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Restoring Authenticity Through Adaptive Reuse Evan Rotenberger


Thesis presented to the Faculty of the Department of Architecture College of Architecture and the Built Environment Philadelphia University

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE

Thesis Research Faculty Thesis Studio Instructor Susan FrostĂŠn

Academic Advisor: Carol Hermann

Professional Advisor: Jim Cassidy

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania May 2013


// Table of Contents: PART ONE: Position Paper ...............................................................................8 Investigative Methods...................................................................16 Site & Context...............................................................................26 Program Development ................................................................34 Objectives ....................................................................................48 Appendix .....................................................................................50 Bibliography..................................................................................52

PART TWO: Site Analysis ................................................................................56 Case Studies ...............................................................................72 Programming................................................................................78 Design Development....................................................................84 Urban Integration/Master Planning ..............................................94 Exterior & Interior Studies/Adaptive Reuse................................100

PART THREE: Reflection Paper ........................................................................124


//Abstract: Architecture is designed off the basis of a life-cycle. Each building designed, is created with intent of fulfilling a required service for a specified period of time, but what happens when that time period has expired? There are a mass of buildings that lay dormant after their life-cycle has been fulfilled. Historic buildings hold the true heritage of place; without a sense of purpose in their community, these buildings will slowly diminish into extinction. The reuse of historic buildings, to incorporate new programs and contemporary materials, can highlight and restore the authentic values that they possess. Through specific understandings of site history and current context, a program can be applied to illustrate the needs of the present and future while illustrating the past. Utilizing three different typologies that explore program implementation, material reuse and design strategies create an extensive set of procedures that the new design of the building will follow. The exterior shall incorporate stitching and interlocking of new and historic construction. The interior will utilize weaving and framing of new construction to emphasize and complement the historic structure. This exploration clarifies the differences between new construction and historic structures. Each has meaning in society. The combination of both types of design, in which all values are applied, can create projects with extensive memory and purpose while still having economic benefits. The City of Philadelphia provides a prime opportunity to study these methods because of its historic building stock, it postindustrial context, and its current economic status. Microbreweries are currently evolving to appeal to a wider audience and Philadelphia is at the forefront. Where the demand is higher than the supply, breweries have the potential to expand and create a production industry like the past while still appealing to the current service sector of industry through taste rooms and restaurants.


//PART ONE:


// Position Paper: Restoring Authenticity through Adaptive Reuse Architecture is designed off the basis of a life-cycle. Each building designed, is created with intent of fulfilling a required service for a specified period of time, but what happens when that time period has expired? There are a mass of buildings that lay dormant. These buildings hold the true heritage of place. Without a sense of purpose these buildings will slowly diminish into extinction. Historic buildings hold the identity of place and the values that specific places represent; new construction becomes foreign to this idea of memory and a higher meaning in a neighborhood rather than purely a functional project. Historic buildings supply values that include: the history of architectural practice and design precedence, significance of the time period of construction, and a foundation to the place they are located, and personalized stories from the building and those who utilized it which cannot directly be obtained by contemporary buildings. These values require time and tradition to be obtained. New construction can highlight these values if it is incorporated into historic structures that currently possess them. This can be done by applying new programs mechanics, and materials into historic dwellings. This strategic reuse of buildings allows for building rebirth as well as preserving the history of the site. Adaptive reuse allows for values of historic buildings to be applied into present day applications of program and function. The reuse of historic buildings, to incorporate new programs and contemporary materials, can highlight the values that they possess. This can be done by weaving, and stitching the urban context, and stitching and interlocking the two on the exterior, and weaving and framing the interior. Throughout the world there is a wealth of history that creates a distinction of place. Some positive and some negative but the combination of all parts of history creates the sense of place that can never be substituted by another location. Each place has its own identity; some larger in area than others and some which are broken into subcategories


these identities are displayed for all to see. Athletic teams, tourist attractions, art, and parks are all way place proudly represent themselves to the world. Architecture is one of the largest ways for a place to do this. Architecture is not only in scale one of the largest but also through interaction and experience. Architecture has the potential to illustrate the true identity of place. The architectural field has recognized this opportunity; some designers have focused solely their architectural professions in one place, to illustrate the authenticity of that place. This type of architectural practice is called critical regionalism.1 Architects only practice in one location because they claim that they only know of that one place and its characteristics. This type of thinking is only one layer of information that is highlighted in architectural practice. Each place has a history as well. Through history, places evolve much like people. They evolve to adapt to an ever changing global outlook. These changes create distinct time periods that show the site’s importance regionally, nationally, and globally. With each distinct time period, different types of architecture are produced to meet the current needs. The continuous evolution of place produces a wide range of architectural products that start to compile as a three dimensional palimpsest. This dynamic overlapping of information is the driving factor for how spaces and place are experienced in an urban context. The context of urban areas have the potential to utilize three dimensional layering to emphasize the value of specific places and sites, but the lack of function for historic buildings leaves them vacant and only as a landmark that supplies no depth to a layering system. These landmarks hold significant value to in representing the time period they were constructed, but these values are not realized by many until their numbers are so few that there is a time period void in the palimpsest. This occurs because of the value that society places on each. Similar to animals the global population does not place a large value on a species or building type when there is an abundance of them, but when 1 “Critical Regionalism.” Critical Regionalism. http://criticalregionalism.org/ (accessed December 11, 2012).

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where each subdivision creates its own reputation which then contributes back to the whole. There are many ways that 9


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10 there are few in numbers, a large movement develops to save the small number that still exist. It is then and only then that the values of authenticity and history are brought to the table and plans are developed to save the few that still remain. When society realizes the importance of the now endangered historic building stock, the values of the buildings are brought to the surface. Historic buildings offer a wide range of values that can be applied into the culture of place and help represent the place in which it proudly serves. The values of representing the time period and the historical significance of the time period have already been touched on but there are also other more personal values that touch individuals that make up a community. These values include a visual icon for the community. Historic buildings are a recognizable piece of architecture that everyone in a community are comfortable seeing, because they can relate to it with respect to location and familiarity. The value of memory is also applied to all of those that have some relationship with the architecture. Whether it was a place of employment for oneself or a family member or it aided in an experience of a previous part of one’s life that has left a lasting memory instilled in an individual. Historic buildings also tell valuable educational narratives of perhaps a better time in society or a worse time. The population prevailed through it then which leads to a reassurance that populations can make it through another rough time frame. Historic buildings do not only serve values to the community but also the architectural world as well. Historic buildings are a representative of a certain architectural style and type of construction. The architectural profession takes pride in understanding its roots and each building has the potential to assist in doing so. Through historic buildings construction methods can be highlighted, design techniques are emphasized, and the strides in architectural development are represented. These values are the aspects that societies will fight for but only until there are so few that the movement to save a building stock will unfortunately will not be able to mend the palimpsest of the urban context. This realization must be understood and a push to save building stocks before they become endangered.


