u call use whom fo r people (when ir is the object ): D Th is morn ing I met Chris, whom I hadn't seen for :Iges.

o

o

We s r a~'ed :It the P;lrk H o tel. which .1 friend of ou rs recommended. This morning I mel C hris, who I hadn't seen for ages.

In both types of re lative clause )"ou can usc whose a nd w here: o We Illet some people whose car had broken down. o What's the name of the place where ~'ou went o n ho liday ?

190

Relative clauses (Type 1) - Units 92-94

:J Liz. whose ca r had broken do wn. was in a vcry bad mood. o J ill ha s JUSt been to Sweden. wh ere her daughter lives.

Re(ative clauses (Type 2) ...... Unit 96


Exercises

Unit

95

95.1 Ma ke ont' sentence from two. Use the sentence in brackets to make a relative clause (Type 2).

You wil l need to use who{m l/whose/which/where. 1 Catherine is \"en ' friendh", (She li\'es next door. ) ._. ~~!!!.~.).. ~~g.... k-Y.~.~~.!I~.~t ..w..r:.~ ~~_ Y.~~....fr.~_~ .:. 1 \'\'e stJved ;lt the Park Hotel. (A friend of ours had recommended ir.) .... _Wf:, ... i~~._ GIJ:.. ,.~.~... .P.~.~. .Jj~~_ .. ,!:J.!:!.iQ:)....~...fr.~~....9.f....C¥.r~....t!.% .. ,r~.~.!"r.f:,!I4&4..·..... _ ........................._ 3 \,\Ie often go to \"isir our friends in Bristol. (It is not \·cry far away.)

.. .

.

4 I went TO see rhe doctor. (H e told me to rest for a few days. )

5 John is one of

rn~'

closest friend s. II ha\'e known him for a \'crr long time. )

John .

.......... ..... _ ......................... _............ 6 Sheila is. Jway irom home il lot. (H er job im'oh-es a lot o f travelling. I - T he new stad ium \\'i)) be opc-ned

ne~t

month. (It cal) hold 90,000 people. )

S Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland. Uvly brOTher lives. there .) 9 .-\ friend of mine helped me to get a job. (Hi s father is the manager of a company.) 95 .2

Read the information and complete each sentence. Use a relative clause of Type 1 or Type 2. Use commas where necessary. I T here's a woman living ne:..:t door to me. She's a doctor. T he woman ..... ~.bQ....~y~~.J\~'.l.t .MQr....tp ....~.~ ... !:-~ ....~....~t.:

2 l\ 'e gOI a brother called Rob. H e li\'es in Australia. H e's a doctOr. \ l ~' brother Rob .~ ....~.~.Q ... I.0.'.f~ ....~....~~.s..tr.~,....I.:~....9:-:....~r.:.......... 3 There was a st rike at Ihe ca r factor~·. It began ten da n ago. It is now over. The strike at the car factory ....................... ......................... ........................... . ............................................... ............................. -4 I \\'as looking: for;} boo k this morning. h 'e found it no\\". h 'c found ....... . ..................................... _ .......................... 5 London was once the largest c ir~' in the world. bur rhe population is now fall ing. The popu lation of London ................. _... ............ ... ..... .............................................. . 6 A job \\'as .ld\·ertised . A lot of people applied for it. Few of them had the necess..1ry qualifications. Few of ..... _ ......................... - .-\my ha s a so n. She showed me ;} photograph of him. He's a policeman . .-\m~· showed me ... .................... ...................... .........................................................................

95.3 Correct the sentences that are wrong and pu t in commas where necessary. If the sente nce is correct, write 'OK'. Colin told me abour hi s ~ h e's enjoying very much . .....~~....W.(4.... !:l:.~...~.~ .t;....~.':s......!}.~.jQ~.l... ~.~.i4? ...h.~:.S.....f!'jl?~~.g.....y.~~...~.~. ~ .: ............................................... 1 .\ Iy office that is on the second floor is very sma ll. 3 The office I' m using at the moment is very sma ll. 4 Ben's father that used to be a teacher now works for a T V compa ny. 5 The doctor that e:..:amined me couldn't find anything wrong. 6 The sun that is one of million s o f stars in the uni\'erse provides us with hear and light.

191


Relative clauses 5: extra information clauses (2) I'repositiollS + whom/which

You ca n use a preposilio" before whom (for people) a nd which (for things). So you can say: to whom I with whom I about which I without which Ctc. : o Mr Lee, to whom I spoke at the meeting, is \'cry interested in our proposa l. o Fortunately we had a map, without which we would have gOI 10sL In informal English we often keep the preposit ion after the verb in the rdative clause. When we do this, we normally use who (1I0t whom ) fo r people: o This is my friend from Canada, who I wa s telling yo u about o Yesterday we visited the City Museu m, which I'd never been to before. All o f I most of etc. + whom/which Study these exam pl es:

_

Ma ry ha:. three brut hers. All of thcm

an: rnarricJ. (2 sel1l(!lIcesj

Ma r)' has th ree brothers, all of whom

are married. (/ sell/ ell a)

They asked me a lor of questions. I co uldn't :lOswer most o f them . (2 se//{ell ces / They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldn't answer. (I se1ltt'llaJ

In the same wa y you can say: none of I neither of I any of I either of some o f I many o f I much o f I fa ) few o f both of I half of I each o f l one o f I twO of etc. o o o D

I

h

1

+ w a m (peop e)

+

W

h' h IC

ft

h'

111 S

g )

Martin tried on three jackets, none o f which fitted him . Two men, neither o f whom I had ~e n before, came into the office. They've gor three cars, two of which they rarely use. Sue has a lot of fr iends, many o f whom she was at school wil h.

You can also say the ca use of which I the name of which etc. : a The building was destroyed in a fire, the cause of which was ne\'er established. o We sta yed at a beautifu l horel, the name of which I can't remember now. Which (1I0t what) Study this exa mple: I

I

Joe got the job.

This

I

I

Joe got the job,

which

su rprised eve rybody. (2 s/!1I1eIlC(!S/ surprised e\'e rybody, (1 sell / ella)

"'_ __ ,i!lJrwr {/.lUsr - --

In this example, which = ' the fact that he gOt the job', You must use which (llo t what ) in sentences like these: a Sa rah couldn 't meet us, which was a pity. (1Io t what was a pitr) a The weather was good, which we hadn't expected. ( 110 / w hat we hadn't expected) For what, sec Units 92C a nd 930,

192

All of I most of etc....... Un it 88

Both of etc ..... Unit 89

Relative clauses 1- 4 .... Uni ts 92-95


Exercises

Unit

96

96.1 Write the relat ive cl au ses in a more fo rmal way using a preposi tion + whom/ which. 1 Yesrerd,H'. we \'isired the Cit"\". .\luseulll, which I'd never , been to before. ) "csterday we \'isited the City ~ l lIsellm, .....!:Q....t-!.n.~ . J...4_. ~.~..(~ ... ~~!:!....P..~.1 .Y.r.~ ........ 2 ~Iy brother showed us his new caT. which he's very proud of. .\I y brother showed us hi s new ca r, .................... ...................... ............................................................................................. ~

3 This is :l photograph of our iriends Chris and Sa m, who we wen[ 0 11 holiday with. This is a phorograph of our iriends Chris and Sam, ................................................................. _ -I The wedding. which only membe rs of the famil~' were invited to, took place on Friday. ...... __ .....The wedding. .... . .............................. ...................... . took place on Frid ay.

.

96.2 Use the information in the fi rst sente nce to com plete th e second sentence. Use all of I most of etc, or the . of + whom/which.

.2

3 4

5 6 7

8

9 10

All o f :\ Ian"s brothers are married. :\lary ha s t'hree brothers. ..... c:W,.....2.f ....~~g.!!' .. fU'"e MG l.m .eO".................................................................................................... . :\'Iost of the information we \\'ere gi\'en was useless. \X'e were gi"en a lot oi information, ................................. Jane has received neither of the leners I senT her. r sen t Jane [\\' 0 leners. ............................. ....................... .......................................... _.. _...... _..................................... . :-\one of the ten people who applied for the job was suitable, Ten people applied for the iob. ...... ................................. ...................................................................... _. K,lte hard ly eyer uses one of her computers. Kate has gOt twO computers . ................................................ .\Iike ga\'e half of the £50.000 he Wall to his parents. :\ Iike won £50,000, ............. . .......................................................... Both of Jul ia's sisters are teachers. Julia has twO sisters. ................... . I wenT to a p.lny - [ knew onl~' a few of the people there. There were a lot of people at the party. ................................................................................. _............... _ ....................................... . The sides oi the road we drove along were lined with trees. We drove along the road. the . ...................................................................... The aim o f the compa ny's new business plan is to save money. The company has a new busi ness P!:lll. . ........................................................

96.3 Join sentences from the boxes to ma ke new se ntences. Use which.

1 3 4 5 6 -

-l-ftuFa-c-euldn-:{-(;ome-HH·he-pany:Jane doesn't have a phone. :-\e;1 has passed his exams. Our flight was delayed. Kate offered to let me Stay at her house. The street 1 live in is \'ery nois~' at night. Our car has broken down.

Th is was very ki nd of her. Th is means we can't go away tomorrow, This makes it difficult to contact her. This makes it difficult to sleep sometimes. :r.:h is-was-ll-pi-t-y. This is good news. This meant we had to wait three hours at the airport.

Laura could n't corne to the party, ~h.(.C}I ..~.M ..~... PIJ:B.: ................... _........................................ _. __ ......... ... ....... 2 Jane ...... ...... ...................................... ..................... . ....................... ... .............................. ......................... .

3 4

5

6 7

193


Unit

97

-ing and -ed clauses (the woman talking to Tom, the boy injured in the accident) A clouse is a part o f a sentence. Some clauses begin with -ing o r -cd . Fo r example:

Do you know t he woma n talking 10 Tom ? L .ing c/.III'l' ~

TO.\I

the woman ta lking to Tom

---The boy injured in the accident w as taken to hospita l.

L - . -cd ri.II<sc ------l

the boy injured __ in the accident

--'~~~~~

We use -ing clauses to sa y what somebody (or something) is (o r wa s) do ing at a panicular time: o Do you know the woma n talking to Sam ? (the wo ma n is talking to Sam ) o Police invcstigaling the crime a rc looking for three men. (police arc in,"estigating the crime) a Who w e rc~ those peo ple waiting ou tside? ( th e ~' wefe waiting ) a I was woken up by a bell ringing. (3 bell was ringing) Yo u can also use a n -ing clause to sa)' what ha ppens a ll the rime, not just at a particular time. Fo r example: o The road connecling the two villages is very narro w. (the road connects rhe tWO villages ) o I have a large room overlooking the garden. Ilhe room o \'erlooks the garden) o Can you think of the name of a flower beginning wilh T ? (the name begins with T ) -ed clauses have a passi/le meaning: o The boy injured in the accident was ta ken to hospital. (he was injured in the accident) o George showed me some pictu res painted by his father. (they had been painted by his fat her ) Injured a nd invited are past participles. Note that many pa st participles a re irregula r and do nor end in -ed (slolen/made/written etc. ): o The police never fou nd the money stolen in the robbery. o Most o f the goods made in this facto ry aTC expo rted . You can use left in this wa y, with the meaning 'no r used . still there': o We've eaten nea rl y a ll rhe chocola tes: Therc a re o nl y a few left . We often use -ing and oed cla uses after there is J there was etc. : o There were some children swimming in the river. o Is there an)'bod y waiting ? o There was a big red ca r pa rked outside the ho use.

194

See/hea r somebody doing something ..... Unit 67 -ing clauses -- Un it 68 There (is) ..... Un it 84 Irregular past participles (made/stolen etc.) -- Appendi .. 1


Exercises

Unit 97

97. 1 Make one sentence from two. Complete t he sentences with an - ing clause.

1 A bell was ringing. I \\"3 S woken up by it. I \\"3 S wo ken lip b~' .., ?:.:... ~_~ ... r.!!.'!g~g ... __..

.................... _...

1 A man was sirring next to me on the plane. I didn't ta lk much to him. [ d idn't t;llk much to rhe ........................................ ......................... 3 .-\ mx i W3 5 tak ing li S ro rhe airport. It broke down.

The ._

..................... .

................ _............................

............... " broke down .

4 T here's;\ path at the end of this meet. The path leads to the river.

At the end of the street there's a . ...................... .................... 5 .l. fa CTory has JU St opened in the Town. It employs 500 people . .-\ ................._... . has just opened in the town. 6 T he company SeTH me a b rochure. It contai ned the informa tion I needed. The c ompan~' sent me .............................................................................................................. ............ .................................. . 9 7.2

Ma ke one sente nce fro m t wo. begi nn ing as show n. Each t ime ma ke a n - e d cla use,

1 A boy was in ju red in the accident, He was taken to hospital. The boy ..... !:I'lJ\A.r..~.....~....#1.~ ...~.L.. was {,l ken to hospital. 1 A gate was danmged in the srorm, It has now been repaired . The gate _..... .... .............. ................................ .. ..... .. ......_......... ............ _ has now been repa ired. 3 A nllmber of suggestions were made aT the meeting. :\'Iost of them were not very p ractical. :\ Io st of the . .................... ................................ ~ ............... ................ were not very practica l. 4 Some palrlTings were stolen from the museum. They haven't been found yet. The ....... _ ................... .._..... _.......... _... ............. ha ven't been fo u nd yet. 5 A man wa s a rrested by the police. \X/hat was his nallle: What ,,',1Sthe name o t .................................. _... 97.3

Comple te t he sen te nces usi ng the fo llowing verbs in th e correct form : blow

1 3 4 5 6 S

97 .4

,

ca ll

-tll-\'ire-

lil'e

o ffer

read

-FlA g--

sit

study

work

I W ;l S woken up b~' a bell ..... r..~9.l!.!9 .. _. . Some of th e people ... _~.~.w. to the party can't corne. Life must be "ery unpleas.uH for people _ . near b usy airports. .l.. fe\\" days .titer the imen'iew, I received a letter .____ ............................................... me the job. Somebod~' ................................. _... .__ .... J ack p honed while you were o ut. Th ere was a tree ........ _._ .... _... __ __. dow n in the storm last night. The waiting room was empty except for a young man ......................... ............. by the window a magazlIle. bn has a brother ..................... ....... in a bank in Lo ndon and a sister ..... ....................................... economics at uni"ersiry in ,\ Ianehester.

...

Usc the word s in brackets to make sente nces using The re is

I Th e re

wa s e tc.

I That house is empt~路. ( nobod~' / li" e I in it) .....Th.~.~.~ ~ ....!}9.b..o.4y.. _.4y~9 ....~....it 1 The accident wasn't serious. (nobody I in jure) ..... Th.~.~....N~.....~.9_~ 94!J ....~j!-:!.t~.: 3 I can hear foots teps. tsomebody I come) There .. _ ......................._... _....................................................................................... 4 The [rain was full. (a lot of people I travel) 5 We were rhe o nly guests at the hotel. (nobody else I stay there) 6 The piece of p;lper was blan k. (norhing I w rite I on it) - The college offers English courses in the even ing. (a course I begi n I nexr Monday)

195


Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed (boring/bored etc.) There are many adjectives ending in .ing and -ed, for example: boring and bored . Study this exa mple s; w arion: Jane has been doi ng the same job for a \'cry long rime. Every day she does exactly the same thing again and again. She doesn't enjo)' her job anr morc and would like to do someth ing different.

Janc's job is boring. boring

Jane is bored (with her job).

Somebod y is bored if something (or somebody else ) is boring. O r, if something is boring, if makes you bored. So: o Jane is bored because hcr job is boring. o j ane's job is boring, so Jane is bored. (1I0t Jane is bori ng)

If 3 person is boring, this means that the)' make other people bored: o George always talks about the sa me things. He's reallr boring.

Compare adjectives endi ng in -ing and -ed:

o

My job is

:::: I'm bored with my job. :J I'm nor interested in my iob any more . I get ,'ery tired doing my job. I' m nor satisfied with m~' job. ~t y job makes me depressed . erc.

boring. interesting. tiring. sa lisfying. depressing. etc.

In tllese exa mples, tile -ing yOll about tile job.

adjecrin~'

= = =

tells

In tllese examples. the -ed ad jecri\'e tells you how so mebod~' feels ,abou t the job).

Compare these exa mples: interesting o Julia thi nks politics is interesting.

o Did

you meet anyone interesting at the pan}'?

196

interested o Ju tia is interested in politics. (ll o r inte resting in potitics) :::J Are ~'o u interested in buying;l I' m trying to sell mine.

C;lf~

surprtsmg o It was surpri sing that Ile passed rhe exam.

surprised herybody was surprised that he passed the exam.

disappointing o Tile film was disappointing. We expected it to be mucll berter.

disappointed D We were disa ppointed with rhe film. We expected if to be much bener.

shocking o The news was shocking.

shocked D I was shocked when I heard the news.

=


Exercises 98.1

Uni t 98

Com plete the sente nces for each situation . Use t he word in brackets + - ing or - ed. I The film wasn't as good as we had expected . (disappoint .. . ) a T he film was .....4.!,.~.4l:P.pQ(J.'I_~g b We were .... _ ~~~t:.:e.4 . . with the fil m. 2 Donna tcaches young children. 1(5 a very ha rd job. but she enjo~'s if. (exhaust.. . ) a She enj oys her job. but ii 's o tten ...................... . b At the end of a day's \\'ork . she is o ft en .................... . 3 IT's been raining all da y. I hare th is weather. (depress .. . ) a Thi s weather is ........... _...._.. ......................... . b T his weather makes me ..... c It's silly to get ,_ .............. becau se of the weather. 4 Clare is going to \l cxico next monrh. She has never been there before. (cxcit .. . ) a Ir will be an ....................... _.. _..................................... experience fo r her, b Going to new pl aces is a l w a~'s ... _ c She is rea ll y ........................................................... a bout going to ~"I e xi co .

98.2

Choose the correct word .

2 3 4

S 6 S 9 10 11

98 ,3

1 was d jsncpoim ine I di sappoi nted with the film. I had ex pected it TO be bener. (disappointed is correct ) .\re you interestin !; I inrereqed in iootball : T he iootball match was "ery exciting I excited, 1 enj oyed it. It's someti mes emba rra ssing {emba rrassed when you ha"e to ask people fo r money. Do yO LI easil y get e m bar (;1,ssi n ~ {emba rp ssed ? I had neve r ex pected to get the job. I was rea ll y a mazi ng { a mazed when I was offered it, She has rea lly lea rnt "ery fast. She ha s made astonishjng. I astonished progress. I d idn't find the siruati on funny. I was not a m ysing {a mused. It was a rea ll y rerrib'i ng { terrifi ed experience. Afterwa rds everybody was vcr)' shocking { shocked . \X'hy do yOll alwa ys look so boring { bored ? Is yo ur life reall >" so bo ring { bored ? He's one o i the most boring I bored people I' ve ever met. He never stops talk ing and he never says a nything interesting { interested.

Complete each sentence using a word from the box.

a musing/amused confusing/confused exh a u srin g/exh a listed

annoying/annoyed disgusting/disgusted interesting/in t crested

boringlbored exci ting/excited -suFprisingisu rprised

He " 'orks "ery ha rd . It路s nOI ..... ;?~.!:P:r!,-~0g ..... tha t he's alwa ys tired . 2 I\ 'e got nothing to do, I' m ............_ ...... . Nlost of the students didn't 3 The teac her's expl a nation was . understand it. 4 The kitc hen had n't been clea ned fo r agcs. [t was reall y ...................................................... _... . S 1 seldom visit 3rt galleries . [" m not particula rl y....................... ............................... ... in a rt. 6 T herc's no need to get ....... _..... _....... _._........................ _._ .... _..... just beca use I' m a few minutes late. - The lecture wa s ........................................ . I fe ll asleep . S I' ve been wo rk ing very ha rd all day and no w I'm . 9 [" m starting a ncw job next week. I'm VCt y ......... a bout it. 10 Stevc is very good a t telling funn y sto ries . He ca n be very .. .. ........................... II l iz is a very .......... pe rson . She knows a lot, she's tra vell ed a lor a nd she's donc lots of differenr th ings.

197


Unit

99

Adjectives: a nice new house, you look tired Sometimes we use two or more adjectives together: o My brother li ves in a nice new house. a In the kitchen there was a beautiful large round wooden table.

Adjectives like newllargc1roundlwooden are {act adjectives. T hey give us factual information aboUi age, size. colour etc. Adjectives like nicc1beautiful are opinion adjectives. They tell us what somebody thinks of something or somebody. Opinion adjectives usually go before fact adiectives. a an a

Opill;Oll nice

fac t long

interesti ng delicious beautiful

young

summer holida y mall

hOI la rge ro und wooden

vegetable- soup table

Sometimes we usc twO or morc fact adjectives together. Usua ll y (but not always) we put fa ct adj ectives in this o rder:

how big?

-

2 how old ?

-

3 what colo ur~

a tall you ng man ( I ...... 2 ) big blue eyes (1 ...... 3) a small black plastic bag (1 ...... 3 ....... 5)

-

4 where irom?

-'I 5 what is it made o f?

:<O U>:

a large wooden table (1 ...... 5) an old Russian song (2 ...... 4 ) an old while cotlon shirt (2 ...... 3 ..... 5 )

Adjectives of size and length (biglsmailltaillshortllong etc.) usuallr go before adjectives of shape and width (roundlfatlthinlslimlwide etc.l: a tall thin girl a long narrow sneel a large round table When there 3re nvo or more colour adjecri,路e.s, we use and : a black and white dress a red, white and green fla g This does not usually happen with other adjectives before a noun: a long black dress (1101 a long and black dress) We usc adjectives after be/getlbeeome/seem: o Be carefu l! o I'm tired and I' m getting hungry. o As the fi lm went on , i[ became more and more boring. o Your fri end seems very nice. We also usc adjectives to say how somebody/something looks, feels. sounds, tastes or smells: o You look tired . I I feel tired. I She sounds tired . o The di nner smells good. o This tea tastes a bit strange. Bur to say how somebody does something you must use an ad,'erb (see Units 100-- 10 11: o Drive carefull y! (110 1 Drive care ful) o Susan plays the piano very well . (1I0t plays ... very good ) We say 'the first twO days I the next few weeks I the laSI len minutes' erc. : o I didn't enjoy the firs t twO days of the course. (" ot the two first dars) o They'll be away for the nexi few weeks. (1101 the few next weeksl

198

Adverbs ...... Units 100 - 101 Comparison (cheaper etc.) ..... Units 105-107 Superl atives (cheapest et c.) ->- Unit 108


Exercises 99.1

Unit 99

Put the adjectives in brackets in the correct position.

1 3 beautiful table (wooden I round)

_~_~~.~Lr~}:!4~.~9.9.4'~""~'!&"H"_"'"""' ______ "_

2 a n unusual ring (gold ) an old house tbcau tiful )

3 4 5 6 S 9 10 11 11 13 14 15

black glo\'('s (leather ) an American film lold ) a long face (th in) big clouds (black ) a sunny day (lo\'d~') an ugly dress (yellow ) a wide :l\'enue (long ) :1 red car (old l linle) .:I

--------•._._.

new sweater (g reen I nice)

__._ _---_.••.._-..

....................... _....................... _...............

metal box (black I small ) :1 big car (fat I black) a linle \'illage (old f lo\'cly l

..............."..................... ,........... "................................. ........................................... _.....

:1

......................... _

16 long hair (black I beautiful ) ,.......................... _............ _................................................. 1- an o ld paiming (interesting I French ) ............ _.... _...... ........... _................ _._._ .... _.......... _._._ .... _._ .......... __ .... _............. __ 18 an enormous umbrella (red I yellow) ......._......... _......... _._._._. __ ..... __ ........_._ ....... _........ __.__ ............... _........ ~ .......... _. __ ...... _

99.2

Complete each sentence with a verb (in the cortect form) and an adjective from the boxes. feel smell

look sound

-seem-

awful ni ce

taSte

fine

interesting wet

-upset-

Helen __ ~e&me4_._~et_ th is morning. Do you know what was wrong? 2 I can·t e~1I this. I've iust tried it and it _. __ ._._. __.__ 3 I wasn·r very well yesterday, but I __ _ __ roday.

4 What beautiful flowers!

._. ___ .... _. _______ .___ ._ too. j Yo u _____ ..... ___ ........ Haw you been Out in the rain? 6 Jim was tell ing me about his new job. It _... _._... _.. ____ ... _ ........ _... __ ._... - much better than his old job. H ... _

99.3

The~·

•• _ . _ _ . _

Put in the Co rrect word. Thi s tea tomes a bit ......~.V.Q.!!9~ ...

. (strange I srrangelr)

2 I always feel ........................................... when the su n is sh ining. (happ y I happil y) 3 The ch ildren were pIa ri ng ... ............... in the garden. (happy I hap p ily) 4 The man became . .... when the manager of the restaurant asked him to leave. (\·iolem I \·iolently ) j You look _............ _.......................... ! Are yo u all right? (terribl e I terribl y) 6 There's no point in doing a job if you don't do it ....._._ .... _....... _. __ ._... _.. . (proper I properly) - The soup tastes .. _.H ........ ____ ...... ___ . (good I well ) S Hurry up! You're always so __._... _.. (slow I slowly) H ••• _ . _ • • _ _ _ . . . _ _ _

99. 4 Write the following in anot her way using the first ...

I

the ne xt ...

I

the last ....

[he first day and the second day of the course _#.:l.&.._&~~J~Q ... ~-,2fJ?'e c.oo. r~_~_____ _ 2 next week and rhe week after tl1~.....!'~~~ t¥:!Q._~.~.~__ ... __ . . ___.____ 3 yesterday a nd the day before yesterday _._. _____ .___ .___ ._____ .____ _ _ _ _ _ _ ... _._.~ ...... 4 the first week and the Sttond week of May .5 tomorrow and a few days a fter that ._.... ______ ................. _.... __ .___ .__ ._____ .... __ H .... _. _ _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ • _ _ _ _

6 questions 1. 2 and 3 in the exam - next year and the year after 8 the last da y of our h olida~· and the tWO da ys before that -- Addi tional exercise 31 (page 320)

199


Adjectives and adverbs 1 (quick/quicklyf Look at these examples: a Our holiday was too short - the time passed very quickly. o Two people were seriously injured in the accident. Quickly and seriously are adverbs. Many ad\'crbs are formed from an adjective + · 1)': adjective: quick serious ca reful quiet heavy bad adverb: quickly seriously ca refully quietly heav ily badly For spelling, sec Appendix 6. Not all words end ing in -Iy are adverbs. Some ad;ectilfes end in -I)' tOO, for exa mple: friendly Ij\lcly elderl y lonely silly lovely Adjective or adverb? Adjectives (qui ck/careful etc.) tell us about a (somebody or someth ing) , \'(Ie usc

1101111

adjectives before nouns: o Sam is a careful driver. (llo t a carefully driver)

o We didn't go rain .

Ollt

because of the heavy

I Ad\'crbs (quickly/ca refull y etc. I tell us 3bout 3 Iwl) (how somebody does something or how someth ing happens ): o Sam dro\'e carefully along the narrow road. (110f dro\'e ca reful ) o \'(le didn't go ou[ because it was rai ning heavi ly. (1I0 t rain ing heavy )

Compa re:

o

I

I

o

She speaks perfect English, oIiIju/wi' +

I

She speaks English perfectl y. "tr/! •

"OUlI

1/o,m • J.ilfr/>

We also use adjectives after some verbs, especia lly be. and also looklfeeVsound ere. Compare:

o

Please be quiet. . o I was disappointed that Illy exam results were so bad. o Why do you always look so serious? o I feci ha ppy,

o o

Please speak quietl y, I was unhappy that I did so badl y in the

did so bad ) \Vhy do you ne\'er take me seriou s l y~ The children were playing happily. eX:'II1\. ( Il o t

o o

We also use adverbs before adjectives and other adverbs. For example: reasonably chea p (adverb + adjective) (adverb + adjectil1e) terribly sorry incredibly quickl}' (adverb + adl1erb)

o o o

o

It's a reasonably cheap restaurant and the food is extremely good. I'm terribly sorry. I didn 't mean to push rou. (1101 terrible sorry) Maria learns languages incredibly quickly. T he examination was surprisingly easy.

You can also use an ad\'erb before a past p,midple (injured/organised/written etc.): o Two people wefe seriously injured in the accident. (1I0t serious inju red ) o The meeting was very badly organ ised ,

200

Adjectives after be/look/feel etc, ....... Unit 9ge

Adjectives and adverbs 2 - Un it 101


Exercises 100. 1

Unit 100

Complete each sentence with an adverb. The first letters of the adverb are given. O 0..1(; )' , " e dO Id n t go our b('cause H wasO rammg he ....... ~ ..... . I WI 0

2 3 4 5 6 7

0

Our ream lost the game because we played very ba ..... _............................... . I had little difficulty finding a place to live. I found a flat quite ea We had to wait fo r a long time, but we d idn't comp lain. We waited pat .. ,....................................... . :\:obody knew StC\'C wa s coming [Q sec us. He a rrived unf'X ,\I ike keeps fit by playing tennis reg ............................................ . I don't spea k French \'e r ~' well , but I ca n understand per.. ....................................... if people speak 5L.............................. _......... and d. ...... ,_ ............ ... .

100, 2 Put in th e correct WOrd. Two people were ..... ~~.~.~.~ ... in jured in the accident. (serious I seriously) 2 The dri "er of rhe car had ._... _S:_~.~.~...... injuries. (serious! seriously) 3 I think you beha"ed very .......... _._............................ . (selfish! selfishl y) 4 Rose is ...... ........... upser abour losi ng her job. (terrible! terribly ) 5 There was a .................... _....... change in the weather. (sudden! suddenly) 6 Everybody at the pa rty wa s ... _._ ........ dressed. (colourful I colourfully) 7 Linda likes wearing . ..... _____.__ ............ clothes. (colourful ! co[ourfully ) 8 Liz fell and hun herself quite ......................... . (bad! badly ) 9 Joe sa~'s he didn't do well a t school because he was ..... .......... taught. (bad! badl y) 10 Don't go up that ladder. It doesn't look .........~ ................................. . (safe! safely) 100.3 Complete each sentence using a word from the box. Sometimes you need the adjective (carefu l

etc. ) and sometimes the adverb (ca refu lly etc.). carefu l(ly) happylhappily

complete(ly) nervous(ly)

continuous( ly) perfect(ly)

financia l(ly) -<iui€kjl yj-

f1u ent(ly) special(ly)

Our holiday was too shorr. The time pa ssed very ..... g ~.!4.;4J

2 Ste"e doesn't take risks w hen he's driving. He's always 3 Sue work s .................................... _ ... . She neve r see ms TO STOp. 4 Rachel and Patrick are \'ery .. _ ..................... married. 5 ~" a ria 's English is "ery ....................... ..... although she makes quite a lot of mist akes. 6 I cooked thi s meal . ....................... fo r }' OU, so I hope you like it. 7 E\'eryrh ing was ve rr quiet. There was ............................. silence. S I tried on the shoes and they fitted me ................... . 9 Do you usually feel _................... _____ .... _............. before exami na tions? 10 I'd like to buy a car, bur it's ....... impossible for me at the moment. 100.4 Choose two words (one from each box) to complete each se ntence, absolutel y ·reasonablyunnecessarily

badly seriously unusually

compl etely slightly

cha nged enormous planned

-c-heap-

ill

damaged long

quiet

I thought the restaurant would be expensive, bur it was ... r..~.gl'l@~ ... 9.:1.~ 2 Steve's mother is ...................................................................................... in hosp ital. 3 What a big house! It's .... _._ ... _._._._...... _.. __.._................ _..... ___ . 4 It wasn't a serious accident. T he ca r was only. _..................................... . 5 The children are normally very livel y, but rhey're .................... _.... .. .................... today. 6 When I returned home after 20 yea rs, everYThing had .........................................-........7 The fil m was .. .......................... _.. _ .......... . It could have been much sha rrer. S A lor went wrong during ou r holida y because it was _ -+

Add it ional exercise 3 1 (page 320)

201


Adjectives and adverbs 2 (well/fast/late, hard/hardly) Good/well Good is an adjective. The adverb is well: bllt You speak English well. o Your English is good. o Susan is a good pianisr. bllt Susan plays rhe pia no well.

We usc well (llo t good) with past participles (dresscdlknown etc.):

well-dressed

wdl-known

well-educated

well-paid

o Gary's fat her is a well -known w riter. Bur well is also a n adjcctive w ith the meani ng ' in good health': o ' How arc you today? ' I'm very well , thanks.' FasUhardllatc

These words are both adj ectives and ad verbs:

ad;ective o Darren is a very fa st runner. a Kate is a hard worker. o I was laiC. Lately = recentl y:

adverb Darren ca ll run vcr}' fa st. Kate works hard . (110 1 works hardly) I gOt up laiC this morn ing.

o Have you secn Tom lately? Hardly Hardly = very linle, almost nor. 5mdy these examples: a Sarah wasn't very friendly at rhe party. She hardly spoke to me. (= she spoke to me \'ery linle, almost nor ar a ll ) a We've o nly met once or twice. We ha rdly know each orher. Hard and hardly arc differem. Compare: o He tried hard to fin d a job, but he had no luck. (= he tried a lor. with a lor of effo rr ) a I' m not surprised he didn't fi nd a job. He hardly tried ro find one. (= he tried ,"cry li nle l You ca n use ha rdly + any/anybody/anyonelanythinglanywhere: There'S hardly anything a A: H ow much money ha\'e we gOt? in the fr idge. Il: Ha rdly any . (= very little, almost nOlle) a These tWO cameras a rc very sim ilar. There's hardly any diffe rence bet\veen them. a The exa m results were very bad. Hardly anybody in ou r class passed. (= very few students passed) Note that you ca n say: a She said ha rdly anything. 0' She hard ly sa id a nyth ing. a We've gor ha rdly any money. or \'('e\'e ha rdly gOt a ny money. I can hardly do somcthing = it's very diffic uh for me. almost impossible: o Your writing is terrible. I can hardly read it. 1= it is a lmost impossible to read it ) o My leg was hurting mc. I cou ld h ardl~' walk.

=

H a rdly ever a lmost never: o I'm nearly always at home in the evenings. I hardly ever go out. H a rdl y a lso means 'certainly nor'. For example: o It's ha rdly surprising that you're tired . You haven't slept for three da ys. (= it's cerrainly not su rprising) o The situation is serious, but ir's hardly a crisis. 1= it's certai nly nor a crisis)

202

Adjectives after verbs ('You look tired' etc.) ...... Unit 99C

Adjectives and adverb s 1 ...... Unit 100


Unit 101

Exercises 101.1 Put in good or we ll. I I pla y tcn n is but I' m not very _..g.QQ4.._. . .2 Yo ur exam resuhs were very .. _.. _. ______ .. _ .

3 You did

~~_.~ ___ .H •. _. __ .

in

~'ou r

7 Lucy speaks German very .____ * ... _••••.•.•..•... 8 Lucy's Germa n is vcry ... _._. ___ .. ___ .,,_...

9 Our new business isn't doing very

exa ms.

... The wcather W.15 _ _ _ .__ while we were on ho lid.IY.

5 I didn"[ sleep _________ ,__ last night. 6 How are ~· ou : .-\re you .. _. __ ._". __ .. __. ?

._.. _... _... ___ ._.. at the momem . 10 I like your hat. II looks ______ on you. 11 I've mer he r a few times, but I don 't know her ____ ,. ______ _

101.2 Complete these sentences using well + the following words:

.edlaffd-

dressed

in forme d

kept

paid

known

written

The children wcre \"I: r~' good. They were .....~_e.Y::_~ .~.~~~....

1 I' m surprised you h3\'en't he3rd of he r. She is quite ................................................._........

.._.. _... _...... _. __ .... _._._.

3 Ou r neighbours' g3rden is ne3t 3nd tidy. It is ve r~' .......... _............................................... -4 I eni oyed the book yo u lem me. It's a g rea t srory ,md it's ve ry .............................................. . ............................... 5 Ta ni3 kno ws a lor abou t many th ings. She is very .............................. .......................... 6 ~ t ark·s dQ[ hes are always smarr. H e is always .............. _._._._._ .............................................. - J ane has a 101 of responsibility in her job. bur she isn't very ......... _..... _._ .................. ~ .... ~._ .................. 101.3 Are the und erlined words right or wrong? Correct them where necessary. I' m tired because I' ve been worki ng

blllil..

Q.~. ____ ._. ___ .____ .... _.... ~._ ..... ~ .. _.~ ..... ___ ._

1 I tried h.ard. TO remember her name, bur I couldn '[.

____ .... __ ....... __ .... __________ .____ ._.. _._._

3 This coat is practicall y unused. I've b..a..afu: worn it. -4 Judy is a good tennis pla~·er. She hits the ball b..a.rdh:. 5 Do n't walk so iall ~ I ca n't keep up with you. 6 I had plenty of ri me, so I was walking

rum:.

101.4 Complete the sentences. Use hardly + the fo llowing verbs {in the correct form} : change

hear

-k~w-

recogn ise

say

sleep

speak

SCOtt 3nd Tracy ha ve only met once before. They _... ~_\Y.:.44i. ..~!!Q~L_ each other. 1 , 'ou' re spea king \'ery quietly. I can ._._._._...... _ ................................................. _.~ .... _..... _ you. 3 I'm \'ery tired th is mo rning. I .. ___ .......... _._._ .. _.... _............... ......................... la st n ight. -4 \X'e \\'ere so shocked when \\'e heard The news, we could ........................................................ _........_._ ............. _ . 5 K:n e W3S \'e r ~' q ui et th is e\·ening. She .. .......................................................................... a word. 6 You look the sa me now as yo u looked 15 years ago. You 've .._._.~ .. ,........................... ......................_ . - I met Dave a few da ys ago, I hadn't sten him for a long time and he look s vc ry different now, I ....................................~._............._..... __ ...~._................. hint.

101.5 Complete these se nten ces with hardly + anyfanybodyfanythi ngfanywhe re/eve r. I I'll have ro go shopping. There's ..... n.\Y.:.~ ~.~.!:i!J:!.~g ..... ro eat. 1 II was a very warm day and the re was ____ ~_. __ ._. ____ ._._.. _ .... _. __ ,_ wind. 3 '00 you know muc h about computers?' 'No, ______ ... __ ... _ _ _ _ .' -4 The ho te-l was almost empty. There was _______ ... ______ staying there. 5 I listen to the- radio q u ite often. but I _·····_. __________ ._H watch tdevision. 6 Our new boss is nOT \'ery popular. .____ likes her. - It was very crowded in the room. There was ,_.... __ ._____ ~_ .. _._ .... __._ to Sir. S We used to be good friends. b ut we ____ ._.~_'" _____ ~._~._~_ .. see c<lch other now. 9 It was nice d ri ving this mo rn ing, Thete was ._._._. __ .~._.~ ... _~ _____ ~ .... ~ .... _.~_ (raffle. 10 I hate th is town. There's ............ ,~ ....... _._ ..... ___ ._... _.... _... ~.~ .... _._ to do and .. ___ ............... __ .... __ ..... ~~ .. ~ .... _ .. _ to go .

...... Additional exercise 31 (page 320)

203


So and such Compare so and such: \Ve use such +

We use so + adiectilleladverb: so stupid so quick so mee so quickly

'101111:

such a siory such people \Y,Ie also use such + adjective + 11 0 1111 : such a srupid Story such nice people

o I didn 't like the book. The story was so stupid . o I like Liz and Joe. They 3fC so nice.

o I didn't like the hook. It was such a stupid story. (llot a so stupid story ) o I like Liz and Joe. They are such nice people. (I/ o t so nice people ) \'I:?e say such a ... ( II0t a such ): such a hig dog ( ll ot a such big dog)

So and such make the meaning of an adjective (or adverb) stronger: o It's a beautiful day, isn't it? It's so warm. (= reall y warm )

D It was a great holiday. We had such a good time. ~= (I really good rime)

a It's difficu lt to understand him because he talk s so qui etly. You can use so ... thai: o The hook was so good thaI I couldn't put it down. D I was so tired that I fell asleep in the armchair.

