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World of Service in Writing:

Analysis of Genres in the Hospitality Management Major

A Letter From the Author The World of Service in Writing is a work that addresses importance of writing in the Hospitality Management industry and explains significant genres used in the major. A question often asked, which this guide is trying to address, is how the writing in school will actually effect what we do when we join the workforce. It is a common idea these days, that writing is not very important in certain jobs and Hospitality Management (HRTM) is sometimes deemed as one of these. However, with a great deal of research, I have discovered that writing is an essential part of the job. This guide will take you through the essentials that first-year students should know about the writing in the Hospitality Management Major, specifically at the University of Denver. It will take you through writing in the major and different genres used most often. a field guide, genre investigation, proposal for change, and excerpts and summaries of interviews conducted, are all elements in this guide that will help better your understanding. The first section is the field guide, which is a very visually appealing element. This was created because over the past few years, studies have shown that more and more students are visual learners. Therefore, the field guide addresses the information

of the writing for this major in diagrams and pictures. The field guide explains the steps of how to write in a particular genre as well as general facts an incoming student might be interested in. Examples of these major genres used in HRTM are what the genre investigation focuses on. Genre theory is touched upon in this section because good writers must be aware of the major elements of the genre theory and must use genre theory to differentiate between the genres. For example, the rhetorical situation is something students should understand and think about first when writing. Although this guide does not have the room to explain in detail the genre theory, the descriptions in this guide lay a foundation for a better understanding. After consideration of the genres in the major is presented, a proposal for improving the major is offered. In the proposal for change, students are encouraged to improve the HRTM major. There is a flaw seen by many students interested in the program. This would be the lack of exposure of HRTM to incoming freshmen. DU’s HRTM program is one of the top hospitality schools in the country, but the program is just not presented in the first year very well. This proposal gives students ideas on how to make a difference.

In order to make a difference, the research had to be done. A major component of this guide was the research going into it and the biggest research tool was the interviews. Therefore, in this guide there are excerpts of two interviews that I conducted with an upperclassman and a professor. Each interview gives very useful information that fuels this guide. As an undeclared student myself, this guide gives a broad view of the HRTM program without focusing on one particular area in the major. It is a useful tool if students are unsure of what to expect when entering the Hospitality Management Major. Best, ErinKate Brady

Content… A Quick Look into Hospitality Management: Field Guide……………………………………………………………..…………………………p. 1 An Investigation into Genres in Hospitality Management……….……………………………………………………………………..p. 10 Make a Difference: Proposal for Change………………………………………………………………………………………p. 17 Excerpt of Interviews & Summaries…………….…………………………………………………………………..p. 21

A Look into Hospitality Management

What is a Field Guide?

resources that will help throughout your time as an HRTM Major such as, the hospitality website and the International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. There is also a diagram showing just a few of the jobs graduates go into. The HRTM program is split into three focuses, hospitality sales and marketing, lodging and resort operations and food and beverage management. Other sections are ‘you know you should be an HRTM student if you…’ and top 10 ways to be successful in HRTM. Finally instructions on how to write a business plan proposal are included. This will be useful for many classes including a course taken freshman year.

This section is a visual element that gives helpful tips to students who are considering Hospitality Management as a major at University of Denver. At DU each major has different little tips that could really help to get acclimated to the major. This field guide contains information that will help you with writing in HRTM as well as helpful advice that will make HRTM seem less overwhelming. Because the Hospitality field is a very fast pace environment, it is hard to go to the library and find a sections of books on the major. However, there are many

Useful Research Resources: 1. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management: This is a very useful resource for students to get up-to-date information of what is going on in the Hospitality field at all times. Many articles in this journal are from current Managers with new inventive ways to improve a hotel or restaurant. 2. The Fritz Knoebel School of Hospitality Website: This is a major resource because this is where you will get all your information for the HRTM program at DU. Here is where all contacts will be if you have any questions, advisors and professor’s information is readily available here. 3. PDF: Plan for Writing In the Nutrition, Dietetics and Hospitality Management Department At Auburn University Auburn, AL Emphasis Hotel and Restaurant Management: This is a wonderful resource from a study done by Auburn University’s writing program. It breaks down every form of writing that is seen most often in Hospitality Management. If you had any questions about how to write something or how often a particular form of writing is used in the workforce, you would find the information here. 2

th i w o d u o y What can y a Hospitalit ee? r g e D t n e m Manage LOTS OF THINGS!