When restoring vacant historic building back to life through application of new program and partial new construction there must be a thorough investigation of it context and its history so that the design appropriately fits into the palimpsest of the area and complements the existing features of the site. All places are different which means not all architecture is suited everywhere. Architecture must relate back to the people it serves and represents. The attitudes, beliefs, way of life, understanding of the world, etc. are all derived from the geographical location of each individual. To design to the reputation and general outlook of the occupying population, a designer shall understand the people’s geographical heritage. To achieve this, the architect must understand the history of the location. Each nation, state, city, neighborhood, and community is unique. There is not another like it. Despite comparisons each community creates a place’s authenticity which will never be able to be duplicated. The authenticity of a place can be created through traditions that the people possess, the occupations of the population, the role the place plays in a larger district, etc. It is a basis of originality and a compilation of traditions, occupancies, and roles that are earned throughout the existence of the site. Even if a characteristic of the region’s history is no longer applicable in the present, it was a valuable part of the culture during it’s time frame and will directly influence the events that will come after it. Without each component of a place’s history, upright or depraved, the community’s authenticity would change from its existing state. These are the design challenges of architects. Architects must understand these qualities to successfully create a meaningful project that utilize historic structures. The understanding of history is still only a mere component of what will actually influence the overall design of a project. An adaptive Reuse building needs to emphasize the historical values of the building but it also must function in the community. Architecture can only be successful if it has use. Without function and only an invigorating space the project will become irrelevant and not appeal to the community’s needs. Program is an essential portion of an adaptive

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Applying program to already built structures applies a new function besides a landmark to the community.


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12 reuse project. Monumental scale buildings usually serve as museums or cultural centers in their second life, but these programs only serve a specific demographic. It is important to take the majority of the community into consideration when evaluating potential functions of a project. If there is an appeal programmatically to the community and the architecture is merely adequate, the project will unfortunately be more successful rather than if the architecture is amazing and the program is insignificant. This is the role of new construction throughout adaptive reuse. The design and construction of new programmatic elements that will fulfill needs and desires of the surrounding population, will drastically affect the outcome of any project. The program should, if possible, represent the previous program of the historic structure. Ideally if the historic structure was an old textile factory, the new program would be a textile factory, but times change and so do the ideals that power the area and the economy. If the building was a factory, applying another industrialized program of the current industrial sector will benefit the existing contents of the architecture. This focus of function will aid in the design of the new proposal. With the simplification of program changes the new design does not need as much complexity to connect new and old authenticities. Frank Lloyd Wright stated “Form follows function – that has been misunderstood. Form and function should be one, joined in a spiritual union.”2 In adaptive reuse the form is dictated and was meant to appeal to a specific function. It is necessary for designers to substitute a new function that utilizes a similar form. The program of a new proposal should offer as many layers of information as possible, so that it adds to multiple scales of authenticity and palimpsests. Instead of focusing from a large scale and working your way down into the details, the program must first focus on the individual and backtrack into the broader outlook of place. The design of the adaptive reuse project is meant to highlight what has already existed and its significance to place. The designer must first focus on the micro place, the neighborhood, and then work up to the macro, the city, state, or country, depending 2 “101 Inspirational Quotes from Famous Architects and Artists | Architecture & Web Art.” Architecture & Web Art. http:// www.archtopia.com/2011/01/30/101-inspirational-quotes-from-famous-architects-and-artists/ (accessed December 11, 2012).


It is important to know the contents of the existing building. Its spatial configurations, square footages, lighting possibilities, ventilation methods, etc. are all key elements in determining the right function of the new design. Different programs adapt to different spaces. Urban Outfitters Headquarters utilizes a portion of Philadelphia’s naval yard and utilizes the open floor plan of the buildings to crate the design, production, and retail areas.3 All of these new areas were easily adaptable to the open warehouse spaces of a navy yard. This understanding of open space that was needed for both the new and old program allocated the design process and site selection of the project. New Church Brew Works utilizes a different design process. New Church Brew Works takes an adaptable program, a brewery, and makes it as big as the square footage of the existing building allows.4 The brewery program is an adaptable program that can vary in size, from the entire production in a two car garage all the way to an international macro brewery that has multiple warehouses for storage, production, and marketing. This type of program is unique because it too is adaptable. Programmatic features can also become the design of the project. The Milk Depot, by Cover LLC is a 13 unit residential complex that allows for the existing conditions and the minimum unit requirements dictate the shape and square footage of each unit.5 The program was originally laid out with one story units that all consisted of the same space. Then the architects analyzed the existing structure, mainly the floor. Portions of the floor were decrepit and would have needed to been replaced. Instead of replacing the floors units combined to form multi story units. The end result provides thirteen units, all unique in design and size.6 The unique quality of adaptable programs also allows for 3 “Urban Outfitters Corporate Campus.” Adaptive Reuse: Finding Opportunity in our Vacant Built Assets. adaptivereuse.info/ case-studies/urban-outfitters-corporate-campus/ (accessed December 11, 2012). 4 “The Church Brew Works « Adaptive Reuse.” Adaptive Reuse: Finding opportunity in our vacant built assets. http://adaptivereuse.info/case-studies/the-church-brew-works/ (accessed December 11, 2012). 5 “The Milk Depot.” coverllc.com. N.P., n.p. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.coverllc.com/#!__5>. 6 “Drawings/Plans « The Milk Depot.” The Milk Depot. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://amberdrwgs.wordpress.com/amberdrwgs

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on the ability of the program and the designer.


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14 the architect to utilize it in the design process, not merely as a spread sheet with square footage listings. The proposed design needs to work with new materials of contemporary design and the existing structure’s materials. These materials combine to create a new meaning in architecture. One that neither old nor new could create alone. It is important to understand that adaptive reuse is not historic preservation. Historic preservation represents the past conditions identically, but to no avail in the design world. A historic building can still be important to the architectural and civilian community without complete restoration of the previous architecture. Louis Kahn stated “No architect can rebuild a cathedral of another epoch embodying the desires, the aspirations, the love and hate of the people whose heritage it became. Therefor the images we have before us of monumental structures of the past cannot live again with the same intensity and meaning.”7 This statement recognizes that we cannot restore a building to its original design, because we do not have the same thoughts and intentions of the original designers. Instead we must use what we have and express a new recognition of the historic structures of the past. Materiality must be considered in the design, but more importantly how each material will work together to create on comprehensive project of the present and past. Design typologies are required to help with the narrow the expansive design atmosphere to ideas that will formulate an intensive meaning to an adaptive reuse project. As there are multiple layers of programmatic appeal, there are the same layers in design; however these are designed by the approach of the individual. They start at the larger scale in the urban context, then directly to the interaction of new and old on the façade, and finally the experience and interaction of individuals and the adaptive reuse project on the interior. The urban context should utilize design methods of stitching and weaving; the exterior of the project should utilize stitching and interlocking, and the interior should utilize framing and weaving. The weaving design typology utilizes momentum and circulation. Stitching is a static version of weaving where the individual’s eye continuously moves experiencing the space while the person is at a standstill. Interlocking and framing are two different types of 7 Kahn, Louis I.. “Monumentality.” New Architecture and City Planning 1 (1944): 48.