You can use such ... that: D It was such a good book that I cou ldn't put it down. D It was such nice weather that we spem the whole dar o n the beach.

We usually leave out that: D I was so tired I fell asleep.

We usually lea\'e out that: S It was such nice weather we spent ...

--

We also usc so and such with the mea ning 'li ke this': D Somebody told me the house was built

D I didn't realise it was such an old house.

100 years ago. I didn't realize it was so old. (= as old as it is) D I'm tired because I gOt up at six. I don 't usuall y get up so early. D I expected the weather to be coole r. I'm surprised it is so warm.

D You know it's not true. How can you

say such a th ing? Note the expression no such ... : D You won't find the word 'blid ' in the dictionary. There's no such word . (= th is word does nor ex ist )

Compare:

204

so long D I ha ven't seen her fo r so long I've forgonen what she looks like.

such a long time D I haven't seen her fo r such a long time. ( Ilo t so long time)

so far D I didn't know it was so far.

such a long way D I did n', know it was such a long way.

so much, so many D I'm sorry I'm late - there was so much traffic.

such a lot (ofl a I'm sorry I'm Iale - there was such a 101 o f tra ffi c.

Not so ... as - Uni t 107A Such as -- Unit 117B


Exercises

Unit 102

102.1 Put in so, such or such a. It's difficuh to understand him because he speaks , ~9. ... q uietly. 2 I lik e Liz and Joe. Th e ~" re ..... ~.~.Q:I...... nice people . 3 It was a great holiday. \X'e had ..... ~~.q,.... ,~..... good time. 4 I was surpri sed that he looked .......... well after his recent ill ness.

5 6 7 S 9 10 II

12 13 14 15

herything is . . .......................... expensive these days, isn't it? T he weather is beautiful, isn't i[~ I didn't expect it to be ............. ......... nice day. I ha\'c 10 go. I didn't realise it was .................. _.... _.... . late. He always look s good. He wears .......... .. nice clothes. It was .......................... ,............... , boring film that I fe ll asleep while I was watching it. I couldn't belic\'c the news. It was ............................................. shock. I th ink she works too hard. She looks ..................... _, ...................... tired all the time. The food at the hotel wa s ....... ,............ ,............ awful. I've never eaten .......................... awful food. They've got .................................... ,...... much moner ther don't know what to do with it. I didn 't realise you lived ............................................. long way from the city centre. The parry was rea lly great. It wa s .-" ............................ pity you cou ldn't come.

102.2 Make one sen t ence from two. Use so or such . ~

2. ·if ..... as a

beau[iiu~

3 I wa s tired. 4 \'(Ie had a good time o n h o lida~·. 5 She speaks Engli sh well. 6 ['ve gOt a lo t to do. 7 T he mu sic was loud, S I had a big breakfast . 9 It wa s horrible weather. 10 I wa s surprised .

You cou ld hear it fro m miles away. You would think it was her native language . We 'spent the whole day indoors. -5he-fl~

I couldn't keep my eyes open. I didn't eat anything else for the rest of the day,

-We-Je.etded-f&-go to (he beach-:I did n't know what to say. I d on't know where to begi n. We didn'r want to come horne.

.....?.t!~....~.9.r.~.~....~.9.,.J.'!.~,4......~n.~_ . .rn..~ ___t!p:, 5.~f . ill ...................................................,.................................._....._............................ .... ..I.L~~ _ 5>_(A_9:I .. ~ _ .~_~Hfy.t _ ~ ... ~.~_ ...~....I:.Q_...9.o..___t.Q ... ,#:1.~....~.~..,..................................................................

2. 3 I wa s .......... ,........... ,............ ,........ ,.. ,............................................................................................ 4

5 .......................................... ,............................................................... ,........................................................ _ 6 7

.............. ,.............................. ,................................... ,......... ,..... ,.. ,........ ,..........................................,................. S 9 10 ... 102.3 Use your own ideas to compl et e these pairs or sen tences.

I a b 2 a b 3 a b 4 a b 5 a b

We en joyed ou r holiday. It was so .....~AA_X._i.!;19_... ................ ,.. ,........................ ,............................................. We en toyed our holid ay. \,\Ie had such ..... ,~....9.99.4- .. !:4!!.~.............. ......................... ............................................. . I li ke Catherine, She's so ................ ............................_........... _.......................... ................................ _...... * • I li ke Catherine, She's such . ............................ ............................. ....................... . I like New York. It's so ..................................... _ I like New York. It's such I wou ldn 't like to be a teacher. It's so ....................................................................................... I wouldn't like to be a teacher. It's such .................... _........................ It's great to see yOll again! I haven't seen YO li for so .............................................. .. It's great to see you again! I haven't seen you for such .. .........................

205


Enough and too Enough goes after adj ectives and adverbs: o J can't run ver)' far. I'm nor 6t enough. ( Ilo t enough fit ) o Let's go. We've waited long enough. o Is Joe going to appl y for the job? Is he experienced enough ? Compare t OO ••• and not ... enough: o You never stop working. You work too hard . (= more than is necessary) o You're lazy. You don't work hard enough. (= less than is necessary) Enough normally goes before nouns: o I can't run vcry far. 1 haven 't got enough energy. (ll o t energy enough) o Is Joe going to apply for the job? Does he have enough ex perience? o We 've gO t enough mo ney. We don't need any mo re.

o Some of

li S

had to sit on the floor because there weren't enough chairs.

NQ[e that we say: o We didn 't ha ve enough time. (1101 the rime wasn't enough) D There is enough money. (not the money is enough)

You can use enough alone !without a noun): D We don 't need any more money. We've got enough. Compare tOO mu ch/many and enough: D There's too much furn iture in this room. There's not enough space. D There were too many people and nor enough chairs. We say enoughJloo ... for somebody/somethi ng: D We ha ven 't got enough money for a holiday. D Is Joe experienced enough for the job ? D This shirt is 100 big for me. I need a smaller size. But we say enoughJtoo ... to do something ( ll0t fo r doing). For example: D We haven't gOt enough money to go on holid a ~'. (110 t for going) o Is Joe experienced enough 10 do the job? o They' re toO young to get married. I They' re not old enough to get married. a Let's get a taxi. It's tOO far to walk home from here. a The bridge is JUSt wide enough for two cars to pass each other. We say: The food was very hot. We cou ldn't eat it. alld

The food was so hot that we cou ldn't ca r il.

btlt

The food was

t OO

hot

to

eat . (witholtt it )

Some more examples like this: o These boxes are too heavy to carr}'. (1Io t too heavy to ca rry them) o The wallet was tOO big to put in my pocket. (ltot toO big to put it) o This chair isn't strong enough to stand on. (no t strong enough to stand on it )

206

To ... and for ... (purpose) -. Unit 64

Adject;ve + to ... (difficult to understand etc.l ...... Unit 65


Exercises

Unit 103

103.1 Complet e th e sentences using enough + t he following word s: big -eheit:s- cups -fu..- mi lk money qualificarions

1 3 4

5 6 -

S

9 I0 II

room

lime

warm

well

r ca n'l run very far. I'm no r ..... f.~ . . ~~.W' 9.\1...... . Some of us had to sir o n the fl o or because there weren't ..... ~g~., ..9:!@.:;? I"d li ke TO b uy a ca r. b ut I haven't got ............................... ___.... . .......... at the moment . .......... in yo ur coffee o r would you like some more ? Ha \'e you gOt ? Or shall I switch on the hea ring? .-\.re r Oll . ............................. fo r a ll o f us. It 's onl y a small ca r. There isn't .... .......................... _.... Steve didn·, fcel ............................ _... _.. to go to work this morning. I e ni o ~'e d my trip to Paris, but there wasn't . _to do cvcryrhing I wa nted. Do yo u think I\·c gar _ __ ___................................. to a pply fo r the job? Tr ~' this jacket on a nd see if ir"s ..................................................................... fo r you . There wcrcn·r .... ....... .. __ .. _... _.. _.. ___ ... _.................... ._.. to r e\'e r ~· bod y to ha ve coffee at the samc time.

103.2 Comp lete th e an swe rs t o th e qu esti ons. Use t oo or e nough + the word{sl in brackets.

~________~aL-~~ Are th ey going to get married?

1

3

I necd

to

tal k to ~·o u abo ut someth ing. Ler"s go

to

th e cinema.

Wh y don't \\'e sit

5 6

o ut s id e ~

\\?o uld yo u like to be a po liticia n? \X'oliid yo u li ke

to

be a teacher ?

7

Did yo u hca r what he wa s sa ying ?

s

Can he read a newspape r in En gli s h~

No, they' re not .....g.~...P.::I.~. g~ ..!:Q ... .... .9.~....~.?:!.!i&4 Well , ['m a fraid I' m ................................... _.... ... to you no w. (la tc ) N o , it's to the cinema . (wa rm ) It's not .......................................................... . outside . (shy ) No, I"m .. a politician. (patience ) N o , [ ha ven 't got ................................................ ....... a teacher. (far away ) No, we were . ....................................... what he was say ing. (En gli sh ) No, he doesn 't kno w ... a newspaper. (o ld )

103.3 Ma ke one se n tence fro m two. Complete the new sente nce usi ng too or e no ugh . I We couldn 't earn' the boxes. The\' were too heav\·. ... ..Ih~... p.Q~g,.:? ....tJ.!i.e. . _tQQ ...n.~_'!':B....!:Q.:..4Y."!.!.j.,. ...... _.............:........................................... ........................................................... 1 I ca n·t drink this coffee . Ir"s toO ho t. .................................................... _... _............. T h is coffee is . 3 :"Jo bod y co uld move the piano . It was toO heavy. The pialto ............................................................. _ ........................................................ 4 Don 'r eat rhese apples. They' re no t ripe eno ugh . These a pples ............................. 5 I can't cx pl a in the situatio n. It is toO complicated. The situa tion ................................................................................ _ ........................._........ 6 We could n't climb o ver the wall. It wa s too high. .................. _...... _ T he w.l11 . - Three peopl e can 't sir o n rhi s so fa . It isn 't big eno ugh. Th is sofa . __.. .............................................. _......... ............ _....... S Yo u ca n't see so me things witho ut a microsco pe. They a re tOo small . . ...................... _ ............... -... --. ........................... ................... _.Some ... _._ .... _ ... __.__.............

207


Quite, pretty, rather and fairly You ca n use quitelpren y/rather/fairly + adjecth"cs or adverbs. So you can say;

o It's quite cold.

If's pretty cold.

It's fairl y cold.

It's rather cold.

Quitelpretty/rathcr/fairly = less than '\'ery' but more than

'3

little'.

Quile and pretty 3rc very si milar in meani ng: o You' ll need a COat when you go o ut. It's quite cold I preny cold . (= less than 'very cold', but more tha n '3 little cold') o I'm surprised you ha ven't heard of her. She's quite famou s I pretty famous . o Ama nda lives quite ncar me, so we see each other pren y o ften . Pretty is an informal word and is used mainly in spoken English. Quite goes before nlan: o We live in quite an old house. (not a quile o ld house) Com pa re: o Sa lly has quite a good job.

Sa lly has a pretty good job. You can also use quite (but not pretty) in the fo llowi ng ways: quite alan ... noun (witho ut an adjective): o I didn't expect to see them. It was quite a surprise. (= quite a big surprise) quite a 101 (o f ... ): o There were quile a lot of people at the meeting. quile ... verb, especially like and enjoy: o I quile like tennis, but it's not my favourite sport. Rather is simila r to quite and pretty . We often use rather (or negative ideas: o The weather isn't so good. It's rather doudy. o Paul is rather shy. He doesn't talk very much . Quire and pretty are also possible in these examples. When we use rather for positive idea s (good/nice etc.), it mea ns 'un usually' or 'surprisingly': o These ora nges are rather good . Where did you get them? Fairly is wea ker than quite/rather/pretty. For exa mple, if somethi ng is fairly good, it is not \'ery good and it could be bener: o My room is fairly big, but I'd prefer a bigger one. o We see each other fairly often, but not as often as we used roo Quite also means 'completely'. For example: o 'Are you sure?' ' Yes, quite sure.' (= completely sure) Quite means 'completely' with a numbe r o f adjectives, especially: sure certain

right wrong

true safe

dear obvious

different unnecessary

incredible extraordinary

o She was quite different from wha t 1 expected. (= completel}' different) o Everythi ng they said was quite true. (= completely true) We also use quite (= completely) with some verbs. For example: o I quite agree with you. (= 1 completely agree) Not quite = not completely: o They haven't quite finished their dinner yet. D I don't quile understand what you mean. o 'A re you ready yet?' ' Not quite.' (= not completely)

208

amazmg impossible


Exercises

Unit 104

104.1 Complete the se ntences usi ng quite + the follow ing : famBus good hungry late noisy often

o ld

surpri sed

I' m surprised you haven'T heard of he r. She 's .....q~,~....~.~.~ 1 I' m ......................... ................. . Is there anything to ea t ?

3 'How were the photographs ~'O U took ?' ...... .

............................. ............. . Better than usua l:

I go to the c inema ..... _. ......................... - maybe once a mo nth. \'i/e li\"c near a very busy road , so it's often . I didn'r expect laura to contact me. I was .... _... when she phoned. I went ro bed ...... ._. __ ._ ........... _.. _....................... _.. last night, so I'm a bit tired this morning. I do n't kno \\" exactly when these houses were built, but they're ........................

... 5 6 S

104.2 Comple te the senten ces using quite + the following:

a busy day -a-ntt~

a good "oice a long way

a ni ce Time a strong wind

a lot of traffic

The weather wa ~ better tha n we had ex pected. It was .....q!A..i.!?... ~... ~....~ ........................................ _......... .2 To rn o ft en sings. He's got ................................. ..................................... .................................. 3 The bus srop wa sn 'r \' e r~' nea r the hotel. \'\'e had ro walk .................................................. ............................... , 4 It 's wa rm rod<lY, bur th ere's .................................................................................................................................... _._ .... _..... ................. . 5 The jo urney roo k lo nger tha n I expected. There wa s 6 I'm tired. l"ve had ........... - O ur holid ay \\'as OK. We had . 104.3 Use your own ideas to co mplete these sentences. Use rather + adjective.

The weathe r isn't so good. It's .... .t.o.Jh.~....~.~ 1 I enj oyed the film, bUT it was 3 T he ho rel we stayed a t wa sn't \"t'r~. good. I was .......................................................... ................... . 4 [think it's .......................... _..... _.................... _............................... tha t C hti s went away witho UT tell ing anybod y. 5 Lucy doesn't like ha\'ing ro wa it. Sometimes she's ..................... _ ................. _.. 104.4 What does qu it e mea n in these se ntences? Tick (,f) the right mea ning. m o re thall a little, less tha ll l/ery (Sect io n B)

..,

3 -I

5 6 7

.I

It's Quite cold . Yo u'd bene r wear your coa f. 'Are ~' ou sure?' 'Yes, qu ite sure: ~ I a r ia 's Engli sh is Quite good . I couldn't belie\"('" it. It was Qu ite incredible. ~ i ~' bedroom is qu ite b i ~. [' m Quire tired. I thi nk I'll go to bed. I Quite agree with you.

104.5 Comple te these sentences using quite + the following : different impossible right safe

coml)/etely (Secliol1 E)

.I

sure

unnecessary

I didn 't believe he r at first, bur in fa cr what she sa id was .....q!A.. ~....k.~.~.... 1 You won't fall. The ladder is _.......... _ 3 I'm afra id I ca n't do what yo u ask. It's . -I i could n't ag ree with you more. Yo u a rc ._.... _..... .. j You ca n't compare the twO things. The)' a re 6 Yo u needn't ha ve don e tha t. It \\'<1S ....................... - I think I saw them go o ut. bur I' m no r .

209


Comparison 1 (cheaper, more expensive etc.) Study these exa mples:

How shall we travel? By ca r o r by train: Let's go by car. Ir's cheaper. Don't go by train. II 's more expensive. Cheaper and mo re expensive are comparative fo rms.

After comparatives you ca n use than (see Unit 107): o It's cheaper to go by car than by train. o Going by train is mOfC expensive than going by car. __

The compa rative fo rm is ocr or mot c ... ' . We use 路 cr fo r short words (one

syllable): cheap -- cheaper large .... larger

fasl -- faster thin -- th inner

We also usc -cr fo r two-sylla ble words that end in -y (. y .... ier ):

lucky -- luckier

earl y - earlier

easy -- easier

pretty -- prettier

We use more ... for longer words (twO syllables or more): more serious more often more expensive mOfe comfortable We also use mo re ... for adverbs that end in -I)': more slowl)' more se ri ou s l~' more quiell~t more carefull y

For spelling, see Appendix 6. Compare these exa mples:

o You' re older than me. o The exa lll was fairly easy - easier t ha n J expected. a Can you walk a bit faster ? a I'd like to have a bigger ca r. a La st night I went to bed earlier than usual.

C You're more patient than me.

;:: The exam was quite difficult - mOfe difficult than I expected. Can you wa lk a bit more slowly? :J I'd like to have a more reliable car. a I don't play tennis much these days. I used to pl ay more often.

=

You can use -er or more ... with some two-syllable adjectives, especiall y: clever narrow quiet shallow simple

a __

It's too noi sy here. Ca n we go somewhere quieter I more quiet ?

A few adjectives and adverbs have irregula r comparative form s: good/well - better a The ga rden looks better si nce you tidied it up. a I know him well - probably bener th'an an ybody el se knows him. badlbadly - worse: a ' How is you r headache? Bener?' 'No, it's worse.' a He did very badly in the exam - worse than expected. far -

a

furth er (or farth er ): It's a long wa lk fro m here to t he park - furth er than I thought. (or farther [han )

Further (bill not fa rther) can also mean ' more' or 'additional': a Lei me know if you hear any further news. (= any more news)

210

Com parison 2-3 .... Units 106 - 107

Superlatives (cheapest

I most expensive etc.) .... Unit lOB


Exercises

Unit 105

105.1 Comp lete th e se nte nces using a compa rative form (o lde r

I

more important et c.).

I It's roo nois~' here . Can we go somewhere ..... q~.l&~.... 2 This coffee is ve ry weak. I like it a bit ..... 3 The hotel W:lS surprisingly big. I ex pected it to be ..... ................................. 4 The hotel was surprisingly cheap. I expected it to be . ....... _........__ j The weather is roo co ld here. I'd like to live somewhere ............................ 6 ~\'ly job is a bit boring sometimes. I'd like to do something .................... 7 It's a pit)' you I;\,c so far away. I wish you li ved ...... ............ _...... S 1 was surprised how easy it was to use the .computer. I thought it would be 9 Your work isn'r very good. I'm sure you can do . 10 Don't worry. The situation isn't so bad. It could be ..... II I was surprised we got here so quickly. I expected the jOtlrner to take . 12 You're talking ''er~' loudly. Can rou speak a bit ....................... ? 13 You hard ly ever phone me. \,(/hy don't you phone me ........................ 14 You're standing toO near the camera. Ca n you move a bit ...................... .. away? 15 You were a bit depressed yesterda~', but you look ............................... ...... today.

,

105.2 Comp lete th e se ntences. Each time use the comparative form of one of the words in t he box . Use than where necessa ry.

big

crowded

路early-

easily

high

important

interested

peaceful

-relia ble-

sefl ous

simple

thin

I was feeling tired last nigh t, so I went to bed ..... ~!:I&f. ....#:1.~... usual. 2 I'd like to ha\'e a ..... r.n..Qr..~...r..~!&.-..... car. T he one I've got keeps break ing down. 3 Unfortunately her illness was . .... ........ we thought at first. 4 You look . .... .... . Have you lost weight ? 5 I want a . .............. .... .. flat. Wle don't have enough space here. 6 He doesn't study "cry hard. He's ........................... _........................................ in having a good time. 7 Heal th and happiness are . ......................... _ ................ _.. money. S The inst ructions were ve ry com plicated. They cou ld have been .... ................................................. 9 There were a lot o i people on t he bus. It was ................................................................. usual. 10 I like li"ing in the countryside. It's . ........... living in a town. 11 You'lI find you r way around the town .......... ........................ _ if you have a good map. 11 In some parts of the country, prices are .-'.... ................................ in others. 105.3 Read the situa t ions a nd comple te the se nte nces. Use a comparative form (- e r or morc ... J. 1 Yesterday the temperature was six degrees: Today it's on ly three degrees. It 's ..... ~.l4&!.....tg.~ .. ,~.w.....~t. ,~.~... ~~~k.r.~ ., .... 1 The journey takes four hours by car and fi ve hours by train. It rakes ..... .................................................................... 3 Dave and I went for a run. I ran ten kilometres. Dave stopped after eight kilometres. I ran . . ...... .................... ..................... ............ _........... 4 Ch ris and Joe both did ba dly in the test. Chris gOt 30% , but Joe only got 25 % . Joe d id ................... ~... ....... ..,..................... ,................ ..................................... .............................. 5 I expected my friends to arri"e at about 4 o'clock. In fact they arrived at 2.30. ~,,( y friends .................................. ......................... .....".................. 6 You can go by bus or b ~' train. The buses run every 30 minutes. The trains run eve ry hour. The buses ...."....................... .,.... ............................. ... ,.................... _............. 7 We were very busy at work toda y. Wle're not usually as busy as thar.

Wle ................ _._

.............. _...... ___ ... __ ... _._........

.. .......................... _.........

211


Unit

106

Comparison 2 (much better / any better / better and better / the sooner the better) Befo re compa ratives yo u ca n usc: mu ch a 101 far (= a tor)

a bit

a little

slightl y (= a linle)

o Let's go by ca r. It's much cheaper. (or a lo t cheaper )

o 'How do you feel?'

' Much ben er, thanks"

o Do n'( go by train. It's a 10 1 mo re expensive. (o r much more expensive) a Could you spea k a bit mo re slowly? (o r a little mo re slo wly)

o This bag is slightl y heavier than the other one. o He r illness was fa r morc serious tha n we thought at first. (or much mo re serio us I a lo t more serious) lI SC a ny a nd no + compa ra tive (a ny lo nger I no bigger CIC.): o I've waited long enough. I'm not waiting any longer. (= not even a little longer)

You can

o We expecred their house [Q be very big, but it's no bigger tha n o urs. " . it isn't an y biggcr than o urs. (= not cven a little bigger ) o Ho w do you feci no w ? Do you feel a ny better? o This hote l is better tha n rhe other one, and it's no mo re expensive .

or

8 en er and bener / ma rc a nd mo re ere. We repeat comparatives (better a nd better etc.) to sa y th:u somet hing cha nges continuo usly: o Your English is improving. It's getting ben er and better. o The city is g rowing fa st. It's gw ing bigger a nd bigger. o Cathy got mo re a nd more bo red in her jo b. In the end she left. o These days mo re a nd more peo ple are learn ing English. The ... the ." Yo u can say the (sooner/bigger/more etc.) the beuer: o ' Wha t time shall we leave?' The sooner Ihe better: (= as soon as possi ble) o A: What SO rt of box do you want ? A big o ne? 8: Yes, Ihe bigger the ben er. (= as big as possible) o When you' re travelling, Ih e less luggage ro u ha ve th e better. We al so use the ... the ... to sa r that onc thi ng depends on ano ther thi ng: o The warm er rhe weather, the better J feel. (= if t he wea ther is warmer, J feel bener) D T he soon er we leave, the earlier we will a rrive. D The younger you a re, the easier it is to lea rn. o The mo re ex pensive the hotel, the ben er the service. D The mo re electricitr )'O U use, the hig her rO Ut bill will be. D The mo re J tho ught abo ut the plan , the less I liked it. O lder a nd cider The com pa rative o f old is o lder: D Da vid looks o lder t ha n he reall y is. You can use elder (or older ) when yo u talk a bout people in a famil}". Yo u can say (m y/your etc.) elder sisterlbro ther/daughterlson: D My elder sister is a TV producer. (o r M y older sister ... J We sa y 'my cider sister', but we do no t sa y that 'somebody is e ldef': o M y sister is older than me. (llo t elder than me)

212

Anyfno -- Un it 86 Comparison 1,3 -- Units 105, 107 Eve n + compara tive -- Unit 112C

Eldest -- Unit 1080


Exercises

Unit 106

106.1 Use the words in brackets to complete the sentences. Use much I a bit etc. + a comparative form. Use than where necessary.

Her illness was ..... ~~.\?! ....!!!.!?r.~....;?~.~.;? .J!l.~ ... we thought a t first. (much I serious) 2 Thi s bag is roo small. I need something .. (much I big ) 3 afraid the problem is . ........................ _ .................... it seems. (much I complicated ) 4 It wa s \'ery hot yesterda y. Toda y it's ........................................................................ . (a bit I coo l) 5 I enjoyed O Uf \'isit to the museum. It was ......... ..................... ....................... ..................... I expected. (far I inte resting ) ............... ? (a bit I slo wly) 6 Yo u're dri\'ing [00 fast. Can you d rive . .................... - It 's ............................................................................. ro learn a fo reign language in a country where it is spo ken. ja lo t I ea sy ) S I thought she was ~' oun ge r than me. but in fact she's (slightly I old )

rm

, 06.2 Complete the sentences using any/no + com parative. Use than where necessary.

I\ 'c wa ited long enough. I' m no t waiti ng ... _.@ !j.... k?~.9.~ ...................... .......................................... . ................ __................. _.__.................... _.............. an ywhere else. 3 This sho p isn'[ expensi\·e. The prices a re ...........

1 I'm sorry I'm a bit late, but I could n't get here . 4 I need to " op fo"

"". I " n·' walk

...........................

.........................

5 The traffic isn't particula rly bad roda y. It's ............................

............ usual.

106.3 Complete the sente nces using the structure in Section C C.. and ... ).

Cathy got ..... ~!?r..~ ...@.4... !:'!:g.!'.~ ... P.9.!':~ ... in her job. In the end she left. (bored ) That ho le in ~'our sweater is gerting . ................... ___ . (big) ~vl y bags seemed ro get .... ................... _........... a s 1 carried them . (hea vy) As I waited for my interview, I became . . ................... _........................................ , (nervous) As the day went o n, the weather got ._._. ___._.................... _................................ (bad ) Hea lth ca re is becoming ....._... _._ ................. _. ___ ...... ____ ................... __......... (ex pensive) Since Anna went to Ca nada , her English has got .............................. ........... . (good ) (talka tive ) 8 As the cOlwersation went on, Pau l became .................... 2 3 4 5 6 7

106.4 These sentences are like those in Section D. Use the words in brackets (in t he correct form) to compl ete the sentences.

I I like warm weather. T he wa rmer the weather, ..... ~.~... P_~~ ....!..._ M ... . (feel) 2 I didn-t rea ll y like him when we first met. But the more I got to kno w him • .. _ ....... _.......... ___....... 3 If you're in business, you wa nt to ma ke a pro·fi t . The more goods ~' ou sell , . 4 It's hard to co ncentrate when you ' re tired. T he mo re tired you a rc, .................. 5 Kate had ro wait a very long rime . T he longer she wa ited, ... _...

.. . (like) (profit ) ........................................................ . (hard ) (impatient I become)

106.5 Which is corrcct, older or elde r? Or both of them?

./ ./ ;":l y older I cider sister is a TV producer. (Qkkr and iliI.er are both correct ) 2 I' m surprised Diane is o nly 25. I tho ught she was older I cide r. 3 J ane's younger sister is still ar school. Her older I e lder sister is a nurse. 4 Martin is o lder / elder than his bro ther.

2 13


Comparison 3 (as ... as

I than)

Study this exa mple si tuation: Sa rah. joe and Da\'id a TC all vcry rich. Sarah has £20 million. J oe has ilS mill ion :md David has £ 10 million. So;

Joe is rich. He is richer tha n David. Bur he isn't as rich as Sarah. (= Sarah is richer Ihan he is) SARAH

1Of:

DAVID

Some more exam ples of not as ". (as ): a Richard isn't 35 old as he looks. (= he looks older than he is) o The town cemre wasn 't as crowded as usua l. (= it is usua lly mo rc crowded ) D J enny didn't do as well in the exam as she had hoped . (= she had hoped to do better)

o The weather is benet roday. It 's not as cold. (= yesrerda)' was colder) D I do n't know as many people as you do. (= )'ou know morc people) o ' How much did it COSt ? Fifty pounds?' 'No. not as much as that: (= less than fifty pounds) Yo u ca n a lso say not so ... (as): a It's not warm, bur it isn't so cold as yesterday. (= it isn't as cold as ... 1 less ... tha n is similar to not as ... as: a J spent less money than you. (= ) didn't spend as much money as you) a The city centre was less crowded tha n usual. (= it wasn't as c rowded as usual ) We also use as ... as (bil l " 0 1 so ... as) in positive sentences a nd in q uestions: a I'm sorry I'm la te. I gOt here as fast as I could. o There's plenty of food. You can ha ve as much as rou want. a Let 's wa lk. It's just as quick as taki ng [he bus. a Can you send me the money as soon as possible, please?

Also twice as ... as, three times as ... as etc. : a Petrol is twice as expensive as it was a few years ago. a Their ho use is a bo ut three times as big as ou rs. We say the same as (1Iot the sa me like): a Lau ra's sa la ry is the same as mine. or Lau ra gets the same sa lary as me. a Da vid is the same age as James. a 'What would you like to d rink?' ')'11 have the same a5 rou.' nan me I than I am etc. You ca n say: a You' re ta lle r tha n I am. (1Iot IIsl/ally Yo u're raIler than I) a He's nOt as clever as she is. o They have more money than we ha \·e. a ) ca n't run as fasl as he can.

214

Comparison 1-2 -- Units 105-106

or

You're taller tha n me.

or or or

He's not as clever as her. They have more m o n e)' than us. I can't run as fa st as him.

As long as ...... Uni t 11 58

As and like _ Unit 117


Exercises

Unit 107

107.1 Compl ete the sentences using as .. . as.

1 I"m quite tall, bur ~'OU are taller. I'm nor ...~...J;.o.J.k ..~.... ~~. 1 :\'! y sabry is hig h. but yours ;s higher. M y salary isn't

3 You know a bit abo ut cars. bur I know more. Yo u don 't ........................................................ _............. __ __................ 4 It 's still cold, but it was colder ~·esrcrday. It isn't ........................................... ......................................... 5 I still feci qui te tired. but I felt a lor more tired yesterda y. I don'r . ,............. _______.___...... _.... _............ "............._. ___.. _..... __,.... _............................................................................................................................ _.............. _ • 6 O ur neighbo urs ha\'e li\'ed he re for quite a long time, bur we've lived here longer. O ur neighbours ha\'cn'r ........ _ ....................... _ ................................................. _.... _....... _._.......................................... • - I wa s a bit nen 'ous bcfore rhe interview, but usually I' m a lor ma rc nervous, I wasn't ................................ __... _. __........................_... 107,2 Write a new sen te nce with the same meaning. I Richard is younger than he looks. Ric hard isn'r .. _M __.. Qk!,....~ ....r..~ lgQ~ .~ ..................................* ... ... .....•...•..•.. • 2 I didn 't spend as much money as yo u. You _..__ ~.p_~L!!I.9.r~ ...!!I.9.~.~ ..#.1.~ ..~ _~........................................... _... _• 3 T he S[;ltion wa s nearer rha n I thought. The station wasn't . .......................... ..................... 4 The meal didn't COSt as much as I expected. T he mea l cost ................................... _.......... _ .................. • 5 I go out less than I used to. I do n't ....................... .......................................................................... . 6 Karen's hair isn't as long as it used to be. Karen used to ........................._ ......................... .................................... • - I kno\\' them ben e r than ~' ou do. You don'r ................. _.. _.. _._.__.__... _............................... . S T here a re fewer people at this mecting than a t the last one. There aren'T ............... _... _.. _..... _._........................................................ _ .............._.............................................. _. __ ._ ,

..

107.3 Complete the sentences usi ng as ... as + the following : bad comfonablc .fastlong often quietl y

soon

well

well-qua lified

2 3 4 5 6

I' m sorry I'm late. I got here ..... 9-§.....fo.,s..L .~. .. I could . It was a difficult question. I a nswered it .. _._ ......................................................... I could, 'How long can I sta y with you ?' 'You can sta r . .............................. .................. you like: [need thc information quickly. so let me know ............................................... possible. l1ike to keep fit, so I go swimming ...................................................................... _...... I can. I didn't want to wake an ybody. so I came in ......................................................... _.._...... _ ...... 1 could.

In S 9

the following sente nces use just as .., as. I"m goi ng to sleep on rh e floo r. It's ............................................................................ _.. the bed. \"(Ihy did he get rhe job rather than me? I' m ............................... _._.___ .__ _......... _........_............ him. At fir st I thought he was nice, but reall >, hc's _........ _.............................. ........... eve rybody else.

107.4 Write sentences usi ng the same as. 1 Da\'id and James arc both 22 ~'ea rs old . David .....!§ .. tt!.~ ..~.@..~ ...Q..8.~ ...M. .....J.@..~~ 1 You and I both ha\'e dark brown hair. Your hair ................................... _.... . _______..........._.......................................... _ . 3 I arrived at 10.25 and so did r ou. I ........ __......................................................... ........................................................ 4 :-' l ~' birthd ay is 5 April. Tom 's birthda y is 5 April too. My................................................ 107.5 Complete the senten ces with than ... or as ... . 1 [ ca n't reach as high as you. You arc taller ....JJ:'!.M ....r:!I.~ 1 He doesn't know muc h. I know more ...................................................... ......... . 3 I don't work pani c ulad~' hard. ,\ 'Iost people work as ha rd . 4 \'('e were very surpri sed. ::\"obody was more surpri sed ..... 5 She's not a very good pla~·e r. I'm a better pla ye r ............................._..... 6 They' ve been very lucky. I wish we were as lucky ... ........................

2 15


Superlatives (the longest I the most enjoyable etc.) Study these examples: What is the longest ri\'cr in rhe wo rld~ Wha t was the most enjoyable holiday you"ve ever had ? l ongest and most en joyable a rc superlatiJ'e fo rms.

The superlative fo rm is -est or most .... In general , we use -cSt for shon words and m OS t ." for lo nger words. The rules are the same as those for the compa rative - see Unit 105.

long -- longest bllt most famous

hot - honest most boring

A few ad jecti ves are irregular: bad -- worst good - best

casy -- easiest

most difficult

hard - hardest most expensive

rar -- furth est/fart hest

For spelling, see Appendix 6. We normally use the before a superlative (th e longest I the most famous etc. ): o Yesterday was the ho n est day of the yea r. D The film was really boring. It was the most boring film I' ve ever seen. o She is a really nice person - one of the nicest peo ple I know. o Why does he always come to see me at the worst possible moment? Compare superlative and compa rative; o This hotel is the cheapest in town. (superlative) This hotel is cheaper than all the others in town. (com parative) o He's the most patient person I\ 'e ever met. He's much more patient (han I am. O ldest and eldest The superlative of old is oldest: o T hat church is the oldest building in the town. (llot the eldest) We use eldest (or oldest ) w hen we are ta lking about people in a fami ly: o My eldest son is 13 years old. (o r My oldest son) o Are you th e eldest in your family? (o r the oldest ) After superlatives we normally use in with places: o What 's the longest river in the world : (not of the world ) o We had a nice room. It was one of the best in the hotel. (/lot of the hotel) We also use in for organisations and groups of people (a class I a company etc.): a Who is the youngest student in the. class? (1101 o f the class) For a period o f time, we normall}' use of: o What wa s the happiest day of your life? o Yesterday was the hottest day of the year. We often use the present perfect (I have done) a ft er a superlative (see also Unit 8A): o What's the mOSt imponant decision }'ou've ever had to make? o That was the best ho liday I've had for a long time.

216

Comparison (cheaper I more expensive etc.) ...... Units 105-107 Elder -..,. Uni t lOGE


Exercises

Unit 108

108.1 Complete th e sentences. Use a superlative (-est or most ...) + a preposit ion (of or in),

It's a very good room. It ..... ~i? ....#1.~....b..e:..~.t.tgg.T.... i:!:! ... the hotel. 1 If's a very cheap restaurant. 1( $ ...................................................................................................................................... the town.

3 It was a very happy da~路. It was .... ........ .................................. ....... my life. 4 She's a very inre ll igent st udent. She ..... ,...................................... ...................................................... the class. 5 It's a very valuable painting. It . ............................................................................ ... _ the gal lery. 6 Spring is a very busy time for me. It ..................... ................................................ the year. In the followi ng sentences use one of + a superlat ive + a pre positio n.

7 It's a very good room . It .....\:;;... .2~~... .Q.f.... I:h.~ ... !?~~J. ~Q9.~~ ....~ .... the hotrl. S H e's a \'ery rich man. He's one ............................................................................................................................ the world. 9 It's a \' er~' big castle. It .......................................................................................................................................................................... Britain. 10 She's a \'ery good player. She .... ............................................... ..... _ the team. I I It was a \"er~' bad experience. It ............................................................................. _ ............. _ my tife . 12 H e's a \"er~' dangerous c rimin al. He ........ the counrry. 108.2 Com plete the sentences. Use a superlative (- est or most ... J or a compa rat ive (-e r or more ... l. \'.?e stayed at ..... ~L.~~.~.;;.t. ... hotel in the town. (cheap) 2 Our hotel was ..... <;:b.~~ ..... than all the others in the town. (cheap ) 3 The United States is very large, but Canada is . ... ........................ (large) 4 \X' hat's ......................................................... ........ country in the world? (smal l) 5 I wasn't feeling well yesterday, but I feel a bit ................................ _ ........................................... today. (good) 6 It was an a\dul day. lr was .......... _._ ....... _.. _.... _._ .............. _._ da y of my life. (bad) 7 What is ........................... ................................... span in your country? (popular) 8 E\'erest is ................ _............................. ................... mounrain in the world. It is than any other mountai n. (high I 9 We had a great holiday. It was one of ....... ....................................... ...................... . holidays we've ever had. ( enjo~路 able ) J 0 I prefer this chai r to the other one. It's ........................................................................................ . (comfortable ) II What's . ........................................_ ..... way of getting frolll here to the station? (quick) 12 Sue and Kevin ha ve got three daughters. .............................. _.................. ...... is 14 years old. (old)

108.3 What do you say in these situat ions? Use a su perlative + ever. Use the word s in brackets (in the correct form). 1 You'\"e ju st been to the cinema. The fi lm was extremely boring. You tell your friend: (bori ng I film I see ) That's .....~.~ ....'!I.9.;;.; ....~Q~.l,!:'Ig ....f.~... ..I.:.y..~ . .~~~.... ~~ ...................................................................... . 2 Your friend ha s JUSt told you a joke, which you think is very funn y. You sa y: ( funn~' 1 joke I hear) That's ................................................................................................................. 3 You're drinking coffee with a friend. It's really good coffee. You say: (good I coffee I taste) This .................................. ............................................................................................. . 4 You are tal king to a friend aboUT Mary. Mary is very generous. You tell your friend about her: (generous I person I meet ) She ........ _........................................................... _....................................... 5 You have just run ren kilometres. You've never ru n fu rther rhan rhis. You say to your friend: (far I run) That ..... ............... _.................................................................................................... _ . 6 You decided to give up your job. Now you think this was a bad mistake. You say to your friend: (bad I mistake I make ) It ...................................................................................................................................................... _................... _.. - Your friend meets a lot of people, sonte of them famo us. You ask your friend: (famous I person I meet? ) W' ho . . ............... _...... . .. ........................ _.................... .

217


Word order 1: verb + object; place and time Verb + object The verb and the object norma lly go rogether. We do not usually pur other words hem'een them:

ucrb + obiect Did you Liz often

like sec

my job your friends

plays

tennis.

\wy m uc h. (Ilo t I like "cry much m y job)

yesterday ?

Study these exa mples. The verb and the obicel go together each rime: ~,-,

o Do you eat meat every day? ( n OI Do you eat every day meat?)

,

,

o Everybody enjoyed

the party

vcry muc h.