General Managers

Travel Agent

Resort Manager Event Planner

Bar Manager s


Cruise Director Wedding Planner

Restaurant: Food & Beverage Management

Lodging & Resort Operations


Sales Manager

Hospitality Sales & Marketing

You know you should be a HRTM major if you‌ Are friendly & enjoy meeting new people

Are open for new ideas

Are business savvy & want to do it all from Marketing to Budgeting

Are able to adapt & adjust quickly

Are able to lead a group

A business plan is a very important genre of writing in the business world and students must know how to write one.


Don't be afraid to introduce yourself to faculty & staff...they 1. want to meet you!

Top 10 Ways to be Successful in HRTM: 1. Put Yourself Out There

Events are for you to learn more about HRTM...Don't miss out!

2. Attend HRTM Events

Continually revise your resume, keep it clean, polished and current for a moments notice

3. Keep Resume Up-to-Date

4. Apply for Jobs

Someone is always watching be ready to astonish!

5. Dress to Impress

6. Hangout @ Beans

Get hooked up & don't be afraid to use the people you know, especially while looking for jobs

It is a small student run coffee while doing homework, meet people & learn just from watching

7. Make Connection s

8. Work in the Industry

Don’t be afraid to meet with professors and advisors in the hospitality building if you have any questions.

Even if you're not ready for a job, apply & go through the will relax the nerves later on when it really counts!

Working as much as you can gives you great experience and helps you know what area you want to focus on.

9. Always Ask

10. Enjoy the Experience


College is a once in a lifetime experience don't forget to enjoy it!

An Investigation into Genres in Hospitality Management

Genre Investigation Writing in any particular major can be hard to understand at times. Juggling professor expectations and applying concepts to the “real world� working life can be difficult. One way to navigate essays and communicate a theory well is through understanding the genres used in a major. Studying the different genres and how they relate is called genre theory. As technology rises, writing seems to many people to be less important, however that is just not the case. Writing is an essential part of any career, no matter what someone wants to go into when they graduate from a university, and mastering the skill will allow for clear and effective communication in your profession. Genre theory is a way that one can distinguish different forms of writing. When comparing different types of genres, it is important to define the rhetorical situation, the audience, the social action and the motive, just to name a few. These concepts are sometimes hard to understand but as a foundation to a better understanding of genre theory, here is a short definition of each. Rhetorical situation is a set of circumstances that involves one or more persons who use communication to persuade another person. The rhetorical situation is key to understanding

the analysis of a genre. Audience is the people who the writer is speaking to when writing their piece, often referred to as intended audience. This would be because writer may have a certain group of people in mind while writing the piece, but that does not mean they are going to be the only ones who read it. The social action and motive are very similar; both looking at why something was developed, what was the purpose of the piece of writing. The motive looks more at the reasons the writer is writing what they did and the social action is looking at what conversation the piece of writing is entering. Now that these terms are made a little more understandable, it is important to use them to see the true point of genre theory, in this paper’s case, it is in order to evaluate what literary genres are used in the Hospitality Management major (HRTM) at DU. Often times, it does not seem like writing happens as much once people are out of the classroom, but the genres of writing from the classroom are seen all the time in the working world. There are many different genres used in the hospitality field and examining each and every genre used in this field would be very time consuming. However, looking at a few that are most commonly used in the major and in the professional world can help to understanding the important 11

aspects of this industry. To begin the examination of the genres used in the field one could first look at the genres generated from the professor.

number, office number, and office hours. Class information often entails when the meeting time is and in what room. Class objectives will most likely layout hopes of the professor, what the want their student’s to gain from their course. There will almost always be where the professor explains the weight of each assignment in the class along with what constitutes an A, B, C and so on. In every class taken the professor will have expectations of their students such as showing up to class and doing the readings each night assigned and so on, these will be explained in the class policies. Finally the layout of assignments due throughout the course will be in the syllabus. This will give the students a heads up in hopes they will schedule their time right and be prepared for the class. As mentioned before, the syllabus is often thought of as a contract between student and professor, which helps to see what kind of impact syllabi can have on people later in their life when they are working. Job contracts can be looked at as very similar to the syllabus, from the expectations of the job and what happens when one fails to live up to the expectations. A syllabus is often times where professors send their students first if they have questions about the class. Although this is the case today, there have not always been syllabi around. However, as