exist in harmony. Interlocking requires a physical connection while framing can be distant and is dictated by perspective. These typologies are dictated by extensive studies of existing case studies that successful integrate new construction into historic remains. Some are successful throughout the project and others highlight specific moments that are inspiring. See //Investigative Methods //Case Studies for further explanation. Materials that exist but cannot be reuse for the same meaning can be reclaimed and designed into another element in the design. Urban Outfitters Headquarters utilizes old beams for stairs, window frames are reused and table tops utilize recycled material.8 The reuse of materials on sight not only adds the dynamic of the design, but also supplies another level of sustainability in adaptive reuse. Adaptive Reuse has always been sustainable, because of the lack of waste that goes into landfill, and the minimal use of new materials that are needed to complete a project, but the next level is utilizing design to become even more sustainable. Carl Elefante says “The Greenest building is… one that is already built”9 but utilizing design to then think about the future will add the third layer to the palimpsest of adaptive reuse. Thinking about the future through sustainability, by reusing the historic to restore its authenticity, and supply a current need and desire for the community brings multiple generations together. Utilizing adaptive reuse honors the past with the current and future generations in mind. All that is needed is the recognition of what exists and the ingenuity to design with what is currently available.

8 9

“Urban Outfitters Corporate Campus.” Elefante, Carl. “The Greenest Building Is... One that is Already Built.” Forum Journal 21, no. 4 (2007): 26.

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static design where there are moments that are highlighted for an instant where new construction and historic portions 15


//Investigative Methods: Visual Play Adaptive reuse is the combination of new construction and utilizing historic structures within one design project. Both have different values that when combined create a more significant project to the community that neither alone could accomplish. New constructions values appeal to the current desires of a community. Values like program, energy efficiency, and technological advancements continuously change throughout time and new construction stays with the current time to facilitate these needs. Historic structures on the other hand are based off of experiences which are achieved through time and use. These values are through memories, architectural relevance, and representation of site and place.

Materials

New Construction

Programatic Elements Mechanical Systems Code/Zoning Compliancy Energy Efficiency Technologic Advancement

Program Sustainability Site Construction Occupancy

Historic Structures

Existing Landmark Personal Attatchment Architectural Relevance Time Period History Place/Context

Productiveness Comfort Public Appeal Economic


Combining New and Historic with Program

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17


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18 Material use plays a key role when combing new construction with an existing building. The new must not over power the old but it must not fall back in the distance either. The two types of materials must work harmoniously to create a comprehensive picture. The old should compliment the new, and the new should compliment the old. Historic structures have notable material characteristics that most contemporary materials do not posses. Historic elements utilize depth and provide a timeless appearance, and new materials are often thin and maximize usable space. The combination of both types allows for dynamic exteriors and spatial interiors.

Brick

Iron

Concrete

Granite

Timber

Limestone

Marble

Masonry

Slate

Wood

Aluminum

Concrete

Patina

Copper

Corten

Frosted

Galvanized

Reflective

Steel

Wood


Design Typology Exterior: Stitching (voids) & Interlocking (Solids) Interior: Framing (static) & Weaving (Active) Urban Integration: Stitching & Weaving Through extensive analysis of other adaptive reuse projects, a design typology was formulated to aid in the design process. The typology is broken into three categories. Each category deals with another level of information on how individuals will interact with the project. The most wide focused portion of the typology is Urban Integration. How will the project successful address the community that it occupies. This aspect can be achieved visually, programatically, and mentally. The second that a person will approach is the exterior of the project. This focuses mainly on the link between the new construction and the historical building. The exterior portion and a physical and visual interaction with the person experiencing the architecture. Finally is the interior. After entering the architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s threshold, a new experience between new and historic can be illustrated. This again can be physical or visual, depending on the experience the designer wishes to evoke.

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Case Studies 20 Kolumba Art Museum: Peter Zumthor The Kolumba Art Museum utilizes custom bricks that interlock with the existing church ruin. The custom design of the brick fits so naturally into the ruin that there is a transitionless seem between new and old. The interior circulation is new construction which weaves through the ruins to create a display room.10 10 Cilento, Karen. “Kolumba Museum / Peter Zumthor.” arch daily. www.archdaily.com/72192/kolumba-musuem-peter-zumthor/ (accessed December 11, 2012).

Exterior Photograph: 1


weaving circulation

interlocking exterior facade

new construction

Historic Ruin

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21

Interior Photograph: 2


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Il Forte di Fortezza: Markus Scherer and Walter Dietl The size of a small town, Il Forte di Fortezza is now a cultural center for the area. The design consisted of stripping the unforgiving additions and allowing the essence and original construction shine. Strategic intervention of contemporar contemporary 11 n. materials supply specific moments of new and old interaction. 11 Bloszies, Charles. Old Buildings New Designs. New York: Architecture Briefs, 2012.

Site Photograph: 3

New construction stitching into the existing with the use of voids as well as solids


Photograph: 4

Photograph: 5

Photograph: 6

Weaving through the entire compound

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23

Circulation


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24 Castelevecchio

Museum: Carlo Scarpa

Carlo Scarpa kept the exterior of the medieval castle in its original state but completely transformed the interior. The architecture itself becomes part of the museum displays. Emphasizing historic structure in some areas and contemporary materiality in other parts. in each section the unfocused aspect, old or new, is utilized to compliment the other making an even stronger architectural statment.12 12 ”Carlo Scarpa - Castelvecchio Museum, Verona Italy.” Carlo Scarpa - Archivio digitale dei disegni - Museo di Castelvecchio Verona. http://www.archiviocarloscarpa.it/web/castelvecchio.php?lingua=e (accessed December 11, 2012).