, o I lost all my money and I also (nof l losr also my passport )

lost

my passport

o At the end of the street you'll sec a supe~arket on your left. (rIo t see on your left a supermarket ) Place mId lime

Usua lly the uerb and the place (where? ) go together: go home live in a city walk 10 work crc. If the verb has an object, t he place comes after the I-'erb + ob;ect: take somebody home meet a fri end in the Street

Time (when? / how often? / how long? ) usually goes after piau: Ben wa lks Sam has hecn We arrivcd

place + to work in Ca nada a t the airport

I

I

o

I'm going to Paris

o

They ha ve li ved

o

Don't be late. Make sure you' re

on M onday . (not I'm goi ng on Monday to Paris) for a

in the sa:ne house

o Sarah gave me a lift

ho~e

o You rea lly shou ldn 't go

â&#x20AC;˘

time every morn ing. Illot every morni ng 10 work ) since April. early.

10

,

heclre--b-y---:-8'~'cJock

after

bed

I~ng rime

th~ pany â&#x20AC;˘

so late

It is ofte n possible to put time at the begi nning of the 5emence: o O n Monday I' m going to Paris. o Every morning Ben walks to work. Some lime words (for example, always/never/often) usua lly go wi th the verb in the middle of the sentence. See Un it 11 0.

218

Word order in questions .... Uni ts 49-50

Adjective order .... Unit 99

Word order 2 .... Unit 110


Exercises

Unit 109

109.1 Is the word order right or wrong? Correct the se ntences where necessa ry.

1 3 4 S 6 S 9 10

E\'crybody enjoyed the p<lrr~' \"cry much. .....QK... .................................................................Ben walks ~ .....~.~n ....~.~~.jp ..w.p..tk ...~y..~.H ..~.QIr.lmg., .. _._ .. _ Joe doesn't [ike very much footba ll. ......................................... I drink three or four cups of coffee ('vcry morn ing. I ate quickly my breakfast and went Ollt. Are yOll going to invite to the party a lot of people? ............. _._ ........................................ I phoned Tom immediatel,\' after hearing the news. Did ~路 ou go late to bed last nigh t ? Did you learn a lot of things at school toda~' ? I met on my way home <l friend of minc.

109.2 Put the pa rts of the se ntence in t he correct order. (the parry I vcry muc h I c\'erybod~' e nio~'ed ) ....~y.~~~.o..~ ... ~j!?!:!~..JI.,.~...P.!M:~ . 'I.~!d. ...!!IY.c.h.., ... "........................................ ",,,............. __ .................................................. 4 (Di ane I quire weIl l spea ks I German ) ......................................................... _ ...................... ................. _.... _ .................................. 5 (Sam I a ll the time I TV I \\'atches) ............................................................................................... 6 jag.lin l please don't ;lsk I that q uestion )

1. (we \\'on I easily I the game) 3 (q ui etly I the door I I closed)

- (football I e\'ery weekend I does Kcvin pla y?)'

S (some money I I bo rrowed I from a friend of mine ) 109.3 Comp lete t he sent ences. Put the parts in t he correct order. (fo r a long rime I h;l\'e [j\'ed / in the same house) Thc\' ..... r..I!:,'I.~....~~....C!'I__ ...t}1.~....'?.~. ~ .. _ r.~ S:.e:-....-fu.r.....I!:,..J91:'19._.~~.. 1. (to the supermarket I e\'ery Friday / ga l I .. ..... ................... ...................................................................................................................................................... 3 (home I did yo u come I so late)

.

\Vh \.

..... __ ..... _.. _............................... ..

......................

,

4 (her child ren I takes I e\'C ry day I to school) Sarah 5 (becn I rccent!~路 / to the c inema )

6 (at the top of rhe page I your name I write ) Please ................................................... ............................................... - (her name I after a few minutcs I remembered) I ....... S (around the town I all morning I walked ) \'ile .. __. .............................................. ". . "................................................. 9 (on Saturday night I didn't see you I at the parry) I .....

. ....................... ..

10 (some interesting books I found I in the library) \'ill" _.. ........................ ........................... _.. _...... ................... _.... I I (her umbrella I last nigh t I in a restaurant I left ) Jackie ..... .................................. 11 jopposite the park I a new hotel I arc building) They ............................ .. ............... _.. _ ................................

219


Word order 2: adverbs with the verb Some adverbs (for exa mple. always, also, probably) go with the verb in the middle of a sentence: o Helen always drives ro wo rk. a We were feeling very tired a nd we were also hungrr_ D The concert will probably be cancelled . Study these ru les for the position of adverbs in t he middle of a 5emenec. (They arc on ly general rules, so t here arc exceptions. ) ( t ) If the verb is one word (drivcslfclVcookcd etc.), the adverb usually goes before the verb:

Helen I

adverb always almost

lIerb

drives

fell

to work. as I was.going down the stai rs.

o I cleaned the house and also cooked the dinner. (1I0 ( cooked also) a Lucy hardly ever watches television and rarely rcads newspapers. o 'Sha ll I give you my address?' 'No, I already have it.'

Note that these adycrbs (alwayS/ollen/also etc.) go before hal'c 10 â&#x20AC;˘.â&#x20AC;˘ : D Joe nevcr phones me. I always haye to phone him . (1I0 t I havc always to phone) (2 ) But adyerbs go after amlis/arelwas/wcre: D We were fceling Yery tired and we were also hungry. D Why are you always late? You 're never on time. D The traffic isn't usually as bad as it wa s this morn ing. (3) If thc verb is twO or more words (for examplc, can rcmember I doesn't eat I will be cancclled ), the adverb usually goes after the first verb (can/doesn't/will etc.):

Cla re The concert

IIcrb I

adverb

<a n

ncver rcmembcr often . eat definitely going probably b,

doesn't Arc you wiJl

I 'lerb 2 her name. meat. awa~' next week? cancelled .

o You have always been very kind to me. o Jack can 't cook. He can't cven boil an egg. o Do yOll slill work for the sa me com pany? D The house was on ly built a yea r ago and it's already fa ll ing down. Note that probably goes before a negative (isn't/won't etc.). So we sa)': D J probably won't see you. or I will probably nOt see you. (1I0t J won 't proba bly) We also use all and both in these positions: o We all felt ill after the meal. (lIot we felt all ill) o My parents are both teachers. (1101 my parents both are (eachers) o Sara h and Jane have both applied for the job. D We are all going ou t rhis eveni ng. Sometimes we use isiwilVdid etc, instead o f repeating pan of a senlence (see Unit 5 1). Note the position o f always/never etc. in these scnlences: o He always says he won't be late, but he always is. (= he is always late) o I've neyer done it and I never will. (= I will never do it ) We normally pur always/never etc. before the verb in sentences like these.

220

Word order 1 -

Unit 109


Exercises

Unit 110

110.1 Are the underli ned words in the right position or not? Correct the sentences where necessary. Helen drives i1ill:m to \,'ork. 2 I cleaned the house and a.J..s.n cooked the d in ner. 3 I ha ve ~ a showe r in the morning. 4 We ~ found the solution TO the problem.

.....H~.'J ..~.~~.....4:r:~:-:-. ~;? _ ...t9.. ~QrI::: ......................... Ok .............................................................................................

S Steve gets hard!\' c\'cr angry. 6 [ did some shopping and I \n' m il..W::! to the ba n k. 7 Jane has ~ to hurry in rhe morning.

.............................................. _............................................. _................

S \'\'e all were tired. so we all fell asleep.

.................................................................................

9 She ~ says she'll phone me, but she ~ does. ..

..................................................................................

110.2 Rewri te the senten ce s to incl ude the word in bracket s. Clare doesn't eat meat. (often ) .....~.~....M.~~.~.J路... g.~ ... ~ ... !!!.~ ...... h olid,l~' in Spain. (a li ) ............................................................................................................................. . b We were sra~' i n g ,tt the same hotel. (a ll) c We enio~'ed ourseh路es. (ali ) Catherine is \'ery generous . (a lwa~'s) I don'r han' to work on Saturda~路s . ( u s uall~') Do yo u warch TV in the eyenings? ( alwa~'s) .................................. \Iarrin is learning French. and he is learning Italian. (a lso) .\tanin is lea rn ing French and he . . a The new hotel is \'e r~' expensi\'e, (probably) ....... b It COStS a lot to stay there. (probablq ...................... d I can help you. ( prob<lb l~') ......................... b I ca n't help you. ( prob a bl~')

1 a \'.;'e were o n

3

-+ 5 6

S

110.3 Complete the sentences. Use the word s in bracke ts in the correct ord er.

I .....~ .. ~.~.y..q.. remember 1 I ... . 3 4 5 6 S

9 10

11 12 13

14 15 16

her name. (remember I neyer I can) ............................... suga r in coffee. (take I usually) I ..... ................................... ..................... ............................... hungry when I get home from work. (a mi us ually) A : \X' here's J oe~ B: He .................................................... .......................... home ca rl r . (gone I has I probabl y) \ Iark and Diane .......................................... in Manchester, (borh I were I born ) l iz is a good pianisr. She ... ..................................... ............................ very well . (sing I also I can) Our cat ... ..................... ............................................................ under the bed. (often I sleeps) They li ve in th e same strect a s me, bur [ . .......................................................................... to them . (ne\'e r I have I spoken ) \'(Ie ......................................... .......... a long time for the bus, (have I always I to wait) \Jy eyesight isn't very good. I .......................................................................... ............................. with glasses, (read I can I only) I ............................................................................. .. ........... early tomorrow. (probably I leaving I willI be) ....... able to come to the parry. I' m afraid I ............................ (p robably I be I won't) It's difficult ro COnt.ICt Sue, She .......................... at home when I phone her. (is I ha rdly ever ) \\'e ....................................... ... ............... in the sa me place. We haven't moved, (still/ are I living) ................................................................................... each other. If we hadn't taken the sa me train. we . (never / met / would I han!' ) .-\: Are you tired? B: Yes, I ....... . .............. ........................ .................................... at this time of da y. (a m f always)

22 1


Still, yet and already Any more / any longer / no longer Still We U ~ still to say that a situation or action is conri nui ng. It hasn't changed o r stopped; o It's ten o'clock and Joe is still in bed. D When I went to bed, Ch ris was still working. o Do you still want to go away or have }'OU changed you r mind? Still usua lly goes in the midd le of t he sentence with the verb (see Unit 110). Any more I any longer I no longer We use nOI ." any morc or nOI .. . any longer to S3Y thai a situation has changed. Any more and any longer go at the end of a sentence: o Lucy docsn't work here any morc (or any longer). She left last momh . (1Iot Lucy doesn't sti ll work here.) o We used to be good friends, but we aren't any morc (or any longer). You can also usc no longer. No longer goes in the middle of the sentence: o Lucy no longer works here. Note that we do nOt norma lly use no more in th is way: o We are no longer fri ends. (no t We are no more friends.) Compare still and not ... any more: o Sa ll y still works here, but Lucy doesn't work here any more.

y" Yet = until now. We use yel mainly in negati\'e sentences (He isn't here )'el ) and questions (Is he here yel ?). Yet shows that the speaker is expecting someth ing to happen. Yet usually goes at the end of a sentence: o It's to o'clock and Joe isn't here yet. o Have you met you r new neighbou rs yet? o 'Where are you going fo r your hol idays?' 'We do n', know yet.' We o ften use yel with the present perfect (Have ~'ou mel ... yet?'). See Unit 7C. Compa re yet and still : o M ike lost his job six months ago and is still unemployed. Mi ke lost his job six months ago and hasn't fo und another job yet, o Is it still raining? Has it Slopped rain ing yet ? Still is also possible in negative sentences (before the negative): o She said she would be here an hour ago and she still hasn't come. T his is simila r to 'she hasn't come yet'. But still ... not shows a stronger feel ing o f surprise or impatience. Compare: o I wrote to him last week. He hasn't replied yet. (but I expect he will repl y soon) o I wrore to him months ago and he still hasn't replied. (he should have repl ied before now ) Already We use already to say tha t something ha ppened sooner t han expected. Already usually goes in the middle o f a sentence (see Unit 110): Cl ' What ti me is Sue leavi ng?' 'She has already left.' (= sooner than you expected ) Cl Shall I tell Joe what happened or does he already know? o I've on ly JUSt had lu nch and I'm already hu ngry.

222

Present perfect + already/yet - Unit 7C Word order "'" Unit 11 0


Exercises

Unit 111

11 1.1 Compare what Paul said a few years ago with what he says now. Some th ings 3re t he same as befo re and so me t hin gs have changed. Write sentences with st ill and any more.

I tra\'el a lot.

I rra vel a lor. I work in a hospital. I gave up writing poems. I want to be a teaclter.

Pa ul a few

I work in a sho p. I write poems. I wam to be a teacher. I'm inrerested in politics. I'm single,

years ago

I go fishing a lot.

(t ra vel )

I'm not interested in politics. Paul now

I'm single.

r haven't been

......Ij.g, ... ~.t4!:....kQ.,y.~~ .. _.t;. ..lI:l.t..

2 (shop )

....H.g.,...40.~.~ .1'.:t . b!9rt .. ~ ..~....~h9.P....

3 (poems)

..... ~M-- more. . He

fishing for yea rs.

5 (politics )

6 (single) 7 (fi shing ) 8 (heard )

4 (teac her )

Now wr ite three sente nces about Paul usi ng no long er. 9 ... j:!.~.....r1.Q....\.:?.~9.~.....~.Qr.~.~.... !!"!....~....~.!:1.QP.., .................... II

10

................................

12

111.2 For each se ntence (wi th st ill) wri t e a sentence with a simil ar mea ning using not ... yet + one of the followi ng ve rbs:

decide 1 3 4 5 6 7

fi nd

fi nish

go

<"'P-

It 路s sti ll raining. Gar~' is still here. T hey' re still repairing the road. T he children are still asleep. [s Ann still looking for a place to Ji\'e? I'm still wUllut" rillg wl.at to uu. The plane is still waiting on the runway.

take o ff

wake up

_J.~....h.M:~.'.t ..~JQl?P.~._._r.~.i:r.!g ... M~ He They .

.......................................................................- ?

111.3 Put in st ill. yet. al ready or any more in the underl in ed se ntence (or pa rt of the se ntence). Study t he exam pl es ca refully. t :vtike lost his job a year ago and he is unempJovcd . ......h~....\-:~.... ~I:.g.L ..~.Y.!~.P!P..ij!:4.., ......... .......... _._.... 2 Shall I tell Joe what happened o r does he know? ......4P.~.~.... h4}....gJ.r.~ ... h]9.r.:!..... ...................................... 3 I'm hu ngr~路. Is dinner ready? .... . I.:?: ....w..n~.... r.~ ... !:j.~.t?...................... .. ............................

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 ]3 14 15 t6

I was hungry ea rlier, bur I'm not hungry. ....I.~.~....n.Q.t.: ... n.~.Y.!.9r.!:j. ... ~.ij....~.Qr.~ .................................. _._ ...................... .. Ca n we wai r a few minutes? I don路t want to eo out . ...................................................... ................................................... .. Jenny used to work at the airport, but she doesn't work [here . ... I used to Jive in Amsterdam. I have a lot of friends [here. ................................................. 'Shall I introduce you [0 Joe?' 'There's no need. We've mer.' ........................... Do vou liye in the same place or have you moved? ......................... __ .... ............................. _... \'\?ould you like [ 0 eat with us or have you eaten? ........... ........................................ ............................................ 'Where's John?' ' He's not here. He'l [ be here soon.' ..................................... _....._.... _................................. Tim said he'd be here at 8.30. ]r"s 9 o'clock now and he isn't here . ............................................... Do you want to join the club or are you a member? ............................. ....................................... _............ It happened a long time ago, bur I ca n remember it very dearly . ................................ _.............................. _.. I\路c put on weight. These trQusers don't fit mc . .......... _.. _.... ............ _.... _._._ ................ ____ ... ___ ._... _._ .... ' Ha \'e you fin ished with the paper?' 'No, I'm read ing it.'

223


Even Study this exa mple situation: Tina loves warching television.

She has a TV set in every room of rhe house even rhe bathroom. We use even to say that something is unusua l or surprisi ng. It is nor usual to have a TV set in the bathroom.

Some more examples: o These photographs a re really awfu l. Even I take better photographs than these. (a nd I'm certainly not a good photographer ) o He alwa ys wears a coat - even in hot weather. o Nobody would help her - not even her best friend . or Not even her beSt friend would help her. Very often we use even wit h the verb in rhe middle of a sentence (see Unit 11 0): o Sue has travelled all over the world. She has even been to the Antarctic. (It's especially unusual to go to the Antarctic, so she must have travelled a lot.) o They are very rich. They even have their own pri\'ate jet. Study o o o

these examples with not even: 1 ca n't cook. I can't even boil a n egg. (a nd boiling an egg is very easy) They weren't very friend ly to us. They didn't even sar hello. J enny is very fit. She's just run fi ve mi les and she's not e"en out of breath.

Yo u can use even + comparative (cheaper I more expensive etc.): o I gOt up very early, but J ack gOt up even earlier. o I knew I didn't have much money, but I\ 'e got even less than I though!. o We were surprised to get a letter from her. We were even more surprised when she came to sec us a few days later. Even though I even when I even if You can usc even though I even when I even if + slIb;ect + verb: o Even though she can't d rive, she has bought a ca r. s"b;ec,' + wrb o He never shouts, even when he's angry. o I'll probably see you tomorrow. But even if I do n't see you romo rrow, we're sure fa see each other before the weekend, I

I

You cannot use even in this way (+ subject + verb). We say: o Even though she can't drive, she has bought a car. (1Io t Even she can't drh'e ) o I can't reach the shelf even if I stand on a c hair. (1I0t even 1 sta nd ) Compa re even if and if: o We're going ro the beach tomorrow. It doesn't maner what the weather is like. We're goi ng even if it's raining. o We wa nt to go to the beach tomorrow, but we won't go if it's ra ining.

224

If and when ..... Un it 250

Though

I even though -- Unit

11 3E


Exercises

Unit 112

112. 1 Ju lie. Sarah and Amanda are three friend s who went on holiday together. Use the: information given about them to complete the sentences using even or not even .

Jlllie

Sarah

is usuall y happy is usually on rime likes gwing up ea rl y is very interested in a rt

isn't very keen on art is usually miserable usually hates hotels ha sn't got a camera

9 -

i

Amanda

i is almost always latc

n.

~

is a keen photographer - ." loves staying in ho tels isn't ver)' good at getting up

Th e ~' stayed at a ho tel.

herybody liked it, .. __ ~x~_.5~:!.~ 1 They arranged to meet. They all arrived on time. _. ____.__ ._._. ____ .. _. __.__ .~ ...

M ....

* ....... * •• "_ .... *. _ _ _ _ •

3 Ther went to a n an gallery. :-:-obody enjoyed it, __ .__ ...__ ._.___ ._.___ .......H.* .......*.* .................. _._ .•..•..•. __ ..•. __ .•.. _ • 4 YesTerday They had to get up ea rl~·. They all managed TO do this, .... _._ ......................... _._._._ ... _... __ .......... _.. _.. . 5 The~' were together yesterda y. They were all in a good mood, ...... _._._._._._._ ............ _._ ...... _ ............ _.. _,.. . 6 !':one of Them Took an~' photogra phs. . ...................... ..... _.... _.. _._.............. .. .......................... 112.2 Make sentences with eve n, Use t he words in bracke ts.

Sue has been all o\'er the world, (the AnTarctic) ......$,h~.. ):t~ ....~.Y.M ... J?~ ....tg.....~.~....A..r!w..~ ,............ 1 \'('e painted The whole room , (Ihe floo r ) \'(Ie ...... ,..... ,.. _..... ___ ....... _....... _._._ .... _ ...... _.... _............... _" ..................... 3 Rachel has met lots of fa mous people. (the prime minister ) She ... __________ .......... ___ .... _.... _.. __ ... _.... _._ ..... __ .. ___._.... __ .... _. __ ... _...... _._. ___ .. __ .. _... _._. ____ ._._...... ,...... _.. _..... h . . . _ _ •• _ . . . _ _

4 You could hear The noise from a long way away. (from the next streer) You ,___ .. __H __._...._._H..__.H._.____.____ In the following sentences you have to use not ... even, 5 6 S

They didn't say a nYThing TO us. (hello ) _j}1J~&J __ 4!,4n1::_~X.~~:L2~ne.l4!.'____ .. _. ____ .... _ _ _ I can't remember anything about her. (her name ) 1 _ _ ._ _ _ _ _ .___ ..,__ _ There isn't anything to do in [his TOwn. (a ci nema) ________ ... _._.H_.H __ ._.....___ He didn't Tell a nybody where he was goi ng. Ihis wife )

9 I don't know a nyone in o ur street. !the people next door ) 112.3 Complete the sentences usi ng even + comparative.

1 3 4 5 6

It was \'ery hot yesterday, bU TTOday it's ......~.Y.~.Y.I.... hQ,~... The c hurch is 500 years o ld , but the house next to it is ......................................... _._ ......._._ Tha i's a very good idea. but j\'e gOTan .............................. ....... _._ .... _._._ .... _._ ....... _................. .. one, The fi rst quest ion was \'e r~' difficult to answer, The second one wa s ...................... I did \'cry bad l ~' in the exam , but most of my friend s did ___ .... ___ ...... _....... _...................... _ ..... _.. __ .__ .__ .. _ . . ~ei rh er of us was hungry, I ate \'Cry little and m)' friend ate __ .. _... _..... H ..................._. _ _ _ _ _ _ •

H_.H. . . . H .......... _ . _ ........ _ _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ . _. . _ _

112.4 Put in if, even, even if or even t houg h .

2 3 4 5 6 S 9

.....i.~Q'I_M:1_~..9..I1__ she can't drive, she has bought a ca r, The bus leaves in five minUTes, but we can still carch it ._____ .. _. ___ ...... __ we run, The bu s leaves in two min utes, \'\'e won 't ca tch it now ._____ ._. ___ ._. _____ .__ we run, H is Spa nish isn't ve ry good - .. ___ ._ after rhree yea rs in Spain. H is Spanish isn't very good .____ he's lived in Spain for three years. ._._________ .__ ._.~ wirh the heating on, it was very cold in the house. I couldn 't sleep ......... _.."...."................ _________ ._ I was very tired. I won't fo rgive them fo r what they did, ._._. ______ ..... _... __ ._.. _... __ ._... __ they apologise. ......... __ ..... __ .... _. _____.__ ._........ _.. _... I hadn't ea ten anything fo r 24 hou rs, I wasn't hungry.

-- AddItional exercise 32 (page 321)

225


Although I though I even though In spite of I despite Study this example situation:

/;;/

/

/

Ii i

Last yea r i\Hll and Joanne had:l holiday by the se;'!. It r;lined a lot. but they en joyed themselves. say: Ahhough it rained a lot. the)' enjoyed thcmsekes. (= It rained a lo t. b ill ther ... ) YO li '::10

-= /

~

t

0'

I

"

"

In spite .o f the ram. the\' cnloved thcmsekes. â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ DCSpli C

After a hho ugh we use a subject + verb:' a Allhaugh it rained a 101, we enjoyed OU f holiday. o I didn't get the job although I had the ne('('ssa r>, qua lifications.

Compare the meaning of although and because: o We went out although it was ra ining. a We didn't go out because it was raining. Afrer in spite o f o r despite. we use a " 0 1111, a prOllOlII1 (thislthatlwhat etc.) or -ing: o In spite o f the rain , we enjoyed our hol iday. o I didn't get the job in spite of having the necessary qualific:uions. o She wasn't well, but in spite of this she wem to work. o In spite of wh at I said yesterday, I sti ll \o\'e you. Despite is the same 3S in spite o f. We say in spite of, but despite (Idlholl l of): o She wasn't well , but despite this she wem to work . (1I0 t despite of this) You can say in spitc of the fact (that ) ... and despite the fa ct (that ) ... :

o

".

"1 din spite fact (that ) I " " " of h the f h I I had t he necessa ry qualifications.

I dldn t get the lob

espue

I.

e act (t at

Compare in spi te of and because of: o We wen t out in spite of the rain . (or ... despitc the rain,) o We didn't go out bccause of the rain .

I

Compare although and in spite of I despite: o Although the traffi c was bad, " d " " 0 f tetra h ffi we arrive on time. In splle c,

'

I

o I cou Id I1 tseep

1although I was ven' tired. d " be" "" d espue

109 very tire .

(110 1

(1101 despite

In spite of the tra ffic wa s bad ) I was ti red )

Sometimes we use though instead of although: o I didn't get the job though I had the necessary qua lifications. In spoken English we oftcn use though at the end of a sentence: o T he house isn't very nice. I like t he ga rden tho ugh. (= but I like the garden) o I see them e\'ery day, I've never spoken to them though. (= but I've never spoken to them ) Even though (bll l l/ot 'even' alone) is a stronger form of altho ugh: o Even though I was really tired , I couldn't sleep. (ll ot Even I was rea ll y t ired ... )

226

Even - Un it 11 2


Exercises

Unit 113

113.' Complete the se ntences. Use although + a sentence from the box. I didn't speak the lallgu:lge I had never seen her before it was quite cold I'd met her twice before

Ae has

Ii ... ery impOrrftA! jab we don't like {hem very much the hearing was on we"ve known each other a long time

.....A~.!:h.~.gh. ..h.~....h~.....~...x.q~... ~P.9.~.t...J!?~ ... , he 1 ................................................ _..

isn'r particu larly wel l-paid.

......................................................... , .... , ............... , I recognised her from a photograph.

3 She wasn't wearing a coar ........................................................... .. Wie thought we'd beneT invite rhem to the parry .......................... ................................................................ . 5 .... .......................... .............................. ... ... ..... .............................................. , I ma naged to make myself understood. ..... ,the room wasn't warm. 6

7 [didn 't "cognise h" ............................... S \',le're not very good friends 113.2 Complete the sentences with alth ough

I in

spite of I because

I because

of.

I .... .AW:'!.~.gt1 ... it rained a lot, we enjoyed our hol iday. 1 a ...................................................................... all our careful plans, a lor of things went wrong. b ...... we'd planned everything carefu ll )" a lot of things went wrong. 3 a I went home early ............................ ................................. I was feeling unwell. b I went to work the next day . .................................... 1 was still feeling unwell . 4 a She only accepted the job ........................... _.... .. .. the salary, which was very high. b She accepted the job . ............ ............. ............ the sa lary, which was rather low. S a I managed to get to sleep ............................ .................................. there was a lot of noise. .... the noise, b I couldn't get to sleep ........................................ Use your own ideas to co mplete the foll owing se ntences:

6 a b a b

He passed the exam although .................................................... ............................................................... _ ............. _..... _ . He passed the exam because ........................................................... ................................................................................. _ , I didn'r ear an~路 thing although .................................... ...................... ........................... ...................... I didn'r ear anphing in spi te of .......................................................................................................... _.... _ ......................................... .

113.3 Ma ke one sen tence from two. Use the word{s) in brackets in your sentences.

I couldn't sleep. I was very tired. (despite) ......l... ,~, 14.!:{L~.tm: ....4?~m . . l:?~.g .... ~.~\!... !楼..~ ,., .. 2 They have very little money. They are happy, (in spite of) In spite . . .......................................................................................... 3 .\ Iy foot was injured. I managed to walk to the ~earest village. (a lthough) 4 I enjoyed the fi lm. The s tor~' was sill)" (in spite of)

S W,Ie live in the same streer. \Y,Ie ha rdly ever see each other. (despite) 6 I got very wet in the ra in. I was only

Ollt

for five minutes. (even tho ugh)

11 3.4 Use the word s in brackets to make a sentence with though at the end,

The house isn't very nice. (like I ga rden) ....J . .!4';.~....~.~....gw.4&r.!....~.~.9.t1 .: 2 It's warm today. (very windy ) . ..................... ........... _._ ........... . ................. 3 We didn't like the food. (ate ) 4 Liz is very nice. (don't like I husband) ...... Additional exercise 32 (page 32 1)

227


Unit

114

In case Study this exa mple situation: Your car sho uld have a spare wheel because it is possible you will have a puncrure.

Your ca r should have a spare wheel in case you h,l\'c a puncture. In case you have a puncrure you \\'ill have a puncture.

=beca use it is possible

Some morc exa mples of in case: o I'll leave my mo bi le phone switched on in case Jane calls. (= because it is possible she will ca ll ) o I'JI draw a map for you in case you have difficulty findin g our house. (= beca llse it is possible you will have difficulty )

o I' ll remi nd them about rhe meeting in case they've forgotten . (= because it is possible they have fo rgonen ) We use just in case for a smaller possibility: o I don 't think it wi ll rain, hut I'll take an umbrella JUSt in case. (= JUSt in case it

rai n~)

Do not use will aft er in case. U~e a presenr tense for the future (see Unit 25): D J'lIleave my phone switched on in case Jane calls. (1101 in case Jane will call) In case is not the ~al11e as if. We use in case ro sar wh)' somebodr d()e!; (or something. You do something flOW in case something happens later.

doe~n 't

do )

Compare: in case D We'll buy some more food in case Tom comes. (= Perhaps Tom will come; we'll buy some more food now, whether he comes or not; then we'll already have the food if he comes.) o I' ll give you my phone number in case you need to contact me. D Yo u should insure rOU T bike in case it is sto len .

if

=\'(le' ll buy some more food if Tom comes, (= Pcrh3ps Tom will come: if he comes, we'lI buy some more food: ii he doesn't come, we won 't bu y all Y more iood. ) You can phone me at the hote l if you need to contact me. :J You sho uld inform the police if your bike is srolen. :::J

You can use in case + past to say why somebody did somethi ng: o I left my phone switched on in case Jane called . (= because it was possible that Jane would call ) D I drew a map for Sa fah in case she had difficulty finding the house. D We rang the doorbell again in case they hadn't heard it the first time. In case of is not the sa me as in case. In case o f ... = if there is ... (especially on notices etc. ): D In case of fire, please leave the building as quickly as possible. (= if (here is a fire ! o In case of emergency, telephone this number, (= if there is an emergency)

228

If -. Units 25, 38-40


Exercises

Unit 114

114.1 Barbara is going for a long walk in the country. You think she should take : -some-<hocolale-

a map

a n anorak

a camera

some water

You th ink she should take these things because :

-She-nltght-g&hUI'Igry" maybe it will rai n

it's possible she'll get lost perha ps she' ll be thi rsty she might wam 10 rake some photographs What do you say to Barbara? Write sentences

~ i th

in case.

.

_I~ ~_.;?Q!!!~._c;h~* .. ~_ttb_.!:!~._.~ .. _~.~... !;i~.... 9 ~L\:).~~9ni.:._ ... ___________ ._._.... _... __ *_

2 T;\ ke ._. ___ ._._.~ .... ~ .. "..... _......................... __ .... _.... _.. __ ._. ___ ._.... _._ ..... _......................................... _ .. ___ ._.. _... _.. __ ._.... __ ....... __ .... * .. __ .•

3 .__.___ ._.... ~ .... _.~ ..... ,..* ....* ........" .............................._. ___ •.. ___ .. _

..........................................................._ .... _._._._._ ..•. _._. ____ . __ ._ .•.. __ ._

4 ...................................... __ ....... _.... _.......... _.. _._._._ ..... .

5 ............................ _._ .......................... _ 114.2 Wha t do you say in these si tuations? Use in case.

I It's poss ible tha t :"Iary will need to contact you, so rOll give her rour phone number. You sa ~' : Here's my p ho ne n umber .....'!I....~.~... .H~.....!!~_.tQ._.~.~~._.~. ~._ ..................................... 2 A friend of you rs is going 3way for a long time. Maybe yo u won't see her aga in before she goes, so you decide to say goodb~'e no\\'. You say: I'll say good bye now ._______ .__ ._.:.. __ ... _.......... _... _......... _......... _.. ______ .__ ._._.____._._.__ .~_ .. _ .

.>

You 3re shopping in 3 supermarket with a friend. You think you have everyth ing you need, bu t perhaps you've fo rgon en something. Your friend has the list. You ask her to check it. You say: Ca n you _______ .__ .... ___ ._.. _____ .____ .___________ .__ .___ .. ___ ... ____ ?

4 You a re giving a friend some advice abour using a computer. You think he shou ld back up (= ( Opy ) his files becau se the compu ter might crash la nd he would lose a ll his data). You say: You should back up _._ ... _.... _... _._. __ ._._. _____ .. _____ .... __ ... _.... _____ .______ . 114.3 Write sentences with in case.

2 3 4

5

There was a possibi lity th.n Jane would ca ll. So I left my phone switched o n. I left ...... ~~.J?±1..9.~_~.~.~ed..._Q.':'! ....~....@..~ ... JM.~....~..... _.. _.. _._ .. _. __._.........................._._ ... _._ .......... _.. _....... _ . :" l ike thought that he might forget the name of the book. So he wrOte it d own. H e wrOte down ......... _. ................................. ....... _.......... _....... _....... _.... _ ..... ___ ._...... __ ................................. . I thought m~' parents might be worried about me. So I phoned them. I p ho lled ........... __ ......................................................................... ............................................................... .................. _.............. I senT an email to Liz, but she d id n't reply. So I sent another email because perha ps she hadn't received the fi rst o ne. I sent .. _...................... _._ ...... _..... _...... _.. _..... _..................... _.... _._ .............. _._ ............ _...... _._ ....... __ ._.......................................................... _..... __ .. I met some people when I was o n holiday in France. They said they might come to london one da y. I live in London, so I ga ve them my address. I ga\'e .. ______ ....... _~._ ... _... _..... __ .. __.________________ ... __ .... _.. _._. ____ .___________ ._._ .

114.4 Put in in case or if.

I' ll d raw a map for you .....~ ...S4Se you have difficulty finding o ur ho use. 2 You should tell the police _I!f_. ~'ou have a ny information about the cri me. 3 I hope you'll come to London sometime. _._ .. __ .____ .___ ... __ . you come, you can stay with us. 4 This letter is for Susan. Ca n you give it to her ._. __ .. ____ ._~.~._ .. _.. _.... you sec her? 5 \X'rite you r name and add ress on your bag _. __ ._. ___ ._._.........__ you lose it. 6 Go to the lost propeny office _._ .. _... ___ ._._...... _._ .. you lose your bag. - The burglar alarm will ring ... __ ..... somebody tries to break into the house. S You sho uld lock you r bike to something ...... _._ ......... _.......... _.... _..... so mebody tries to stea l it. 9 I was advised to get insu rance .... ........ __ .. _............ I needed medical treatment while I was abroad. e ....... _ .... _ _ _ •• _ _

...... Add itional exercise 32 (page 32 1)

229


-

Unless

Provided/providing

As long as

Unless Study this example situation;

The club is for members o nl y. Yo u can', go in unless you are a member. This mea ns: You can't go in excel)1 if you are a member. You can go in o,d), if you 3rc a member.

or

Unless = except if.

Some morc exam ples of unless: o "II sec you tomorrow unless I have to work late. (= except if I have to work latc) o There a re no buses to the heach. Un less yOIl have a ca r, it'.. difficult to get there. (= except if you have a car) o 'Shall I tell Liz what happened ?' ' Not unless she asks you: (= only if she asks rou ) o Sally hates complaining. She wouldn't complai n abou t something unless it was really bad. (= except if it was really bad) o We ca n take a taxi to rhe resrauram - unless you'd prefer 10 walk. (= except if you'd prefer to walk)

Instead of unless it is oftcn possible to say if ... not: o Unless wc Icave now, we'll be late. or If we don 't IC3\'e now, we' ll ... As long as etc. as long as or so long as 'd d I h I 'd' ( h prOVL c t at or prOVL Ing t at)

I

. ..

.. .

All these expreSSiOns mcan 'Lf o r 'on condmon (hat.

For example: o You can bo rrow my car

l you promIse . nor to dm' 'e roo rasr. 1 j soas !ongas oog as

(= you can borrow my car, bur )"ou must promise nOt

o

.

.

10

drivc tOO fa st - (his is a cond ition)

. j proVI provided (that) I 'd'109 I hat I .\'ou have somewhere

Tra velling by car LS convelllent

t

(Q

park.

(= but only if you have somewhere to park)

o

I

.

."

Providing (that) , 'd d ( h 1 the room IS clean, I don t mllld whLch hotel we stay at. 1 row e t. at (= the room must be clean - otherwise I don't mind )

When you are talk ing about the future, do Ilot usc will after unless I as long as I so long as I provided I providing. Use a presetlt tense (see Unit 15): o I'm not goi ng out unless it stops raining. (tlot unless it will Stop) o Providing the weather is good, we're going to have a picn ic. ('lot providing it will be good)

230

If -

Uni ts 25, 38-40


Exercises

Unit 115

115.1 Write a new sentence with the sa me meaning. Use unl ess in your sentence.

You

mU St

try a bit harder or

~' ou

won't pa ss the exam .

....J,~ ._.~.~.~ :~... p.9.:搂,f? ...#.:J.~....~~.~...y, ~~~... .!:!~ ....k~ ...q.,_,_]:l.i.t:...ho.-r._4&t., ............................................................... ........... _............

2 Listen carefully o r you wo n't know what to do. You won'r know what to do .................................................................................. 3 She must apologise to me or I'l l ne\'er spea k to her agai n. 4 You have to speak very slo wly o r he won't be able to unde rstand

YOll.

5 Business must improve soon. or the comp3 n~' will have to close. 11 5.2 Write sentences with unl ess.

The cl ub isn 't open

c\路eryone. You are allowed in o nl r if yo u" re 3 member" ....Y@.: ....w..~.:.~ ~.~.~ ~ !?:1.~....~P...,.~.nl&~.~... !;l~..'. r..~....~... .r.n.~.~~.,. 1 J don't want to go to the parry alone, I'm going only if rou go too. ['m nor goi ng ..................... _.. ............................................................................................................ _ 3 Don"t worry about the dog, It will attack you only ii you move suddenly. The dog .... ........................................... _ .................................................. .......... .......... ......... .............................................. _........................ _ 4 Ben isn"t \'ery talkative. He' ll speak to you Ofll~' ii you ask him something.

..

TO

.. ..

Ben ........................ _._ .. _........... S

................................................................ _

Tod a~' is a publ ic holiday. The doctor will see yOLI o nl y if it"s an emergency. The doctor .... . . ........ '............................................. ....................................................

115.3 Choose the correct word or expression for each sentence, You ca ll borro\\'

m~"

ca r unless I as loni; a s you prom ise nOT to drive toO fa st. (as long a s is

co rrect)

2 I'm 3 I"m 4

S 6 -

S 9

10

pl a~' i n g

tenni s tomo rrow unless ' providing it rains. tenni s tomorrow unless I pco\'jding it doesn't rain . [don't mind if you come ho me bte unless I as lonG jlS ~' Oll corne in quietly. rm going no w unless IprO\'ided you want me to stay. I don't watch TV unless I as lon& as I"n' gOT nothing else to do, Chi ldren arc 3llo\\'ed to usc the swimming pool unless I provided they are with an adult, Unless l1'ro\'ided they a re with an adu lt, c hildren arc not allowed ro tlse the swimming pool. \,\Ie ca n sit here in the corner unless I as long a s you'd rather sit over there by thc wi ndow, .-\ : Our holida y COSt a lo t o i rn o n e~路. B: Did it? WelL tha t doesn't matter unless I a s lo ng as YOll en joyed you rselves. pl a~' ing

115.4 Use your own ideas to comp lete these sentences. 1

3 -4 S 6 -

S

We"ll be late unless ..... ~~ ....g~....o..:... t4-.~.~ .............................................. I like hot weather as long a s ...................................................................... ....................................................................................._ [t takes Ka te a boUT 20 minutes to dri ve to work provided .......................................................... [ don"t m ind wa lking ho me a s long as ..................................................................... _........ [ like to wal k to work in the mo rn ing unless ................................... \Ve can meet tomorrow un less ....................................... You can borrow the money prov idin g ........ You won"t achieve anything unless .n................................................................................................