Professor Generated Genres Syllabus is a very important genre to discuss because it is used not only for HRTM, but also in every field at the university. Syllabus is an outline of the subjects in a course of study. It is used as a sort of contract between the professor and the students. Professors are relaying their expectations and hopes for this course giving them the power over the genre. With the professor in the power of the terms and conditions, the audience is the students in the class. A syllabus helps the student get an idea of what is in store for them throughout their time in the course. Each syllabus is unique, but there are trend for the genre that most follow. Often times universities will even have their own requirements that each professor must put in their class syllabus. These things often include: the professor’s information, class information, class objectives, grading structure, class policies, and layout of assignments. The professor’s information will often include: his or her name, email, phone 12

early as the 1870’s professors had syllabi, but they might not have looked like ours do today. In the antecedent version of the syllabus seemed to be more essay form for their students to read rather than the categorical form it is today. Syllabi are not the only example of genres professors generate for the class. PowerPoint is a genre that professors often use in the classroom to accompany their lectures. This genre is versatile meaning it can be generated by different people unlike the syllabus that is most often solely created by the professor. However, PowerPoints are used both by professors for lecture and students for presentations. In this case, PowerPoint used by the professor will be evaluated, meaning the students are the audience. PowerPoints from the professor often includes an overview of what will be learned that day in the lecture. It often contains: goals to reach in the class time, terms used, pictures, and short summaries of the lecture. A PowerPoint done by a professor will more often than not, have only key points instead of word for word what the professor will say. In HRTM the pictures used in the PowerPoint can often be the most useful aspect. This would be because of the importance of the experience the students get. Therefore, a picture of a properly

dressed waiter, hostess and bartender can be very useful. However, when viewing the pictures it is imperative to remember that all restaurants and hotels are not the same and will not all look similar but that the picture are guidelines. PowerPoints done by the professor are important for the students in order for them to keep up in the lecture and not get bored of just talking. It also shows an example of what PowerPoint presentations should look like when students are required to produce one themselves. Student Generated Genres Genres students produce themselves is probably the most important section to listen to as incoming students. This area explains the genres all students of the HRTM program will have to produce. Reports are a good genre to examine. An example of a report is when the introductory class to HRTM, Exploding Hospitality Management, went to Vail, CO. The students went to learn about hotels and restaurants in the area, they were required to write reports on both a restaurant and a hotel. Vail is a very tourism heavy area giving students a huge advantage to experience such a place that might not be discovered far away from Colorado. That is why this trip is such a perk of going to du. These reports in the hospitality management major are often seen as a result of an experienced based 13

situation. The hospitality major at University of Denver focuses very heavily on their students getting experience out in the field. Therefore, when they are to do something like the Vail trip or tour and work in the hospitality building’s kitchen for a class time, a report is a teacher’s way of seeing what the student received from the situation. These reports are often set up in essay form, with an introduction, a few paragraphs and a conclusion. The professor may have some expectations of what they will get out a report. These might be, observations they made and specific details to show the student really learned something from their experience. Reports often begin with an introduction explaining the situation and them the paragraphs are specifics the student and recall. The Vail trip report, like many other reports, did not have very specific guidelines because when it is a hand on experience almost every person has a different view to share. While on the Vail trip students were to look for things that stood out to them, the design of the hotel, the customer service, the employee’s knowledge of the establishment, just to name a few examples. Reports are a result of an experience without the need for imagination, however, that is

exactly what is needed in this next example. Another genre seen often in this major is business plan proposals. As mentioned before, the hospitality management major is very dedicated to students having hands on experience. The HRTM program is under the school of business. In both the business school and the focused school of HRTM, there are a lot of ways the school works on hands on experience. One way is having students write business plan proposals. This genre of writing is not only seen in the classroom but is seen very often in the working world of business. Any time a person wants to open their own store, restaurant, hotel or any business they will have to write a business plan proposal. Business plans have around ten mini subjects they must address. These are: an executive summary, a team overview, a product overview, a market overview, a target market/audience, a competition section, a strategy section, and a revenue/cost model section. Each aspect of the plan could be individual genres, however all together they create a whole new genre. The audience of a business plan proposal would be the investors the writer wants to convince to invest in the product, whether that be an app for a smart phone or a hotel or a restaurant. Business plans take a very large amount of research and cannot be 14

done just in a day or two. Often times there are group assignments so that each student can focus wholly on a single aspect or maybe two. This is important to understand of a business plan because in the real world people use many different professionals to work on a single business plan. In school, a business plan may take a few weeks, however in the professional world, this process often takes years to pull together. A business plan is expected to explain every piece of the product from who is working on it, to examples of similar products already out there, to how much it will cost to produce. For students, there are not many other styles of writing that would help a business student understand the major more than this. Business plan proposals help the student understand the process of businesses, from the very beginning stages when the restaurant is just an idea to the end result. Business plan proposals are an example of real world writing that happens in this field, but there are still ones that are not really done by students at du but are present in the working world.