Photograph: 7


Composition is stitched together through material accents and circulation railings

Interlocking new materials with old Framing old sites with new materials materials

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25


//Site & Context:

Philadelphia's Authenticity Photograph: 8


3 ”Introduction.” ”In Intro In trroduc tro d tio duc tion n ” WORKSHOP n. WORKS WO RKSHOP RKS HOP OF OF TH T EW WORL ORLD—P ORL D—PHIL D—P HILA AD AD ADE DE ELPHI LPH PHIA. P IA ht h http: ttp: tp //w tp /w /www www ww.wor o ksh kshopo hopo opofth ft ewo fth eworld rld.co com/i co m//intr n odu od d ctio ction/int cti ntrod roduct duct ction io ion on.ht h ml ht ml (accessed (acces (ac cessed ces sed December Decem De Decem e ber be er 11, e 11 1, 2012). 2 2012 012 01 012 2). ). 13 THE WORLD—PHILADELPHIA. http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/introduction/introduction.html

Building Technology Machines/Tools Metals Textiles

Food

Utilities

Chemistry

Transportation

Photograph: 9

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Philadelphia’s reputation as a city is directly related to the revolutionary movement of the United States. 27 While Philadelphia served an extremely large role in gaining our nation’s independence, there is much more depth to the city that is not being utilized. Tourists come to Philadelphia for historical references but again they only see the revolutionary sector. If Philadelphia is to be known as a historical city the entire history of the city should be illustrated for those who seek it. Philadelphia’s industrial history has a more significant impact to the present day representation of the city than the revolutionary history of the city. Philadelphia was once known as “the workshop of the world.” Anyone could start a small to middle size business and be successful. The business created varied in type. ty ype p . Instead of focusing focu fo cusi sing ng on on one one industry indu in dust stry ry like lik ike e New New England’s Engl En glan and’ d’ss textile text te xtilile e industry indu in dust stry ry or or Pittsburgh’s Pitt Pi ttsb sbur urgh gh’s ’s steel ste teel el industry, ind ndus ustr tryy, Philadelphia Phi hila lade delp lphi hia a had had a wide wi de range ran ange ge of of industries indu in dust stri ries es that tha hatt could coul co uld d then then sustain sus usta tain in each eac ach h others othe ot hers rs needs. nee eeds d .13 ds


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28

Railroads

Railroads

Ship Yard

Locomotives

Patterns

Ships

Steel

Materials

World

Yarn

Machinery

Fuel Dye

Carpet Firm

Immigrants Workers

Entrepreneurs

Punched Cards Coated Paper


Philadelphia Industrial Zoning Diagram: 1

Diagram: 2

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By understanding the location of the majority of vacant buildings and lots along 29 with the industrial zoning of Philadelphia illustates the optimal location for sites to be discovered at a grand industrial scale so the restoring the authenticity of Philadelphiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s industrial past may be possible. The conclusion is to focus attentions along the Delaware River around Northern Liberties and Kensington. There a wealth of abandoned buildings as well as current industrial zoning.


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Potential Sites: Map: 1

Photograph: 10

Name: Richmond Generating Station Address: Delaware Ave. & Lewis St. Philadelphia, PA 19137 Status: Vacant

Photograph: 11

Name: Delaware Generating Station Address: 1325 Beach St. Philadelphia, PA 19123 Owner: Delaware Station Exelon Generation Co LLC Status: Partially Demolished


Photograph: 12

Map: 2

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Delaware Generating Station Demolition: In August 2009 the 1954 addition of the Delaware Generating Station was taken down by Associated Special Contracting. The demolition of the 2 ten story boilers and associated components was in preparation of the decommissioning of the station. There has not been any movement to complete the demolition of the station, but Exelon has the necessary documents to commence with the process.14 14 “Demolition at Delaware Power Plant | PlanPhilly: Planning Philadelphia’s Future.” PlanPhilly: Planning Philadelphia’s Future | Planning Philadelphia’s Future. http://planphilly.com/node/3714 (accessed December 11, 2012).

Before 2009

Photograph: 13

August 2009

Photograph: 14

Current State

Photograph: 15

A half demolished building is appealing to an adaptive reuse project because of the combination of historic structure and new construction. If the historic building is complete then the new construction portion of the project may feel foreign, but with a half complete or half demolished building the new construction can combine with the existing and formulate one comprehensive project.


//Program Development:

Potential Programs: Urban Farm/Grocery Store: (What Philadelphia needs)

Museum: (What educates the masses)

Brewery/Bar & Grill: (What Philadelphia has)


There are currently 51 farmers markets located throughout the city15, but most of them occupy the areas immediately around Center City. There are also 60 community gardens in Philadelphia16, but the same problem occurs. Most are located in or directly around Center City or in areas with large amounts of green areas where gardens can be easily created and sustained. 15 “Our Philadelphia Markets.” Food Trust Markets. http://www.foodtrustmarkets.org/markets.html (accessed December 11, 2012). 16 ”PHS | Philadelphia Green.” The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (PHS). http://www.thepennsylvaniahorticulturalsociety.org/phlgreen/current-communitygardens.html (accessed December 11, 2012).

Map: 3

Farmers Market locations in Philadelphia with a ten minute (1/2 mile) walking distance from each location

Community Gardens locations in Philadelphia with a ten minute (1/2 mile) walking distance from each location

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Fresh produce is at a scarcity in Philadelphia. The majority of fresh produce markets are not in ideal locations for the residential sectors of the city or there is not enough produce for the population of the surrounding neighborhood. If there was one location that produced enough fresh produce for the area and had a surplus to distribute to other neighborhoods in the city more people would have access to the nutrients they need on a daily basis.


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36 Overlay of the farmers markets and community gardens and their proximity to each other

Conclusion: There is a large population in northern Philadelphia that does not have readily available access to fresh vegetables on a daily basis. The Richmond plant would be the more viable of the two site choices decided but still is a respectable distance away from the residential population that is lacking produce. This program would not be a viable option for the Delaware Generating Station because of its proximity to Center City and the abundance of farmers markets and community gardens that are located around it.


17 ”Taverns and Beer in Philadelphia’s History.” Philadelphia/South Jersey-Philadelphia info-what to do in Philadelphia-events in philadelphia-cheesesteaks-philadelphia restaurants-philadelphia bars. http://philadelphia.about.com/od/barsandpubs/a/taverns.htm (accessed December 11, 2012).