_ Additional exercise 32 (page 321)

231


As (As I walked along the street ... As I was hungry ...) As

I

=at t he same ÂŁime 3S

Yo u can use as when twO thi ngs happen a t the same ti me: o We all waved goodbye to Liz as she drove away. (We waved and she d ro ve away a t the sa me t ime) o I watched her as she opened rhe letter.

o As I wa lked along the street, I looked in the sho p wi ndows. o Can you turn off the light as you go out, please?

O r you can say that something happened as you were doing something else (in the middle of doing something else):

o Kate slipped as she was gwing off the bus. D We met Pa ul as we were leaving the hotel. Fo r the past continuOll s (was gening I were going erc.), sec Un it 6.

Yo u ca n a lso use just as (= exactly a t that moment); o Just as I sat down, the phone rang. o I had to leave just as t he conversatio n was gen ing interesting. We also use as when tWO things ha ppen lOgether in a longe r period o f time; D As the day went on , the weather got worse. the day went o n o 1 bega n to enjoy the job mo re as 1 gOt used lO it.

the weather got worse

Compare as and whcn: Use when (1Iot as) if one thing happens after a no ther. c When we gO t ho mc. we started cooking the di nner. (1101 As we gOt homc)

We use as o nly if two things happen at the same time. D As we walkcd ho me, we talked about w ha t we would have for dinner. (= a t the same time) As

=beca use

As a lso mea ns 'because'; D As 1 was hungry, I decided to lind somewhere to eat. (= beca use I was hu ngry) D As it was a public holiday last Thu rsday, most o f the sho ps were shut. (= beca use it was a publ ic holiday ) o As wc have plenty o f time before our flight, let's go and have a coffee. o Yesterday we watched television all evening as we didn 't have anything better to do. D As I do n't o ften watch televisio n a ny mo re, I've decided lO give my TV set to a friend o f mme. You can a lso use since in this way: D Since we ha ve plenty of rime, let's go a nd have a coffee. Compare as and when:

D I could n't COnl'act David as he was away o n holiday and he doesn't have a mobile phone, (= because he was away) D As they lived ncar us, we used lO see

them quire often, (= beca use they lived near us)

232

As .. , as -. Un it 107

like and as ..... Un it 117

:J David's passpon was slOlen when he was a way o n holiday. (= du ring the time he was away )

li\'cd ncar us, we used to see them qUIte o tten, (= at the li me the\' li\'ed nea r us )

D Whcn th ey

As if ..... Unit 118


Exercises

Unit 116

116.1 (Section A) Use as to join se ntences from the boxes.

, - - - - - - - - -- - - - - 1 .we-iI'll-wftY«i~?e- [0 liz 2 w e all smiled 3 I burnt myself 4 the crowd cheered 5 a dog ran out in from of the car

we were d riving along the road I was taking a hO( dish our of the oven

I

I

she dro'>'e a way we posed fo r the phorogmph the fWO rcams ran onto the fi eld

...J~{~_o.U~!A_vt4~.9~M__._tp_lLl__~_.~!!_~_...4!.Q.~~-~~~

"_._..H. _____._._.__._________._ _

1 ..... _. ___.___ .... _... _ .. ____ ._._. _____.__ ._._._._._. __ ._...

5 ._._.......... _......................... _.................................................. _ 11 6.2 (Section B) Join sentences from th e boxes. Begin each sentence with as.

1 .jf-WQ5-Q-puW+e-hoIKll1-Y1 it was a nicc dar 3 we did n't want to wake anybody up 4 the door W<l S open 5 none of us had a waTch

I went in we came in very quietl y

most of fh@ shops wefti-Shu{we didn 't know what rime it was we wen t fo r a walk by the sea

4 ._________ .• _•..• _...._.•.____ ..______ •___________ _ - - - - -.•.•... 5 .. _____________ .H. _ _ .• _. __.______ ._. _____ ._. __________ • __

-----

becalfse

116.3 What does as mean in these sentences?

at the same time as

As They live ncar me. I sec Them quite o ften. Kate slipped as she was gerring off the bus. As I was tired. I went to bed early. Unfortu nately. as I wa s parking the car, I hit the car behind. As we climbed the hi ll , we got more and more t ired. 6 Wle decided TO go out to cat as we had no food at home. I As we don'T li St' The car \'ery often. we've decided to sell it.

./

2 3 4 S

116.4 In SOrTIe of these sentences, you need when (not as). 'Correct the sentences where necessary.

_.. !-::!h~ .. J?!':IH~'_~'~ ..f..f.............H

Julia got married as she was 11. 2 As the day went on, the weather gOt worse. ~

...QK.•...•.........•..............._....._ ..__.._.

3 He dropped the glass as he wa s taking it out of the Clipboard. ..H_..H... _..........._._. ___.___ H. ____ .H._._... 4 )" Iy ca mera was stolen 3S I was asleep on the beach. 5 As I left school, I went to work in a shop. 6 The train slowed down as it approached the sta tion. --_•. _•..•. ....__ •. - I used to live near the sea as I was a child.

_-_

_--

116.5 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.

I saw you as __ ._... _._ .. __ H. __.___H.... __....__ .. _ ... __ ......_.H ...H.H.H.H._"H_ .....H........ ___ H_H ____ ...·__·___·..·__ _ 2 It started to ra in JUSt as _H.H.H.H ............___ •__ H.H.......H._. __ H.H._. __ .H.......H._· __·.. __H___ H_.H. __ ._.... ___ H. ___H.__ 3 As I didn't have enough money for a taxi, _.H .... _H.H.H ........__ .. __ ._. __H....H.. _...............·..·.... _·H_ ....H_.H....·.... _ .. ____ ._._H 4 JUSTas I took the photogra ph. ........ _.. H _. . . . . . . . . . . . . _

.... Additional exercise 32 (page 32 1)

.... _

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . _ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .

233


Like and as Like = 'simila r fO', 'the sa me as', You ca nnOt use as in this way: o What <1 beautiful house ! It's like a palace. (not as a palace) o 'What does Sand ra do?' 'She's a [cacher, like me.' (no t as me) o Be careful! The floo r has been polished. It's like walking on ice. o It's raini ng again. I hate weather like this. (f,ot as this)

(110t

as walking)

In these semences, like is a preposition, So it is followed by a 1101111 (like a palace), a prQ1IOltn (like mc I like this) o r -ing (like walking). You can also say路 ... like (somebody/something) doing somethi ng':

o 'What's that noise?'

'ITsounds like a baby crying:

Sometimes like = for example: o Some sportS, like moror-racing; ca n be dangerous. You can a lso use such as (= for exa mple): o Some sports, such as motor-raci ng, can be dangerous. As = in the sa me way as, o r in the same condit ion as. We use as before slf bject + verb: o ( didn't move anythi ng. (left everything as it was. o You should have done it as ( sho wed you. Like is a lso possible in informa l spoken English: o ( left everything like it was. Compare as and like: o You should have done it as I sho wed you. (or like I showed you ) o You should have done it like this. (no t as this) Note that we say as usua l I as always: o You're la te as usual. o As a lways, Nick was the first ro com plain. Sometimes as (+ subject + verb) has other meanings. For exa mple, after do: o You ca n do as you like. (= do what you li ke) o They d id as they promised . (= The)' did w ha t they promised.) We a lso say as you know I as I said I as she expected I as I thought etc, : o As you know, it's Em ma's birrhday next week. (= you know this a lready) D Andy fail ed his d ri ving tCSt, as he expected. (= he expected this before ) Like is not usua l in these expressio ns, except with say (like I said): D As I said yesterday, I'm sure we can solve the problem. or Like I said )'esrerday ... As ca n also be a prepositiOfl, but the meaning is different from like. Compare: D Sue Casey is the manager of a com pany. As the manager, she has ro make many

important decisions. (As the manager = in her position as the manager.)

_ .\tary Stone is the assista nt manager. Like the m anager (Sue Casey ). she also has ro make impo rtant decisions. (like the manager simila r to the manager)

=

As (preposition) = in the position of, in the fo rm of etc. : D A few yea rs ago I worked as a taxi driver. (flot like a taxi d river ) o We haven't got a ca r, so we use the garage as a workshop. D Many words, for example 'work ' and 'ra in" ca n be used as verbs o r nou ns. D London is fin e as a place to visit, bur 1 wouldn't like to live thcrc. D The news of the tragedy came as a grcat shock.

234

As ... as .... Un it 107

As {'" at the sa me time as I because) .... Ullit 11 G As if .... Un it 11 8


Exercises

Unit 117

117.1 In some of these sentences, you need like (not as), Correct the sentences where necessary. Ir's r:lining again . I hate ~ Andy failed his dri\'ing rcst. as he expected. Do you think Caroline looks as her mother? Tim gets on my nerves . I can't stand people as him. \,(/hy didn"t you do it as I told you to do it? Brian is a student, as most of his friends. You never li sten. Talking to you is as talking to the wall. As I said yesterday, I'm thinking of changing m y job.

2 3 4 5 6

i S

.....~.~.!2:.. Uke. this

.... 91<,.. .............................................................................

9 Tom's idea seems a good one. Let's do as he suggests. 10 " II phone you tomorrow as usual, OK? II Sudden ly there was a terrible noise. Ir was as a bo mb exploding. 12 -She's a \'cry good swimme r. She swims as a fish .

117.2 Comp lete the sentences using like or as + the fo llowi ng: a beginner a child

blocks o f ice a church

-a-pa lacewinter

a birthday present a to urist guide

This house is beautiful. It's ...!:*-.~ ...Q.,... p.~._. ....... ,... ,............ 2 ~'Iy feet are really cold. T hey' re . J I\'e been playing tennis for rears, but I still play . ......................... 4 ~'I arion once had a parr-rime job ..... 5 I wonder whar that building with the rower is. It looks ........................ 6 .\fy brother gave me this watch _ ...................... ................... . i It's \'ery cold for the middle of summer. It's . ...................... 8 He's 22 ~'ea rs old, but he sometimes behaves .....

a long time ago .

117.3 Put in li ke or as. Sometimes either word is possible. 2

J 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

\'i./e heard a no ise ..... ~.~ ..... a bab>' crying. Your English is very fluent. 1 w ish 1 could speak ............... you. Don't ra ke my advice if you do n'r want roo You can do you like. You wasre roo much time doi ng things .... .... sitting in cafes a ll d ay. I wish I had a ca r .......................... yours. You don't need to change your clothes. You can go out " ....... you a re. .\Iy neighbour's house is full of lots of interesting things. It's ...................... _.. a museum. We saw Ke vin last night. He was very cheerful, . .. ........ always. Sa ll y has been working ............................ a waitress for the last twO months. \X' hile we were on holiday, we spent most of our rime doing energetic things ................... ... sailing, warer ski ing and swimming. You 're different from the other people 1 know. I don't know anyone ....... you . We d on't need all the bedrooms in the house, so we use one of rhem ...................... _, a STudy. The news that Sue a nd Gary were getting married ca me .... ....... a complete surprise to me. ................ ........ her father, Cathe rine has a very good voice. At the moment I've gOt a temporary job in a bookshop. It's O K . .. ............ a temporary job, but I would n't like ro do it permanently. ............ you can imagine, we were very tired after such a long jou rney. This tca is awfu l. It tastes ...................... water. I thi nk 1 prefer this room ........................... it was, before we d ecorated it.

235


Unit

118

As if / as though /Iike You can use as if or as tho ugh to say how somebody or something looks/sounds/feel s: o That house looks as if it's going to fa ll down. o Helen sounded as if she had a cold, didn't she? o I've juSt come back from holiday, but I fed vcry tired. I don't feci as if rye juSt had a holiday. You ca n usc as though in all these examples: o I don't feci as though I've juSt had a holiday.

In informal spoken English rou can also use like: o That house looks like it's goi ng to fa ll down. Compare:

o You look tired. (look + adjective) You look as if you haven 't slept . (look as if + subject + 'Ierb)

You can say II looks as if ... f It sounds as if ... : ~-------, o Sandra is very hlle, isn't she? It looks sounds as if they're as if she isn't coming. o We took an umbrella because it looked as if it was going to rain. D Do you hear that music next door? It sounds as if they are having a parry. You ca n also usc as though o r like: D It looks as though she isn't coming. h looks like she is n't coming.

or

You can usc as if or as though with other \'erbs ra say how somebody docs something: D He ran as if he was running for his life. D After the interruption, the speaker went on talking as if nothing had happened. D When I raid them my plan, they looked at me as tho ugh I was mad . In informal spoken English, you can also use like in these exa mples. After as if (or as though), we someti mes use the past when we are ta lking a bout the present . For example: D I don't like Tim. H e talks as if he knew everr thing. The mea ning is nOt past in this sentence. We use the past (as if he knew ) beca use the idea is not rea l: lim docs 1101 know everything. We use the past in the sa me war in if sentences and aft er wish (see Unit 39). Some more exa mples: D She's always asking me ra do th ings for her - as if I didn 't have enough [0 do already. (I do have enough to do) D Gary's only 40. Why do you ta lk abou t him as if he was an o ld man? (he isn't an old man ) When you use the past in this war. rou can use were instead of was : D Why do you talk about him as if he were (or was) an old man ? D They treat me as if I were (or was ) their own son. (I'm not their son)

236

If I was/were ..... Uni t 39C

look/sound elc.

+

adjeclive ..... Unit 9!JC Like and as

-0.

Unit 117


Exercises

Unit 118

118.1 What do you say in these situations? Use look/sound/feel + as if ... . Use the words in brackets

to mak.e your sente nce. You meet Bill. He has a black eye and some plasters on his face. (be I a fight) You say to him: ..... x.~ ~ ~ ¥.f,...!:I~.'.y_~ ... P.~....~.. _!?::... .f.iS):1.~.,.............. _.......................................................... 2 Christine comes into the room. She looks absol utclr terrified. (sec / a ghost) You say to her: \X' hat's the maner? You ......................................................................................................................................... _ 3 J oe is on holiday. He's talki ng to you on the phone and soun ds vcry happy. (enjoy I yourself)

... ... ..

You say to him: You ........................................................._....... _..... ............ _.... _ ..................................................................................._ 4 You have jusr run one kilometre. You are absolutely exhausted. (run I a marathon ) You say to a friend: I ......................................................

"8.2 Make sentences beg inning It looks as if ... l it sounds as if ... .

you should see a donor it's gomg to rain

2

3 4 j

6

there's been an accidem --she-isn+eenting-

they are having an argument we'll have to walk

Sa ndr;) said she would be here an hour ago. You sa~': .....!t ..(Q9.~..~ ....~ .... ¥.f... ~.~.~ ... !:-~.t:"!.\ ...(;Q,f!I.!!.!9.: ................................................................................................................................... The sk~' is full o f black clouds. You sa)': It ....... _............ .................................................................................................... You hear tWO people sho uting at each other next door. You say: ........................................ ......................... ..................... You see an ambu lance. some policemen and tWO damaged cars at the side of the road. You say: ..........'................................................................................................................ You and a friend have JUSt missed the last bus home. You sa ~. : ............. _.. _.......................... _....... Dave isn't feeling well. He tells ~' OU all about it. You say: ...... _....................................................

118.3 Comp lete the sentences wi th as if. Choose fro m t he box, putting the ve rbs in the correct form . she I enjoy I it ~"f­ I I not I exist

I /go/besick she I hurt I her leg she I not I want I come

he I nOt I eat I for a week he I mean I what he I say

:'. Iark looks very tired . He look s .....?§... yf. ..~.~ ... r.!.~~. .~ ... 9QQ4... .r.~.~.t, ......................................... 2 1 don't think Paul was joking. He looked ...................................................... 3 \,\' har"s the matter with Liz ? She's walking ... ...................... 4 Pefer was extremely hungry and ate his di nner \'er~' quickly. He ate ................................................................... ............................................................................................................................ j Ca roline had a bored expression on her face during the concert. She didn't look ..................... .................................... .................................... 6 I\ 'e just eaten toO many chocolates. Now I don't feel well. I feel ........................................................................... 7 I phoned Liz a nd im'ited her to the party, but she wasn't very enthusiastic about it. She sou nded .. ,....................................................................................... ....................... ................................................ _............................... __ • 8 I wem into the office. but nobody spoke to me or looked at me. Everybody ignored me .. ............................ 11 8.4 These sentences afe like the ones in Section O. Complete each sentence using as if. Brian is a terrible driver. He drives .....M .....~....!:1.~....h'.~~.. _. the only d river on the road. ................. _....... _............ I .... .................... a child. 2 rm20 years old, so please don·t talk to me ...................... his best friend. 3 Steve has never met Nicola. bur he talks about her .. ............. _._ .... _._....... 4 It was a long time ago fhat we first met, bu t I remember it .................... yesterday.

23 7


Unit

119

For, during and while For and during We use for + a period of time to say how long something goes o n: for tw O hours for a week for ages o o o o

We watched television for two hours last night. Diane is going away for a week in September. Where have you been? I've been waiting for ages. Arc you going away (or the weekend ?

We use during + 1/01111 to S3y when something happens (1101 how long): during the fi lm during our holiday during the night o I fe ll asleep during the film. o We met some really nicc people during our holiday. o The ground is wCt. It must have rained during the night. With 'time words' (for example; th e morning I the afternoon I lhc summ er), rou can usually say in or during: o It must have rained in th e night. (or during th e night) o "II phone you sometime du ring the afternoon. (or in the afternoon ) You can nm use during to say how long something goes on: o It ra ined fo r three days wirhom stopping. ( IIOf during three days) Compare during and for : o J fell asleep during the fi lm. I was asleep fo r half an hour. During and while Compa re: We use during + 1101111: o I fell asleep during the film .

\'\'e use whilc + SlIb;£'ct + 1'£'riJ: o I fell asleep whi le J was watching TV.

LIIQm, ..J

L s,,/}/("("/ • '·("T/J -'

o

We mer a lor of inreresting people during o ur holiday.

o

We mer a lot of interesting people whi le we wcre o n holiday.

o

Raben sudden ly began to feel ill during the cxam.

o

Raben suddenly began to feci ill wh ile he was doing the exa m.

Some more examples of whi le: o We saw Clare whil e we were waiting for the bus. o While you were out, thcrc was a phone ca ll fo r you. o Chris read a book while J watched television. When you are ta lking about the futu re. use the prese1lt ,,,ot will) after while: o I'll be in london next week. I hope to see Tom while I'm there. (1Iot while I will be there) o What are you going to do whi le you are waiting? (Ilo t whi le you will be waiti ng) See also Unit 25.

238

For and since "" Unit 12A While + - iog - Unit 68B


Exercises

Unit 119

119.1 Put in for o r during. 1 It rained .....:fP.:L. three days without stopping. 1 I fell asleep *._~.r1-!:!9.* .. the fil m. 3 I wem to the thea tre last night. I met Sue .___ ..,_. ___ .__ .,*"*_. the interval. 4 Martin hasn't lived in Britain all his life. He lived in Brazil ___ .______ * •• _.*_ four years. 5 Production at the factory was seriously affected _________._. the strike. ._. ___._ three days. 6 I fel t really ill last week. I could hard ly ear anything i 1 waited for you _. ___.______ .... half an hour and decided that yO li weren't com ing. a week. 8 Sa rah was very a ngry wi th me. She d idn't speak to me _

9

\'(/e

usually go out at weekends. but we don't often go out _________ the week.

10 J ack started a new job a few weeks ago. Before that he was ou t of work ......... _ ..... _ ... _ ...... six months. I I I necd a change. I think r ll go awa y ..................................... a few days. 12 The president ga ve a long speech. She spoke ............................................. two hours. 13 \X'e were hungrr when we arrived. We hadn', had a nyth ing to eat ................ the jo urney. ............. eight hours. \4 We were hungry when we a rrived. We hadn', had anyth ing to eat 119.2 Pu t in during or while.

\ We met a lot of interesting people .....~!:1~..... we were on holida y.

1 We met a lot of interesting people .....@!:!-!.!g.... o ur holiday. 3 I met !\Iike ...... _. __ ._... _........... _._ ... I was shopping. 4 . ______.____. I was on holidar. I didn't read anr newspapers or watch TV. 5 ._.._____._.._ our Sta y in Paris, we \'isired a lot o f museums and galleries. 6 The phone rang three times ___ ... __.___ .. _.. _ we were having dinner. - The phone ra ng three rimes __ ....._..... _.__ ._._. __ the night. 8 I had been away fo r many ~·ears. ________ . that time, many things had changed. 9 \Xlhat did they sa y abou t me __._________ I was OU t of the room? 10 I went o ur for dinner la st night. Unfo rtunately I bega n to feel ill . _ _ ._. ___ .__ the meal and had to go home. 11 Please do n't interrupt me .... __ ..................... I'm speaking. 11 There were many interruptions ~ .................................... the president'S speec h. 13 Ca n ~'ou lay the table ........... .................... .. I get the dinner ready? 14 We were hungry when we arrived. We hadn't had anrthing to eat ....................................... _.. we wcre travelling. 119.3 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. I I fel l asleep while .... J. . . ~.M ....~.~i!.!g...~.! .f;.Y.!§..19.!!..~............. ... ......................................................... _............ 1 I fel l asleep during ....ili.~.J. w..~ ~. ~._ ~ 3 I hurr my arm while .. _........ _............•....................__ ........ _... _... _.... _._ ....._._ .. _._._. ___ ........ __ ............ _.............. _.... _.. __ ....... _ 4 Can you wa it here wh ile ..... _._ ........................ _........ ___ ._........ _..... _........ __ •. _•.•. _._ ... ___ ..... _ .. _. __ ._........ __ ._ 5 .\<]oSt of the students looked bored during ............... _............................... _.• _..... _...•.... _.•.•. ____ _ 6 I was asked a lot of questions d uring _ .... __ .._. ___ ._. _____ ._._. __ .• _.• ____ .. __ .. __ . _ __ - Don't open the caf door whi le ... ______ .___ .•. __ .... ______ 8 The lights sudden ly weill OUi while . _____________ .__ .. ___.__.___.___.________ 9 It started to rain during . __ .._. __ . ..... __ .__________ .____________ _ 10 h starred to rain while __ ._... _________ _

.................... . . . ... . . . . . ._. . . ... . . . . . . . . ._. ._. __........... __ ... ..........._.........

.... Additional exercise 33 (page 321)

239


By and until By (+

<1

By the time

•••

ti me) = nOf later than:

a I sent the lener to them roday, so they shou ld receive it by Monday. (= on or before Monday, not later than Monday) o We'd better hurry. We have to be home by 5 o'clock. i= at or before 5 o'clock, not later than 5 o'clock) o Wherc's Sara h? She should be here by now. (= now or before now - so she shou ld have al ready arrived)

This milk has to be used by 14 August.

We use until (or till ) to say IJOW /ol1g a si tuation contin ues: o 'Shall we go now?' 'No, let's wait until (or till ) it stops raining. ' I' stayed in bed until half past ten. o I COli Id n t get up t l iS mornmg. I d'd I n 'I sel up untl'I ha If past ten.

'1 1

Compare until and by: Something cOl/ til/lies unlil a ri me in the fu tu re: o Da vid will be away until Monday. (so he'll be back 0 11 Monday ) o I'll be wo rking until 11 .30. (so I'll slOP working at 11.30)

Someth ing IJdppclIS by a rime in the furu re: o David will be back by ~londay. (= he'lI be back nor later than ~Ionday ) :J I'll have fi nished my work by 11.30. (= 1"11fini sh nl\" work not later than

11.30, 1 You ca n say 'by the time something happens'. Study these examples: o It's too late to go to the bank now. Sy the time wc get thcrc, it wi ll be closed. (= the bank will close between now a nd the time we get the re) o (fro m a postcard) Our holiday ends tomorrow. So by the time you receivc this postcard. I'll be back home. (= I will a rrive home between tomorrow and thc lime you receivc th is postcard ) o H urry u p! By the time we get to thc cinema , the fi lm wi ll a lrcad y have started. Yo u can say 'by the lime somethi ng happened' (for the past): o Karen's ca r brokc down on the wa y 10 the pa rry last night . By the lime she arrived, most of the orher g uests had left. (= it took her a long time to get ro the party and most of the guests left during this lime ) o I had a lot o f work to do yesterday evcning. I wa s very tired by the time I fini shed. (= it took me a long timc ro do the work . and I became marc and more tired duri ng [his time) o We weor to the ci nema last night. It [oak us a long time to find somewhere to park the ca r. By the time wc gOt to the cinema, the fi lm had a lready started . Also by then or b y that time: o Karen fioall)' arrived at the party at midnigh t, bur by then (or by that time), most of the guests had left.

240

Will be doing and will have done ...... Unit 24

By (other usesl ...... Un its 42B. 60B, 12B


Exercises

Uni t 120

120.1 Make se ntences with by. We have to be home nOt 1<lIer than 5 o'clock. .....w.~.J:l~y.~~.iQ_~!'::...~.~~.~..!?..Y.. _?..._Q:~

. :___.___________._____

M. ___ *.M.... _*._*.M.M._*....*.M. __ .*_ be a l the ai rpon nOT later than 8.30. I ha ve to be at the ai rpon ________________ ._. _________ .*. __._____________

1 I ha ve

10

3 l et me know n Of later than Saturday whether you ca n come to the party. Let me know - - -..- - - - - - - - - - - - . - - - -..--.---.--.-._-....*.*....- - - - - .. Please make su re that you're here nor later rhan 2 o'clock.

Please make su re t ha t .. _ ... _.. __ ._. _________.__ ... _. ____________ ._. _____ .M._.•. _ ... _.M.M._"M'_"'_,,_,_, ______._ 5 If we leave now, we should arri"C not later than lu nchtime. If we lea\'c no\\ .. ........ _.~ .. _.~ ... _. ____ ._._. __ .. _.... _._ .. _... _.. _... _._ .. _._._._._ .............................. _.... ~ ...... _..... _._ ...

' 20.2 Put in by or until. 1 Sten' ha s gone aw a~·. He' lI be away .....~.!:I~i,L... ~· I onday. 1 Sorry, but I must go. I have ro be home ...................................... 5 o'clock. 3 I've been offered a job. I haven't decided yet whether ro accept it or not. I have to decide ...................... _....... _._._ F r id a~·. 4 I think rli wait ........................................... Thursda y before making a decision. 5 It's toO late to go shoppi ng. The shops are open on l)' ._._.... _....... _... _...... _. __ ..... 5.30. They'l] be closed

__ .. __ ......... _.. _.... _.... _....... now. 6 I'd better pay the phone bill. It has to be paid .. _._ ... __ ._.... __ .... _.. _... _ tomorro w. - Don't pa~' the bill roday. \X/ait ....... _... _._. ______ ....._._. tomorrow. S :\: Have rou fi nished redecorating your house? 8; ~Ot yet. \1/e hope to fi nish ____ ._.. _____ the end of the week. 9 :\; I'm going out now. I'll be bac k at aoour ' 0.30. Will )'OU still be here? 8; I don't think so. 1"11 probably h,1\"(, gone ou t ._.________ then. 10 I'm mO\'ing into my new fl at next week. I'm staying with a friend ____.__.____.___ then. 11 I've got a lot o f work to do. _. ___._... _... _. ____.__ the time I fi nish, it will be time to go to bed. 11 Ii you want to take parr in the competition, you have to apply _.... _. __ .. _._. _____ ._. 3 April.

120.3 Usc your ow n ideas to complete these sentences. Use by or until. I Da\'id is a\\"a~' ar the momen t. He' ll be away .....~.~.~ ... ~~ ...................... __ ........ _.... _._ ............................_...._ .._ . 1 Da\'id is awa ~' at Ihe momCrH. He'll be back .....~!;i... M.f!."0.~ ........................................_........ .................... 3 I' m JUSt going ou t. I won't be vcr)" long. Wait here ........................................................................... _ 4 I'm goi ng out to buy a few things. It's 4.30 now. 1 won't be long. I'll be back .................. . 5 If yo u wam to a pply for the job, your application must be received ._..............................................................._ . 6 Last night I wa tched T V ......................__ .... _....... _....... _._ .... _..... _.......................................................................................... 120.4 Read the situations and complete lhe sentences using By the time ... .

J was invited to a party, but I gOt there much later than I intended . ._...~~._.tb.!;:...~.!LL.9QtJ~L_~~~.._ , most o f the other guests ha d left. 1 I intended to catch a train, bur it look me longer than expected to get to the station . ._______________________ .__ .. _._._. __ ._____ .___ .__ .__ .___ , In)' trai n had already left. 3 I wanted to go shopping after finishing my work . But I finished much later rha n expecred. ____ ._____.__ ~ ____._____ .~._ .. _._ , it was roo late to go shopping. 4

I saw t WO men who looked as if they were trying some t ime before they arrived . ._.. ____ ._. _______ ._. ______.__ .. _._. ______ ... _._._

to

stea l a car. I ca lled the police, but it was .... ____ , rhe two men had disappeared.

5 We climbed a mountain and it took us a very long time to get to the top. There wasn't much time to enjoy the vie\\". ............. _._._ ............. __ , we had to come down again. -- Addilional exercise 33 (page 321)

241


At/on/in (time) Compa re ai, on and in : o They arri ved 3 t 5 o 'clock. o They arrived on Friday. o They arrived in October. I They arrived in 1968. We use: a l fo r the time of day at 6vc o'clock a l 11.45

on for da ys and dates on Friday / on Fridays

at midnight

al

on 16 May 1999

lunchtime

al sunset etc.

on C hristmas Day

in for longer periods (for example: months/yea rs/seasons) in October in 1988 in the 18th century in {the ) wim er in the 1990s in the Middle Ages

on my binhday

in the past in (th e) future

We use at in these expression s: al

night

at at at al

the weekend I a l weekends Christm as the moment I at present the same time

o o o o

o

I don't like goi ng out

al

night .

\'(/ill ~'OU be here at the weekend ?

Do you give each other presents at Christmas ? ;vIr Iknn is busy at the mo men! / al present. Emily and I a rrived al th e same lime.

We say: in the mo rning(s j in the afternoon{sl in the evening(s)

o o

bitt

I'll see yOll in the mo rning. Do you work in the even ings?

o n Friday morning(s l on Sunday afternoontsl on Monday e\"ening(s l etc.

o 1"11 sec you o n Friday morning. o Do you work o n Saturday e\'enings ?

We do not lise atlon/in before lastlnextllhis/e\'ery: o I'U sec you next Friday. (1Iot on next Friday) o They got married last March . In spoken English we often leave o ut o n before days (Sunday/M o nday etc.). So you can say: o I'll see you o n Friday. or I'll see you Friday. o I don't go o ut o n M onday mornings. or I don't go out Monday mo rnings. In a few minutes / in six mo nth s etc. o The train will be leaving in a few minutes. (= a few minutes fro m now) o Andy has gone awa)'. He'll be back in a week. (= a week fro m now) o She'll be here in a moment . (= a moment from now) Yo u ca n also say 'in six months' time', 'in a week's time' etc. : o They' re getting married in six months' time. or , .. in six months. We also usc in ... 10 say how long it takes to do something: o J learnt to drive in fo ur weeks. (= it took me four weeks to learn)

242

Onlin time. at/in the end - Unit 122 Inlatlon {posi tion) .... Uni ts 123- 125 Inlatlon (other uses) _ Unit 127 American English .... Append ix 7


Exercises

Unit 121

121 .1 Compl et e the se ntences. Use at. on or in + the follow ing : the evening the mo men t Saturdays

about 20 minutes 1 1 J uly 1969 the ~,ti dd l e Ages

~

the 19205 II seconds

the same time nig ht

Columbus made hi s first \'OY:lge trom Europe to America ..... ~.J1~,~ .... ~' Otl can sec the St3rs ............... _,.................... _..... _....................... _. __ .......................... _.................................... _ After work ing hard during the day, 1 1ike to relax .. ........................................................................ ................... . )lei! Armstrong was rhe first man to w:llk on the moon . It"s difficul t to lim'n if e\W~'o rH' is spe;lking ............................... jazz became popu la r in the United States. I'm JUSt goi ng out to the shop. I'll be back ....................... . (all the pho lle) 'Can 1 speak to Dan:' T m afraid he's not here ... .\la ny of Europe's great cathedra ls were built ............................................... Ben is a I'ery fast runner. He can run 100 metres .................................................. _... ............................ _............... Liz works from \ Ionday to Friday, Sometimes she a lso works

1 If the sky is clear. 3 4 5 6 S 9 10 II

121 .2 Put in at , on or in . 2 3 4 5 6 7 S 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

.\ Iozarr wa s born in Salzburg .....!!1... 1756. I hal'en't seen Kate for a few days. Ib st saw her .............. _.... Tuesday, The price of e l ectricit~· is going up . ............. October. .......... weekends. we often go for long wa lks in the country. I" \"e been im'ited to a wedding .................. _.. 14 February. jonathan is 63. He'll be retiring from his job ...................... two years' time . r m busy iust now. but (" II be with YOll .................... a moment. jenny's brother is an engineer, but he doesn't have a job .................... the moment. There are usually a lot of panies ...................... New Year's Eve, J don't like driving ........... _.. _. night. \ Iy car is being repai red at the garage. It will be read~· .................... two hours. The telephone and the doorbell rang ...................... the same ti me. \ la ry and Dal'id alwilYs go OUT ior dinner .................... their wedding anniversary. It I\';IS <I shorr book ;Ind eas~' to read. I read it . ........ a day. ...................... Sarurd.lY night I I"ent to bed ...................... midnight. \\'e tr;l\'clled o\'e rnight to Paris and arTiI'ed .................... 5 o'dock .................... the morn ing.

1- Th,

CO""' b'g;n,

...... 7 J,m",y nnd ,nd, ,omer;m, ...................... Ap, ;J .

IS 1 might not be at home ...................... Tuesday morning, bur I'll be there

................. the afternoon,

121.3 Which is correct : a, b, or both of them? 1 2 3 4

a a a a

5 a 6 7 8 9 10

a a a a a

I'll see you on Frida~·. I' ll sec you on next Friday. Pau l got married in April. They nevcr go OUT on Sunday evemngs. We often h;1Ve a short holid.lY on ChriSTmas . What are you doing the weekend? Will YOll be here on Tuesd;IY? We wefe ill at rhe same time. Sue gOt married at 18 \ Iay 1996. He left school laSTjune.

-- Add it iona l exercise 33 (page 32 1)

b b b b b b b b b b

I'll see you Friday. I'll see you neXT Friday. Paul gOt married ApriL T hey never go out Sunday evenings. We often have a shorr holiday at Christmas. What .I re you doing at the weekend? Will yOll be here Tuesday? We were ill in the sa me time, Sue got married on 18 May 19%, He left school in last June.

........!?Q~..... . ......-..•..~ ....

243


Unit

122

On time and in time At the end and in the end On lime and in time O n lime = punctual, not late. If something ha ppens o n lime, it happens at the time which was planned: o The 11.45 trai n left on lime. (= itldt at 1 1.451 o 'I'll meet you at 7.30.' ' OK. but please be on lime: (= don 't be hu e. be there at - .30) o The conference was well-organised. herything began and fi nished o n lime.

The opposite of on time is la iC: o Be on lime. Don ', be latc. In lime (for somethi ng I to do something) = soon enollgh: o Will you be home in time for dinner ? (= soon enough for dinner) o I've scm Emma a birthda y present. J hope it arriycs in time (for he r birrh d a~路 ) . (= o n or before her birthday ) o I'm in a hu rr)" I wam to be home in lime to sec the game on telc\路ision. (= soon cnough to sec rhe game) T he opposi te of in lim e is 100 la i C: o [ gOi horne 100 [a te to see the game on televi sion. Yo u can say jusl in lime 1= almost roo late): o We gal to the stalion just in time for our rrain. o A c hild ran into the road in from of the car - [ managed

[0

StOp JUSt in time.

At Ihe end a nd in the end At Ihe end (of something) a l Ihe end o f Ihe mon lh a l Ihe end o f Ihe fi[m

=at the time when so meth ing ends. Fo r example: a l Ihe end o f J anua ry al the end of Ihe course

al the end of Ihe game a l the end of Ihe concert

o I' m going away at Ihe end of Janu ary I a l Ihe end o f Ihe mo nth . o AI the end of Ihe concert. there was great applause. o The pla yers shook hands at the end o f th e ga me. You ca nnot say ' in the end of ".', So you ca nno t say 'in The end of Ja nuary' or ;i n the end of the concen'. The o pposite of at the end (of ", ) is a t the begi nning (o f .. ,): o I'm going a wa y a t the beginning o f J a nu ar y. (Il ot in the beginning) In the end

=finally.

We use in Ihc end when we say whaT the fin3l result of a si tuatio n W3S: o We had a 101 of problems with o ur car. \'('e sold it in the end . (= finally we sold it ) o He gOI more and mo re a ngry. In [he end he JUSt w31ked OUI of the room. o Alan cou ldn't decide where to go for his ho lida ys. He didn'l go a nywhere in the end . (' lo t at the end ) The o pposite of in the end is usually al first: o AI first we didn't gct on very well. bur in the end we became good friend s.

244

Atlonlin (time) .... Uni t 121


Exercises

Unit

122

122. 1 Complete the sentences with on time or in time. I The bus was late this morning. but it's usually . 011 ~.e 2 The film was supposed TO starr at 8.30, bu t it didn't begin ............................................. . 3 1 like to get up .................................................... ro have a big breakfast before goi ng ro work. 4 \Vie want ro start the meeting . _ ....... ,so please don't be late. 5 I've JUSt washed this shirr. I want to wear it this evening, so I hope it will be dry

6 8 9

T he train service isn't n:'r y good. The trai ns are rarely . ... __......................... . I nearly missed my ~ight this morning. I gor to the airpon just .. _.............................................. _... . I nearly forgot that it was Joe's birthday. Fortu;lately I remembered .. _.. __ ............. \'\!hy are you never ..... _ ............................................. ? YOll always keep everybody waiting.

122.2 Read the situa tions and make sentences using just in time .

I ;\ ch ild ran into the road in front of \'our ca r. Yo u saw the ch ild at the last moment. (manage I Stop ) .... J. ....'l).~.M~...t:g._...~.~p..j~~~ ... ~ ....~.~.:." ............................................................... .. 2 You were walking ho me. J USt after you gOt home, it sta rted to ra in very hea vily. .. .............................. (get I hame l I . 3 Tim was going to sit o n the chair you had jusl paimed . You sa id, ' Don't sit on that cha ir !', so he didn路t . (StOP I him I 1 .........__ ....................... _.... __ .............................. _ ................................_.... ...................._ 4 You and a friend went to the c inema. You were late and yOll thought yOLl would miss the begin ning of the film. But the film began iuSt;IS you sat down in the cinema . (get I cinema I beginning of the fil m ) \'\!e .... .. .............................. . .......................... 122.3 Complete the sente nces using at the end + t he following: the cou rse -t-he----gamethe imerview

the month

the race

The players shook hands .....gJ......t!-:!.~ . ~Y.!4....2f...~.~... g~..~ ..............................................................................._ ................. . 2 I usuall~' gel paid .................................... _ ............................... _ 3 The students had a part~路 .. _.................................................................. _ ........................................... .................................. ......................... . 4 Two o f the runners collapsed ............................ _ 5 To my su rprise. I was offered the job . ................................ .................. _._...... ................................. _ ......................... 122.4 Write se ntences with In the end. Use the verb in brackets. We had a lOT of problems with o ur ca r. (sell ) ......!Y.! . #.:.~... ~Y.!.4. . ~.~ ... ~Ql4,....~: ....... _..... _..... 2 J udy got more and more fed up w ith her job. (resign) ............ ......................................... 3 I tried to lea rn Germa n, but I foun d it too difficult. (gi\'e up ) ..........................._.............. _ .......................... _..... ................................................................... ................................................................. _.. _ 4 We couldn't decide whether to go to the parry or not. (not I go) . ........................... _... ............... _._ ......... 122.5 Put in at or in. I'm going away .....gJ.. ... the end of the monrh. 2 It took me a long time to find a job . ...................... the end I gOt a job in a hotel. 3 Are you going away . .. the beginning of August or ...... "'.. the end? 4 I couldn't decide what to bu~' Laura for her birthday, I d idn't bu y her anything .............. the end. j We waited ages for a ta xi. We ga \'e u p .................... rhe end and walked home. 6 I'll be moving to a new address . . ................... the end of September. 7 We had a few problems at first, but . ................. the end everything was OK. S I'm going awa y ....... The end of this week. 9 .-\: I didn't know what to do. .. ...... the end? B: Yes, you were in a diffic ult position, What d id you do ... _....

