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Strategy AND Type Specimen

Erik Winterburn


3

CONTENTS

07

GRIDS

13

TYPE

19

EXPRESSIVE TYPE

25

COLOUR

31

IMAGERY

39

FURNITURE

43

OVERSIGHTS


The subject of flags is something that I’ve been really interested in for a while now. Ever since getting my first Atlas at the age of seven I would check the flags of different countries and get my Mum or Dad to test me on them. Sweden- blue background with yellow off-centre (left) cross, Denmarkred background with white off-centre (left) cross. I would be challenged to draw them from memory, to describe them and recognise them. I feel that the interest back then purely came from an aesthetic point of view. My personal favourites when I was seven were the Egypt flag, the Croatia flag and the Canada flag. However, only recently I’ve discovered the world of vexillology, the study of flags. This study looks at the symbolism used on flags and the anecdotes and reasons behind the use of colours, shapes e.t.c. They can be saluted or burned. I feel that the study of Graphic Design and vexillology work well together. The main points behind creating a flag is knowing how a symbol, shape or colour can represent something that belongs to that country, making them individual. For example the Ugandan flags colours are yellow (for the sun), black (African skin tones) and red (for the unity of Ugandan blood that connects). The national symbol for the country, the grey crowned crane is placed on a white circle superimposed on the top to represent the inner strength of the country. These stories behind the things included on flags intrigue me and led me to this subject. I started out the project by looking broadly at the subject of flags. Looking at the people who design flags. I got in contact with the Head of British Vexillology, Graham Bartram to ask him about what flags mean to him and about the different ways we associate flags. He told me about the work that he does as well as his flag design for the state of Antarctica. From this conversation with Mr.Bartram I thought of looking at flag desecration, how it can mutilated or altered in subtle ways to go from being a pillar of patriotism to being a protest. My ideas looked at cutting and stitching flags together, so the new manipulated flag talked about the connections between the smaller flags. However, I didn’t really want to be disrespecting countries that may catch wind of what I was doing.

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5


6


GRIDS


d.

c.

8

f.

g.

b.

a.

e.


GRIDS

9

Page size: 205 mm x 270 mm Spread size: 410 mm x 270 mm a. b. c. d. e. f. g.

gutter height and width- 5 mm horizontal grid use- 8 rows vertical grid use- 5 columns margins from edge of page (inside, left, top)- 12 mm margin from bottom- 15 mm bleed added- 2 mm slug added- 0 mm

The reason behind using the page document looks at one of the most used flag ratios throughout the world: 2:3. This is a size that is just shorter in terms of height compared to A4. It was used for recent publications like The Green Soccer Journal. The reason behind pushing the margin from the bottom up 3mm is to make the publication look as though the type and imagery is standing up. I’ve used a modular 8 x 5 grid to utilise because it creates main copy text boxes that don’t quite adhere to perfect symmetry. This is something that I like to see in publications. But also, every now and again, I will utilise bigger type centralised so it contrasts with the main copy. I’ve added a 2 mm bleed to accommodate full bleed images. In this publication I’ve decided not to use a slug area for the pages.


BASELINE GRID

h.

10

i.


SPREAD GRID

11

j.

THIS SPREAD h. baseline grid- every 13 pt i. type adheres to 13 pt leading- 26, 39, 52, 104 pt J. example of flag imagery


12


TYPE


e.

Union Jack 1:2

14

d.

The United Kingdom flag The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland uses as its national flag the royal banner known as the Union Jack or Union Flag (despite popular belief, both terms are technically correct).

b.

c.

The Union Flag can be flown by any individual or organisation in Great Britain on any day of their choice. Legal regulations restrict the use of the Union Flag on Government buildings in Northern Ireland. Long-standing restrictions on Government use of the flag elsewhere were abolished in July 2007.

a.

f.


BODY TEXT AND TITLES

15

a. b. c. d. e. f.

body text: Andada Regular body size and leading: 9pt & 13pt Colour: C= 0, M= 0, Y= 0, K= 100 Subtitles: 10 pt Avenir Demi-Bold on 13 pt leading information footnote: 26pt Avenir Demi-Bold– 32pt lead 13pt lead baseline grid that the body text sits on

This is an example of what a purely type based page would look like. Using a lot of white space and aligning the text to the grids just seems a lot more aesthetically pleasing to me. The text doesn’t daunt the reader so much when it comes to reading it. I’ve chosen to use 9 pt type when it comes to the body, mainly down to legibility and comparison to the size of the page. Using Andada; a serif typeface gives the publication a good readability at a small size. 13 pt leadng gives the type a bit of leniency when viewed from a readable distance. For the subtitles and the information footnote, I’ve used Avenir demi-bold. This typeface used at 26 pt (double my leading setting) works to accompany the body text and highlight important information/ quotes.


g.

16

h.


17

g. 26 pt Avenir Bold broken up h. folio: Avenir 7pt aligned vertically This is an example of a page which utilises more expressive type, to reflect and accompany what the image is stating. In this example, the image is about desecration, therefore the type has been fragmented in this state of disparity. The folio for the publication runs up on the vertical margin line on the left side. This replicates a flag pole running up vertically. This kind of folio can be read normally as you would flick through the book. Its information that is there, but is not really acknowledged as much as imagery or body text.