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To be successful in representing Philadelphia’s authenticity, the program must illustrate what the city has, not what it needs. Philadelphia has a vast variety of museums and educational buildings at the collegiate level, but both of these programs appeal to a specific demographic and not possibly to the entire city and surrounding context. Also neither of these represent the industrial past that Philadelphia was once known. Is there a program that represents the heart of Philadelphia, appeals to the surrounding community, and highlights the industrial past of the city? What did Philadelphia have during the industrial movement and still have today? Does it appeal to the community of the site? Philadelphia has microbreweries, well established in reputation not only in the nation but internationally. Philadelphia had breweries during the industrial movement as well. With the creation of Brewerytown in the 1880s there were over 190 breweries in and around Philadelphia during the late 19th and early 20th century.17


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Case Studies: Milk Depot: Cover LLC The Milk Depot utilizes the former Harbisonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Dairy complex in Lower Kensington and applies thirteen residential units into the two building and courtyard compound. Designed by Cover LLC the units are not normal layouts. The complex is approximately 25,000 square feet and no two units are alike. When designing the project Cover LLC utilized the existing conditions to create the new spaces. The complex had much damage in the floors that needed repair. Since the project is based off affordability for the developers Cover did not replace the bad flooring. Instead they created dynamic spaces that are dictated by the naturally eroded floors. If there was a whole in the floor where a unit was mean to be placed the unit then grew to encompass the missing floor boards. 1,500 square foot units evolve by having portions of the unit on two different levels and double height spaces. Cover also utilizes that natural layout of the complex and keeps the unit layouts open, only enclosing where necessary. They also utilize the large window openings to let in an abundance of natural light and creating views of surrounding Philadelphia. Each unit also has access to the interior courtyard which was an existing part of the complex. The design maximizes the existing structureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s features by allowing to aid in design decisions as well as utilizing existing materials and machinery pieces to create even more intricate spaces.

Photograph: 16


Photograph: 17

Photograph: 18

Unit Placement Diagrams due to floor deterioration: Diagram: 3

Conclusion: When applying new program to an existing building, there should be an attempt to allow the structure to inform design statements. If the execution is adequate there will be savings in demolition as well as construction. It will also allow for the previous building design and function to have a presence in the new programmatic application.18 ď&#x20AC;ą8 "The Milk Depot."

POSITION PAPER INVESTIGATIVE METHODS SITE & CONTEXT PROGRAM OBJECTIVES APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX OBJECTIVES PROGRAM SITE & CONTEXT INVESTIGATIVE METHODS POSITION PAPER

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Church Brew Works: Louis Beezer, Michael Beezer and John Combs St. John’s Baptist Church was deconsecrated in 1993 due to financial and organizational considerations. The church was bought by Sean Casey and the idea of a church becoming a brewery was in motion. The entire brewery consists of the 10,000 square foot church, the 4,500 square foot rectory and 2,000 square feet of a neighboring dilapidated school. The brewery consists of offices, a restaurant, bar and brewery.19 The adaptive reuse of the church kept the Northern Italian architectural style intact despite the drastic change of program. The brewery did not want to invade the stylistic architecture that a church provides. With this in mind the brewery did not post a large sign or and significantly recognizable sign that would disrupt the design of the church. Instead, the sign of the New Church Brewery is a small metal plaque mounted on the side of the main entrance of the church.20 19 Angeles, Melinda . "The Church Brew Works." WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA BROWN FIELDS CENTER. www.cmu.edu/steinbrenner/brownfields/Case%20Studies/pdf/Church%20Brew%20Works.pdf (accessed November 12, 2012). 20 "The Church Brew Works « AdapƟve Reuse." AdapƟve Reuse. hƩp://adapƟvereuse.info/case-studies/the-church-brew-works/ (accessed November 12, 2012).

Photograph: 19


Photograph: 20

Conclusion: Breweries are very adaptable and can occupy various forms, pending on the scale. Though breweries offer the potential of a wide variety of visuals, there does not need to be a complete covering of the existing structures previous use. It can be amplified modestly. Breweries can be controversial. Breweries are mean to be for adult over the age of twenty-one in the United States and are not always accepted by the community, especially if the existing building has cultural significance. Caution must be taken to ensure that the design of the building is not only brewery and bar oriented. There must be a family atmosphere in the restaurant and informational value in the brewery.

POSITION PAPER INVESTIGATIVE METHODS SITE & CONTEXT PROGRAM OBJECTIVES APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

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BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX OBJECTIVES PROGRAM SITE & CONTEXT INVESTIGATIVE METHODS POSITION PAPER

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Dogfish Head Brewery: DIGSAU Dogfish Head Brewery moved to its current location in 2002 but due to its expanding popularity its already adaptively reused cannery of 104,000 square feet was not large enough to handle the production. Instead of moving to another location, Dogfish Head hired DIGSAU to reshape and design an addition to the existing structure. DIGSAU designed a 26,000 square foot addition to the front of the cannery. The materials used were meant to emphasize the industrial culture of Dogfish Head. The beer vats are located outside of the structure for all to see creating a new icon for a rather flat building. The wood addition then creates a welcoming entrance to the brewery and provides new office space, laboratories, and a conference room for the brewery. The addition of landscape creates a visitors destination, more than a production facility.21 The existing structure was redesigned to maximize production area. With the addition, offices can be moved out of the large cannery which can now focus on the production of Dogfish Head products. The interior of the existing matches the materiality of the addition creating a seamless transition between the new and old parts of the building.22 21“Dogfish Head CraŌ Brewery.” DIGSAU /// Architecture : Urbanism : Environmental Design /// Philadelphia PA. hƩp://www.digsau.com/ (accessed November 12, 2012). 22 ArchDaily 2008-2012. “Dogfish Head Brewery / DIGSAU .” arch daily. www.archdaily.com/181577/dogfish-head-brewery-digsau/ (accessed November 12, 2012).

The Dogfish Head Brewery illusttates how aspects of the brewing process can be magnified in the aesthetics. Diagram: 4


43 Diagram: 5

Photograph: 21

Conclusion: Reuse can start by not leaving. If a new building was constructed to meet all the need of Dogfish Head then there would be another building of potential value that lay dormant. By applying an addition the old dwelling is revamped. Add landscape and recognizable icons and Dogfish Head Brewery is a destination for more than just the employees. It becomes a gathering place for the community that also functions as a economic stimulant.

POSITION PAPER INVESTIGATIVE METHODS SITE & CONTEXT PROGRAM OBJECTIVES APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

Dogfish Head also becomes an interactive space for the employees and the community by creating green space with activities assigned to different locations.


BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX OBJECTIVES PROGRAM SITE & CONTEXT INVESTIGATIVE METHODS POSITION PAPER

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//Program Implementations The major implementation with applying a brewery to the Delaware Generating Station is Yards Brewing Company which is located ½ mile south of the site. Yards is a respectable microbrewery in Philadelphia and has been since it was founded in 1994. Their unique recipes for English influenced ales are what give Philadelphia breweries their competitive edge against other breweries. To create a larger brewery that close to Yards may create more bad competition rather than promote industrial growth in the brewing industry. How can there be another, larger brewery without threatening Yards own production and attraction?

Delaware Generating Station Yards Brewing Company

Distance: 0.5 Miles, 10 Min Walking Time Map: 4


23 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Yards Through the Years | Yards Brewing Company.â&#x20AC;? Yards Brewing - Age verification. http://www.yardsbrewing.com/about#&panel1-1 (accessed December 11, 2012).