245


In/at/on (position) 1 In

~ ~ I

...:

-_

in "oom in a building in a box

in a pool in [he sea In 3 rl\,er

in a ga rden in a tOwn/countr)路 in the city centre

o There's no-one in the room I in the building I in the garden . a What have you gOl in your ha nd I in your mouth ? o When we were in haly. we spent a few da )'s in Venice. o I have a fr iend who lives in a small village in the mountains.

o There were some people swimming in the pool I in the sea I in the rivcr. At al the bus stop the door at the w indow

x

:H

at the roundahour

at reception

o Do you know that man standing 31 the door I at the window ? o Turn left a t the traffic lights I at the church I a t the roundabout . o We have to get off the bus at the next stop. a When you leave the horel, please leave your key a t reception . (= a t the receptio n desk ) On on the ceiling

r~;;;:~('~Onthedoor on the table o n the wall o D D D D

on the fl oor

o n a page

I sat o n the floo r I on the gro und I o n the grass J on the beach J o n a cha ir. T here's a dirty mark on the wall I o n the ceiling I o n your nose I o n your shirt . Have you seen the notice on the notice board J o n the door? You'll find details ofTv' programmes on page seven (of the newspaper). The hotel is on a small island in the middle o f the lake.

Compa re in and at : D There were a lot of people in the shop. It was ,"ery crowded . Go along this road, then turn left a t the shop. D I' ll meet you in the hotel lobby. . I' ll meet you a t the entrance to the ho tel. Compa re in and o n: o There is some water in the bottle. There is a label on the bottle.

on the borrle

Compare at and o n: D There is somebody at the door. Shall I go and see who it is? There is:1 no tice on the door. It sa ys ' Do not disturb'.

246

on an island

In/a t/on (position) 2-3 .... Units 124 - 125

A,---- in the borrle


Exercises

Unit 123

123 .1 Answer the questions about the pictures. Use in, at or on wit h the word s below the picture s.

1

(boule)

(arm )

5

6

(waH)

(Paris )

(tra ffi c ligh ts)

(door)

(gate )

(beach)

On U1e bot:tl.e. ......................... .. Where 's the label? 2 Where's the fly? 3 \X' here is the ca r wa iting? 4 a Where's the notice? b Where's the key?

5 Where 3rc the shelves? 6 \Vherc"s the Eiffel Tower? 7 a Wherc"s the man standing? ................................... _ b Where's the bird? ....................................... _ ...... _._....... _.... _.. 8 Where are the ch ildren playing? 123.2 Complete t he sentences. Use in, at or on + the follow ing:

the window m y guitar

2 3 4

5 6

7 8

your coffee -the-r.wcl'-

the mo untains the island

that tree the next garage

Look at those people swimming .... Y.:'!....~.~ â&#x20AC;˘. .r.!,-y.~ One of the strings ......... .............. .......................... is broken. There's someth ing wrong with the ca r. We'd bener stop ............................................................................... . \X'ou ld you like sugar ....................................... ......................... ) The leaves ................................................................................. arc a beautiful colour. last ~'ea r we had a wonderful skiing holiday ............................................................................... . There's nobody living ............... . It's uni nhabited. ...................................... ... and looking outside. He spends most o f the day sining ... _.........

123.3 Comp lete the sentences with in , a t or on . I 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II I1

There was a long queue o f people ..... !?J ... the bus stop. Nicola was wearing a sih"er ring .... _. her little finger. There was an accidenr ........... _............ the crossroads this morning. I wasn't su re whether 1 had come to the right office. There was no name ..................... the door. There are some beautiful trees ......................... the park . You'll find the sports results ........................ the back page of the newspaper. I would n'r like an offi ce iob. I couldn't spend the whole da y sin ing ............................ a desk. My brother lives ........................ _.. a small village .......................... _ the south-west of England. his right check. The man the police are looking for has a scar The headquarters of the company are ........ Milan. I like that pictu re hanging .......................... the wall ...... the kitchen. If you come here by bus, get off ........................... the Stop after the traffic lights.

...... Additional exercise 34 (page 322)

247


In/at/on (position) 2 We say that somebody/something is: in in in in

a line I in a row I in a qu eue in bed the sky I in th e wo rld in the country f in the countryside an office I in a department in a photOgraph I in a picture a book I in a (ncws )papcr I in a magazine I in a letter

a a o o o o

When I go to the cinema , I like [0 sit in the front row. James isn't up yet. He's still in bed . II was a lovely day. T here wasn't a cloud in the sky. I've JUSt started working in the sales department . Who is t he woman in that photograph ? Have you seen th is picture in rodar's paper ?

in a row

on the left I on the right on the left-hand side I right-hand side 011 the ground floor I on the first floor I on the second fl oor etc. on a map I o n a menu I on a list on a farm

a

In Britain we drive o n the left. (o r ... on the left-ha nd side.' o O ur flat is on the second floor o f the building. o Here's a shoppi ng list. Don't buy anything tha(s not o n the list . a Have yo u ever worked on a farm ? We say that a place is on a river I o n a road I on the coast: o Budapest is on the (river) Danube. o Portsmouth is on the south coast of England.

Also o n the way: o We stopped at a small village on the way to London.

__ at the tOp (of) f at the bottom (of) I at the end (of) o Write you r name at the tOp of the page. o Jane's house is at the other end o f the street.

i::E

at the tOp (of the pagel--- ~ ........... ~~

-~

~

at the bottom (of the page) in the fro nt I in the back of a ca r o I was sitting in the back (of the car) w hen we c rashed . at the o o o

front I at the back o f a building I theatre I group of people etc. The ga rden is at the back of the house. Let's sit at the front (of the c inema ), We were at the back, so we could n't see very well.

a t the corner or o n the comer of a street o There is a POSt box atlon the comer of the street.

' ~I â&#x20AC;˘

o

in the co rner

248

?~. ~~'~~ â&#x20AC;˘ I!-

I

I I I at the front

o n the front I on the back of a letter I piece of paper etc. o I wrote the date on the back of the photograph . in the corner of a room o The te levision is in the comer of the room.

at the back

In the world .... Uni t IOaE In/at/on (position) .... Units 123, 125

atlon the comer

American English -- Appendix 7


Exercises

Unit 124

, 24.1 Answer the question s about the pictures. Use in, at or on with the words be low the pictures.

(sates department)

(second floor)

(corner )

(corner)

(top I stairs)

(left )

(back row)

(fa rm )

6

(back' ca r )

2 3 4 5

6 7

8 9

10

-

(fr ont)

LIZ

Where does Sue work? ......t. ~.. ,.#.!.~ ....:?:.~~.....4,~!?-!.¥!!.~t ......................... Sue lives in this building. Where's her nat exactly? .................................... ............................* ••• _......* ••• Where is the woma n standi ng? ............................................ ............................................................... Where is the man stan ding? ....................... ...................................................... ......... _....... _._._ .. _........... _... __ Where's the cat? .................................... .................... _......................................................... _ .. _................ _._._. __ Where's the dog: ............................ ........................... .. .................................................... Liz is in th is group of people. Where is she? ......................................... Where's the pOSt office? ............................_............. .._...._............ Gar~' is at the cinema. \,(lhere is he sitting? Where does Kate work? ........... _............. ........................................................................................ _ .............. _......

124.2 Complete the sentences. Use in, at or on + the follow ing : the west coast the world the back o f th e class th e front row the right the back of this card

2 3 4 S 6 7

S

-t·he-sk·ythe way to work

It was a lovely da y. There wasn'r a cloud ..... ~ ....th.~.... ~~.!ol In most countries people drive . ........................................ . What is the tal lest building ............................................................................................. ? I usually buy a newspaper .................................................................................................... _ in the morning. San Francisco is . ..................................................................... ............. of the United Sta tes. \X'e went to the theatre last night. We had seats ._... _ .................. _......._.... .............................. I couldn't hear the teacher. She spoke quietly and I was sitting ............................... I don't have your address. Could you write it ........................................

124.3 Compl ete the sentences with in , at or on . I Write your name ......tM: ..... the rop of the page. 2 Is your sister ......... __ .... _........ this photograph ? I don 't recognise her. 3 I didn't feel very well when I woke up, so I stayed ............................ bed. 4 We normally use the front entrance ro the building, but there's another one ........... the back. S Is there anything interesting ............................ the paper roday? 6 There was a list of names. bur my name wasn 't .. _._ .. _.. _ ........... the list. 7 .......... the end of the street, rhe re is a path leading ro the river. S J love to look up at rhe stars ................ t he sky at night. 9 When I'm a passenger in a ca r, J prefer to sit ............................ the from. 10 Ir's a very small village. You proba bl y won't fi nd it ._......... _..... _....... your map. II Joe works ._........._.. _.......... the furniture departme nt of a large store. 12 Paris is _........................ the river Seine. the cou ntry. 13 I don't like cities. I'd much prefer to live .. rhe left as you come ou t of the lift. 14 My offi ce in .. _.. _.................... the top floor. It's ...... Addi tional exercise 34 (page 32 2)

249


In/at/on (position) 3 In hospital ! at home etc. We say that somebody is in hospital ! in prison I in jail: o Ann's mother is in hospital. We say that somebody is at home I at work I a t school ! at university I at college: o I'll be a t work unriI5.30, but rll be at home all evening. o Julia is studying chemistry at university. Also al sea (= o n a voyage). Com pa re at sea and in the sea: o It was a long voyage. We were at sea fo r 30 da)'s.

a I love swimming in the sea.

At a party I at a concert erc. We say that somebody is at an evem (at a party I at a conference etc.): o Were there ma ny people at the party I at the meeting ' at the wedding? o I saw Steve al a foOl ball match I at a concert on Sa turda y. In and

al

fo r buildings

You can o ft en usc in or a t w ith build ings. For exam ple, you ca n eat in a restaurant or at a restau rant; you can buy somethi ng in a supermarket or at a superma rket. We usually say at when we say where a n event rakes place (for example: a concert, a film , a parry, a meeting): D We went to a concert at the Royal Festival Hall . D The meeting rook place a t the company's head o rfice in Frankfurt. We say al the slation J al the airport: o Don 't meet Ille a t the station . I Ca n get a taxi. We say OI l sOlllebody's house: o I was a t Sue's house last night. or J was at Suc's lasl night . Also OI l Ihe doctor'S, a t the hairdresser's. erc. We usc in when we arc thinking about the building itself. Compa re: o We had dinner at the hotel. All the rooms in the hotel have air cond itioning. (flat at rhe horel ) o I was at Sue's (house) last night. It's always cold in Sue's house. The heati ng doesn't work \'ery well. (lfo t a t Sue's house) In and at for towns etc. We normally usc in with cities, towns and \'illages: o Sa m's parents li\'e in Nottingham. (flot at Nottingham) o The Louvre is a famous art museum in Paris, (lIot at Paris) But you can use at or in when rou think of rhe place as a point or statiOl1 011 a ;ol/me)': D Does this train StOP at (or in ) Nottingham ? (= at Nottingham station) o We stopped at (or in ) a sma ll \路iUage on the way ro London. O n a bus I in a car etc. We usually say on a bus J on a train I on a plane I on a ship bllt o The bu s was very full. There were too many people on il . o Mary arrived in a taxi. We say on a bike (= bicycle) I on a motorbike I on a horse: D Jane passed me on her bike.

250

At school / in hospital etc. -. Uni t 74 8y car I by bike etc, - Unit 1288

in a car I in a taxi:

In/at/on (position) - Units 123-24 To/at/in/into - Unit 126


Exercises

Unit 125

125. 1 Comple te t he sentences about the pictures. Use in. at or on with the words below th e pictures.

3

'fii'-C!

4

~,~]!",\ ~a

(the nirpo rt )

(the hairdresser's )

trai n )

DAVE

(a conference ) I\AR EN

6

7

(hi s bike )

(New York )

Yo u can hire a car ....!M::... #1.~....~.r.t .. 1 D,l\"c is ..... ..................... ______....... ~I arti n

(the Savoy Theatre)

5 Jud r is 6 I saw Gary ................................................................................. 7 We spent ,\ fe w days ..................... _.. _.. ..................... ................ .

3 Karen is . 4

(hospital)

8 \Y./ e went to a show .

is .....

.........................................

125.2 Complete the sen tences. Use in . at or on + the following :

so. the plane

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

hospital school

a taxi pn son

路t路hC-S.fa tionthe airport

the cinema the sports centre

\I y tra in arrives at 11. 30. Can yOll meet me ..... ~....tr.~..;?~.4QY.! ) \X'e walked to the restaura m, but we went ho me ... ..................... .................... . I'd like to see a fi lm. What路s o n .................................................................... this week? Some people are ..................... ............ for c rimes that they did not com mit. 'Wha t docs your sist('r do? Has she gOt a job?' 'No, shc's still . ......................................... I pla y basketball . ............................ ................... on Friday eveni ngs. .\ friend of mine was injured in an accidcnt a few da ys ago. She's still . .. ..................... Our fli g ht wa s delayed. \Yle had to wait .......................... ........... for four hours. I enjo ~'ed the night, but rhe food ...................................................................... wasn't very nice. Bi ll works on ships. H e is ..... ................................ most of the time.

125.3 Complete these se ntences with in, at or on .

I \X'e wem to a concert ..... ~ ... the Roya l Festival H all. 1 It was a very slow train. It slOpped . ........ every statio n. 3 \I y parCIlfS live ............. a small village abo ut 50 miles fro m l ondon .

4 I hmn', seen

K,,, iot some ';,"e. I lo st sow her .

.." D,,;d 's wedd;ng.

5 6 7 S 9 10 II

We sta yed ............................ a very nice hotel when we were .............. Amsterdam. There were fifty roOIllS . ....... the hotel. I do n't know where my um brella is. Perha ps I left it .................... the bus. I wasn't in when you phoned . I wa s ............................ my sister's house. There must be somebody ........................ _. the hallSI.'. The lights are on. The exhi bition ............................ rhe ~1u se u m of Modern Art fin ished on Saturda y. Sha ll we travel ._........... your car o r mine? II \,\' har arc yo u doing ............ home? I expected you lo be ...................... work. 13 'Did you like the film?' 'Yes, but it was tOO ho t ............................ the ci nema.' 14 Paul lives ............................ Birmingham . H e's a student . . ........... Bi rm ingham University.

-- Additional exercise 34 (page 322)

25 1


To/at/in/into We say go/come/travel (etc.) to a place or event. For example:

go to China go back to Italy return to London

go to bed go to the bank

go to a concert

welcome (somebody) to (a place )

come to my house

be taken to hospi tal be sent to prison drive to the airport

TO ..

0

o When are your friends going back to hair ? (1Io t going back in Italy) o Three people were injured in the accident and taken to hospital. o Welco me to our coumry! (no t Welcome in)

In the same way we say '3 journey to I a trip to I a visit to I on my way to .. .' etc. : o Did you enjoy your trip to Paris ( your visit to the zoo? Compa re (0 (for movemef1!) and inlat (for p osition ): o They 3rc going to Fra nce. bllt They live in Fra nce. o Can you come to the pa n y? but I' ll see you al the party. Been to

We say 'been to (a place)': o I've been to h aly fou r times, but I've never been to Rome. o Amanda has never been to a football match in her life. Get and arrive We say get to (a place): o What time did they get to Londo n ! to work I to the pany? But we say arrive in ... or arrive a t ... (no t arrive to). We say arrive in a town or cou ntry: o They arrived in London ! in Spain a week ago. For other places (buildings etc.) or events, we say arrive at: o When did t hey arrive at the hotel ! at th e airport I at the party ?

Home We say: go home I come home I get home I arrive home I on th e way home etc. (no preposition ). We do not say ' to home': o I'm tired. Let's go home now. (no t go to home) o I met Linda on my way home. (not my way to home) Into Go into, get imo ... etc. = enter (a room I a building I a ca r etc.): o 1 opened the door, went into the room and sat down. o A bird fl ew into the kitchen through the window. With some verbs (especially go/get/put ) we often use in (instead of into ): o She got in the car and drove away. (or She got into the ca r ... J o I read the letter and put it back in the envelope. The opposite o f into is o ut of; o She gOi o ut of the car and went into a shop. We usually say 'get on/off a bus I a train I a plane' (no t !lSI/ally gct int%ut of): o She got on the bus and I never saw her again.

252

Be!::n to ..... Units 7- 8 In/at/on (position) ..... Units 123-125 Into and in ..... Unit' 38A

At home -

UOit 12SA

INTO~


Exercises

Unit 126

126.1 Put in to/all in/into where necessary. If no pre position is necessary. leave the space empty. 1 Three people were taken _J~L.. hospital after the accident. 2 I met Ka te 011 my way _ -_. home. (110 prepositi01I) 3 We left ou r luggage _ the station and went to fi nd something to eat. 4 Shall we take a taxi ._____ the station o r shall we walk? 5 I have to go ____ ._"_. the bank today to change some money. 6 The river Rhine fl ows _ _ _ _ the North Sea. 7 ' Ha ve you gOt your camera?' 'No. I left it home.' 8 Ha\'c you (','cr been .. __.___ . China? 9 I had lost my kcr. but I managed to climb _____ the house through a window. l OWe got stuck in a traffic jam on our way .. _. __ .. __ ._.., the airport. 11 We had lunch ......... __ .......... __ the airport while we were waiting for our plane. 12 Welcome H__H..H_H.....•...H the hotel. \X/e hope you enjoy you r stay here. 13 We drove along the main road fo r abou t a kilometre and then turned .......................... a narrow side Street. 14 Did ),ou enjoy yo ur visit .H.H...................... the zoo? 15 rm tired. As soon as I get ......... home, I'm going ........................ _.. bed. 16 l\-Iarce l is French. He ha s JUSt returned H.....H._........ _..... France after twO yea rs ... _H._..H_._...... Brazil. I i Carl was born .______ ._._ Chicago, but his fami ly mo\'ed "_... New York when he was three. He stillli\"es ___ ..... _ .... _._. New York. H

•••••••• • ••• H

...

H

•• _ _

126.2 Have you been to t hese places? If so, how many times? Choose three of th e places and write a sentence usi ng been to.

Athens

Australia

Irel and

Paris

Rome

Sweden

Tokyo

the United States

I (example dllSlI'ers) --.!~.L!)~t¥_ pM:!!.......~_~~f!."..~ ..... _L~.'!~.J~.~ to lret.o..nd.. once.

-----------

1 3

126.3 Put in to/at/in where necessary. If no preposition is necessary. leave the space empty.

2 3 4 5 6

What time does this train get ....J9...... London ? What time docs this train arri\'e _ ....._. London? What time did you get ............ home last night ? What rime do you usuall y arrive ............................ work in the morn ing? When we gOt ............................ the ci nema , there was a long queue outside. I arrived ................. _.... _. home fee ling very tired. H

••••••••••• • ••

126.4 Write sentences using got + into l out of I on" / off.

Yo u were walking home. A friend passed you in her ca r. She saw you , stopped and o ffered you a lift. She opened [he door. Whar did you do? ....J. ... 9~_.~~H ..J!1_~_c.o.r · _"'_'_' __ '_'___"_'_'__ 'H'H 2 You were waiting for the bus. At last your bus came. The doors opened. What did you do then? I ._._.____.________.__.____ _ ____ .___ ._. ________

3 You drove home in your ca r. You stopped outside your house and parked the car. What d id you do then? ___.____ __. __ ._.. __._._ 4 You were travell ing by train to Manchester. When the trai n got to Manchester, what did )'ou do? ____ ._._. __ ._.... ______ H_. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ H

• __ .. _ _ ._. _ _ _ ._. _ _ • _ _

5 You needed a taxi. After a few min utes a tax i stopped for you. You opened the door. What d id you do then? .. _.H ____H__ .. __._H.. ____________._____ ..... _.•. _.H.H.H .•..H._.H...-.. _.....H...H.....H.H_.. _ 6 Yo u were travelling by ai r. At the end o f your flight, you r plane landed at the airport and stopped . The doors wcre opened. you took your bag and stood up. What did you do thcn?

-- AddHional exercise 34 (page 322)

253


In/at/on (other uses) Expressions with in in the rain J in the sun (= sunsh ine) I in the shade I in the dark I in bad weather ctc. o We sat in the shade. It was too hot to si l in t he sun . o Don't go our in the rain . Wait until it stops. (write) in ink I in biro I in pencil

o When you do the exam, you're not allowed to write in pencil. Also (wrile) in words I in fi gures I in BLOCK CAPITALS etc.

o Please write your name in block capitals. o Write the StOfy in your own words. (= don 't copy somebody else) (be/fall) in love (with somebody) o Have you eVCT been in love with anybody? in (my) opinion

o In my opinion, the film wasn't very good. We arc now flying al a

At the age of ... etc.

We say 'al the age o f 16 1 at 120 mi les a n hour / at 100 degrees etc.': o Tracy left school at 16. or ... at the age o f 16. o The tta in was t ra velling at 120 miles an ho ur. - - ~... 7 0 o Water boi ls al 100 degrees Celsius. _ CiI -'::' ______ <" ~

On holiday / o n a to ur etc. We say: (be/go) on holiday I on business / on a trip I o n a tour / on a crui se etc. o I'm going on holiday next week. o Emma 's away on business at t he mo ment. o One day I'd like to go o n a world to ur. You can a lso say 'go to a place for a holiday I for my holidar(s)': o Steve has gone to France for a holiday. Other ex pressions with on on television I on the radio o I didn't watch the news o n television, but I heard it o n the rad io. on the phoncltelephone o I've never met her, but I've spoken to her o n the phone a few times. (be/go) o n strike o There are no (rains toda),. The dri vers a re o n strike. (be/go) on a diet o I've put on a lot o f weighr. I' ll ha ve to go o n

a diet.

(be) on fire

o Look! That car is on fire . on the whole (= in general) o Sometimes I have problems at work , but o n the whole I enjoy my job. o n purpose (= intentiona lly) o I'm sorry. I did n't mean to a nnoy rou. I didn't do it on purpose.

254

s~ed

of

800 ki lometres an hour and at an altitude of 9,000 metres.

Inlatlon (time) - Unit 121 In/a t/on (posi tion) - Un its 123- 125

-

_- _


Exercises

Unit 127

127. 1 Complete the se ntences usi ng in + the following : block capilais pencil

cold weather

-m.....;..

loye Ihe sha de

my opinIOn

" tlnn"I It " stops. Out ._U'\,,_the__ ...rrun _ _ ._ . "X' ,:lit \hm likes (Q keep warm. so he doesn't go out much .* __ ._. _____ ~ _ _ _ _ _ " If you write ___________ and make a mistake. you can rub it OU I and correct it. They fel l ..*.M"_" ____ ,.• ___ ,_*"*_" _ _ _ almost immedia tely and were married in a few weeks. Please write your address dearly. preferably ___ .__ .__ ._.*._*...H.H._.*.*....*.* • It's too hot in the su n. I'm going to sit _____ ....... __ .. _.. _. ___ ._. __ ._ Amanda thought the reSf;lurant was OK. bur .. _... _... _... _._._._ ..................... _..... _....... it wasn't very good. Don .t go

1 3 4 5 6 -

127.2 Comp le te the se ntences usi ng o n + th e following : busi ness p urpose

a diet strike

-fir.etelel'ision

ho liday a tour

the p hone th e who le

Look ! That car is ...9.~ ....f.\!~..... ! Somebod~' ca ll the fire brigade. 1 \,\'orkers at the factory h<l\'e gone ~ ..... _... _._ .... __ .. _.................. ___ ..... ___ .... for better pay and conditions. 3 Soon <lfter we arri\'ed, we were taken .__.___.. ........ _. __ .. __ .. __ ......... ~ of the city. 4 I feelhlzy this cvell ing. Is thcre anythi ng wo"rth watchi ng ... _. __ .__ .__ ._______ .__ .~ .... ~ ....... ? 5 I'm sorry. II was a n accident. I didn't do it ... ~_._._ ... _._. ___ ..... ___ .___ ... _.. ~_ ... . 6 Richard has PUt on a lo t of weight recentl~·. I think he should go ~.~ .. ~. __._._______.____._ . - Jane's job in\"okcs a 101 of rra\·ell ing. She often has ro go awa)" _____________ . . S -\: I'm going _____ ~... _. _____.___._ next week. \X' here are you going? Somewhere nice? 9 .-\: Is Sa rah here: B: Yes. but she"s _. __ ~_. ______ .________ .__ at the moment. She won't be long. R:

10 .-\: H ow was your exam? R:

Well, there were some difficull q uestions, but ._. __ .__ ._...... __ ... _...... ___ ....... ~.~ ....... it W<lS OK.

127 .3 Complete t he sentences with on . in . at or fo r. \Xlater boils ..... ~ .. 100 degrees Celsius. 1 When [ was 14. I wcm ......... ......... a trip to Fr<lnce orga nised by my school. 3 There was panic when people rea lised that the build ing was .......................... fire. 4 Julia's gra ndmother died recently . ......._.. the age of 79. 5 Can you turn the light on. ple<lse? I d on't wa.1lI to si t ... .... the dark. 6 We d idn't go ._._. __ ... __ ._ holida~' last year. We stayed at home. - I'm goi ng to Switzerland _............. _._._ a short holiday next month. S I won't be here next week. 1" 11 be ........ _ _ . holiday. 9 Technology has deve loped _._~_ .. ~. __. gre<lt speed. 10 Alan got married __.__ .~_. __. 1i. which is rather young to get married. II I heard an interesting programme _ _ _ _ the radio th is morning. 11 . my opinion , \'iolenr films should not be shown _____ television. 13 I wouldn't like to go __ .____ a cruise. I think I'd get bored. 14 I mustn't eat tOO much. I'm supposed to be _.. ______ . a diet. 15 I wouldn't like his job. He spends most of his time talking _ _ _ _ the phone. 16 The earth travels round the sun _____ ..... 107,000 kilometres an hour. 1- 'Did you cnjoy your hol iday:' '~ot every minute, but _.~ ... __ .~ ___ .... the whole, yes.' 1S When you write :l cheque, you h:n '('" to write the amount ... _.~~ ....... ~.~ ...... words :m d figures.

_ Addi tiona l exercise 34 (page 322)

255


By We use by in many expressions to S3Y how we do something. Fo r example, you can: send something by p OS t contact somebody by phone I by email I by fax do something by ha nd pay by cheque I by credit card o Can I pay by credit card ? o You can contact me by pho ne, by fax o r by email. But we say pay cash or pay in cash (not by cash). We also say by mistake I by accident I by cha nce:

o We had n't arranged to meet. We met by chance. But we say 'do something o n purpose' (= you mean to do it ): o I did n't do it on purpose. It was an accident. Note that we say by chance, by cheque etc (1I0 t by the chance I by a cheque). In these expressions we use by + tl0 11ff without the o r 3. In the same way we use by ... to say how somebody travels: by car I by train I by plan e I by boat f by ship I by bus I by bike etc. by road / by ra il / by air / by sea / by undergro und o Joan ne usually goes to work b y bus. o Do you prefer to travel by air or by train ? But we say o n foot: o Did you come here by car or on foot? You ca nnot use by if you say my car / the train / a taxi etc. We use by + 1I0 WI without 'althe/my' etc. We say: by car but in my car (1I0t by my car ) by train bllt on the train (lI ot by the train ) We use in for ca rs and taxis: o T hey didn't come in their car. They came in a taxi. We use on for bicycles and public transport (buses, trains erc. ); o We travelled on the 6.45 train. We say that 'somethi ng is done by somebody/something' (passive) : o Have you ever been bitten by a dog? o The progra mme was watched by millions of people. Compa re by and w ith : o The door must have been opened with a key. (1Io t by a key) (= somebody used a key to open ir) o The door must have been opened by somebody wirh a key. We say 'a play by Sha kespeare' I ' a painting by Rembrandt' / 'a novel by Tolstoy' etc. : o H ave you read a nything by Ernest Hemingway? swit ch

By also means 'beside': o Come and sir by me. (= beside me) o ' Where's rhe light switch?' ' B~' the door: Note the follow ing use of by: o C la re's sa lary has JUSt gone up from £2,000 a month to £2,200. So it has increased by £200 I b y ten per cent. o Carl and M ike had a race over 200 metres. Ca rl won by about three metres.

256

Passive + by _ Unit 42B

By + -i ng .... Unit 60B

By myself .... Unit B3C

new sa lary - . - £2,200 I

increased by £200 old sa lary

~

£2,000

By (time) .... Unit 120


Exercises

Unit 128

128.1 Complete the se ntences using by + the following :

chaRee 2 3 4 5

credi t card

ha nd

mi stake

satellite

\\/e hadn't arranged [Q meet. We met .....p.£j. ...q,.~..... . I didn't intend 10 take your um brel la. I took it ........... ,........................................................ . Don '[ put the swea rer in the washing mach ine. It has to be washed . J don't need cash. I can pa~' the bill ..... ...................___ ................ The tWO cities were connected ..... for a television programme.

128.2 Put in by. in or on .

I Joa nne usuall ~' goes to work ,.... ~~. _, bus. 1 I saw Ja ne this morn ing. She was ........................... the bus. 3 H ow did ~'OU get here? Did ~' OlL come . ..._ .. _,.__ , t rain? 4 I decided nOt TO go ............................ car. [ went ......... my bike inSlead, 5 I didn't feel like wllking home. so I Cilme home ............................ a ta xI. 6 Sorr~' we're late. \'(Ie missed t he bus, so we had to come ................... _.. _... foo t. - How long does it take to cross t he Atla ntic ............................ ship? J 26 .3 Write three sen tences like the exa mples. Write about a song. a painting, a film, a book etc.

.....W."'!. ...~4....E~....\§.....'& .. b..QQ~....hl. ...TQ~~.tQ!:l.:.. ... 1

......................

....... .............. .................................

Rom~.... ~4 ..J\A~....~~....~... P:~ ....~!:i ...~.~.~ .~~p..~~.:....

4 5 126,4 Put in by, in, on or with . H a"e you e,'er been bi tten .....hL . a dog? ........... lightning. .......... a fire ex tinguisher. Who is th" man standing ... ............. the window? These photographs were ta ken ........................ a frien d of mine. [don'[ mind going ............. ca r, but I don'l wa nt to go .. _ ............ your car. There was a small table ......... the bed ............................ a lam p a nd a clock .......................... It.

1 The plane \\'as badly damaged 3 We ma naged to pur the fire o ur 4 5 6 -

128.5 All these sente nces have

a mistake. Correct them .

Did .vou come here b\' Kate's car or vou rs? 1 I don'r li ke travel ling on bus. 3 These photographs were ta ken by a very good camera. 4 I know this music is from Ikethm'en, but [ ''In't remember what it's called, 5 I coul dn 't pay by cas h - I didn't have any moner on me. 6 We lost the game only because of a mistake of one of our players. ~

.

.....~ ..~~.~.... ~ ....................- ......................•. _..-

128,6 Comple te the sentences using by. I Cla re's sala ry was £2,000 a month. Now it is £1,200. Her salary ..... h.~ ....~.q.~.~.... ~.!1 .. .!..?:.99.....~....J!lg.!:'.#.1..,...... .......................................................... _ 2 ~....Iy dai ly newspaper used ro COSt 60 pence. From roda y it costs 70 pence. T he price has gone up ....... _ ..................... ........................................ _.............................. _........................... __ 3 There was an elecrion. Helen Wall, She got 25 . . ores and Norma n got 23, H elen won ....................................................................................................... ................................................................. _..........4 I went to Ka te's house to see her. bur she had gone a li t five minutes before I arrived. I missed ....... ..........._........................................................_..... _ Additional exercise 34 (page 322)

257


Unit

129

Noun + preposition (reason for, cause of etc.) NOWI

+ for ...

a cheque FO R (3 sum of money) o T hey sem me a cheque for ÂŁ 150. a demand I a need FO R .0. D T he company dosed down because there wa sn't enough demand for its prod uct, o There's no excuse fo r behaviour like thar. There's no need for it. a reason FOR ... o T he train was late, but nobody knew the reason for the dela y. NOli n +

(11 0 1

reason of)

of ...

an advantage I a disadvantage OF .0. D T he adv3n1agc of living alone is that you can do what you like. bl/t there is an advantage in (or to ) doing something o There are mnlly adva ntages in living alone. (or ... to li\'ing alone)

a cause OF .0. o The cause of the explosion is unknown. a photogra ph I a picture I a map I a plan I a drawing (e[c.) O F ... o Rachel showed me some photographs of her fam ily. o I had a ma p of the town, so I was able to find my wa y around.

Noun + in ... an increase 1 a decrease l a rise 1 a fall IN (prices etc. ) o T here has been an increase in the nu mber of road accidents recent ly. o LaSt yea r was a bad one fo r the company. There was a big fall in sa les.

Noun + to ... damage T O ." o The accident was my fault, so I had to par fo r the damage to the other car. an invitation TO ... (a party 1 a wedd ing etc.) o Did you get an invitation 10 the parry? a so lution TO (a prob lem ) I a key TO (a door) I an answer TO (a question) I a reply TO (a letter) I a reactio n TO ... D I hope we'l\ find a solution to the problem. ( IIOt a solution of the problem) o I was surprised at her reaction to my suggestion. an attitude T O ... (o r TOWARDS ... ) o His allitude to his job is very ncgati\'e.

or

His altitude towards his job ...

NOli" + with ... I between ... a relationship I a connection I contact WITH ... o Do you have a good relationship with your parents? o T he police want to question a man in con nection with the robbery. bllt a relationship I a connection I contact I a difference BETWEEN twO things or people o The police believe that there is no connection between the two cri mes. o There are some differences between Brit ish and American English.

258


Exercises

Unit 129

129. 1 Comple te the second sentence so tha t it has t he sa me mea ning as th e first.

\'(/hat ca used the ex plosion? \X/hat was the cause .*_Qf.. ~.~ ...~~M*~!:Qr!. ________ .~.*. ____ ? 2 \'('c're trring to sake the problem. We' re trying to find;1 solution *._ _ ___.___. . 3 Sue gets on well with her brother. Sue has a good relationshi p ~_*._*.*_~ ________.__. . -4 The cOS t of living has gone up a lot. There has been;1 big increase _. __.__ ,. ______________ .__________._ __ 5 I don't know how to answer your question. I can't think of an a nswer .__ ... ____ ._. __ .. _.. _. __ ...... ___ ._. ___ ._._._._. ___ ._.M. _________.______ •

6 I don't th in k that a new road is necessary. I don't thin k there is a ny need __ .___ ._._._... ___ ............ ___ ._...... ____ ...... ______._. _________ .

i I th in k that working at home has many advantages. I think that there arc many adl'antages ..... _.. _._._ .. _ ..... _.......... _.... _. __ .. _....... _._ .... _._._ .... __ .... _....... _._ .... _._._. ____..__.__ .

8 The number of people without jobs fell last month. .............................................. _........................................... Last month there was a fa ll ............ _............. 9 Nobody wants to bu ~' shoes like these any more. There is no demand ....... _........................ __ .........._.......... _............................. _................... _._ .................... _._.... _._ ............... 10 In what way is your job differenr from mine? \X/ha t is the difference ._.. _..... ___ .. _....... _........ __ ._........___ .... _.. _.... _.. _.. _._~.~ ..... ~~_ ..... ~ .......... _~.~ ............... _.. _.... __ ...... _.. __ ? 129.2 Complete the sentences using the fo ll owi ng nouns + the correct preposition: ca use connection con tact damage invitation key -mttppictures reason reply I On the wall there were some piCTures and a ._..!!I£..Qf._. the world.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Thank you fo r the .____.___ ._._____ your party next week. Since she left home rwo years ago, Sophie has had linle _. _ _ _ _ her fa mily. I ca n't open this door. Hal'e you gOt a ._. the other door? The _. ____ ._.~. __ ._. ___ .. __ ._. __ the fire at the hore11ast night is still unknown. I emai led Jim last week, but I still haven't received a _______._ _ _ _ .__ my message. The two com pan ies arc completely independent. There is no __ .. _. ___.__.__._____ ._._. them. Jane showed me some old ................. _ .... _._._._._._._._ .. _ ........... __. the city as it looked 100 yea rs ago. Ca rol has decided to give up her job. I don't know her _._ ..... ~ .......... _....... _........... _._ .. _._ ....... _....... doing this. It wasn'[ a bad acciden t. T he .... _._ ....... __ ........ _._ ........... _.............. _.. the car wasn't serious.

129.3 Comple te the se ntences with the correct pre posi ti on. There are some differences .....b..~.~r. ... British and American English. 2 Money isn't the solution ... _............... _ .... every problem. 3 There has been an increase _......... _........ __ ._ the amount of traffic using th is road. 4 When I opened the e",·elope. I was delighted ro find, cheq", ... _ ..... __ ._._. £500. S The advantage _._ ...... _...... ___ ... having a car is that you don't ha ve to rely on public transport. 6 There are man)' adl'anrages ____.__ .. __ being able 10 spea k a foreign language. 7 Everything ca n be ex plained. There's a reason _. ___ .. __ e"erythi ng. 8 When Paul left home, his att itude _ _ _ his parenrs seemed to change. 9 Ben and I used to be good friends. bur I don't have much contact him now. 10 There has been a sha rp rise property prices in the past few yea rs. II What was Emma's reaction ______ the news? 11 If I give you the camera, can you take a photograph _ me? 13 The company has rejected the workers' demands ____ a rise _.. __ .. __ .. _. __. pay. 14 Wh at was the answer __ .......... _ question 3 in [he test? 15 The fact that Ja ne was o ffered a job has no connection ___ ._...... _.~ the fact that she is a friend of the managing director. ...... Additional exercise 35 (page 322)

259


Adjective + preposition 1 It was nice of you

( 0 •••

nice I kind I good I generous I polile I stupid I sill y ere. OF somebody o Tha nk you. h was very kind of you [Q help me. o It is stupid of me [Q go Out without a coat in suc h cold weather.

( 10

do somethi ng )

bllt (be) nicc I kind I good I generous I polile I rude I fri endly I cruel etc. TO o They ha ve always been very nice to me. ( ll0t with me) o Why were you so unfriendl y 10 Lucy?

somebod ~'

Adjective + about I with angry I an noyed I furious

I ABOUT something l WITH somehody FOR doing something

o It's stupid to get angry about things that don 'I m::mcr. D Are )'OU annoyed with me for bei ng la tc? excited I worried I upset I nervous I happy ere. ABOUT a si tuatio n o Arc you excited about going away nexi week ? o Lisa is upset about not bei ng invited to the pa rry.

delighted I pleased I satisfied I happy I disappo inled WITH somet hing you recei\'e, or the result o f someth ing D I was delighled wilh the present you ga\'e me. D Were you happy with your exam resu lts?

Ad;ective ... at I by / with surprised I shocked I amazed I aSlonished AT / BY someth ing D Everybody was surprised AT (or BY ) t he news. D J hope you weren't shocked BY (or AT) what I said. impressed WITH I BY somebody/something o I' m very impressed with (or by ) her English.

1( 5

\'ery good .

fed up I bored WITH something o I don't e njoy my job an~' more. I'm fed up with iI. / I'm bored with it. Sorry aboul / for sorry ABOUT a si tua tion o r someth ing that happened o I'm sorry about the mess. I'll clear it up later, D We're all sorry about Julie losing her job. sorry FOR I ABOUT somethi ng you did D Alex is very sorry for w hat he sa id, lor sorry about w hat he sa id ) D I'm sorry for shou ting at you yeste rda y. (or sorry about shouting) You can also say ' I'm sorry I (did somethingI': o I' m sorry J shouled at you yesterday. feel I be sorry FOR somebody who is in a bad situation o I feel sorry for M an . He's had a 101 of bad luc k. (110 1 I feel sorry about Matt)

260

Preposition ... -ing .... Unit 60 Adjective ... to ....... Unit 65 Adj ective ... preposition 2 .... Unit 131

Sorry to ... / sorry for ....... Unit 66e


Exercises

Unit 130

130. 1 Write sente nces using nice of '" , kind of ... etc.