developments in the field. One major journal is the International Journal of Hospitality Management. The articles in this journal are their own genre. These articles are often very lengthy and are trying to help managers in the industry run their business better and more efficiently. They often include, abstracts, keywords, introductions, data, methods and results. This genre is meant to be apart of a larger picture. All professionals in this field who write journal articles are writing to give others the things they did that were successful. Some examples are articles such as, An Expectancy Theory Model for Hotel Employee Motivation, by ChunFang Chiang & SooCheong (Shawn) Jang. This article is there to help other managers with their motivational strategies. A genre of writing like this is imperative to such a fast pace field such as hospitality management. This field develops with technology and the clients everyday, so to have a journal such as this to keep the communication moving is exceptional.

Professional Generated Genres In the professional world there are journals that professionals write for explaining the current events of the industry and special

What Does This All Mean From the arguments made in this paper it is easy to see why understanding the genres used in a major and be useful for school and the working world. What genres 15

are used can explain so much about what is expected of people in the major and what to expect when apart of the major. Professors do not just give students assignments for busy work, but have reasons to instill an understanding of that particular genre without making it apart to the students at the time. The examples discussed such as syllabi, reports, business plans proposals and professional articles are just a few of the many genres used in this industry. Never forget when one understands a genre they are able to excel and understand more than just the assignment at hand but how it fits into the every day life of a working in the hospitality industry.


Make a Difference: Proposal for Change

Make a Difference: Proposal for Change

There is only one class offered to freshman in the major of HRTM, which is Exploring Hospitality Management. It is only a 2-credit class, meaning it only meets for two hours total in a week. Students must also meet with someone at the HRTM program to get the class unlocked to them. Therefore, unless you are previously aware of the class you could not know how to get in. This is an issue for freshman who would like to consider a major in Hospitality Management and would like to have a well-rounded introduction to this major. If students are undecided, it makes it even more difficult for them to be sure of the HRTM program because of this little exposure. This is an issue that could possibly be solved by offering an FSEM class focused on the hospitality field to give freshman a better understanding of what HRTM entails. The process of selecting what FSEM classes are offered each year is done in the winter quarter. Professors that have something that interests them greatly and believes they can create a class around the subject will propose it to the university. From there the university choose what they like and offer them as FSEM classing the next fall. The fact that there are so numerous options of FSEM courses, most students review

College is a new experience unlike any other. It is the place futures are made. The whole reason to go to college is to get a degree in something, specialize yourself and become an expert, in order to enter the real world work force. Don’t get me wrong, there are many other important aspects of the college life, like the social part, but in the end the goal is to graduate. The University of Denver has a unique way of starting the college experience. There is a course offered, more like required, for all freshmen. As you know, this is called FSEM, also know as a freshman seminar. These courses are designed as a writing course in all different kinds of fields. Some examples of FSEM’s offered this past year are: What is the World of War Craft, You Are What You Eat and Controversy in the Constitution, just to name a few. Reasons students take the FSEM they do could have been similar to your own reasoning, to learn about a new field they know nothing about, or find a subject similar to what they want to study. The FSEM course is something that students can take in any field regardless of their declared or intended major. While registering for this class you most likely did not notice that of all the FSEM’s offered at DU, not one is about the hospitality industry. The major of Hospitality Management (HRTM) does not have a strong presence in the first year.