Conclusion: Work with Yards Brewing Company

45 POSITION PAPER INVESTIGATIVE METHODS SITE & CONTEXT PROGRAM OBJECTIVES APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

Yards Brewing Company is a primary example of adaptive reuse. With four different places being utilized over time as their production facility, not one of them has been a newly constructed building. The last two buildings leaving notable contributions to adaptive reuse theorists. In 2001 Yards reused a portion of the old Weisbrod & Hess brewery in the Kensington, and the one they are stationed in now was once a one hundred thousand square foot skate park. Along with reusing the buildings, Yards utilizes reclaimed furniture and reused materials throughout their building. In 1994 Yards was founded by Tom Kehoe and Jon Bovit. They started in a garage producing 900 barrels a year. Their primary marketing strategy was to appeal to themselves and their friends. The unique taste spread and with this so did the demand. Yards has moved in and out of three different locations since it started. Their current location is the fourth location the have had in their eighteen year history. The building can hold 36,000 produce a maximum of 36,000 barrels of beer annually. They peak in production currently at 24,000 barrels, but with their 18 year history they show no traits of slowing down.23


Yards Brewery Headquarters

BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX OBJECTIVES PROGRAM SITE & CONTEXT INVESTIGATIVE METHODS POSITION PAPER

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Production

Business

Research

Service

Brewery

Offices

Laboratories

Taste Room/ Bar & Grill Green Spaces

Process Packaging Storage

Sales Meetings Graphics Marketing Accounting

Communal Employee Photograph: 22


//Objectives:

Illustrate the value of reusing existing buildings Restore a sense of history and place to the neighborhood/city Save existing buildings from demolition Supply the neighborhood with a contributor to economic stimulus for the area Regenerate Philadelphia's industrial past Provide a new area for gathering and interaction for the community Connect multiple zones of the Fishtown neighborhood


//Appendix: Diagram 1: http://www.phila.gov/zoningarchive/ Diagram 2: http://blog.philadelphiarealestate.com/category/newbold/ Diagram 3: http://milkdepot.wordpress.com/ Diagram 4: http://digsau.com/ Diagram 5: http://digsau.com/ Map 1: http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&tab=wl Map 2: http://www.bing.com/maps/?FORM=Z9LH2# Map 3: http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&tab=wl Map 4: http://www.bing.com/maps/?FORM=Z9LH2# Photograph 1: http://www.eikongraphia.com/?p=2553 Photograph 2: http://coolboom.net/architecture/kolumba-art-museum-by-peter-zumthor/ Photograph 3: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Panoramica_del_forte_di_fortezza.jpg Photograph 4: http://www.planet-mag.com/2012/home/editors/architecture-slideshow/ Photograph 5: http://www.google.com/imgres?q=Il+Forte+di+Fortezza&hl=en&tbo=d&biw=1680&bih=930&tbm=isch&tbnid=1Asgf41s9sSO3M:&imgrefurl=http://tukangarsitek.blogspot.com/2011/11/begun-under-francis-i-in-year-1833.html&docid=ZWycxpaSbmcAXM&imgurl=http://lh3.ggpht.com/-svHyRPK9zgE/TsRdpvO04RI/AAAAAAAADWw/q1XJQ4znzII/Arch. Review201004_page2_image14.jpg&w=512&h=362&ei=OInGUPy1OrG40QHv5ICYBA&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=143&sig=1 13619972150083060816&page=2&tbnh=140&tbnw=200&start=40&ndsp=49&ved=1t:429,r:59,s:0,i:264&tx=92&ty=89 Photograph 6: http://csontifoundit.tumblr.com/post/4636980324/il-forte-di-fortezza-by-markus-scherer-and Photograph 7: http://www.e-architect.co.uk/italy/castelvecchio.htm Photograph 8: http://www.visitphilly.com/history/philadelphia/the-liberty-bell-center/ Photograph 9: http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/kensington/kensington.html Photograph 10: http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/richmond_bridesburg/generating.html Photograph 11: http://planphilly.com/slideshow/Delaware%20powerplant Photograph 12: http://planphilly.com/slideshow/Delaware%20powerplant Photograph 13: http://www.bing.com/maps/?FORM=Z9LH2#


51 POSITION PAPER INVESTIGATIVE METHODS SITE & CONTEXT PROGRAM OBJECTIVES APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

Photograph 14: http://www.associated.com/portfolio/#industrial Photograph 15: http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&tab=wl Photograph 16: http://learnreikiphiladelphia.com/new-class-and-new-location/ Photograph 17: http://www.coverllc.com/#!__5 Photograph 18: http://www.coverllc.com/#!__5 Photograph 19: http://nymag.com/travel/weekends/pittsburgh/index4.html Photograph 20: http://newburghersfood.wordpress.com/2012/07/02/churchbrewworks/ Photograph 21: http://www.american-architects.com/projects/projects_detail/24007 Photograph 22: http://www.yardsbrewing.com/


//Bibliography: “101 Inspirational Quotes from Famous Architects and Artists | Architecture & Web Art.” Architecture & Web Art. http:// www.archtopia.com/2011/01/30/101-inspirational-quotes-from-famous-architects-and-artists/ (accessed December 11, 2012). Angeles, Melinda . “The Church Brew Works.” WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA BROWN FIELDS CENTER. www.cmu.edu/ steinbrenner/brownfields/Case%20Studies/pdf/Church%20Brew%20Works.pdf (accessed November 12, 2012). ArchDaily 2008-2012. “Dogfish Head Brewery / DIGSAU .” arch daily. www.archdaily.com/181577/dogfish-head-brewerydigsau/ (accessed November 12, 2012). Bloszies, Charles. Old Buildings New Designs. New York: Architecture Briefs, 2012. “Carlo Scarpa - Castelvecchio Museum, Verona Italy.” Carlo Scarpa - Archivio digitale dei disegni - Museo di Castelvecchio Verona. http://www.archiviocarloscarpa.it/web/castelvecchio.php?lingua=e (accessed December 11, 2012). “The Church Brew Works « Adaptive Reuse.” Adaptive Reuse: Finding opportunity in our vacant built assets. http://adapti vereuse.info/case-studies/the-church-brew-works/ (accessed December 11, 2012). Cilento, Karen. “Kolumba Museum / Peter Zumthor.” arch daily. www.archdaily.com/72192/kolumba-musuem-peterzumthor/ (accessed December 11, 2012). “Critical Regionalism.” Critical Regionalism. http://criticalregionalism.org/ (accessed December 11, “Demolition at Delaware Power Plant | PlanPhilly: Planning Philadelphia’s Future.” PlanPhilly: Planning Philadelphia’s Future | Planning Philadelphia’s Future. http://planphilly.com/node/3714 (accessed December 11, 2012). “Dogfish Head Craft Brewery.” DIGSAU /// Architecture : Urbanism : Environmental Design /// Philadelphia PA. http://www. digsau.com/ (accessed November 12, 2012). “Drawings/Plans « The Milk Depot.” The Milk Depot. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://amberdrwgs.wordpress.com/ amberdrwgs 2012).