(sill)') _._Th.~._!!.~::L~.~J~£~~_,.. __.____ .. _

2 3

I went our in the cold without a coat. Sue offered to dri\'e me [0 the ai rport. I needed money a nd Tom ga\'c me some.

(nice) That was _......... __ .. __________ .. her. .... ___ ..,, ___.__ _ (generous) That ..

4

They didn't lm'lre us to thei r part)'.

(nor \'cry nice) That ____ .____ ...... ____.__ _

5 6

Ca n I help you with your luggage?' Kevin didn 't thank me for the present.

(very kind) H. _____._. _____ .______ . you.

7

They"ve had an a rgu mcnr a nd now they refuse to speak to each other.

(not vcry polite)

.H.H ••• __ ......H"",,,",,....... __ .... _.H .... __ ......

(a bit childi sh) .............................

130.2 Com plete the se nte nces usi ng th e follow ing adjec tives + the correct pre position: annoyed a nnoyed astonished bo red ·e-Xtiledimpressed kind

sorry

Are you .....~~.~....~.9Y:.~ ... going away next week: Thank you for all your help, You've been \'ery ........... _._ .... _................................ me. I wouldn't like ro be in her posi tion, I feel .. _.... __ ....... _._ .... __ .... _._ ........ her, \X' hat have I done wrong? Why arc you .......,............. _... __ ..... _. ___ .. mc? \X' hy do ~'O U a!l\'ays get so __ .. ___ .____ ... _._. ___ . things that don't maner: I wasn'l vcrr .. ___ .... __ ... _._._._. __ ._._._.. the service in the restaurant. We had ro wait ages before our food arrived, 7 Ben isn't \'ery ha ppy al college. He says hc's _ _ .___ ... . the course he's doing. S I had never seen so many people beiore, I was _________ the crowds,

2 3 4 5 6

130.3 Put in the correct pre posi t ion. I was delightcd .... ~!#.!_ ... the present you ga \'e me. It was \'ery nice .. _."._ .. ___. you to do my shopping for me, Thank you very much. \X' hy arc you always so rude ... __ ..... ___ ...... _. your parents? Ca n't you be nice ...................... _ .. them? It W::I S c::I reless ............................ you ro lea ve the door unlocked when you went out. They didn't reply to ou r len er, which wa sn't very polile .............. _............ them. WI.' alwa~'s ha\'e the sa nte food every day. I'm fed up . ........... ir. I ca n't understand people who are cruel ............................ a nimals, \\;'e enj oyed our holiday, but we were a bit disappointed ........... .... the hotel. I wa s surprised ....... _._ ...... _.... _.. The way he behaved. It wa s completely o ut of character, I' ve bcen tryi ng TO lea rn Spa nish, bur I' m not very sati sfied ..........................., my progress. Linda doesn't look vcry well. I'm worried ...................... _._ her. Are you angry .. __ .. _ ........ _ what happened? I'm sorry __ .___ .__ what I did, I hope you're not angry me. The people next door a re furious .____ us . making so much noise last night. Jill staTts her new job next week. She's quite excited ______ . it, I'm sorry _____ (he smell of paint in this room, I' ve JUSt decorated it. I was shocked what I sa w, I'd never seen anythi ng like it before. T he man we inte rviewed for tht: iob was intelligent, bu t we weren't very impressed _ _ __ his appearance. 19 Arc you still upset ... _._ .. __ .... _ w har I said to you yesterday? 10 H e said he was sorr)' ._....................... the situation, but there was nothing he cou ld do, 2 1 I felt sorry ._................. _..... the child ren when we went on holiday. It ra ined every day and they had (Q spend most of the time indoors, 2 3 4 S 6 7 S 9 10 11 II 13 14 15 16 17 IS

-- Additional exercise 3S (page 322)

261


Adjective + preposition 2 Adjective + of ( 1) afraid I fri ghtened I terrified I scared OF ... o 'Are you afraid of spiders? ' -Yes. I'm terrified o f them.'

fond I proud I ashamed I jealous I envious OF ... o Why are yO li alwars so jealous of other people? suspicious I critical I tolerant OF ... a He didn't trust me. He was suspicious o f my imemions. --

;;;;;;;;;;;;;

Ad;ective + of (2) aware I conscious OF ... o 'Did )'OU know he was married?'

':-';0.

I wa sn't aware of that.'

capablc / in capable OF ... o I' m sure yOll arc capablc of passi ng the examination. full I shon OF ... o The Ictecr I wrotc was full of mistakes. (llo t full wi th ) o I'm a bit short of money. Can you lend me some?

Iypica l OF ... o He's late again. It's typical o f him to keep c\'crybod y waiting. fired I sick OF ... o Come on, let's go! I' m tired of waiting. (= (\ 'e had enough of \\';1iting. )

certain I sure OF or ABOUT ... o ( th ink she's arrivi ng this evening, but

rm nOt sure o f (hat.

or ... sure aboUi that.

---'

Ad;ectil)e + at I to I from I in I on I with I for

good I bad I brilliant I beller I hopeless etc. AT ... o I'm not vcr)' good at repairing things. {Ilo t good in repairing things) married I engaged TO ... o Linda is married 10 an American . (ll o t ma rried with ) bllt Li nda is married with three children. (= she is married and has three children l simi lar TO ... o Your writing is si milar to mine. different FROM or different TO ... a T he film was different from what I'd expected. (o r different to wha t I'd expected. ) inlerested IN ... a Arc you interested in art: keen ON ... a We stayed at home because Ch ris wasn't

\'e r ~'

keen on going out.

dependent ON ... (hilt independent OF ... ) o I don't want to be dependent on anybody. crowded WITH (people etc.) a The Streets were crowded wilh tourists.

(hil t

full o f tou rists)

fam ous FOR ... a The Italian cit)' of Florence is famous for irs art treasures. responsible FOR ... o Who was responsibl e for all that noise last night?

262

Preposition + -ing .... Un it GO Afraid of/to ......... Unit G6A American English .... Appendix 7

Adjecti . . e + preposit ion 1 ..... Un it 130


Exercises

Un it 131

131.1 Complete the second sentence so that it has the sa me mea ning as t he first. There were lots of tourists in the streets. The streets were crowded .....~i#).. tw..r~5t5 2 There was a lot of furniture in the room. The room was full _............................................................................ . 3 I don't like SpOrt vcry much. I'm not very keen ...... 4 We don't have enough rime. We're a bit short I' m not very good .................................................................................. . S I'm not a very good tenni s pl a~路er. Catherine is married ............ _._... .............. _....... _. 6 Catherine's husband is Russian. 7 I don't rrust Robe rt. I'm suspicious . ~1y problem is different ... S .'vt y problem is nor the same as yours.

131.2 Complete the sentences usi ng the following adjectives + the correct preposition : afraid

different

interested

proud

respo nsible

simila r

I think she's arriving thi s evening, but rm not ..... ~\:tr~ ....9.f..... that. mine, but it isn't exactly the same. ~路ou. There's nothing to be ................................ .............................. . I never watch the news on television. I'm nm .. ................................................. the news. The editor is the person who is ........... _..... _.........._ what appears in a newspaper, Sarah is a keen gardener. She's ve r~' ....................................... ........... her garden and loves showing It ro \路ISlrors. I was surpri sed when I met Lisa fo r the fir ~ t time. She wa s .............................................................. what I expected.

1 Your ca mera is . 3 Don't worry. rll iook after 4

S 6 -

131.3 Put in th e correct preposition . The lener I wrOte was full .....Qf ... mistakes. 1 :\ ly home rown is not an especially interesting place. It's not famous . ......................... anything. 3 Kate is \'ery fond ............................ her younger brother, 4 I don't like going up ladders. I' m scared ._................ _....... heights. 5 You look bored. You don 't seem interested ................... _._... what I'm saying. 6 Did ~'O ll know that Liz is engaged ......... a friend of mine? 7 ['m not a shamed .......... what I did. In fa ct I'm quite proud ........... _............. it. S I suggested that we should all go o ut for a meal, but nobody e lse was keen .......................... the idea. 9 These days e\'erybody is aware . ....... the dangers of smoking. 10 The station platform wa s crowded ....................... people waiting for the train. 11 Sue is much more successful than I am. Sometimes I fee l a bit jea lous ..................... her. Il I' m tired ........................... doing the sa me thing every day. I need a change, 13 Do ~'OU know an~'one who might be interested ............................ buying an old car? 14 W'e've gOt plenty ro ear. The fridge is full ....:....................... food. 15 She is a \'e r ~' honest person. I don't think she is capable ... tell ing a lie, 16 Helen wo rks hard and she's e:memely good ...... her job. 17 I'm not surprised he changed his mind at the last moment. That's typical ............................ hi m. 18 x lark has no money of his own, He's totally dependent ..................... his parents. 19 We're short ............................ staff in our office at the moment. We need more people to do the work.

131.4 Write sen tences about yourself. Are you good at these things or not? Use the following : good

quite good

..

no t very good

hopeless

(repairi ng things) ... .J:~ r!.9.~ .. .x~!;j ... .9.9..~....AA.. X.~~9. _.tr!~9~.,........ ..........................................._.... ................................................................................................................_ ................................................ ...................... 4 (remembering names) ._......

1 (telling jokes) 3 (mathematics) .. _

-- Additional exercise 35 (page 322)

263


Unit

132

to and at

Verb + preposition 1 Verb + to

talk I speak TO somebod y (with is also possible but less usual) o Who was tha t man you were talking 10: listen TO ... o We spent the eveni ng li stening

10

music. (110 t listening music )

write (3 lener) TO ... o I wrote 10 the hotel compla ining about the poor service we had received. apologise TO somebody (for ... J o They apologised 10 me for what happened.

explain something TO somebody.

1110t

They apologised me)

.

o Can you explain this word to me? ( ll o t expla in me th is word ) explain I describe (10 somebody ) wh:n/how/why .. . o I explained 10 th em why I was worried. (ll o t I explained them) o Lei me describe to you what I saw. (ll ot Let me describe you )

We do not use to with these verbs: pho ne I telephone I call somebody o Did you pho ne your fath er yesterday? I lto t phone to you r answer somebody/someth ing D He refused to a nswer my questio n. (lIor answer to

m~'

fa th er~

q uesti on)

ask somebody o Can I ask you a quesrion? (llo t ask ro you) tha nk somebod y (for someth ing) D He Ihanked me for helping him. (ItOl He Ihanked ro me)

Verb

+ at

look / stare I glance AT ... , have a loo k / take a look AT ... D Why are you looking al me like thar? la ugh AT ... o I look stupid with this haircu t.

E\"e rybod~'

will laugh at me.

ai m / point (someth ing) AT ... ,shoal / fire (a gun ) AT ... D Don't point that kn ife al me. It's dangerous. a We saw someone wi th a gun shooting al bird s. but he didn'l hit any. Some verbs can be fo llowed by at o r to, wil h

3

difference of meaning. For exa mple:

sha Ul AT somebody (when you are angry ) o He gOt very angry a nd sta rred sho uling at me. shout TO somebody (so that rhey can hear you) o He sho uted to me from the other side of the street. throw someth ing AT somebody/someth ing rin o rder to hit them ) D Somebody threw an egg a t the minister. throw something TO somebody (io r somebody to catch ) o Lisa shou ted 'Catch !' and threw the ke ~'s to me from the window.

264

Verb + preposition 2-4 ..... Units 133 - 136 Ask for .... Uni t 133C Apologise for I thank somebody for .... Un it 135B Other verbs + to .... Unit 1360 American English ..... Appt!ndix 7


Exercises

Unit 132

132. 1 You ask somebody to exp la in th ings that you don 't understa nd. Write qu estions beg in ning

Can you explain '" ?

J (I don't understand this word. ) .____(,m ....!it¥.....~.¥.~.... ~.~:? ....~.o.r4.:....t9 ..~,~ .?...... 2. n don't understand what ~'OU mean.) .....(M.. .!iC!!J.......~x.~ ....!;Q.... !!!.~.... ~I:'!.\M:... .!;i~ .. mean? 3 (I don't understand this question .) Can ~'OU expbin ............... __ .. _................. n. ___... __.__._.... _._ ............................................ _.... _.... _._ ....... _ ................. _._._._._._ ........ 4 (I don't understand the problem. ) Can ........................... __.. 5 (I don't understand how this machine works. ) 6 (I don't understand what I h,l\'c ro do. )

132.2 Pu t in to where necessary, If the sent ence is already complete, leave the space empty, I I know who she is. but I've never spoken .....!;Q ... her. 1 \'(' hy did n't ~'ou a nswer .....::: .... my lener? 3 I like [Q lisren .... _.. the radio while I'm having breakfast. 4 \X/e'd better phone .. ....... the restaurant [Q reserve a table. S 'Did .\ Iike apologise ............................ you? ' 'Yes-, he said he was very sorry.' 6 I explained ............................ e"erybody the reasons for my decision, 7 I thanked .......................... everybody for all the help they had given me. S Ask me what you like, and I'll try and answer ............................ your quesnons. 9 .\·Ii ke described ...... me exactly what happened. 10 Karen won't be able [Q help you, so there's no point in asking ........................... her.

132.3 Complet e the sent ences. Use the fo ll owing verbs (in the correct form) + the corrcct preposition: ~ glance -laughlisten point speak thro w throw I [oak srupid with this haircut. Everybody w ill ...~.9b ....qJ...... me. 1 [ don't understand this. Can you ..... ~~~ ... it . . !;Q..... me? 3 Sue and Ke"in had an argument and now they're not ....... _......................... _ ......... _. one another, 4 Be careful with those scissors ! Don't . ........................ them .......................... me! S I ...................... ...................._...... ...... my watch [Q see what the time was. 6 Please ................... _... _._ ...................... ___ .......... me! I've got something important to tell you. 7 Don't ........................................... stones .......................... the birds! It's cruel. S If you don't want that sandwich, ........ It ............................ the birds. They' ll eat it. 132.4 Put in to o r at.

2 3 4

S

6 7

8 9

10 II

I wrote .....t9. ... the horel complaining about the poor service we had received. Look .......................... these flowers. Aren't they pretty? Please don't shout ............ me ! Try to calm down. I saw Sue as I was cycling along the road. I shouted _......... .... her, but she didn't hear me, Don't listen .. . what he says, He doesn't know what he's talk ing about. What's so funny? What a re you laughing Do you th ink I could have a look .......................... your magazine, please? I' m a bit lonely. I need somebody to talk .......................... . She was so angry she thre\\' a book .......................... the wall. The woman sirring opposite me on the rrain kepr staring . .. me, Can I speak . .... ~'ou a moment? There's something I want to ask you.

-- Additional exe rcise 36 (page 323)

265


Verb + preposition 2 about/for/of/after Verb + about talk I read I know ABOUT ...â&#x20AC;˘ tell somebody ABOUT ...

o We talked 300m a lot of things at the meeting. have a discussion ABOUT somethi ns, bllt discuss somethi ng (no preposition) o We had a discussion about w hat we shou ld do. D We discussed a 101 of things at the meeting. (llot discussed about) do something ABOUT some thing :; do sometbing

improve (I bad situatio" o If you're worried about the problem. you should do something about it. /0

Care about , cafC for and take care of care ABOUT somcbod}'/somcthing = thillk thllt somebody/soll1f!lh ill8 is importiJ lIf o I-Ie's very selfish. H e docsn't care about other people. We say 'care what/ whcrclhow .. .â&#x20AC;˘ etc. (witboltt abou!) o You can do what you like. I don't care what you do. ca re FOR somebody/something (1) = lik e somet/ling (usuall y in questions and negati\'e sentences) o Would you care for a cup of coffee? ( = \'(!a uld you like .. , ? ) o I don't care for very hot weather. t= I don't like .. ,J (2) = look after somebody o Alan is 85 and lives alone. He needs somebody to care for him. take care O F ... = look after o Have a nice holiday. Take care o f yourself! (= look after

~'ourse l n

Verb + for ask (somebody) FOR .. , o I wrote to the company asking the~ for more informa lion about the job. bllt '1 asked him the way ro .. .', 'She asked me my name' (no preposi tion ) apply (TO a person, a compa ny etc.) FOR a job etc. o I th in k you'd be good at th is job. Why don 't yo u apply for it? wail FOR ... D Don't wail for me. I'll join you later. o I'm not going o ut yet. I' m wailing for the ra in to slap. search (a person I a place / a bag etc. ) FOR .. , D I've searched the house for my keys, but I still can't fi nd them. leave (a place ) FOR another place D I haven't seen her si nce she left (ho me) for the office this morn ing. (llot left to the office) Look for and look after look FOR .. , = searcb for, try to find o I've lost my keys, Ca n you help me to look for them? look AFTER '" = take care of D Alan is 85 a nd lives alone. He needs somebody to look after him. (lIotlook (or ) D You can borrow this book, but you must promise 10 look after it .

266

Verbs + about/of (think/hear etc.) .... Unit 134

Other verbs

1-

for -- Unit 1358


Exercises

Unit 133

133 .1 Put in the correct preposit ion. If no preposi tion is necessary. leave the space empty.

Z 3 -4 5 6 S 9 10 11

12 13 14

I'm nOf going Out YCt. I"m waiting .._k. .... the rai n to SlOp. I couldn't find the Street I was looking fo r, so I sropped someone to ask .__ * ..... __ * .. * .â&#x20AC;˘ directions. I\-c applied _. __ .*. __ *.* a job at the facto r)'_ I don't know if I'll get it. I've applied _ _ _ three colleges. I hope onc of them accepts me. I've sea rched everywhere .______ John, bur I haven't been able 10 find him. I don'l want to talk what happened last nigh t. Let's forget it. I don't wa m to di scuss ______ what happened last night. Let's fo rget it. We had an interesting discussion _._ .. _." __.__ the problem, but we d idn't reach a decision. We discussed ______ the problem. but we didn't reach a decision. [ don't want to go ou t yet. I' m waiting ... _ ... _............... the pOSt to arrive. Ken and Son ia arc rou ring Italy. The~" re in Rome at the moment, bur tomorrow they leave .................... _..... Venice. The roof of the hou se is in "ery bad condition. I think we ought to do something ............................ it. \'(Ie wai ted ............................ Steve for half an hour, but he nc\'er came. Tomorrow morning I have to catch a plane. I' m leaving my house ... the airport at 7.30.

133.2 Co mpl ete the sentences wit h th e follo wing verbs (in th e co rrect form) + preposit ion:

apply

1 3 4

5 6 ;

S

ask

do

[ea \'e

look

-seeK.ft-

talk

wai t

Police :lre .. _..5...W~!!'-9 ....fQ.r_... the man who eScaped from prison. \'('e're still ._______ .. _................. __ ... _... _ a repl~' to our letter. We haven't heard anything yet. I think Ben likes his job. but he doesn't _.... ___ ...... _...... _ ... ___.___. it much. When I'd fi nished my meal. I __.____ ._. __ .. __... _...... the waiter _ _ _ _ the bil l. Cathy is unemployed. She has ___________ .. ___ ". __. several jobs, but she hasn't had any luck. If something is wrong, why don't ~'ou ___ .. ____ ...... __ .............. something ____. it? Linda's car is very old. but it's in excellent cond ition. She ________ ... _____._.. "_~ it very well . Diane is irom BostOTl, but now she li"es in Paris. She _.. _ .. _._ ..".. _._. __ ."."._" Bosron ~. ______ Paris when she was 19.

133.3 Put in the correct preposition after care. If no preposition is necessary. leave the space empty. 1 3 4

5 6 S

He's \'crr se lfish. He doesn't c:lre ..... AA.~,t ... other people. Arc you hung r~' :' Would ~' ou care ... _._............ . somethi ng to eat ? She doesn't caT(' ..... _.. _............ _... th e eX:lm, She doesn't care whether she pa sses or fail s. Please let me borrow yo ur camera. I promise, l'lI take good care ..... ...... it. 'Do you like th is coat:" ':-.Jot rea ll ~¡. I don't care ._._..... _.. _........ the co lour.' Don't worry abou t the shopping. I'll rake care ._..... _.. _.. __ .. that. 'want to have a good holida y. I don't ca re .............. _..... _... the COS t. 'want to have a good holiday. I don't care '''_''_H'' ___ ' how much it COSts.

133.4 Complete the sentences wi th look for or look after. Use t he correct form of look (looks/ looked/ looking).

, I _... ~_~_J:Qr__ my keys, bur ' cou ldn't find them anywhere. 2 Kate is _ _ _ _ ._______ a job, , hope she finds o ne soon. 3 \'(/ho __.______._______.__ you when you were ill ? 4 I'm _...".. _"."_.,, ... ___ '..'.. Elizabeth. Have rou seen her? j The car park was full , so we had to _._ .. _......... __ .................... __ ... __ ._..............., somewhere else to park. 6 A babysitter is somebody who ... _... _.... _._._ .... _........... _.. _........ _._ .... _. other people's ch ildren . H ....H ....' ..... _

- Additional exercise 36 (page 323)

.. _. __

267


Verb + preposition 3

about and of

dream ABOUT .. ' (when you 3rc asleep)

o I dreamt abou t you la st night. dream OF/ABOUT being someth ing I doing something =imllg;}!e o Do you dream of/about bei ng rich and famo us? (I) wouldn't dream OF doing something = J would never do it o ' Don'1 tell anyone what I said.' 'No, I wouldn 't dream o f it: t= I would never do

il )

hcar ABOUT ... = be told abottt something o Did you hcar about wha t happened at rhe club on Saturday night? hea r OF ... = know that somebody/so mething exists o 'Who is Tom Hart?' ' I have no idea. I've never heard of him'. (not heard from him )

=

hca r FROM ... receive a letter, pllolle call or message (rolll somebody o ' Have you hcard from Jane recently?' -Yes, she phoned a few da ys ago:

think ABOUT ... and think OF ... When you think ABOUT somethi ng, you consider it. you concentrale your mind on it: a I've thought abou t what you said and I've decided 10 take your advice. a 'Will you lend me the money?' Tli lhink about il: When you think OF someth ing, the idea comes 10 your mind: a He told me his name, but I can't think of it now. !1Iot th ink about it) a That's a good idea. Why didn't I think of that ? (llo t think about that ) We also use think of when we ask or give an opin ion: a 'What did you th ink of the fi lm?' ' ( didn't think much of it: (= I didn't like it much ) The difference is sometimes very small and you can use of or about : o When I'm alone. ( often think of lor about ) you. You can say think of or think about doing something !for possible fUlure actions): a My sister is thinking of (or about ) going 10 Cana da , (= she is considering it) remind somebody ABOUT ... = tell somebody IIOt to forger o I'm glad you reminded me a bo ut The meeting. ('d co mpletely fo rgonen about it. remind somebody OF ... = cOllse som ebod)' to rem ember a T his house reminds me o f the one I lived in when I was a child . a Look at this photograph of Richard. Who docs he remind you of? complain (TO somebody) ABOUT ... = sa)' that )'011 are lIot satisfied a We com plained to the manager of the restaurant about t he food. complain OF a pain, an illness etc. = so)' that )'OH IJave a pail! ere. a We called the doctor because George was compl ai ning of a pain in his stomach. \

'

warn somebody ABOUT a person or thing whtch is bad, dangerous, un usua l etc. a I knew he was a strange person. I had been warned about him, (1Iot warned of him ) o Vicky warned me about the traffic. She said it would be bad . warn somebody ABOUT/OF a danger, something bad which might ha ppen later o Scientists have warned us a bout/of the effects of globa l wa rm ing,

268

Remind/ warn somebody to ... .... Unit 55B


Exercises

Unit 134

134.1 Put in the correct preposition. Did you hcar _... @,.Q!,i~ .... what happened at t he party on Saturday? ' I had a strange dream la st nigh t.' 'Did you? What did yOll dream _____ ?' Our neighbou rs complai ned ________. us _ _ _ _ the noise we made last night. Kevin was com plain ing _ _ _ _ pains in his chest, so he went to the doctor. J love this music. It reminds me ___ .. ___ ._._ a warm day in spring. He loves his job. He th in ks .____ ._ his job all the time. he dreams __ "______ it, he talks it and I'm fed up with hearing it. 7 I tried to remember the name o f (he book. bud cou ldn't think _ _ _ _ it. 8 Jackie wa rned me ____._._.. (he wa ter. She said it wasn't safe to drink. 9 We warned our children _.. __ ....... _.... _..... the dangers of playi ng in the meet. 2 3 4 S 6

134.2 Complete the se ntences usi ng the fo llowing verbs (in the correct form) + the correct preposition : complain dream hear remind remind ..fhffi.k.. chink warn Th tn's a good idea. Wh~' didn't I .. _. Jh~ .. "Q f ,.. that? 2 Bi ll is ne\'er satisfied. He is al ways ........................... ............................... something. 3 J can't make a decision ret. J need time to .... _._. __ ... .................... ........ ~ ....... your proposal. 4 Before ~'ou go inro the house. J must ........... _ ..... _ ........... _........ you ._................ _..... the dog. He is very aggressive sometimes. so be ca reful. j She's nOI a well-known si nger. Not many people have _... ___ .__ ._._._. __ ._ ..... _.............. ~ .... her. 6 .... : Yo u wou ldn't go awar withoullelJ ing me. \\'ould you ? B: Of course not. I wouldn'f ._._.. _.H .. _.. _._ .. __ .______ if. - 1 would ha\'e forgon en my appoinrmenl if Jane hadn't ._.__ ._~.~. ____ me ____ ~_. it. S Do you see that man over there? Does he ____ .____ you anybody you know? 134.3 Complete the sentences using hear or hea rd + the correct preposi tion (about/of/from). I'\'t' ne\'er .~.~i1wd,._Qf_ Tom Hart. Who is he? ' Oid you .......... _____ .____ ._.. ~. __.___ the accident last night ?' ' Yes, Vicky to ld me.' Jill used to phone quite often. bu t I haven'r __ ......... _._ ...... ~_ her for a long time now. .... : Ha\'e ~'ou ... _._._. ____ .......... a wri ter called William H udson ? s: :\'0, J don't think so. What SO ft of writer is he ? j T hank rou for your letter. h was good to ...... _................ _... _... _.............. you again. 6 ' Do you want to .................... _ .............................................. our holiday?' 'Not now. Tell me later.' .. ............. it . - [h \'e in a small t OWIl in the north of England. You've probably never . .....................

1 2 3 4

H ..

... _.H _ _ _ _ _ _

H .........._._ .... __ ._._._.

M .... _

..............

134.4 Complete t he sentences usi ng think about or think of. Some times both about and of are possible . Use the correct form of think (think/thinking/ thought) . I You look serious. What are you ... _tb.iKI!o;.OO!J_@.W.t ... ? 1 I like fO have time to make decisions. I like to ... _._...... _ .......~_...................... _.... _............. things ca refully. 3 I don't know wha t (Q get Sara h for her bi rthday. Ca n you ____.________ anything? 4 .... : I've fi nished reading the book you lenr me. S: Have you? What did you _._ .. __ ._____ it? ~ i d you likt: it? j We'rt: __________ .__ .______ going out fo r a meal this evening. Would you like to come? 6 I don't rea lly want to go out with Tom tonight. I'll have to _____ "_M _ _ excuse. - When I was offered the job, I didn't accept immed iately. I went away and ...... __ ... _... ___ ... _... _._ .. _... _. ___ .... it for a while. In t he end I decided to take t he job. S I don 't __ ._.. _.......... _.... _.~_ .. ____ .... much ._.. __.___._.__ ._ this coffee. It's li ke water. 9 Ca rol is very homesick. She's always ______ .... _._ .......... _...... ___ .................... _ her fam ily back home.

,n

-- Additional exercise 36 (page 323)

269


Verb + preposition 4

of/for/from/on

Verb + of accuse I suspect somebody OF ... o Sue accused me o f being selfi sh. o Some students were suspected o f cheating in the exam.

approve f disapprove OF ... o His parents don't a pprove of w hat he does, but they can't Stop him. die OF (or FROM ) an illness erc. o 'What d id he die of?' ' A hea rt attack.' consist OF ... o We had an enormous mea l. It consisted of seven cou rses.

Verb + for pay (somebody) FOR ... o I didn't have enough money to pay for the meal. !lIot pay the mea l) bitt pay a bill J a fi ne I ta x J rent' a sum of mo ney etc. (no preposition ) o I didn't have enough money to pay the rent . thank I forgive somebody FOR ... o I'll never forgive them for wha t they d id. apologise (to somebody ) FOR ." o When I realised I was w rong, I apologised (to them) for my mistake. blame somebody/something FOR ... , somebod}' is to blame FOR ... o Everybod y blamed me for the accident. o Everybody sai d rhar I was to blame for rhe accident. blame (a problem ere.) ON ... a Everybody blamed the accident on 路me.

Verb + from suffer FROM a n illness etc. o The number of people suffering from heart disease has increased. protect somebody/somethi ng FROM (o r AGAINST) .. . o Sun block protects the skin from rhe sun. (or ... against the sun .)

Verb + on depend I rel y ON ... o 'What t ime will you be home?' '( don't know. II depends on the traffic. o You ca n rely on Jill. She always keeps her promises. You ca n use depend + whenJwhereJhow etc. with or without on: o 'Are you going to buy it?' 'It depends how much it is.' (or It depends on how much ) live ON money/food o M ichael's sa lary is very low. It isn't enough ro live o n. congratulate I compliment somebody ON ... o I congratu lated her ON her success in the exam.

270

Verb + prepOSition + - jng -

Unit 62

Other verbs + for -

Unit 133

Other verbs + on ...... Unit 136E


Exercises

Unit 135

135.1 Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the fi rst. Sue said 1 was selfish. Sue accused me .~.J)f_.P~~9_ ..~t1.f.\§h .. __.____ ,_. ____ .M._' ___,___.___ •

1 The misu nderstanding was my fau lt. so I apologised. I apologised _____ _________._.__.___ *. ___ * _ _ _ _ *. _ _ _ •_ _ _ _ M. ____ *. ______

3 Jane won the lQurnament, so I congratulated her. I congratulated Jane . ._ _ _ .. ___ .H ____________ H. _____

.~.**.

4 He has enemies. but he has a bodyguard to protect him. He has a bodyguard to protect him .____________ 5 There are e!e\'cn players in a foorball rcam. A ioatba l! tcarn consists _, __ .M'. ____ •___ .___ .___ • 6 Sandra eats only bread and eggs. She li\'es .. __......... __ ...,..... _.... _.......... ____ ............... __ ............... _.......................... _.... _ . ,* •• _ . _ , _ . _ . , " _ ••• _ _ _ _ _ • _ _ • _ _ • _ _ _ _ _ _ _ •• _ •• _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

135.2 Complete the second sen tence using fo r or on. These sentences all have bl ame. I Liz said that what happened was Joe's fau lt. Liz blamed Joe ......fP.r.....~n.M....h~~......_............ 2 You alwa~' s say evc r ~· thing is my fault. You always blanle nle ...................... ........................... ....................................................................................................... _............ _ • 3 Do you think the economic crisis is the fault of the govern mclH? Do you blame the governmen t ................................................................................ _............... .................................................._...... 4 I think the increase in violeor cri me is the fau lt of television. H

__

Now rewrite sentences 3 and 4 using to blam e for. 5 el! Do you think the gO\'ernment ... _______.___________ .... _____ ... ____ ......... ___.__.__ ? 6 !4! I think that ____ .__.___ ... _.. _ _ _ . ______________ 135.3 Complete the sentences using the fo llowi ng ve rbs (i n the correct form ) + the correct preposition : apologise .approvecongratulate depend live pa y accuse His pa rents don't ..... gp.P.!.Q.Y..~_QJ_ what he does, but they can't stop him. 2 \'(' hen rou went to the theatre with Paul, who ..._......_..._ .._____ .. the tickers? 3 It's nOt \'ery pleasant when you are ............._.....__ something you didn't do. 4 ,\: Are you going to the beach tomorrow? R: I hope so. It .............. the weather. ................................................. very little money. 5 Things arc vcry cheap there. Vou can 6 When I saw David, I .................................................................... him ........................................... passing his drivi ng test. 7 Vou were very rude to Liz. Don't you think you should ............................... _.............. her? H . . . . . . . HH . . .

.H............... _ _• _ _ _ ....

H

........._._._........

..

. .

• •••••••••••

135.4 Put in the correct preposition. If no prepositro n is necessa ry, leave the space empty. 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 II 11

Some students were suspected _.J?f. .. _ cheating in the exam . Sally is often not well. She suffers .______ very bad headaches. You know that )'OU can rely _~._ .. __. me if ),ou ever need any help. It is terrible that some people are dying _____ hunger while others eat roo much. Are you going to apologise ____ what you did? The accident was my fau lt. so I had to pay _ rhe repairs, I didn't have enough money to pay ______ rhe bill. I complimented her _____ her English. She spoke very fluentl y and her pronunciation was excellent. She hasn'f got a job. She depends _. _____ ... _ her parents for money. I don't know whether I'll go out tonight, It depends .__ ... ___ ~H. how I feel. They wore warm clothes to prarcct themselves the cold. The aparrment consists ~. __ ......... __ ...... th ree rooms, a kitchen and bath room.

-- Additional exercise 36 (page 323)

_'H_'_' _ _"_'

271


Verb + preposition 5

in/into/with/t%n

Verb + in believe IN ... o Do you believe in God ? (= Do rou believe t hut God cxiSlS~ I o I believe in saying wha t I thi nk. (::: I believe it is right to sa y wha t I th ink ) bllt 'believe something' (= believe it is true), 'believe somebody' (= belic\'c they a re telling the tru th ) o The story ca n't be true. I don 't believe it . (1I0t believe in it ) specialise IN ... o Helen is a lawyer. She specialises in compa ny la w. succeed IN ... o I hope you succeed in fi ndi ng the' jo b

Verb

~'O U

wa nt.

+ into

break INTO ... o O ur house was broken into a few da ys ago, but nOt hing was stolen. crash I dri ve I bump I run INTO ...

o He lost comrol of the car and crashed into a wal/. divide I cut I split something INTO tw O o r mo re pa ns o The book is divided inlo three pa rrs. transla te a book etc. FROM one language lNTO a nother o Ernest Hemingway's books ha\'e been translated into many la nguages,

Verb + with collide WIT H ". o There was an accident this mo rning, A bus collided with a ca r. fill something WITH , ,. (bllt full of , ... - see Uni t \3 1B) o Take th is saucepan a nd fill it with water. provide I supply somebody WITH .. , o The school provides a ll irs students with books.

Verb + to happen TO ... o What happened to tha t gold wa tch you used to ha\'e? (= where is it now :) invite somebod y TO a party I a wedding etc. o They only in vited a few peo ple to their wedding. prder one rhinglperson TO another o I prefer tea to coffee

Verb + o n co ncen trate ON .. ' o Do n't look o ut o f t he wi ndow. Concentrate o n your work. insist O N ... o I wanted to go a lone, bu t so me fr iends o f mine insisted o n coming with me. spend (mo ney) O N ... o Ho w much do you spend on food each week ?

272

Verb + preposition + -ing -

Un it 62

Other verb s + to ..... Unit 132

Other verb s + on .... Unit 1350


Unit 136

Exercises 136.1 Com plete the second sentence so that it means the sa me as the first.

There was 3 collision between a bus and a car. A bus coll ided ..... ~ ~....g,... ~ ___________ ........ ___._ _ ... _. ____._____.____._-- •

:z. I don't mind big cities. but I prefer sma ll [owns. I prefer .. _________ __ _ ._______ 3 I gOt all the informat ion I needed from Jane. Ja ne provided me ______

... _________ .. _ _ _ _ _ .

4 This morn ing I bought a pai r of shoes, wh ich cOSt £70. This morning I spent ________ ._______·_______ M_._.. ____ .. ____ ._M_. '_____.__ *._

.

136.2 Complete the sentences using the fo llowing verbs (in the correct forml + the correct pre position: believe concentrate divide drive fill happen -insiS{invite succeed . WIt. h me. _....... ,_.... ,.... _"on ..__.... commg I wante d to go a Ione. b UI Sue ........!.I"I$(,5AA 2 I haven't scen ." I ike for ages. I wonder what has ~ .............. ~........................... ...................... him. J We've been ._.... _........... _... ............ _...... the party, but unfortunately we can't go. 4 It's a very la rge house. It's ......... _.................. _.... _........ _.......... _.......... _ four fl ats. 5 1 don't ........... _..................... _....... _.... _._.................. ghom. 1 think people only imagine that they see them. 6 Steve gave me an empty bucker and told me to ... _.... _._ .... _......................... it .. _._....___ .. _.. warer. 7 I was driving along when the ca r in front of me stopped sudden ly. Unfortunately I couldn't Stop in time and .................. _.. _._._ ......... __ ... _......... _. ___ the back of it. S Don't trr and do twO things rogerher. _____ ~ _____.__ ... ______. one th ing at a rime. 9 It wasn't easy, but in the end we .__._____.______.___ ._ finding a solution to the problem. 136.3 Put in the correct preposition . If the sentence is already co mplete, leave the space empty.

T he school pro\'ides all its srudems _ wt.th _ books. 2 A strange thing happened me a few days ago. J ~1ark decided to give up sport so that he could concentrate _ _ _ his studies. 4 I don't believe ____ ._ working very hard. Ir's not worth it. 5 M y present job isn't wonderful, but I prefer it ___ .. __ what I did before. 6 I hope ~'o u succeed __ ._.. ___. getting what you wanr. 7 As I was coming out of the room, I collided .... __.___ .. _ somebody who was coming in. S There was an awful noise as the car crashed ........ _.. _._._..... _ a tree. 9 Patrick is a photogra pher. He specia lises _.... ......... SportS photogra phy, 10 Do ~'ou spend much money ... ........ clothes? I I The COu ntr~' is divided _.. __ .. _._._ ....... six regions. 12 J prefer rra \'el1 ing by train ... _..................... _ driving. It's much more pleasant. 13 I was amazed when Joe walked into the room.·J couldn't believe .. __ ...... _. ___. it. 14 Somebody broke ._._.... _ ........ _.. my ca r and stole the radio. 15 J was q uite co ld, but Tom insisted ___._._._.... _ having the window open. 16 Some words arc difficult to translate ______ . one language _.. __ ._._._ another. 17 What happened ______ .__ . the money I lent you? What did you spend it _~ _____ _

18 The teacher decided to split the class _ 19 I filled the tank, but unfortunately I filled it _

fou r groups. the wrong kind of perrol.

136.4 Use your own ideas 10 complete these sen lences. Use

a preposition .

I I wanted to go out alone, but my friend insisted --<ttl CQn"I.\r'~~f!!L.~ __ .~. ____.__ ~.~. ___ .

2 I spend a lor of money ___._.__ .~. ___________ ._~. ___ .~._~. ___ ~·~._. ___ M._~ _______._ • J I saw the accidellt. The ca r crashed _ .____ ._. __ .... _.. ___ * __ .__ . _ _ ._. __ •• ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .__ .... _._.~--.-.- • 4 Ch ris prefers basketbal l ... _...........~_ .... ~. __ ~ ____ ._._. __ ....... _ ....~ _____ ~ __._....... __.__ .. __ .... __ .~.... __... . 5 Sha kcspeare 's plays ha ve been translated .. _.~~._ ....... _._.... _.... _.... ~_._ .... ~~ ___.___ ....... _.................. ~._M.~. __._._._....~_ ..._ .

-

Additional exercise 36 (page 323)

273


Phrasal verbs 1 Introduction We o ft en use verbs with the following words: on

on

up

oul

orr

down

away back

abou t along

r ou nd

through

by

o\'cr

forward

So you can say look o ut I gct on I ta ke off I run a way etc. These

a TC

phrasal verbs.