18


EXPRESSIVE TYPE


20

c.

b. a.

d.


EXPRESSIVE TYPE 1

21

a. b. c. d.

type used: Jersey M54 at 78 pt 30 tracking on the type 89 pt leading central justification text

This example of expressive type uses up a whole page. The type I’ve used is Jersey M54, a typeface which replicates the type of letterforms used on American sport jerseys and traditional symbols. The typeface reinforces that ths statement involves the flag of U.S.A. Central Justification gives the statement some gravitas and importance, as well as the type being at such a large size. C= 0

M= 0

Y= 0

K=100


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e.

“The United States flag was created for right-handers. If held with the right hand, with the flag facing away like normal, the stars should always be closer to the body.� - Graham Bartram, Head of British Vexillology

h.

f.

g.


EXPRESSIVE TYPE 2

23

e. f. g. h.

32.5 pt Avenir C= 10 M= 95 Y= C= 93 M= 74 Y= Andada Regular

bold with 39 pt leading 95 K= 17 0 K= 0 9 pt with 13 pt leading

Everything on this page sits upon the 13 pt baselines I set before. The 39 pt leading used for the larger type has been used becuase 3x13= 39. Every third baseline is the start of a new line in the quote. I’ve used the secondary typeface Avenir bold here as it doesn’t have the same tone to the statement before concerning the American flag. This is spoken word rather than a ruling. The two colours used here are ones that closely resemble the patented hues on the American flag. Ol’ Glory Red and Ol’ Glory Blue. The secondary type to denote the speaker of the quote is the same as the body text- 9 pt Andada with 13 pt leading.


24


COLOUR


PANTONE 7733 U

COLOUR 1

This colour was used to represent the land that flags cover. The combination of the colours represents the boundaries of land and sea that flags connect with.

26


C= 93 M= 74 Y= 0 K= 0

COLOUR 2

27

This colour was used to represent the sea that flags cover. The combination of the colours represents the boundaries of land and sea that flags connect with.


C= 0 M= 0 Y= 0 K= 100

COLOUR 3

Used for the text predominantely for the main reason that at a small size, type in black is much more legible than other colours.

28


C= 0 M= 0 Y= 0 K= 0

COLOUR 4

29

This colour was used for the background colour for the pages. Experimenting with format afterwards to give off certain feel.


30


IMAGERY


32 a.

c.

b.

d.


FLAG IMAGERY 1

33

All representations of flags will be used from websites that collate information on them. These will be full colour flags with the use of the correct ratios. All the websites will be referenced at the back of the publication. No effects have been added to the imagery. The images from this page have been taken from http://www.netstate.com/state_flags.htm This website provides high res images of all of the state flags of the United States of America. a. b. c. d.

Maryland’s state flag South Carolina’s state flag New Mexico’s state flag Arkansas’ state flag


34

FLAG IMAGERY 2

This photograph was taken by me when on holiday in Las Vegas a few years ago. Therefore I own the right to it. Slight adjustments on Photoshop with the levels of the photograph. This only applies to this image.


35

FLAG IMAGERY 3

The other images that I’ve used to document flag desecration or praise are taken from the internet. I intend to contact the rights holders of the photographs to check if I am permitted to use these images. a. http://images.onset.freedom.com/ocregister/gallery/ luir0i-luiqyi01.cm.flagretire.lo.jpg b. http://publicradio1.wpengine.netdna-cdn.com/newscut/ files/2013/07/flag_pants_2.jpg


36


FLAG IMAGERY 4

37

These illustations were created by myself. They are to be used throughout the book mainly as furniture, but maybe in the future they form the basis for folios to be running up the left hand margin? C= 0 M= 0 Y= 0 K= 100 I’ve used pure black as the colour to give the flag simplicity and especially if it does become a folio, the ability for it to be read.

6


38


FURNITURE


a.

b.

c.


FURNITURE

41

a. Furniture relating to the land that a flag covers b. Furniture relating to the sea that a flag covers c. Folio The two images that I’ve used as furniture represent the land and sea that the flag represents. The colours of the furniture further reinforce this idea. However, after seeing them I feel that they could be thinner and not quite as intrusive to the composition of the page. Also I see now that the wave image has been vectored incorrectly, so I will need to correct that. Green line- PANTONE 7733 U angle- -161º Blue line- C= 93 M= 74 Y= 0 K= 0


42


OVERSIGHTS


44

orphan at end of paragraph


OVERSIGHTS

45

In this example, there is a orphan at the end of the paragraph. I will need to correct this by increasing or decreasing the leading, or shifting the box of text to make it wider. Apart from this mistake, I can’t really distinguish any more oversights. There are a few things that I need to correct that i stated before such as the size and usage of the page furniture and also need to consider stocks e.t.c, when it comes to the final part of the brief. I would like a combination of stocks. I would utilise a heavier stock for the start of new chapters, so it became easy to navigate through the book. But also a thinner, untreated stock for the text pages so it created some contrast when it would be picked up. Also I would perfect bind this publication to give it a much more clean cut finish.


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Erik Winterburn erikwinterburn@gmail.com erikwinterburn.co.uk



Vexillum-Flag Strategy and Type Specimen