”Introduction.” WORKSHOP OF THE WORLD—PHILADELPHIA. http://www.workshopoftheworld.com/introduction/ introduction.html (accessed December 11, 2012). Kahn, Louis I.. “Monumentality.” New Architecture and City Planning 1 (1944): 48. “The Milk Depot.” coverllc.com. N.P., n.p. Web. 12 Nov. 2012. <http://www.coverllc.com/#!__5>. “Our Philadelphia Markets.” Food Trust Markets. http://www.foodtrustmarkets.org/markets.html (accessed December 11, 2012). ”PHS | Philadelphia Green.” The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society (PHS). http://www. thepennsylvaniahorticulturalsociety.org/phlgreen/current-communitygardens.html (accessed December 11, 2012). ”Taverns and Beer in Philadelphia’s History.” Philadelphia/South Jersey-Philadelphia info-what to do in philadel phia-events in philadelphia-cheesesteaks-philadelphia restaurants-philadelphia bars. http://philadelphia.about. com/od/barsandpubs/a/taverns.htm (accessed December 11, 2012). “Urban Outfitters Corporate Campus.” Adaptive Reuse: Finding Opportunity in our Vacant Built Assets. adaptivereuse. info/case-studies/urban-outfitters-corporate-campus/ (accessed December 11, 2012). “Yards Through the Years | Yards Brewing Company.” Yards Brewing - Age verification. http://www.yardsbrewing.com/ about#&panel1-1 (accessed December 11, 2012).

53 POSITION PAPER INVESTIGATIVE METHODS SITE & CONTEXT PROGRAM OBJECTIVES APPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY

Elefante, Carl. “The Greenest Building Is... One that is Already Built.” Forum Journal 21, no. 4 (2007): 26.


//PART TWO:


//Site Analysis: Fistownâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Neighborhood Limits


Demographics Population: Total Population: 55358 Male Population: 26270 (47.45 %) Female Population: 29088 (52.55 %) Percent Change Since 1990: -8.0 % Percent Change Since 2000: -8.0 % Density (Persons per sq. mile): 15019.00 Median Age: 28.44

Employment: White Collar: 13068 Blue Collar: 4961

Households: Total Households: 18737 Family Households: 12072 Non-Family Households: 6665 Households With Children: 7018 Households Without Children: 11719 Average People Per Household: 2.93


Zoning: Fishtown is separated into two distinct zones and scales that are divided with a thin strip of commercial. The industrial zoning is large scaled plots of land located on the waterfront while the residential zoning is inland with small plots of land.


Physical Barriers: The two zones are separated by a series of multi-lane roads that cause displeasure to cross. These barriers are the I-95 overpass and Delaware Avenue.


Vacant Buildings: There are numerous vacant buildings along the industrial zoned portion of Fishtown that have the ability to be restored and reused rather than utilizing vacant lots for new buildings rather than park systems.


Existing Conditions: The Fishtown water front is privately owned land that is barren without development. The only state owned land is Penn Treaty Park which holds communal events, however there is no destination to maintain use of the park unless there are children or pets in the household.

Penn Treaty Park


Site Photographs


Current Projects in Fishtown AJAX Metals


Drawing: 1


I-95 Renovation I-95 is currently under construction creating better travel patterns for vehicles. The current on and off ramps are unorganized, creating improper traffic flow for Delaware Avenue, the road the exit and on ramps connect to.


Map: 5


Current Proposal roposal for the Delaware River Waterfront


//Case Studies: Race Street Connector


Synygy World Headquarters


Tate Modern


//Programming:

The Delaware Generating Stationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s footprint is approximately 125,000 square feet and has a various floor slabs shapes. The overall square footage that the station provides is 415,000 square feet. Yards current facility is 42,000 square feet. Even with the growth estimated for beer production, the foot print of the brewery would not be an efficient use of the station. Understanding this dilemma, the concept of multiple firms working together to sustain business as industrial Philadelphia once did was applied to the programming of the station. A series of industries were applied to the large generating station so that it would form an interconnected web that would be able to sustain itself. Each industry has a direct relationship to a brewery so that they will be able to aid with the production of beer or be able to utilize the products of the brewery.


Brewery Brewing Process Warehouse Chilled Storeage Bottling Line Taste Room Administrative Office Research Office Grain Cracking Room Computer Monitoring Room Gift Shop Bar/Grille Loading Dock Restrroom Total:

Sq. Ft. 40,000 10,000 10,000 2,000 500 2,000 200 500 2,000 25,000 1,000 200 93,400

Yards brewery currently has limited space for the community to inhabit. There becomes confusion between those who want to take a tour and those who would just like to be at the bar. With the expansion of the brewing process, Yards will also have a private taste room for those who want to take a tour and those who would like to occupy the bar and socialize have a new restaurant as their destination. A brewery tour starts in the taste room and ends at the restaurant, negating any disconnect that may occur with the Yards loyal community.

Water Treatment Facility Treatment process Computer Monitoring Room Water Storage Storage Total:

35,000 5,000 1413 2,000 43,413

Beer is basically flavored and carbonated water. A water treatment facility is installed so that it can supply the desired water type for the brewery as well as fresh drinking water for the workers and visitors.


Urban Garden Growing Space Retail Sales Offices Employee Room Cleaning Room Packaging Restroom Total:

56000 10000 1000 2000 2000 10000 250 81250

An urban garden has the ability to produce all the spices that a brewery may need as well as supply fresh ingredients for the breweryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s restaurant.

Kitchen Retail Storage Restroom Total:

5,000 1,000 1,000 50 7,050

After the brewing process, the brewery is left with spent grains that still have the ability to be used for food. A bakery can utilize these grains and sell their products to the community.

Display Room Kiln Room Offices Mechanical Total:

2,000 4,500 500 800 7,800

Every respectable brewery has there limited editions and experimental beers that beer connoisseurs desire. The ability to sell them in custom blown glass bottles increases the values and creates a collectible item for all.

Bakery

Glass Blowing Shop


Brew Shop Retail Storage Office Total:

2,500 5,000 300 7,800

North Penn Treaty Park Baseball Recreational Activities Bier Garten Green Space/Park

After a brewery tour, who wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t want to try it for themselves. A brew shop has all the essentials for first timers and beer brewing veterans.

A brewery has all the essentials inside. Why not start create a destination for those who want to enjoy the outdoors. A beer garden with structured sport allows for this to occur.