We often use onJoffJout erc. with verbs of movement. For exam ple:

gel on drive off

0 The bus was fu ll. We couldn't gct on. 0 A woman gO t into the car and drove off.

come back tum round

0 Sally is leaving tomorrow and coming back on Saturday. 0 W'hcn 1 touched him o n the shou lder, he turned ro und.

But often the second word (on/off/auntc.) gives a specia l meaning to the verb. For example: 0 Sorry I'm late. The car broke down . (= the e ngine stopped wo rki ng ~ 0 Look out! The re's a car coming. (= be careful ) 0 It was my first flight. 1 was nervous as the plane look off. (= wem into Ihe a ir) 0 How wa s the exam ? How did you get on ? (= How did you do?) 0 My French isn't very good, but it's enough to get by. (= manage )

break down look out take off get on gct by

Fo r more phra sa l verbs, see Units 138-145. Sometimes a phra sa l verb is follow ed by a prepositioll . For exam ple:

phrasal verb run away keep up look up look forward

preposition r.om with

"

10

o o

Why did you run away from me? Yo u're walking tOO fast. I ca n't keep up with you. o We looked up at the plane as it flew abo\'e us. o Are you looking forward to your holiday ?

Someti mes a phrasa l verb has an object. Usually there are tWO possi ble positions fo r the object . So you can say: . Iturhed

o~

the light.

or

I rurhed the light

obi!!ct

cin.

objut

If the ob ject is a prOnOun (itfthemlme!him

CTC.).

o nl y one positi o n is possible:

I turned it o n. ('lo t I turned on it) Some more examples: C Id f fill in this fo rm ? o au you fill this form in ? bllt T hey gave me 3 form and told me to fill it in. (not fill in it)

1

o bitt

â&#x20AC;˘ Oan t

1throw away this postca rd. .

throw th iS postca rd away. I want to hep this postcard, so don't throw it away. (no t throwaway it)

.

o I'm gomg to

13 e my SlloeS 0 . These shoes are uncomfortable. I' m going to take them off. (no t take o ff them )

bllt

o bllt

274

1takekoffe my shoes. rr

'1

wake up the baby. wake the baby up. The baby is asleep. Don't wake her up. (Ilo t wake up he r)

Oon

t

Phrasal verbs 2-9 _ Units 138 - 145

American English - Appendix 7


Exercises

Unit 137

137.1 Complete each se ntence usi ng a verb from A (in the correct form) + a word from 8. You can use

a word more than once. A

Ifly

1 3 4 5

The bus was full. \'(/e couldn't _g~ on _ . I've been smnding for the last two hours. I'm going to __ ,__ .__ ~_.~ __ .____ .~_ (or a bit. A cal tried to catch the bird. but it ._.___ .__ ._. ___ .__ .... _ juSt in time. We were trapped in the' building. \,(If' couldn't __ ... __ ._~ _____ I can't hear you vcry well. Can you .*. ___ ... _ ..~.._. ____.*_._.........H_ a little?

get

go

look

sit

speak

I

B

I

away

by

down

on

out

round

up

I

0

6 'Do you speak German:' ':"ot \'e r ~' well. but I can .._ .... _. ___._______ ._._. 7 H Ollse prices a rc vcry high. They've _.. ...... __ .... __ ....... a lot in the last few years. 8 I thought there was some bod ~' behind me, but when I ._.... __ .... _._ ...... _................ _._ ............ , there was nobody there. 137.2 Complete th e se nt ences usi ng a word from A a nd a word from B. You ca n usc a word more than

once. A 2

3 -I

5 6 7

I

away

back

fo rward

thro ugh

on

10

with

You"re walking tOO fast. I can't keep .....~.P....~.(.th ._ .. you. ~1 y hol idays a re ncarly o\"er. ~ext wcek I'll be ....... _.... __ ._.. _... __ ._.... _._._. __ "._.. work. \'(Ie went .. __ ..... H.H_. __ .__ .__ .___ ......... _._ the tOp fl06r of the building to admi re the \liew. Are you looking _____ ._....."....H__ .. __ .. __ the pany next week? There was a bank robbery last week. The robbers gOt _____.____ £50,000. J 10" e fO look .___ ._...... _______ .__ the Slars in the sky at night. I was siuing in the kitchen when sudden ly a bird flew ______ .___ the open window. 0 _ _ _ _

137 .3 Complete the sentences usi ng the followi ng verbs + it/the m/me : .fill-ingCt o ut give back switch o n takc 0((

wake up

They ga\"e me a form and told me to ....J.!4-._ ~_!!!.. _ . 1 l"m going to bed now. Can you ........... _...... _....... _....... _._ .. _... _._ .................................. _..................... _. __ ... at 6.30? 3 I\ 'c gOt something in my eye and I can't ...................... _........ _.... _._ .... _. ___ .__ ....... __ ........ _._._ .... _....... . 4 I do n'r like ir whcn people borro\\' rhings and don't ........................................... _.................. _ ...................... . 5 I want to use the kettle. How do [ ....................... _... ............................... _...................... _............. _..... ? 6 ~I y shoes arc dirty. rd benet ....... ................ before going into the house. 137.4 Use your own ideas to co mplete the sentences. Use a noun (th is newspa per etc.) or a pronoun

(it/them etc.) + the word in bracke ts (away/up etc. ). I Don't throw _.. ~.~ ... ~.\-:5..... !I.~.~.p..q.,p.y._ ... . I want to keep it. (away) _,

000 rou want t h IS postcatd'" oN it_. __"",." ~ I 0, you can t h row _..... .. _.."qj_._ . '( away , O

3 I borrowed these books from the libra ry. I ha\le to take __ ... _______._____._._.___. tomorrow. (back) 4 We can rum _____ .__ .__ Nobody is watching it. (off) j .-'.: How did the vase get broken? B: I'm afraid I knocked .____ ._.. ___ ._._.... ________ whilc I was cleaning. (over) __ . (up) 6 Shh! M y mother is asleep. I don't wam TO wake ... _ ... ____ - It's quitc cold. You should put _. _______ ... _. __ ._. ___ ._. __ . if you're going OUt. (on) 8 It was only a small fire. I was able to put ______ .. _. __ .. _.. ___ .____ ...H. quite easily. (our) 9 .-'.: Is this hotel more expensi,'c than when we stayed hcre last year? B: Yes, they've pu t ............ _......... _. .... _._._ ...... _.. . (up) 10 It's a bir d;lrk in rh is room. Shall I rurn ...................... _................ _.... _ ............. _...... ) (on) 00 _ _ _ _ • _ _ _ _ •

.... Add itional exercises 37-41 (pages 323-25)

275


Unit

138

Phrasal verbs 2

in/out

Compare in and out: in = imo a room, a building, .. ca r etc. a How did the thieves gct in ? o Here's a key, so you can let yourself in . o Sa ll y walked up to the edge of the pool and dived in. (= into (he water) o I' ve got a new flat. I'm moving in on Frida y. o As soon as I gOt to the airport, I checked in .

out = out of a room. build ing, .. ca r etc. 0 He juSt sTOod up and walked QUI. 0 I had no key. so I was locked out. 0 She swa m up and down the pool. and then climbed o ut. 0 Tim opened the window and looked out. a (at a hotel) What time do we have TO check oul ?

In the same way you ca n say go in , come in, walk in, brea k in etc.

In the same way you can say go OUI. get QUI , move OUl , lei somebody OUI etc.

Compare in and inlo: a I'm moving in next week. D I'm moving into my new f1 al on Friday.

Compa re out and OUI o f: D He walked o ut . 0 He walked OUI of Ihe room.

---''---

Other verbs + in drop in I call in =visit somebody fo r a short time withollt arranging o I dropped in to see Chris on my way home. join in = toke part ifl an octillity that is already going o We're playing a ga me, Why don't you join in ?

(0

do this

011

plug in an electrica l machine =COllllect it to the electricit), supply o The fridge isn't working because you ha\'en't plugged it in .

fi ll in a fo rm, a questionnaire etc. = write the necessary information Oil a fo rm o Please fi ll in the application form and scnd it to us by 28 February, You ca n al so say fill OUI a form. take somebody in = deceive somebody o The man sa id he wa s a policeman and I believed him. I was completely taken in , Other verbs + out eat o ul =eat at a restal/rallt, 1I0t at home o T here wasn't anyth ing to eat at home, so we decided to cat OUI. drop OUI of college I university I a course I a race = stop before you balle com/Jleteiy finished a course/race elC, o Gary went to universi ty but dropped OUI after a year. get out of somelh ing that you arranged to do = m'oid doing it o I promised I'd go to the weddi ng, I don't want to go, bur I ca n't gCt OUI of it no\\', CUI something OU I (of a newspaper etc,) o There was a beau tiful picture in the magazine, so I cut it OUI and kepI it, leave something o ut =omit it, flOt iuelude it o In the sentence 'She said that she wa s ill', you can leave OUI the wo rd 'thar', cross something out I rub someth ing OUI o Some of the names on the list had been crossed out,

276

Phrasa l verbs 1 (Int rodu ct ion) -- Un it 137

More verbs + out -

cross alit

Unit 139


Unit 138

Exercises 138.1 Com plete each sentence using a verb in t he correct form . 2 3 4 5 6

Here's a key so that you can .___.!&t:-._ .. yourself in. Liz doesn't like cooki ng. so she .. _... ............ out a lot. Eve isn't living in this flat any more. She ... _.. ... out a few weeks ago. If you' re in our parr of rown, you must ................... ... in and see us. When I . ..... _. in at rhe airport, I was raId my flight would be delayed. There were some ad\,crtisements in the paper that I wamed to keep, so I ........ . them out.

7 8 9 10 II 12

1 wanted to iron some clothes. but there was nowhere ro ............ the iron in. I hate ............ ___...... _. In questlonn:mcs. Steve was upset because he'd been . .......... our of the team. Be ca reful! The water's not \'cry deep here, so don't ........ _.. In . If you write in pencil and you make a mistake, you ca n ................... _..... .............. it OUt. Paul started doing a Spanish course, bu t he ...... _... ........... out after a few weeks.

138.2 Complete the senten ces with in, into, out or out of. 1 3 4 5 6

I've gor a new flat. I'm moving ._.. ~ ..... on Friday. checked ..... _ ........... the horel as soon as we arrived. As soon as \\路c arri\'cd at the hotel, we checked ....... The car stopped and the driver gOt .... Thie\'es broke . .................. the house "'hile \vc were away. Why did Sarah drop ........................... _..... college? Did she fai l her exams? \'(/e

138.3 Com plete each sen tence using a verb + in or out (of). Sally walked to the edge of the pool, ....#y.~ ....~ . . and swam to the other end . 2 :\or all the runners finished the race. Three of them 3 I wem to see Joe and Sue in their new house. They .................. ..... last week. 4 I've told you everything you need to know. I don't think I've ........................................................ . anything. 5 Some people in the crowd sta rted singing. Then a few more people ................... _..................................... _.......... and soon e \路er~路 body was singing. 6 W/e go to restaurants a lot. W/e like ................................................. - Don't be .... ................................... by him. If I were you, I wouldn't believe anyth ing he says. 8 I. ........ _... to see Laura a few dars ago. She was finc. 9 A: Can we meet tomorrow morning at ren? B: Probably. I'm supposed to go to another meeting, but I think I can .......... It.

138.4 Complete the sentences. Use the ..... ord in brackets in the correct form. :\.: The fridge isn't working. . ... . (plug) B: That's beca use you haven 't .....P1M .....99eQ.", ..................~ 1 .'\: What do I have to do with these forms? ........... _.. _... and send them to this address, (fill) .) A: I've made a mistake on this form. s: That 's all right. J ust .... _......... ..... and correct it. (cross) 4 .0\: Did you bel ieve the story they told you? B: Yes, I'm afra id they com pletely .................................. . (take) 5 .-\: Have yOU been to that new club in Bridge Street? B: We wanted to go there a few nights ago, but the doorman wouldn't . . because we weren't members. (let)

...... Additional exercises 37-4 1 (pages 32 3-25)

271


Unit

139

Phrasal verbs 3

out

out = nor burning, n Ot sh ining go o ut put o ut a fi re I a cigarette I ;1 light turn out a

ligh t

blowout a candle

o o o o

Sudden ly all the lights in the buildi ng went Qut. \Yle managed to put the fire OUI. I turne d the lights OU I before leaving. We don't need the candle. You can blow it our.

work out

work out = do ph),sical exercises o Rachel works out at the gym thrce limes a week.

work out =develop, progress o Good luck fo r the future. I hope everything works out well for you. D A: Wh y did J ames leave the company? B: Th ings didn't work out. (= things didn't work out well ) work out (for mathematical calculations )

o The rora l bill for three peopl e is ÂŁ84.60. That works QUI at ÂŁ28.20 eac h. work somethi ng out = calculate, think abOllt a problem and find the answer o 345 x 76? I need to do this on paper. I ca n'r work it out in my head .

~-------'

Other verbs ... o ut carry out an order I an experiment! a survey! an investigation ! a plan etc. o Sold iers a rc expected (0 carry out orders. o An investigatio n in(O the accident w ill be carried out as soon as possible.

=

fall out (wilh somebody) stop being {riel1ds o They used (0 be very good friends. I'm su rp rised to hea r that they ha,'e fa llen OUI. o David fe ll OUI with his father and left home. find o o o

o ut that/what/when ... etc., find out about somet hing = get il1foTllwtiolf The police never found out who com mitted the murder. I've juSt fo und out rhat it's Helen's birthday today, I caJled the (Ourisr office to find o ut about horels in the (Own,

givc/ha nd th ings oul = give to each person o At the end of the lecrure, rhe speaker gave out info rmation sheets ro rhe audience . point something o ut {to somebody I = draw attelllioll to somethillg o As we dro ve through the ci ry, our guide pointed out a ll the sights. a I didn 't rea li se I'd made a mistake until so m e bod ~' pointed it o ut to me. run OUI (of something ) a We ran ou t of petrol on the mo(Orway, t= we used all our pctrol!

=

sort someth ing OUI find a solutioll to; Pllt ill order a The re a re a few problems we need to son o u!. a Alllhcse papers are mixed up. I'll ha\'e to son them o u!. lurn o ut to be ... I (Urn OUI good/nice erc. ! Iurn out that .. , a Nobody believed Paul a t fi rst, bur he turned o ut (0 be righ !. (= il became clear in the end tha t he was right) a The weather wasn't so good in the morning, but it turned o ut nice later, a I thought they knew each other, but it turned OUI Ihat they'd never mel.

=

try OU I a machine, a system, a new idea etc. test it to see if it is O K a The company is trying OUI a new computer system at the momen t.

278

Phrasal verbs 1 (Introduction) .... Unit 137

More verbs + out .... Unit 138


Unit 139

Exercises 139.1 Which word s can go together? Choose from the box. a candl e a cigafcn c ft lig.1I a mess 3 mista ke turn out

an o rder

a new product

_ __...__.*___.________ _

~.J~,~.k-9!1:t-

1 point out ______ .* __ .*' __ ._._. _ _ _ _ _ ._._

3 blow our 4 ca rry out

_._._*..._____.________.____*___

*________________________

6 try ou t _. ____ .*. ___ ___ _ ~

7 SOrt our ________.*._

139.2 Complete each sen tence using a verb + out.

The company is .. _~.!;!~9..J!~,~.L_ a new compu ter system 3t the moment . .2 Steve is \'cry iiI. He does a 101 of SpOrt and .. __ ... _.. _._._ ... _ .. _._ .....H_.*.*._... _.M._ regularly. 3 The road will be dosed for two days next week whi le building work is .. 4 \'(Ie didn't ma nage to discuss c\'cryth ing at the meeting. We ......................................... _... __.__ ._._._. __ of time. S You have to ...................................... _.. _...... _....... _._ ..... _ the problem yourself. I can't do it fo r you. 6 I phoned the station to ............................................................. _....... what time the t ra in arrived. 7 T he new drug will be ......... ............................ ......... _.... on a small group of patients. 8 I thought the rwo books were the same until a fr iend of mi ne ..................... _...... the difference. ....... _.......................................... ,and they separated. 9 They gOt married a few years ago but it d idn't .. 10 T here wa s a power CUt a nd all the lights ... _... _....... _ ........................ _._ ..... _... _._ ..... . I I \'(1(: thought she was American at first, but she ... _............... _...... _._._._.... _._ .................... to be Swedish. 12 Sometimes it ._. __ ...H. _____ ._. __ ._.... _._._. __ cheaper to eat in a restaurant than to cook at home. 13 I haven't applied for the job yet. I want to .___________. . more about the company first. l-I II took the fire brigade twO hours to ______ ... __________ .__ the fire, M . . . . . _ . _ •• _ _ . _ . _ . _ _ . _ . _ . _ . _ _ _ • _ _ •

139.3 For each picture, complete the sente nce using

a verb + o ut.

2

3

The man wi th the beard is ......................................... leaflets.

The weather has

They've .. _!¥..!:'! ..~.~... g.f ... p..W gL. .

4

5

6

One o f Joe's jobs in the office

Lisa is tryi ng to .__ ,__ ,__ ,__ _ how _____ ._.... __ ......... __ ... __ •

~ Jo,~lfji

. Ther"\"(~ ... __

H .... _

...... _

........._

.........

.

I is ..._ ..__._____._ _._. .

earlier

o flOW

139.4 Complete the sentences. Each time use a verb + out. I :\: Shall I leave the light on: 6:

No, you can _

w.m.

iJ:.~J .

___ ._._._._____._______._......_......___.__________ .

2 :\: This recipe looks interesti ng. 6:

Yes, let's ____________ .__ ._ .. ____________ .__ .___ ...... ___ ... _ ... ___ ._. _ _ __

3 .-\: How much money do lowe you exactly? B: JUSI a momenr. I'll have to ... ____ ._._.... __ ._ .. _._ ... __ .. _____ .... ______ ... _. ______ ............-----.-- . 4 .-\: What happened about you r problem with you r bank? B: It's O K now. I went to see them and we _ ...... _... _._._ .... ____ .... _._ ............................ _....... __

-00

Additional exercises 37-41 (pages 323-2 5)

279


on/off (1)

Phrasal verbs 4 O n and of( fo r ligh ts, machines etc. We say:

the light is on I put the light on I lea\'e the light on etc. turn the light on/off or switch the light on/off

o Shall I leave the lights on or rum them o ff? o ' Is the heating on?' 'No, I switched il oCf: o We need some boiling water, so I'll put the kenle on . Also put on some music I a CD I a video etc. o I haven't listened to this CD yet. Shall I put it o n:

On and off for events etc. go on = hal)l)e"

o What's all that noise? What's going on :

(=

what"s happening)

call someth ing o ff = cancel il o The open air concen had to be called off because of the weather. put something off, pUi off doing something = de/a)' if o The wedd ing has been put off until January. o We ca n't put o ff maki ng a decision. We have to decide now.

On and of( for clothes etc. put on clothes, glasses, makc-up, a scat beh etc. a My hands were cold , so I put my gloves on. A/so put on weight = get beavier a I've pUi on twO kilograms in the last month. try on clothes (to see if [hey fit) o I lricd on a jackct in the shop,

bu~

it did n't fit me very well.

take off clothes, glasses etc. o It was wa rm, so I took off my jacket.

Off = away from a person o r place bc off (to a placc) o Tomorrow I'm off to Pa ris I l' m off on holiday. (= I' m going to Paris J I' m going on holiday ) walk off I run off f drive off f ride off f go o ff !simi lar to wa lk away f run away etc.) o Diane gOt on her bike and rode off. a Mark left home at the age of eighteen and went off to Canada. sel off = $lart a ;ollmey o We set off very early to avoid the traffic. 1= We left early) take o ff = leave the ground (for planes) o After a long delay the plane finally took off. see somebody off = go with them to tlJe airport/station to say goodbye a Helen was goi ng away. We went ( 0 the station with her to see her off.

280

Phrasal verbs 1 (Introduction) _ Un it 137

More verbs + on/o ff -. Unit 14 1


Exercises

Unit 140

140. 1 Complete: the sentences using put on + the following :

a CD

2 3 4 5

the heating

the kettle

-the-ltght-

the oven

It was getting dark. so I ,.. ,,P.gJ_.. _#1.~ ...!MI:tJ.t .g.!L ................... .. It was getti ng cold, so I ....................... .................... ~ I wanted to bake a cake, so I . ...................... I wanted to make some tca , so I ............................................ I wanted to listen to some music. so I ....

140.2 Comp lete the sentences. Each time use a verb + on or off. It was warm, so I ..... ~Q~.....9.f{ ._. m\' jacket. 1 What arc a ll these people doing? What's _ 3 The weather was tOO bad for the plane [0 .......................

...................... _.... _ ..... , so the flight was

delayed. 4 I didn't want to be disturbed, so I . ...........................,_.. _.................... my mobile phone. S Rachel gOt into her car and .... at high speed. 6 Ti m ha s ...... _ ....................................................... weight since I last saw him. He used to be quite thin. - A: \,(/hat time arc you leaving tomorrow? B: I'm nor sure ~'et, bu t I'd like to .. _. .................................................. , as early as possible. S Don't .............................. _......... ___ ........................... until tomorrow what you can do roday, 9 There was going to be a stri ke by bus drivers, but now they have been offered more money and the strike has been .................. _.... _............................................ . 10 Are you cold? Shall I get you a sweater to ____ ...................... _.. _.......................... ? II When [ go away, I prefer to be alone at the station or airport. I don't like it when people come to ......................................... me ........... "............... . 140.3 l ook at the pictures and com plete the sentences.

2

r Her hands were cold. so she .____~t.~.~ _ __9~'!: ~~ .. on

The plane ........................ __

3

4

I .\I.-IRI.-I .\ laria ",_...................... _.. __ -- -------------_............................... but it was toO big for her. 5 __

,

............... _.,_ at 10,55.

The march .............................. because of the weather.

6

h

~tark's

parenrs wenr

[0

the airpon to

.... Additiona l exercises 37-4 1 (pages 323-25)

He rook his sunglasses out of his pocket and

28 1


Unit

141

Phrasal verbs 5 Verb + on

:=

on/off (2)

conti nue doing something

drive on I walk on / play on = continlle lUaikingldrillillglpiayin8 etc. D Shall we StOp at this petrol sration or shall we drive on to the nest one? go on = cQfII;ml e

o The party went on until 4 o'clock in the mo rn ing. go on I carryon (doing something ) =conti1lue (doing something) o We ca n't go on spending money like this. We'll have nothing left soon. D I don't want to carryon working here. I'm going to look fo r another job. Also go on with I carry on with something o Don 't let me diSlUrb you. Please carry on wilh what you're doing.

=

do it COllti'1II 0 llSly or repeatedly keep on doing someth ing o He keeps on criticising me. I'm fed up with it! Gel on gC I on =

progress

o How are

yO li

getting on in )'our new job? (= How is it going?)

=

get on (with somebody) have a good relationship D Joan ne and Karen don 't get o n. They' re alwa ys arguing. D Richa rd gets on well with his neighbours. They're all very fri endl y.

=

get on with something comillll(! doing something yOIl IJa ile to do, lIS1/al/y after an interruption D I must gel o n with my work. I have a lot to do. Verb + off doze off I drop off I nod off = fall asleep D The lecture wasn't very interesting: ln fa ct I dropped o ff in the middle of it. fini sh something off = do the fast part of something D A: Have you finis hed painting the kitchen? B: Nearly. I'lllinish it off tomorrow.

go off = explode D A bomb went o ff in the city centre, but Also an alarm can go o ff riltg D Did you hear the alarm go off?

fo rtuna(el~'

nobody was hurt.

=

put somebody o ff (doing something) = calise somebody " ot to 1I'""t somet/);,tg or to do something D We wanted to go to the exhibition, bU I we were put off by the long queue. D What put you off applying for the job? \'(las the sala ry roo low? rip somebod y off = cheat somebod y (informa/) D Did you really pa y ÂŁ1,000 for that painting? I thi nk rou were ripped off. (= )'ou paid roo much) show o ff = try to impress people with YOllr ability. )'our knolvledge etc. D Look at thar boyan the bike riding with no hands. He's just showing off.

=

tell somebody o ff speak allgrily to somebody becall se they did sometlJiltg Icrong D Cla re's mother told her o ff for wearing dirry shoes in the ho use.

282

Go on I carry on .... Unit 538 Phrasa l verbs 1 (Introduction) .... Unit 131 More verbs + on /o ff .... Uni t 140


Unit 141

Exercises

141.1 Change the und erlined words. Keep the sa me mea ning. but use a verb + on or off.

Did Did 1 The The

you hear the bomb explode? you hear the bomb _ 9.!L 9H _

meeting continued longer than 1 expected . meeting ___ .__________.__ longer than I expected.

3 We didn't srop to rest. We continued waik ioc· We didn't stop to rest. We ____ .______________ . 4 I fell asteep while I was watching TV. I .___ ._.. ___._.... _._ ... ___ ..,,_.... _.. while I was wa~ching TV. S Gary doesn't want to retire. He wants to continue working. Gary doesn't want to reti re. He wantS to _. ___._______.__.__ ._. __ ._._._ working. 6 The fire alarm am: in the middle of the night. The fire alarm ........ _...... _..... _.... __ ................................. _" in the middle of the night. 7 Ylartin phones me continuousl". It's "ery annoying. Marrin ... ~ ................................................. _.~ ............. . It's very annoying. 141 .2 Complete each sentence usi ng a verb + o n or off. We can't ..... 99.... t?r.!..... spending moner like this. We' ll have nothing left soon. 2 I was standing by the car when suddenly the ala rm .......................... _......".............................. _ . 3 I' m nOt read~' to go home yet. I have a few things to .. _.. ______ ._...... __ ._._..... _.... _....... ~. . 4 'Shall I stop the car here?' 'No, _ .. ____ ..:._. _ __ 5 Bill paid too much fo r the ca r he bought. I think he was _ _ _ _ _ __ 6 ' Is Emma en joying her course at university?' 'Yes, she's very well.' 7 I was very tired at work today. I nearly ____ .. __________ .. _.. at my desk a couple of times, _._ by his boss for being late for work repeatedly. 8 Ben was _ _ really wd l together. 9 I rea lly like working with my colleagues. We all __.____ 10 There was a \'Cry lo ud noise. It sounded like a bomb ___ ._~. _________ . 11 I ~ __ ~ _____ .__ .___ making the same mistake. It's very frustrating. 12 I'\'e JUSt had a coffee break, and now I must ........ ____ .. _...."_...... _...... ~ .... _........... with my work. 13 Peter is always tryi ng to impress people, He's always _............................. _.... _........ _·_.~ ... H_·~ __ • 14 We decided not to go into the museum. We were .... _..... _._ ... _... _... _... _..................... by the COSt of tickets. 141.3 Complete the sen tences. Use the following verbs (in t he correct form) + on or off. Sometimes you wi ll need oth er words as well: carry fi nish -getget get go rip tell .~: How ..... !M:~ ... ~~.... g~J·W.9....9.!':!... _ in your new job? 8: Fine, thanks. It's going \'ery well.

. 2 ,\: Have rou written the letter you had to write? B: I've starred it. I'll ..... _. __ ... _ .. __ .. _... ~_. ___ .__ ... __ .__ .___ in the morning, 3 ,\: We took a taxi to the airport. It COSt £40. 8: £40! Normally it COStS about £20. You ___ .__ .____ ................. _.... __ ... _ ......... 4 .~: Why were you late for work rh is morning? B: I overslept. M)' alarm clock didn't 5 ,\: How _ __ in your interview? Do you t hink you'll get the job ? 8: I hope so, The inten'iew was OK. 6 ,\: Did you stop playing tennis when it started to rain? B: No, we _________________ . The rain wasn't very heavy, H

i .-\: Some child ren at the next fable in the restaurant were behaving very badly. B:

8

A: B:

Why didn't their pa rents ...... ~ ...... _........ ~._ .. _ ._._______ ._~ .......... _.. _ ? Why docs Pau l want to lea\'e his job? He ........................ ~_._._ ....... _............. _............... ~ ..... _..... _ his boss.

...... Additiona l exercises 37-41 (pages 323-25)

28 3


Unit

142

Phrasal verbs 6

up/down

Compare up and down : put something up (on a wall etc. ) o 1 put some pictures up on the wall.

take someth ing do wn d rom a wall etc. ) 0 I d idn't like the picture, so I look it down .

pick something up o There was a letter on the floor. I picked it up and looked at it.

put something do wn 0 I stopped writing and put down my pen.

stand up o Alan stood up and walked out.

sit down I bend down f lie down 0 I bent down to tie my shoelace.

turn somet hing up turn something down o I can't hear the TV. Can you 0 The oven is tOO hot. Turn it down __________ ~--___ _ ________- J turn it up a bit? to 150 degrees. Knock down etc. knock down a build ing I blow something do wn I cut something down etc. o Some o ld houses were knocked down to make way for the new shoppi ng cenrre . o Why did you cut down the tree in your garden?

Also be knocked down (by a car etc.) o A man was knocked down by a car and taken to hospital. Down

=getting less

slow down = go m ore slowly o You' re d riving 100 fast. Slow down. calm (somebody) do wn = become calmer. make so m ebod~' calmer o Calm down . There's no point in getting angry. cut down (o n something ) = eat, drink or do somethil1g less ofte" o I' m trying to CUI down on coffee. I drink far tOO much o f it. O ther verbs + down break down = stop working (for mac/Jines, cars, relatiol1ships etc.) o The ca r broke down and I had TO phone for help. o T heir marriage bro ke down after only a few months. close down I sl1ut down = stop doi/Ig bllsiness o Tl1ere used to be a shop at the end of the street: it closed down a few years ago. lei somebody down = disappoint somebody because yo// did,,'t do what they hoped o You can always rely on Pele. He'll 'ne\'er let you down . lurn somebody/somethi ng down = refuse an application, ,m offer etc. o I applied for several jobs, but I was lurncd down for each one. o Rachel was offered the job, bUI she decided TO lum it down. wrile something down = write somethillg on paper becallse )'011 1110)' need the inform.ltioll later o I can't remember Tim's address. I wrote if down, bu t I can't find if.

284

Phrasal verbs 1 (Intro duction) -

Un it 137

More verbs + up - Units 143- 144


Exercises

Unit 142

142 .1 Complete the sentences. Use the fo llowing verbs (in the correct form) + up or down :

calm

2 3 4 5 6

let

pUi

-tske-

tum

turn

I don't like this picture on the wall. I' m goi ng to ..... ~.~ ....iJ; ...49:~t} The music is TOO loud. Can you ._......... . ...... _.... _.... _... . David was very angry. I tried to ........................ _ ............................ ........................... I've bough r some new c urtains. Can rou help me .......................... _ I promised I would help Anna. I don't want to ... _...... ..._.... _.... _._._._ I was offered the job, but I decided 1 didn't want it. So , .........................................................

, .................. ,.

........................ .

142.2 For each pictu re, comple te t he sentences using "a verb + up or down. In most sentences you will need other words as well.

3

1

2 3 4 5 6 7 S

before

before

5

6

4

now

There used to be a tree next to the house, but we .....fÂĽ..t....iJ;.....M..~.!:L.. There used to be some shelves on the wall , but I .._...._ ... _.... _....... _...... ..................... T he ceiling was so low, he couldn't ........................._._ .......... straight. She couldn't hear the rad io very well, so she ......._.... . ......................... . While the~' were waiting for the bus, they ............................................................................................... on the ground. A. few trees ...................... _ ........................................ ... in the storm last week . Sarah ga\'e me her phone number. I ..... ................................................. on a piece of paper. Liz dropped her keys, so she .................... . and ..........................................

14 2.3 Complete each sentence using a verb (in the correct form) + down.

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 -

I stOpped writi ng and ..... pg.~....AA.!'J.!'!..... my pen. I was really angry. It rook me a long time to ...â&#x20AC;˘ ......... _. ___. ____... _... _........................................... _.. . The train ... _.... _.. _.................................... _.......... . _.. as it approached the station. Sarah applied to study med icine at university, but she ............ _ Our car is very reliable. If has never ........................................................... . I need to spend less money. I'm going to .. .................... ................................. on things I don't really need. I didn't play very well. I felt that I had ...... ...................................................... the other players in the team. The shop ................................. _..... ..................... ........ because it was losing money. Th is is a very ugly building. Many people wou ld like it to ............................................................................... . I can't understand why you ........ ........................-.................................................... the chance of working abroad for a year. It would ha\'e been a great experience for you. A: Did you see the accidem? What happened exactly? B: A ma n .................................. _ ....... _.. _.... _...... _.... _.... _..... . by a car as he was crossi ng the road. Peter got married when he was 20, but unfortunately the marriage ......._...........................-..-.................... _.... a few yea rs later.

Addit ional exercises 37-41 (pages 323-2 5)

285


Unit

143

up (1)

Phrasal verbs 7 =

go up I come up I walk up (to . .. J approach o A man came up to me in the street and asked me for money. catch up (Wilh somebody). catch somebod y up = move fas ter ,hall somebody i" (rOIll of )'011 so f lJat yO Il r ea ch them

o I'm not read y to go yel. You go on and I'll catch up with you / 1'11 ca lch yo u up.

=

keep up (with somebody) co"ti/llfe at t lJe sarliI' speed o r fetlel o You 're walking tOO fa st. I can't keep up (wilh you). o You' re doing well. Keep it up ! set up an organisation , (1 company. (1 business, (1 system , a website etc. = stin t it o The govern ment has sct up a committee to investigate the pro blem. :1 hobby, a sport, an activit}, erc. =start doillg it o La ura look up photography a few yea rs ago. She ta kes rea lly good picru res.

take up

fi x up a meeting etc. = arrange il o We've fix ed up a meeting for next

M ond a~'.

=

grow up become an adult o Sa rah wa s born in Ireland but grew up in England . bring up a child = raise, look after a child o Her pa rents d ied when she wa s a child and she was brought up by her grandparents. clean up I clear up I tidy up something = make it clean, tidy etc. o Look at this mess! Who's going to tidy up ? (or tidy it up ) wash up = lvash the plates, dishes etc. after a meal o I hate washing up. (or I hate doing路the washing-up. I end up somewhere, end up doing something etc. o T here was a fi ght in the street and th ree men ended up in hospital. (= that's w hat happened to these men in the e nd ) o I could n't find a hotel and ended up sleeping on a bench at the station. (= tha t's what happened to me in the end ) give up = stop tryil1g, give something up = stop doing it o Don't give up. Keep trying! o Sue got bored with her jo b and decided to give it up. (= stop doi ng it) make up something I be made up o f som~ t h i ng o Child ren under 16 make up half the popu lation of the city. (= half the population arc child ren under 16 ) o Air is made up mainl )' of nitrogen a nd oxygen. (= Air consists o f ... ) take up space o r time = li se space o r time o Most of the space in rhe room was taken up by a large ta ble. turn up I show up = OTTilIe, appear o We arranged to meet Da ve la st night, but he did n't tu rn up. usc somethi ng up = li se all of it so that l/othil1g is left o I' m going to take a few more photographs. I want to usc up the rest of the film .

286

Phrasal verbs 1 (I ntroduction) -

Unit 137

More verbs + up -

Units 142, 144


Exercises

Unit 143

143. 1 l ook at the pictures and comp lete the sentences. Use 1b.!« words each time. including a verb from Section A.

2

A man ............ ~.~...!t.-P..... t:o. .. me in the street Sue ....................................................................................... the and asked me the way to the station. from door of the house and rang the doorbel l. 4

TA~ !\, YA • .

-

PAUL

-)I

Tanya was runn ing too fast for Pa ul. H e couldn't ........................................ _.... _ ....... her. 143.2 Complete the sentences. Use th e fol low ing verbs (in the correct form) + up : ~

cnd

give

give

gro w

ma ke

take

ta ke

turn

use

wash

I couldn't find a hord and ..... ~.4.e4... J~p. ... sleeping on a bench at the station. 1 r m feel ing \'ery tired now. I' ve ".__ ............................................. all my energy. 3 After d inner I ................................... _ ................................ and put the dishes away. 4 People often ask children what they want to be when they . .. ............................. 5 \'(,Ie invited Tim to the pa rty, but he didn't ............. _........ _.......... _._ .... _ ...................... _ . 6 Two yea rs ago i>.'tark .... ............................ _ his srudies to be a pro fessional footballer. 7 .~: Do you do any spans: B: ~Ot at the moment, bur I' m think ing of .............................. _... .. . ..... tenms . S You don't ha \'e enough determination, You ............................................... .......... toO easily, 9 Karen travelled a lot for a few years and .................................................................. in Canada, where she stillli\·es. 10 I do a lot of gardening. It ...................................... . ............. most of my free time. I I T here an.' twO universities in the city, and students ............................................... _..................... 20 per cent of the population. 143.3 Comp lete the sentences. Use the fo llowing verbs + up (with any other necessary words) :

bring

~

fi x

.gWe-

go

keep '

keep

ma ke

SC I

tid y

Sue got bored with her job and decided to ..... 9Y'!.~....i:ti-....\A.P: 1 I'm not read~' yet. You go on and I'll ._.. ~ .. _~.P.....~.@... _. YOll. 3 The room is in a mess. I'd ben er ... _ .................. _..................... 4 We expect to go away on holiday someti me in July, but we haven't .. yet. 5 Stephen is having problems at school. H e can't ................................................ ...... the rest of the class. 6 Although I ................... _................... ............. ............ in the country, I have always preferred cities. 7 Our team started the game well, but we couldn't .................................. _... ... ,and in the end we lost. S I saw Mike at the party, so I ........................................ _ .............................................. him and said hello. ...................... ................ _ twO 9 When I was on holiday, I joined a tour group. The group . Americans, th ree Germans. five Italians and myself, 10 Helen has her own internet website. A friend of hers helped her to . ...... Addi tional exercises 37-41 (pages 32 3-25)

287


Unit

144 Phrasal verbs 8

up (2)

bring up :1 to pic etc. = introduce it ill a C011l 'ersatio ll o I don't want to hear any morc aboUT this maner. Please don't bring it up again. come up

=

be ilttroduced ill a cOlluersatioll o Some interesting matters came up in our discussion yesterda y.

come up with an idea, a suggestion etc. = product all idea o Sa rah is very creali\'c. She's always coming up with new ideas. make something up = invellt something tlJa t is 1I0t trlle o What Kevin told ),ou abou t himself wasn't true. He made it all up.

=

cheer up be happier, cheer somebody up = mak e somebody feel happier o You look so sad! Cheer up! o Helen is depressed ar the moment. What can we do to cheer her up ?

save up fo r somet hing I to do something = save III OII C)' to bl/ )' something o Dan is saving up for a trip round the wo rld.

=

clear up become bright (fo r wear/Jeri o It was raining when I got up, bur it cleared up during the morn ing. blow up = explode. blow something up = destro), it witl] a bom b etc. o The engine ca ught fire and blew up . o The bridge was blown up during the \\'a r. tear something up = tear it illto pieces o I didn't read the letter. I jusr tore it up and threw it away. beat somebody up = hit som eone repeatedly so tbat tbe)' are badl)' hurt o A friend of mine was attacked and beaten up a few days ago. He was badly hun and had to go to hospital.

=

break up / split up (with somebody- ) separate D I'm surpri sed to hear that Sue and Pau l havc split up. They seemed \'cry happy together when I last saw them. do up a coat, a shoelace. bunons etc. = fa stell. t ie etc. o It's qui te cold. Do up your coat before you go out. do up a building, a room etc. = repair and improl'e it D The kitchen looks great now thar it has been done up. look something up in a dictionary/encyclopaedia etc. o If ),ou don't know the meaning oLa word. you can look it up in a dictionary. put up with someth ing = tolerate it o We li\'e on a busy road , so we ha\'e to put up with a lor of noise from the traffic. hold up a person. a plan etc. = delay o Don't wait for me. I don 't want to hold you up. o Plans to build a new factory ha\'e been held up because of the company's financial problems. mi x up people/th ings, get people/rhings mixed up = yOIl think aile is the other o The tWO brothers look very si milar. :\13n y people mix them up. (or ... get them mixed up)

288

Phrasal verbs 1 (Introduction) "" Unit 137

More verbs + up .... Uni ts 142- 143


Exercises 144. 1 Which

Unit 144

goes with which?

I'm going 10 Icar up 2 J ane came up with

A a new ca mera B a lo t of bad weather

3 Paul is alwars mak ing up 4 I think you should do up 5 I don't think you should bring up

C your jacket D an interesting suggestion E excuses F (fle ICHef G that subject

6 I' m savi ng up for 7 We had

(0

put up with

1 _ F_._.