countless options in order to have an educated guess of which class they would like the most. Unfortunately, these classes fill up rather quickly, which might be seen as a problem of the proposal. Considering hospitality management is an interesting topic for many, whether students are considering the major or not, this class could fill up rather quickly, leaving students who are truly interested in the field unable to take the class. However, The most important part about adding this FSEM class is to give more exposure to the major so that when students read about the class, whether they are able to get into the class or not, they are aware of the major and can make an effort to learn more when they arrive on campus. Adding an FSEM focused on HRTM gives exposure to the major without requiring a whole new required course for students to take for the major. A problem that some people might see arising out of adding this FSEM class would be the fact that freshmen’s schedules are very packed to begin with, with the required courses that need or should to be taken freshman in order to graduate such as FSEM and foreign languages. These requirements make it hard for students to have many options in their first year. However, this makes the idea of creating an FSEM

focused on the hospitality industry so sensible. It would not be another required class to be added to student’s schedules, but would be offered to those who are interested as a class already required by the university to graduate. There are many different options of FSEM’s and this could easily be created to the curriculum. Each year the selection of FSEM’s is different for incoming students. FSEM is the very first college experience for the incoming freshman at DU. The structure of FSEM’s already exist at the university and therefore is very low cost to the university to correct the issue. Adding this class can happen with your help. Your FSEM class has most likely already been selected. However, to improve the HRTM program and improve the students coming in next year’s experience at the university your voice is needed. At the end of each class students are asked to evaluate the class and the professor. This would be a perfect place to voice your concern about the lack of exposure to incoming freshman of HRTM. Another act that can be done is, speaking to a professor in the hospitality management area. Let them know about this idea and encourage them to start an FSEM class. Another idea would be a petition. Sign it! Circulate the petition to all you can and then take it to HRTM to show them there is a high demand. Don’t be afraid to make a difference.


This act could change someone’s entire experience in college which may just change their life. At the University of Denver, there is not enough exposure to the HRTM program to incoming freshmen. DU has one of the top Hospitality Management programs in the nation, new students should know about it. An FSEM class is the most

affordable and most convenient to do for the university because the FSEM program is already in place. For the students it is most beneficial because it give exposure to them without requires yet another class for the major. Everyday students make a difference all over the world. You can make the difference here at du if you just let your voice be heard.


Interviews & Summaries

Except of Interview with Professor Laesecke

they have to write that up. Then they have to get 10 recipes that are from like 4 to 6 people then they have to convert those to 24 recipes that are used at a restaurant. And then they have to go and cook 3 of the recipes in lab. Then serve them to a panel, they have to do an appetizer, entre and desert. And then they write all of that up, so they can come up with about a 30 page paper.

Student: What type of writing would you assign your students in this major? Professor: You know it depends, would you like me to talk about this major alone or in general? Student: General is fine if that’s easier, either way.

Student: So would you consider that a research paper?

Professor: It would be easier. So we require, in my class, that they do a one page paper on an event that is happening in the class that I am teaching. So I’m teaching hotels, I will give them 5 or 6 different websites to go to so they have to, every week, read something that is interesting. I’ll ask them, so what, and they have to write and be like ‘oh this is really news’ or something.

Professor: Yes, it’s a research paper plus they have to be able to cook it. Student: So plus the experience. Professor: Yes, the experience, and that in logic they have to do the same thing for the hotel. Student: What would you for when you evaluate these papers? Do you into the grammar or do you look more for what they got out of the experience?

Student: So like current events? Professor: Yes, like current events and then they have to talk about it in class. What they thought and how does it affect the class. So that is one. The second depending on if you take food and beverage class. They have to research a country and find out the types of food that are grown in that country. And then they have to look and see how they use those foods. If they say they’re going to take southern Italy, they have a lot of pastas down there because pasta grows unlike the north were you have mountains, you don’t have as much but you have seafood. The seafood is all the way around Italy so they have a lot of seafood and that is why they use a lot of seafood, that’s why they use pasta. So

Professor: Two areas, and what we found with our companies that the students go to work for that they’re pretty critical about writing correct grammar, spelling, layout of paper, so I work with the students on that. Some will give me four pages with not even a paragraph, nothing on them so you go, ‘okay lets go over it’ and I’ll put paragraph marks and they’ll rewrite it so it sounds better and they shouldn’t have any spelling errors with spell check and I think they should have it looked over by somebody else because if you’re reading it yourself



the 5 time you just kind of read through it. But someone looks at it the first times and says what did you mean by this. So no I look for the contents, correctly laid out, are their thoughts and questions answered did they say this is what we had to do and if they have research publications and they have to use footnote.

really good concept they can’t get it across and they can’t get accepted. A person who can really write well but doesn’t have as good of an idea he gets it done. Student: I understand that difficulty sometimes myself. So what are some of the connections you see between the type of writing you assign and the type of writing in the professional world? Do you see a lot of research papers in the field or reports?