Courtyard/Park Connector Green Space Circulation Rental Space Total Square Footage 240,713 Ciculation 48142.6 Mechanical 36106.95 Total: 324,963

Employees want the ability to relax in private spaces as well, so green spaces are added for them. With the addition of the beer garden to the north there needs to be a way to connect the southern Penn Treaty Park and the newly developed park. Thats what the connector and circulation are for. The total square footage of all the programs that will be included in the generating station with mechanical and circulation is 325,000 square feet.


Production Industry All of the programs have a noticable similarity. Whether a production industry or a service industry the process in which things are created is linear. The design of the project must optimize this linear method to optimize the production rate of the good.

Brewery Process Materials Delivered

Mashing

Conditioning

Boiling

Malting

Lautering

Fermenting

Packaging Filtering

Shipping

Water Treatment Process Water Collection

Aeration

Pre-chlorination

Filtration

Coagulant aids Coagulation

Sedimentation

Disinfection Desalination

Glass Blowing Process Furnace 1 Molten Glass

Furnace 3 Cooling

Furnace 2 Reheating Marver

Void Formation

Hydroponic System Process Plant/Seeding

Harvest

Nutrients Irrigation

Maintanance

Restaraunt Service Process Take Order Preparation

Serve

Cook/Prepare Recieve Order

Mediate

Bus/Clean

Bakery Process Raw Materials

Selling

Baking Preparation

Display

Drinkable Water


//Design Development: Existing Documentation In the middle of Fishtown along the Delaware River lies a underutilized generating station from 1918, this building is the focus of the other two methodologies. Existing Conditions


Program Relationships: Brewery Water Treatment Facility Urban Garden

Community Activity

Glass Blowing Shop

Community Service

Urban Garden

Laboratory

Bakery

Retail

Beer Garden

Structured Sport

Restaurant

Penn Treaty Park North

Brew Shop

Penn Treaty Park South

Park Connector Supply Goods to Brewery Utilize Goods Produced by Brewery Similar Process Community Oriented The organizational system of these programs are based off of the relationship to the brewery, spatial requirements, and through linear system requirements.


Spatial Requirements Some Programs have larger equipment than others and need larger ceiling heights to accommodate them. The generating station offers large quadruple height spaces and standard 8â&#x20AC;&#x2122; to 12â&#x20AC;&#x2122; ceiling heights.


Program Layout

After analyzing the spatial requirements and understanding the necessary programmatic relationships, the layout of the program is as seen to the right.


Repuposed Space


New Construction


Brewing Process Brewery Tour Exterior Circulation Public Circulation Employee Circulation Fire Stairs Material Unloading

Circulation


Materials Existing Materials

New Materials


//Urban Integration/Master Planning: Fishtown Industrial Waterfront Master Plan:


Program Plan:

The programs of the proposed master plan work together to sustain business as well as supply essentials like jobs, fresh water, and fresh produce for Fishtown citizens. The base program is a brewery and all supplemental programs are based off of the brewery.


Port Richmond Village ICS Corporation Berry & Homer Inc

Sugar House Casino


Green Space Plan:

The park system is created to attract the Fishtown citizens to come and interact with the industrial architecture.


Connector

Connector

Connector


//Exterior & Interior Studies/Adaptive Reuse:


Site Plan: scale _ 1/256” = 1’0”

1. Delaware Generating Station/ Yards Brewing Company Headquarters 2. Penn Treaty Park South (existing) 3. Penn Treaty Park North/Beer Garden/Structured Sport (proposed) 4. N. Delaware Avenue 5. N. Beach Street 6. Site Parking 7. Existing Buildings 8. Proposed mater plan Additions 9. Delaware Waterfront Trail 7

6

4 7 5 8

3 7

8

1

2 8

9

8

8


Ground Floor


Second Floor


Third Floor


Longitudinal Section B: scale _ 1/32” = 1’0”


Cross Section A: scale _ 1/64” = 1’0”


Longitudinal Section A: scale _ 1/64” = 1’0”


//PART THREE:


Reflection Paper Thesis is a vital part of the architectural realm. It allows for continuous thought and exploration in the design process of an individual. These explorations are then shared with the world for debate. This is the most important part of theory in architecture. The conversation that is triggered by someoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s thoughts has the ability to have a lasting impression on other designers. Without theory in architecture, there would never be advancement or innovation. In my experiences this past year I have found the value of the architect and the theorist. Each holds a valuable role in the profession. The true challenge is not being one or the other but both. There are many theorists that provoke intellectual conversation and debate but do not put their own theories to the test in design. The same goes for the architect that designs without the thought of innovation or design development. This category is more exposed in the profession because it still affects the citizens of the world, but the theorists only take the criticism from their peers. The true challenge is to create a theory and a piece of architecture that fully complement each other. Attempting to create a set of rules that will depict a future design is challenging because of the nature of design. When designing there are always problems that arise that must be addressed; these problems cannot always be resolved utilizing the same methods that the theory may depict. Throughout my design career I have always gone into design with an open mind and no notion of what the architectural outcome will be. This has allowed for problems and investigations to be able to dictate design moves. With the application of thesis preparation I feel as though that sense of my design style was altered. This made it more challenging to stay on track with the thesis exploration since my style of designing may have disagreed with the methodologies of the thesis at times. I believe theory is essential for architecture but the way that it is derived is based off of the designer/theoristâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s way of thinking. Sometimes there is a need to see the writing physically in the project before it can be determined if this is the right path of exploration. Robert Venturiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s theoretical writings are an example of this. Whenever I read them I find them to


hold a wealth of knowledge that is interesting and should be considered more in design, but the execution of projects that represent the theories it is a harsh realization that this may not be for me. Writing a thesis and then designing based off the writing instead of designing with an intention and then altering it if necessary to allow the architecture to help fully represent the theory. This is the type of theory that I believe is essential when working with existing buildings. It may be less of a challenge to apply a fully constructed thesis to new construction but when there are unknowns that constantly reveal themselves through the design process. The largest problem through this exploration with the Delaware Generating Station was the overall scale of the building in relation to the program that was to be applied. Visiting the building did not even allow for the understanding of the scale, because there was nowhere that you could fully experience it completely on the site. It wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t until the documentation and program application that it was understood. At that time the design had to change. Adaptive reuse presents a very unique set of problems that I am pleased I presented in my educational career. A large amount of projects that small to medium size firms do are adaptive reuse and be able to experience it before I go into the profession has given me a better understanding of the challenges and opportunities that are in these types of projects.


PHILADELPHIA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT EVAN ROTENBERGER ROTENBERGEREVAN@YAHOO.COM

Restoring Authenticity through Adaptive Reuse Process Book  

Restoring Authenticity through Adaptive Reuse is a year long thesis project of research and design. at Philadelphia University

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