2 3 4

5

6 7

144.2 look at the pictures and complete the sente nces. You will need two or three words each ti me.

~

-,<Y a

::§K: / .~r: til:

m o millg

/

110 // '

1

The weather was horrible this morning, but it's _.. _~~.. J.~p. ..... now.

L/'fit5

I'm

2

w.u..

r;;

Linda was late because she was ............................... ".......... _ in the traffic.

3

Th e~'

bought an o ld house and ________ . It's really nice now.

Pete was really depressed. We took him ou r for a meal to ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

144.3 Complete the sen tenccs. Each time use a verb (in the correct fo rm) + up. Someti mes you will need other words as well. Some interesti ng matters ... *~.~... .!-~p.__. in our discussion yesterday. 2 The ship .. __ .. _... _._ ....... _._ .... * •••..•.....• * .••.•..•..•. _ .•.. and sank. The cause of (he explosion was never discovered. 3 Two men have been arrested after a man was ._......... ....................................................... outside a restau rant lasr night. T he injured man was raken to hospital. 4 'Is Robe rt still going o ut with Tin a?' 'No, they've ....... _...................... _........................ 5 I pur my shoes on and .... __ .. _._ ........ _....... _ ........._..._._........ _.... rhe shoelaces. 6 The wealher is horrible this morning, isn 't it? I hope it .. _.~ .......... __ ....... _._ .. __ .. _._.w_ ....... __.*._ later. - I wanted 10 phone Chris, but I dialled Laura 's number by mistake. I gOI thei r phone numbers 144.4 Complete the sentences. Each time use a verb + up. Sometimes you wil l need ot her words as well. I Don't wait for me. I don't want to ._J10t4_.Y~. _~e.._ . 2 I don't know wha t this word means. I'll have to .__ .~ ___ .___________ • 3 There's nothing we can do about the problem. We'll JUSt have to _ _ _ it. 4 'Was that Story true?' 'No, I * ______ .' 5 I think we s hould follow Tom's suggestion. Nobody has _ ... __ *. _ _ _ _ _ _ ~._*_. ___ a bener plan. 6 I hate this photograph. I'm goi ng to _._.*_ .. _............. ______ .. ____ . 7 I'm trying to spend less money at the moment. I'm ......*.*..... w. __ •. ___ .. *.*.. __ ._._. __ ._*..... a trip to Australia. * _ _ _ _ ._. _ _ _ _ _

- Addi tional exercises 37- 4 1 (pages 323-25)

289


away/back

Phrasal verbs 9 Compare away and back:

away = away from home o We're going away on holiday today.

back = back home

away = away fro m a place, a person etc. o The woman got into her car and drove away. o I fried to rake a pictu re of the bi rd, but it flew a way. D I dropped the ticket and it blew away in the w ind. o The police searched the house and took

back back to a place. a person etc. :J .-\: I'm goi ng OUI now. s: What ti me w ill you be back ? :J After eating :11 :) reStaura nt, we walk ed back to our hOlel. o I\ 路c still got Jane's keys. I forgot to gi\"e them back to her. o When you've finished wi th that boo k. ca n you put it back on the shelf?

away a computer.

In the sa llle way yOLL can say: walk away, run away, look away etc.

o We'll be back in three weeks.

=

In the same way you can say : go back, come back , gC I back, take something back etc.

Other verbs + away get away = escape, lea lie with difficult)' o We tricd to catch the thief, bur he managed to gct away. gct away with something = do somethillg Il'rollg wit/Jollt beillg cOllgh , o I parked in a no-parking zone, but I got away with it. keep away (from ... j = dOli" go lIear o Keep away fro m the edge of the pool. Yo u migh t faU in.

=

give something away give it to somebody else because YOIf do,,'t /l 'a/II it ,m)' more o ' Did you sell you r old compu ter?' 'No, I gave it away: put something away = pilI it ill the place where it is kept, II slIlIlI), Olft of sight o When the c hildren had finished pla ying with their toys, they put them away. throw something away = P"( ;( ;11 (h e rubbish o 1 kept the letter, but 1 threw away the elwelope, O ther verbs + back wave back I smi le back I shout back I write hack I hit so m e bod~' hack a I waved to her a nd she wavcd back.

=

retllru a phone (.111 ca lVphone/ring (some body) back a I can't talk to you now. I'll call you back in ten minutes. gct back to somebodr = reply to them by phone etc. o I sent him :1I1 emai l, but he ne\'er gOt back to me. look back (on somet hing) = think aboll' what bJppetled ill tbe IMSI o M y fi rst job was in a travel agency. I did n't like it \"C'ry much ar rhe rime bur. looking back o n it, I learnt a lot and it was a very usefu l experience. pay back money, pay somebod y back o If you borrow money, you ha\"e [0 pay it back. o T ha nks for lending me the mo ney. I'll pay ~'ou back next week.

290

Phrasa l verbs 1 (Introduction) -- Un it 137


Exercises

Unit 145

145.1 Complete each sentence using a verb in the correct form .

The woman

gOt

into her car and _._4!..9.y.~_._ away.

1 Here's The money you need . .. __.____.__.___ ,__._ me back when you can. 3 Don't ____ ,_. ___ ._._. ___. that box away. If CQu id be useful. 4 Jane doesn't do anyth ing at work. I don't know how she ___ ._

away with it. S I'm going out now. I'll _, ____ ._._._. _______ back at about 10.30. 6 You shou ld think more about the future; don't ___ back all the time. - Gar~' is "cry generous. He won some money in the lonery and .___ ._______.__ .. it all away. 8 I'll .__.__._____.___ ..,__ back 10 you as soon ·as I have [he information you need . H.

145.2 Complete the sen tences. Each time use a verb + away or back . I was a\\' a~' all day yesterday. I .. _.g9.Lp.~ __ n' r~' late.

1 I ha\'cn'( seen ou r neighbours for a while. I thin k ther must _._ ..... _.... _._ .......... _.......... _ .... ~_._._._ .. ___ ._......... _ . 3 ' I'm go ing OUI now." ·OK. \X' hat time will you . ........................................ _.... _...... _.... _ ?' 4 A man was tryi ng to break into a ca r. When he sa w me, he ................... ....................... _............ _... _.. j I smiled at him, bu r he didn't ......................................... 6 If you cheat in the exa m, you might ..................................................... _.................... ... with it. But you might get caugh!. - Be carefu l! That's an electric fence . ... _.... _................................ _....... _........ _................... _ from it .

145.3 look at the pictures and complete the se nt ences.

She wa\'ed to him and he ..... 1'::!~!~._P.~ ..... .

h was windy. I dropped a twenty-pound note and it

4

Sue opened the letter, read it in and .. ~.~__ the envelope.

6

He tried to talk to her. but she JUSt .......... _ ............ _............ _.......

Ellie th rew the ball to Ben and he ..................~ ......................

His shoes were worn out, so he ............... _.. _......... _..................... .

145.4 Complete the sentences. Use the verb in brackets + away or back. I A: Do you sti ll ha ve my keys? 8: :--Jo. Don't you remember? I _.g~!..e th~~~__ to you yesterday? (give) 1 A: Do you want this magazine? R: No, I' ve finished with it, You can ... __ ._. ____ . (t hrow ) 3 .-\: How are you r new jeans? Do they fit you OK? 8: No, I'm goi ng to ... ____ ~_~ __ "_._. ________ to the shop. (take) 4 .0\; Here's the money you asked me to lend you. R: Than ks. I' ll ~H .~ ~_H as soon as I can. (pay) 5 .-\: What happened to all the books ),ou used to have? 8: I didn't want them any more. so I __ .~ .... _.~ ...... _ ....... __ ................ __ ... _....... ~.~ ... _.. , (give) 6 A; Did you phone Sa rah ? 8: She wasn't there. I left a message asking her to ........ _ ................................ _ ....... _ .................................. . (ca ll ) ........._

. . . _ . _ _ _ _ _ _ ••• _ _ _ • _ _

-- Additiona l exercises 37- 41 (pages 323-25)

____

29 1


Regular and irregular verbs 1.1

Regular verbs

If a verb is regular, the past si mple and past participle end in -cd. For example: clea n

infinitive

past simple ) I d , ' I ccane IJost porf lClp e

fi nish

usc

pai nt

Sl Op

carry

fini shed

used

paimed

SlOpped

carried

For spelling rules, sec Appendix 6. For the past simple (I cleaned I they fini shed I she carried Ctc.). see Uni t 5. We use the past parficil}le to make the perfect lenses and all the passive fo rms. Perfect tenses (havc/has/had cleaned ):

o [ have cleaned the windows. (presell( perfect - see Un its 7-8) o T hey wcrc still work ing. T hey had n't fini shed. (past perfect - see Unit 15) Possil//! (is cleaned I was cleaned etc. );

o He was carried out of (he room. (pas t simple passil'cJ ) U ' 42 44 , ' I see nits ' d . (presellt per/cct o Th 'IS gate has 'lust bcen palnte passll'C 1.2

Irregular verbs

When [he past simple and past participle do the verb is irregular.

/lo t

end in -ed

~for

example, 1 S3W I I h3\'e seen ),

With some irregular verbs, 311 three forms \infillitive, past simple and past participle) are the sa me. For example, hil : o Don't hit me. (infillitive) o Somebody hit me as I came into the room. (past simple) o I've neve r hit anybody in m}' life. (past participle - present perfect) o George wa s hit on the head by a stone. (past participle - passll'el With olher irregu lar verbs, t he past simple is the same as the pa st participle ~bur difierent from the infinitive). For ex ample, tell - told : . o Can you tell me what to do? (infillitive) o She told me to come back the next day. (past simple) o Have you told anybody about your new job? (past participle - presellt perfect) o I was told to come back the next da y. (past particilJ/e - passille) With other irregular verbs, all three forms are different. Fo r example, wake o I'll wake you up. (infinitive) o I woke up in the middle of the night. (pas t simple ) o The baby has woken up. (past participle - presellt perfect} o I was woken up by a loud noise. (pas t participle - passll'e) 1.3

wokcJwoken:

The following verbs can be regular or irregular: burn dream lean learn

---

burned dreamed leaned learned

0' burn l 0' dreamt Idremt] · 0' leanl !lent] · 0 ' learnt

smell spell spill spoi l

--

smelled 0 ' spel1ed 0 ' spilled 0 ' spoiled 0 '

smelt spelt spill spoilt

• pro1/ /fl1ciJtioll

So you can say: o I lean I a li i of Ihe wi ndow. or I leaned out of the window. o The dinner has been spo iled. o r The dinner has been spoilt . In British English the irregu lar for m (bumtllearn l etc.) is more usua l. For America n Engl ish, scc Appendix 7.

292


Appendi x 1 List of irregular verbs

1.4

fi i

//I 11 it 1'<'

P.IS/ simple

pJst p.miciple

""b<"

was/were beat

become

became

()asf simfJ/e

b,,,"

light

IiI

beaten

lose make

lost

Inea n meet

mean!

begin

began

become begun

b<nd b<, bite blow

b<m b<,

b<n' b<,

bit blew

break bring broadcast

build

broke brought broadCast built

bitten blown bro ken brought

burst

burst

bu ~·

bought caught chose

burst bought caught chosen

"Y

came

come

send

saw sought sold sem

COSt

cost c rept

'" 'Ow

sewed

shake shine

shook shone

·shoot show shrin k shut sing sink sit sleep slide speak spend spit split spread spring stand steal sti ck stin g stink strike swear sweep swim swing take teach tear tell think throw und erstand wake wear wee p win write

shot showed shrank shut sang sank

catch choose come cost creep , u, deal di g do draw drink drive

crept

w,

dea lt

dealt dug done drawn dru nk dri\"en eaten fallen (,d ie ll fough t found n,d fl own forbidd en forgotte n forgive n froze n go< given gone grown hung h,d heard hidden hit held h un kept knelt known laid I,d Id, lent I" la in

dug did d rew drank drove

'" iell

feed fee l figh, find

(,d

forbid forget forgi,"e freeze g« gi\"e go gro w hang ha,"e hear hid e hit ho ld hurt keep kn eel kn ow l a~"

lead

lca\"c lend 1« lie

broadcast built

,m

'"fall

ft" fly

I

illfillitille

felt fought iound n,d flew forbade forgot fo rgave froze go< ga\"e went grew hung h,d heard hid hit held hurt kept knelt knew laid I,d left lent 1« lar

P'Y

made

m" paid

past participle iii lost made meant

m" paid

pu,

pm

pu,

"read

read [red) rode

rcad [red )·

fang

rung

ride nng ri se ,u"

'"seck sell

ridden

m~

risen

"" said

run

~,

'"

s lept slid spoke spent spat split spread sprang stood stole stuck nung stank str uck swore swep t swam swung

'ook taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore wept won wrote

said secn

sought sold sent

'"

sewn/sewed shaken shone shot shown/showed shrunk shut sung sunk

'"

slept slid spoken spent spat split spread sprung

,,000 stolen stuck stung st un k struck sworn swept swum swung taken taug ht torn told thought thrown understood woken worn wept won wrinen

.. pronu/lciation

293


Present and past tenses present

simple

COft/jllI/ OIl S

I do

I a m doing

prese," simple (- Units 2-4 )

present co"t;mlOIlS (- Units 1. 3-4) D 'Where's Ann?'

o Ann often plays tcnnis. a I work in a ban k, but I don 't enjoy it much. a Do you like parties? o It docsn't rain so much in summer.

presellt perfect

working. D Hello. Arc you enjoying the parry? D It isn't ra ining at the moment.

I have been doing present perfect cOlltill//o//s

I have done

prese11t perfect simple (- Units 7-8, 10-14 )

(- Units 9- 11) D Ann is tired. She has been playing tennis. o You 're our o f brea th. Hal'e ~'ou been running? o How long hal'e you been learning English? :J It's still rai ning. It has been raining all day. o I haven't been feeling well recendy. Perhaps J should go to the doctor.

o An n has played tennis many times.

o I've losl my key. Have you secn it

an ywhere? o H ow long have you and Chris known each other? o A: Is it still raining? B: No, it has stopped. o The house is d irty. I haven't cleaned it fo r weeks.

past

I was doing past cOlltill/tOlIS (- Unit 6) :J J saw Ann a t the sportS centre

I did

past simple (- Units 5-6,13-14 ) o Ann played tennis yesterday

afternoon.

past perfect

o I lost my key a few da ys ago.

o

o There was a fi lm o n TV last night, but we didn 't watch it. o What did you do when you fi nished work yesterday?

o

I had done

a a

It wasn't her first game of tennis. She had played many times before. They cou ldn 't get into the ho use because they had lost the key. The house was dirty because I hadn't cleaned it for weeks.

Fo r the pa ssive, see Units 42- 44.

294

o

yesterday. She was playing tennis. I dropped Illy key when I was trying to open the door. The television was on, but we weren 't watching it. W hat were you do ing at this time yesterda y?

II had been doing past perfect conti"lIolls (- Unit 16 )

past perfect (- Unit 15)

a

'She's playing tennis:

D Please don't d isturb me now. I'm

D Ann was tired yesterday evening because she had been playing tennis in the a fternoon.

I

D George decided to go to the doctor because he hadn't been feeli ng welL


The future 3. 1

List of {" fllre forms:

o I'm leaving tomorrow.

present continuous

o My train leayes at 9.30.

present simple (be) going to

o o o o o

3.2

I'm going to leave tomorrow. "II leave tomorrow. I'll be leaving lomorrow. I'll have left by this time tomorrow. I hope to see you before I leave tomorrow.

will (utllre continllOIf$

(IItllre perfect prese'" simple

(-((((((-

Un it 19A ) Uni t 198) Units 20, 23) Units 2 1-23) Unit 24) Uni(24) Unit 25)

Future actions We usc the presem continuous (I'm doing) for arrangements: o I'm leaving tomorrow. I' ve gOt my plane ticket. {a lready plan ned and arranged) o 'When arc they getting married?' 'On 24 July: We use the present simple (1Ic3\'c I it leaves etc.) for timetables, programmes etc. : o M y train leaves at 11.30. (according to the timetable) o What time docs the fi lm begin ? We use (be ) going 10 ... to say what somebody ha s already decided to do: o J\ 'C decided nO( to stay here any longer. t' m going 10 leave tomorrow. (or I'm lcaving tomorrow.) o 'Your shoes arc dirty: 'Yes, I know. I'm going to dean thcm: We use will (,II) when we decide or agree to do something at the time of speaki ng: I don't waO[ you to stay here any longer. 8: OK. )'11 Icave tomorrow. (8 decides this at the timc of spea king) o That bag looks heavy. I' ll help you with it. o I won't Icll anybody what happened. I promise. (won 'l =will nOI)

=.-\:

3.3

Flltll re happe1li1lgs a1ld situations

;""I ost oftcn wc use will to ta lk about future happenings ('somethi ng will happen ') or si tuations fsomc thing will be'): o I don't thi nk John is happy at work . I think he'lllcavc soon. o This time next ~'ca r I'll be in Japan. Where will you be? We use (be ) going 10 when the situation now shows what is going to happcn ill the future: D Look at those black clouds. It's going to ~ain . (you ca n sec the clouds now) 3.4

Flltu re continuOIlS and fllture perfect

Will be (do ling = will be in the midd le of (doing somcthing): o This lime next wcek I'll be on holiday. I'll be lying o n a beach or swimming in the sea. We also use will be -ing for future actions (see Unit 24C): o What time wi ll you be leaving tomorrow ? We use will have (donel to say that something will already be complete before a ti me in the future: o I won't be here this time tomorrow. I'll have already left . 3.5

We use the preseflt (flot will) aftcr when/ifl while/bcfore etc. (sec Unit 25): o I hope to see you before I leave tomorrow. (no t before I willieavel o When you arc in London again, come and see us. ("ot When you will bel o If we don'l hurry. we'll be late.

295


,

Modal verbs (can/could/will/would etc.) This appendi x is a summary of modal \'erhs. For more informat ion, sec Units 2 1-4 1.

4.1

Compare can/could etc. for an ions: o 1 can go o u( ronight . (_ there is nothi ng can could

to Stop me) o I can't go out tonight. o I could go OUI TOnight. but I'm not very keen. e I couldn't go our last nigh t. (= I wasn't able)

ca n or o ~aany } I go ou t ronigh r? ( = do YO ll allow me) may will/ wo n', o I thin k I'll go out tonight. o I prom ise I won't go Out .. would o I would go out to night , but 1 ha \'c t OO muc h to do. o I prom ised I wouldn 't go Out. o Shalll go out tonight? Ido ~'O U think it is a good idea ?) shall

should or ought to must

needn't

o I Ishouhld 1go out tonight . 1= it would be a good t hing to do) oug llO J' o I must go Ouf lOn ighL (_ it is necessa ry ) o I mustn't go o ut tonight. (= it is necessa ry that I do 1Iot go o ut ) o I needn 't go o ur ronigh I. {= it is not necessa ry)

I

:

Com pa re cou ld have .,' I would have ... etc. ;

4.2

could wo uld

0 I co uld have gone out last night. but I decided ro Sta y a t home, 0 I wo uld have gone out last night. but I had tOO muc h to do.

should or o ught to needn ',

0

11shouhld 1have gone Out laSI night. I' m sorr\' I didn't. o ug I (0

.

0 [ needn't have gone out last night.

(=

I went

OU I ,

but it was no, neces5.:1 ryl

We use wilUwou ldlmay etc. to sa y w hether something is possible. im possi ble. proba ble. certai n etc. Compa re; will would

0 'Wha t time wiJ1 she be here?' 'She'll be here soon.' 0 She would be here now, but she's been dela yed.

should or oughl 10 may or might or could mUSI ca n'l

o

She

1sho uld h a ug t

) be here soon,

I 10

(=

I expect she W.ill be here soo n !

may might be here now. I'm nOt sure. (= it's possible that she is here ! could 0 She must be here. I sa w her come in. 0 She ca n't possibly be here. I know for certai n that she's a way on ho l i d a ~',

o

She

Com pare would have .. . I sho uld have .. , etc. ; will would should or oughl to may or might or could mUSI can 'l

296

o o

o

She will havc a rri ved b~' now. (= before now I She would ha ve arrived ea rlier, but she was de l a~'ed,

1

I wonder where she is. She I shouhld havc arrh'cd b\路 now, oug lto f .

o She

1:~:ht I havc arriycd. I'm not sure,

(= It'S poSSible that she has a rrl\cd l could o She nluSI havc arrived by now. (_ I'm sure - Ihere is no other possi bilityl o She can't possibly have a rrived yet, It's much tOO ea rly, (= it's impossible)

I

I

I


I you've I didn't etc.)

Short forms (I'm 5. 1

In spoken English we usu:llly S3y I'm I you've I didn 't Ctc. (sbort forms or COlltractions) rather than I am J you have I did not etc. We also use these shon forms in informal writing (for example, a lettcr or message ro a friend ). \'(' hen we write shon forms. we use an apostrophe (') for the missing 1ener(s): I'm I a m you\'c you MH" didn't = did nQt

=

5.2

=

List of short forms:

.m = am

I'm

's = is or has

he's

she's

it's

you 're

're = are

've = have '11 = wi ll 'd = would or had

I've

I'll I'd

he' ll he'd

she'll she'd

you've you'll

you'd

we're we 've we'll we'd

they're they've they'll they'd

's can be is o r has:

o She's ill.

(=

She is ilL)

o She's gone away. t= She has gone ) bllt let's = let us: o LeI's go now. (= lei us go) 'd .:an be would or had: o I'd see;! doctor if I were you. (= I would see) o I'd ne\'er seen her before. (= I had never seen) \'(,Ie use some of these short forms (especia lly 's l after question words (who/what etc.) and after thatllherelhcre: who's what's \\'here's how's that's there's here's who'll there'll who'd o 'W ho's that woman over there? i= who is) o \"h at's ha ppened? (= what has I o Do you think there'll be many people at the pa rty ? i= there will ) W,Ie also use short fo rms (especiall~' '5) a (ter a noun: o Catherine's going ou t tonight. (= Catherine is) o My best fri end 's just got married. (= :VI)' best friend has) You cannot use 'm J 's / 're I've J ' II / 'd at the en d of a sentence (because the verb is stressed in thi s position): D 'Arc )'OU tired?' 'Yes, I am .' ( llot Yes, I'm.) o Do you know where she is? ( ll o t Do you know where she's?) 5.3

:\'egative short forms isn't aren't wasn't weren't

(= (= (= (=

can't won't shan't

(= cannot) (= will not )

is not) a re not ) wa s not) were not )

(= shall not)

don't doesn't didn 't

t= do not ) (= does not) (= did not)

haven't hasn't hadn't

(= have not) (= ha s not) (= had not)

couldn't wouldn 't shouldn 't

(= could not) (= would not) (= shou ld not )

muStn 't needn't daren't

(= mUSt not ) (= need not) t= dare nOl)

;..legative shorr forms fo r is and are can be: he isn't / she isn't / it isn't or he's not / she's not / it's not you aren't / we a ren't / they aren't or you're not I we're not J they' re no t

297


Spelling 6.1

Nou ns, verbs and adjectives can have the following endings: nou n + ·sJ-cs (pllfral) verb + -sl-es (after helshelit ) verb + -ing verb + -cd adjective + ocr (comparative) adjective + -cst (s l/per/ative) adjective + -Iy (adverb)

ideas

books work s working worked cheaper cheapest cheaply

enjoys

enjoying enjoyed quicker qu ickest quickly

matches washes washing washed brighter brightest brightly

When we use these endings, there afC sometimes changes in spelling. These cha nges a re listed below. 6.2

Nou ns and verbs + -sloes T hc e nding is -cs when the word ends in -s/-ss/-shl-ch/-x: bus/buses miss/misses wash/washes match/ma tches search/sea rches box/boxes Note a lso: potato/potatoes d o/does

6.3

tomatoltomatoes go/gocs

Words end ing in -y (baby, carry, easy etc.) If a word ends in a

COIIS01lOIl ( ·

+ Y (-by/-ry/-sy/-\'y etc.)

y changes to ie before rhe ending -$: babylbabies story/stories hurry/hurries srudy/studies

eountry/counrries apply/a pplies

secreta ry/sccreta ries try/tries

y changes to i before the ending -cd: st udy/studied hurry/hurried

a pply/applied

tryhried

y changes to i befo re the end ings -er and -eSl: eas y/ea sier/ea siest hea vy/hea vierlhea viest

[uc k y/luck ier/llic k iesl

y cha nges TO i before rhe end ing ·Iy: easy/easily heavy/he:l\'il y

tempora ry/tcm pora rily

y docs 110 1 change before -ing: hurrying studying applying

trying

y docs 110 1 change if rhe word ends in a Iioll'el" + y I-ay/-ey/-oy/-uy): play/ plays/played monkey/monkeys enjoy/enjoys/enjoyed An exceptio n is: day/dail y .., Note also: pay/pa id layllaid 6.4

say/said

Verbs end ing in -ie (die, [ie, tie) If a verb ends in -ie, ie changes 10 y before the ending -ing: die/dying lie/lying rj elrying

• a e i 0 U Me l"Owe/lem·r$. The othe r lem'rs (b c d f g el(.) ar("

298

{OIISOllll1lt

Itturs.

buy/buys


Appendix 6 6.5

\'(Iords ending in -e (hope. da nce. wide etc.)

Verbs If a \'crb cnds in -c. we le.:lxe out e before the end ing -ing: hope/hopi ng smile/smi ling dance/dancing con fu se/confusing Exceptions are belbeing a lld verbs ending in -ee:

see/seeing -' agree/agreeing If a verb ends in -e. we add -d for the past (of regu lar verbs): hope/hoped smi le/smiled danccldanced confuse/confused

Ad;ectil'es alld adl 'erhs

Ii an adiective ends in -e. \n' add -r and -S I for [he com para tive a nd su pe rlative: wi de/wider/wi dest la te/la ter/latest Ia rge/la rger/la rgest If an adjecri\'e ends in -e. we keel' e before -ly in the adverb: polite/pol itely

extreme/extremely

absolute/absolutely

If an ad jecri\'e ends in -Ie (simple. terrible elc.) , the adverb end ing is -ply , -bly etc. : simple/simply terrible/terri bly rea sona blclreasona bly 6.6

Doubling consonants (Slo p/Slopping/Slopped . wet/wetter/wettest etc.) Sometimes a word ends in l'OWe! + consonallt. For exa mple: stop plan rub big wet rhin prefer regret Before the endi ngs -ingl-edJ-cr/-est, we double the consonant at the end. So p n - nn etc. For exa mple: SlOp pla n wb big wet th in

P

- ""

pp

-

n -

b g r n -

-

bb gg rr

nn

stopping plann ing rubbing bigger wetter thinner

pp,

stopped pla nned rubbed biggest wettest thi nnest

If the word has morc than onc syllab le (prefcr, begin erc.), we double the consona nTat the end ollly if the final syllable is stressed: preFER / preferring I preferred perM IT I permitl ing / permi tted reGRET / regretting I regretted beG IN I beginning

If the final syllable is not stressed, we do I/ ot double the fin al consonant: VISit I visi ting I \'isited H APpen I happening I happened

deVEl op I developing! developed r~MEMber I remembering / remembered

In British Engl ish, verbs end ing in -I have -11- before -ing and -ed whether the final syllable is stressed or not: tra vel / travell ing I travelled cancel I cancell ing / cancelled For American spelling, sec Appendix 7. Note that we do I/Ot double the final consonanr if the word ends in two consonants (-n, -Ip, -ng ere.): sta rt ! starting' sta rted help I helping / hel ped long /Ionger / longest we do 1I0t double the fi nal consonanr if there a re two vowel letrers before it (-oil. -eed etc.): boil / boiling I boi led need / need ing / needed explain / explaining / explai ned cheap ! cheaper! cheapest loud I louder ! loudest quiet ! quieter I quietest we do 110 t double y or w at the end of words. (At the end of words y and w arc not conson a nrs.) new / newer / newest grow I grow ing Stay / sta ying I sta yed

299


American English T here a re

3

few grammatical differences between British English and America n Engl ish:

Unit

BR IT ISH

AMERICAN

7A-B

The present perfect is used for an action in rhe past with a resuir now: a I've lost my key, Have you seen it?

The prescllt per(ect O R past simple can be used: o I've lost my key. Have you seen it: or I lost my key. Did you see it? gone our . II "Isn •t here. She's Sh D Say c went out. The prescm perfecl O R past simple can be used: I've jus t had lun.:h. o I III not hungry. I "lust h a d Iunc h . a A: What time is Mark lea ving? He has already left . . He already left . o Have you fi nished your work yet: Did you fini sh you r work yet ~ 0'

,nd 13A

a Sa lly isn't here, She's gon e out. T he preseflt perfect is used with JUSt, already and yet: ' o I' m not hu ngry, I've JUSt had lunch. a

A: B:

What ti me is Mark leaving? He has already left .

o Have you fi nished your work yet ?

!

.

!

'" !

17C

British speakers usually say: have a bath have a shower have a break have a holiday

America n speakers say: take a barh take a shower rake a vacation rake a brea k

2 10 and 22 D

Will or shall can be used with Uwc: 0 I wilVshali be late t his evening. Shall I ... ? and shall we .. ' ? arc used to ask for advice etc. : o Which way shall we go?

Shall is unusual: o I will be lOire rhis e\'ening, Should I .. , ? and should we ... ? are more usual to ask fo r ad\'ice erc. : o Which way sho uld we go?

28

Bri tish speakers use can 't to say they believe someth ing is not proba ble: o Sue hasn't contacted me. She can 't have gO I my message,

American spea kers use must nor in this situation: o Sue hasn't contacted me, She must nOl have gotten m ~' message.

32

YOLI can usc needn't or don't need to: o We needn't hurry. or We don 't need to hurry.

Needn 't is unusua l. The usual form is don 't need to: a \'(Ie don't need to hurry.

34A-B

After demand, insist etc. you can use should : a I demanded that he shou ld apologise. a We insisted that somethi ng should be done about the problem,

The silbilfllctille is normally used. Should is unusual after demand, insist ctc. : o I demanded that he apo logize, · a We insisted that somethi ng be done about the problem,

S IB

British speakers gene rally use Have you ? I Isn't she? erc. o A: Liz isn't feeli ng well. 8: Isn't she? What's w rong with her~

American spea kers generally use You have: I Sh e isn't? etc. : o A: Liz isn't fee ling wel l.

Accommodation is usually uncounrable: o There isn't enough accommodatio n.

Accommodation can be cou nrable: a T here aren't enough accommodations.

70B

1'1: She isn'l ? Wh:II's wfong wllh

• MallY \'('rbs ('nding in -i~ In Bnllsh English lapologisdorg3niseJspc;:13lise cle.) art $pth wifh -ue (apologi zeJorganiz.e/specialiu tiC,) in American English.

300

her:


Appendi x 7

I Unit -4 B

-9C

I

BRITISH

AMERICAN

to/in hospital jwirhout the):

to/in the hospi tal : o Three people were injured a nd taken 10 thc hospital.

o Three people were injured and laken 10 hospi tal. Nouns like go\'cm mcntilcam/(a mil y etc. ca n have a singular or plu ral verb: o The Icam is/are playi ng wel l.

These nouns normall y take a singula r verb in American English: o The learn is playing well.

3t Ihe weekend f at weekends: o WiU you be here at the weekend ?

on the weekend I on weekends: o Wi ll you be here on the weekend ?

at the front I a t the back (of a group etc.): :J Let's sit at t he front (of the ci nemal.

in the front I in Ihc back (of a group etc.): o Let's si t in t he front (of the movie thea ter).

IJ IC

different from o r different to: o It was di fferent fromlto what I'd expected.

different from or different th an; o It was d ifferent from/tha n w hat I'd expected .

132A

writ e to some body; o Please write to me soon.

write (to ) somebody (with or w ithout to ); o Please write (to) me soon.

137..\

British speakers use both round and aroilnd ; a He turned round. 0 ' He turned a round .

America n speakers use a round (not usua lly 'round ') o He turned a round .

13iC

British speakers usc both fill in a nd fi ll out; :J Ca n you fi ll in this form? 0' Ca n you fill Out this fo rm?

America n speakers use fi ll out; o Ca n yOll fi ll o ut this fo rm ?

1418

get o n = progress o How are YOll getti ng on in your new job? get on (with somebody I: o Richa rd gets on well wi th his new neighbou rs.

American speakers do not use get on in this way. get along (with somebody ); o Richa rd gets along well w ith his new neighbors.

do up a room etc. ; o The kitchen looks great now th at it has been done up.

do over a rOO lll etc. : o The kitchen looks great now that it has been done over.

I 11 18

I 124 D

, .

,

144D

Appendix BRITISH

AMERICAN

I.J

T he verbs in this section (burn, spell etc.) can be regular or irregular (b urn ed or bu rnt , spelled or spell etc.) .

T he verbs in this section are norma lly regular (bu rned, spelled elc.).

The past partici ple of gel is got; o Your Engli sh has got much better. (= has become much better ) H ave got is :llso an alternative to have; o I've gOt twO brothers. ( = I have twO brothers.)

T he past participle of get is gotten: o Your Engli sh has gotten m uc h better.

British spell ing; travel - travell ing I travelled cancel - cancelling I cancelled

America n spell ing: rravel - traveli ng I traveled cancel - ca nceli ng I ca nceled

6.6

H ave got = have (as in British English); o I've gal twO brothers.

- 301


Additional exercises These exercises are divided into the following sections:

Present and past (Units 1-6) Preselll and past (Units 1- 14) Presenl and past (Un its 1- 17) Past conti nuous and used to (U nits 6, 18) The future (Uni ts 19-25) I>ast, prescnt and futu re (Units 1-25) Modal verbs (canlmusu'would etc.) (Units 26-36) if (conditional ) (Un its 25. 38- 40) Passive (Un its 42- 45 ) Reported speech (Units 47-48, 50) -ing and infi nitive (Units 53-66) ala n and th e (Units 69-78) Pronouns and determiners

Exercise 1 Exercises 2- 4 Exercises 5-8 Exercise 9 Exercises 10-13 Exercises 14- 15 Exercises 16- 18 Exercises 19-2 1 Exercises 22-24 Exercise 25 Exercises 26-28 Exercise 29 Exercise 30 Exercise 3 I Exercise 32 Exercise 33 Exercise 34 Exercise 35 Exercise 36 Exercises 37- 41

(Units 82-9 1)

Ad jectives and :ldvcrbs (Units 98-108) Conj unctions (Un its 25, 38, 112- 118) Prepositions (time) (Units 12, 119- 122) Prepositions (position etc.) (Units 123-12 8) Nou n/adjective + preposition (Units 129-13 1) Verb T preposition (Units 132- 136 ) Phrasa l verbs (Units 137- 145)

Un its 1-6, Appendix 2

Present and past

Put the Verb into the correct form : prese!)t simple (I do) , present co ntin uous (I am doing) , past simple (I did) or pa st continuous (I was doing).

I 2 3 4 5 6

. 't.

.....M .... _H ......

7 S 9 10

..

We can go OUI now. It ..... ~.r.L .....~~9 ..... ( nOl I rain ) any more. Catherine ..... ~Ig? ...~.~.ik.1'J9 ..... (waitl for me when 1 .... Jy.:r..ir.楼.~..... larri'路el. I .................................................................. (get) hungry. Let's go and have something to ear. What ................................................................... _. (you I dOl in ~'our spa re time? Do yo u ha\'e any hobbies? The we:lIher wa s ho rrible when we .. ............................................ (a rrive). It wa s co ld and it .......".. __ .......... ~ .......... _............................... (rain) hard. Lou ise usually _.. __ .. _ (phone I me on Frid a~'s, but she ~ (not I phone I last Friday. A: When l last saw rou, you _. __ ...... _ ....... _............ ~ .......... ~. (think ) o f movi ng to a new 1111. 8: That's right, but in the end I _________ .... _.............. _..... _~. (decide) to Sta y where I was. Why ... _H_ ....H.H _____ .~ (you ( lookl al me like thai? What's the matter? It's usuallr dry here at th is time of rhe yea r. h .________ ~ ___._ Inot I rain l much. Thc phone .___ ._._. ____ .~ __ ...______ Iri ng) thrce rimes whi le we ______ .. __________ _ .........._

.... _

.... __ .. _

..... _

.. _._ ..

M ..

(ha ve) dinner last night. 11 Linda was busy when we ____._.__.__.__.__ .__ . (go) to see her yesterday. She had an exa m today and she __________ ._. _____ .. (prepare ) (or i(. We ... _______________ _ (not I want) to distu rb her, so we _. ___ ... _..... _.... _. __ ._. _ _ _ (nor I Star) "cry long. 12 When I fi rst ~_~._ .... ~ ................ _ ..... ~_.M._~._ .. _. (tell ) Tom the news, he .."...... _ ...... __ ...... _... ~_ .. _M._. __ ... ~. (not I believe) me. He .~.~ ......... ~ ... __ .. ~. (thi nk ) thai I .. ~ ......................... _.......... _路~ lio keL M

302

..........

__ . _

.

M . . . . M路M . . . . _

..


Additional exe rcises

Present and past 2

Which is correct ?

2 3 4 S 6 7

S 9

10 11 12

13 14 15 16

17 18 3

Units 1-14, Appendix 2

herything is going well. \V./e didA ', hAve I haven't had any problems so far. (haven't had is correct) Lisa didn't INI ha sn't Gone to work yesterday. She wasn't feeling well. Look~ That man O\'er there wears 1 is weariDl: the same sweater as you, Your son is much taller than when J la st saw him. He grew 1 has grown a lot, J still don't know what [Q do, I didn't decide 1 haven't decided )'et. 1 wonder why Jim is 1 is being so nice to me today. He isn't usually like thar. Jane had a book open in iro nt of her, bur she didn't read / wasn't reading ir. I wasn't \'ery busy. I didn't ha\'e 1 wasn't having much to do. It begi ns' It's beginnimJ to get dark. Shall I turn on the light? After leaving school, Tim got 1 has got a job in a factory. \'<' hen Sue heard the news, she wasn't / hasn't been very pleased. This is a nice restaurant, isn't it? Is thi s the first time you arc' you've been here? [need a new job. I' m doin g / I've been doing the same job for toO long. 'Anna has gone out.' 'Ob, has she? What time did she go! has she gone?' 'You look tired: 'Yes, 1\ '(' pla\'ed I !'n ; heen playing basketball.' W here a rc \'o u com ing I do vou come from~ Are you America n ? I'd like to see Tina again. It's a long time since I saw her I that I d idn't see her. Robert and ~<laria have been married since 20 rears / for 20 years.

Complete each question using a suitable verb.

I :\: I'm looking for Pau!' ..... H.~.y..~....!jQg .... :'!.~~ ... him? B: Yes, he was here a moment ago. 2 :\: \,(!hy .....4!4._.!:$.W......9.Q..... to bed so early last night? B: J was feeling \路ery tired. J ... : Where ....... _ B: JUSt to the POSt box. I want to pOSt these leners. I'l l be back in a few minutes. 4 .... : ................................................................................... ............. television every evening? B, No, only if the re's something specia l on. 5 :\: Yo ur house is \路err beautifu l. H ow long ._ ... _......... _................ _......._ ........ _.... _.........._ ........................... here? B, !'\early ten rears. . . .................... _.... __ a DIce tLtne. 6 .... : How was your holiday? Yes, thanks. It was great. 7 .... : .. _ J ulie recently? Yes, I met her a few da~'s ago. 8 A: Can you describe the woman you saw? What ........................................................................................................... ? B, A red sweater and black jeans . 9 .... : I' m sorry to keep you \\'ai ri ng. .............. long? No, only abou t tcn minutes. 10 How long .............. ................................................................................ you to get to work in the morning? Usua ll y about 45 minutes. It depends on the t raffic. I I A: ......... with thar magazine yet? B: No, I'm still read ing it. J won 't be long. .............................. to the Un ited States? B: No, never, but [ went to Canada a few years ago.

,

" " " " "

303