Student: So, like I said, for this paper I am working on it is for incoming freshman. What are your student’s intended audience for their papers? Do you ask them to think of a specific audience or do you want them to write to you?

Professor: It depends, if you are developer and want to develop a site then you would write a thick paper and they have to write that and they have to put correctly the research and make sure all the data is correct because a company could say, ‘okay lets build a hotel’ and the data is not correct would be a problem.

Professor: They write for me but they share with the rest of the class. Student: Okay, what are they main things you hope they take away from their writing? Is it to understand their experience more or to be able to explain it?

Student: So is this a business plan? Professor: Yes a business plan they have to write up the land, here’s what I’ve found on the customers. So that is big. And it depends on an area. There’s also a lot of internal writing to employees, memos, policies, all that sort of stuff. So they have to understand how to write correctly, otherwise, people get the wrong idea.

Professor: Two things, on is by writing it they have to research it, put it down and think about it. And then hopefully they learn something from the article or what they are writing about. Second is, in the industry, they have to be able to write correctly or people will not take their ideas because it is not presented correctly. I’ve seen many papers come in that they want to do something in the industry and then the person that can’t write well, even with a

Student: It would look sloppy and unprofessional if you can’t write.


A Little More From Professor Laesecke: in restaurants. Restaurants will have In this interview with professor their point of sales system with their Laesecke there was a great focus on menu and nearly all their information how, in his classes, he tries to relay the on iPads in the restaurant. With importance of writing technology growing, professor in the workforce. The Laesecke believes it “Whatever writing classes offered in the imperative for the people you send out is a HRTM building are who go into this field to be representation of very experience able to work on their feet and you.� based, sometimes be flexible for things to allowing students to change. miss the importance of the writing done. Years ago he had a student At the end of the interview professor once that was hired out of college and Laesecke had one very important less then a year later he was let go. piece of advice. He said that whatever The professor asked the employer writing you do and you send out is a why this happened and he told representation of you. Make sure it is Laesecke that the student could just right because if your writing is sloppy not write and he was struggling too and unprofessional, that is how you as much. This impact of this story that a person will seem to be to the Laesecke was telling makes the readers. significance of writing not just a thought, but a reality. This is why professor Laesecke finds it so important for him to help students through their writing. This expert is only the beginning of the conversation professor Laesecke and I had. Continuing in the exchange, Laesecke explained how important technology has been on the Hospitality world especially the writing. Emails are a relatively new concept that a hotel or restaurant will now run on. Emails are how updates, memos and important information go to the entire company. Another technology tool being used are iPads


Excerpt of Interview with Grace Bradford (upperclassman):

Grace: I would say more content than grammar structure and stuff. I think with hospitality a lot of the grading comes from like comprehension, did you actually learn from what we did versus like memorization and regurgitation. So they probably look more for like, did they learn what we wanted them to learn from the class rather than, “Oh your five paragraph essay was soo grade, your 3 part thesis statement was amazing” and its not like that its like you have introduction paragraph, more like sectioned off and stuff like that.

Me: What type of writing do you do most often in your major…such as essays? Grace: Yes, for the beginning it is mostly essays, like, for the intro class. I had an essay last quarter for my technology class so it was basically, we were assigned a project, mine was to implement a new point of sales system at Beans the coffee shop. So we were to like…we have an iPad sales system which is ready to go. We basically worked with an outside company, we built it from the bottom up and everything like that and then we had a paper that was basically a report of like what challenges we faced, what was good what was bad, what we needed to change, other competitors. So it wasn’t as much as an essay as it was a report. I would say most of the writing we do is reports because Hospitality is so experienced based. Its like were more in the kitchen and we have all the experience work hours we have to do. So that’s where the real learning comes in.

Me: Who do imagine your audience to be when you do these types of writing? How would your characterize your audience? What do they value? This is really if you are writing to your professor as the solo audience or the class…? Grace: For the class I had last quarter we did a presentation for the while class so I kind of was writing it like I was picturing my classmates reading it. But in general, I mean like the only type of writing I can think of that I’ve done at Beans, such as proposals. That wasn’t for a specific class but I think that happens a lot. I wanted to do ice drinks here so I wrote a proposal; I do a cost analysis, its a lot more numbers basically, rather than writing. With that audience, I am trying to sell whoever it is on my product. So for my last class, I really wanted to get the point of sales system here, so I’m writing it to say why it’s the best. So I think a lot of its more like the sales pitch rather than

Me: What do you think your professors look for when they evaluate your writing?


information. Obviously there is the informational aspect because it is a report so its like the numbers and stuff but like more is convincing them like persuasive writing.

Me: Yea that makes sense that a positive outlook is such a huge element. So if you are struggling with trying to get the persuasive element or just need help, where would you go? Have you ever needed help on your writing and gone to a professor or the writing center or done proof writing here?

Me: Oh that’s really cool with Beans and that you can make proposals for the way it operates as an employee. Do you have any advise you would give to an incoming student that is considering hospitality as a major? Is there anything about the writing you wish you knew going into the class?

Grace: Yeah, we’ve done group writing like essays, for projects. I would say if I had a question I would go to someone who took that class already and be like what grade did you get and why did you get marked down, what am I missing that I should put in? I don’t really go to the professors just because theyre not writing professors. So the a lot of the professor used to have restaurants and hotels and stuff so theyre not super English focused. I would be like what did you want us to hit on and not like read this and is it right. However, there is Professor Laesecke who if you send him your paper before the due date he will revise it and send it back to you which is really nice. But I’ve never had another professor do that. I don’t know others would do that but he’s the only one that offers it. He wont grade it he’ll edit it for you so if your ever in a class of his that’s a good resource to have. I never went to the writing center for anything besides my writ class. But for business classes in general we just don’t write as many papers. Its more tests and stuff. I mean for my management class right now were going to writing like a 30

Grace: Well I would say the persuasive element is something people don’t really see all that much but most of the writing were doing is like, “come to our restaurant” or “come to our hotel” or something like that. And so I think that persuasive element like why we are the best, without putting down other things. I really hate when people are like compared to our competitor, Why do you have to put another person down to prove your point? If its good enough it should stand on its own, that my opinion about that entire thing so yeah. I think you always need to stay positive. Like if you are writing a proposal, people appreciate it a lot more if you are saying this is what I want to change to make it better and why it will be better, more efficient, or faster or whatever it is rather than saying the way things are now suck.


page case report so I guess it would have been nice if I tell you this at the

end of the quarter but its mostly like another report.

More from Grace Bradford: The interview with Grace was laid back and relaxed in Beans coffee shop. The interview focused very heavily on the fact that the HRTM program is extremely experience based. Grace and I discussed the elements about the Hospitality Management program at DU overall. She explained the focuses of the HRTM program, resort, events and food and beverage management.

support or customers to go to a restaurant or hotel. Another important aspect Grace thought was important is the research that HRTM students have to do and where they are getting their research. Much of the research comes from information about how customers reacted to a product. Therefore, journal articles play a huge role in many papers written in HRTM. Grace finds the writing in the major to be tolerable and focuses a lot of her time on the hands on experience. Although writing is important, understanding the kitchen labs and in class situations seem to be more significant to an HRTM major than the writing aspect of the classes.

In the interview Grace explained that as a student she does not feel that grammar is as important as content in this major. However, the ability to use persuasive language is key. Most writing she has done so far in HRTM is attempting to convince investors to


Resources Used: Bitzer, Lloyd F. ”The Rhetorical Situation.” Philosophy and Rhetoric 1 (1968): 1-14. Print. Bradford, Grace. Personal interview. 3 Apr. 2013. Freadman, Anne. “Anyone for Tennis.” Genre and the New Rhetoric. Ed. Aviva Freedman and Peter Medway. Bristol: Taylor & Francis, 1994. 43–66. Print. "Fritz Knoebel School of Hospitality Management Advisory Board | Daniels College of Business." Daniels College of Business. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2013. <>. Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. ”Antecedent Genre as Rhetorical Constraint.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 61 (1975): 406-415. Print. Laeceske, Professor Paul. Personal interview. 11 Apr. 2013. Lashley, Conrad, and Bill Rowson. "Getting IT right: Exploring information technology in the hospitality curriculum ." International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 17.1 (2005): 94-105. Print.

Miller, Carolyn R. “Genre as Social Action.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 70.2 (1984): 151–67. Print Picture sources:

World of Service in Writing  

Analysis of Genres in the Hospitality Management Major

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