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REYKJAVÍK 2019 2ND NATIONAL SELECTION CONFERENCE OF EYP ICELAND

RESOLUTION BOOKLET


Table of Contents Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs I

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Committee on Transport and Tourism

5

Committee on Foreign Affairs

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Committee on Culture and Education

10

Committee on Regional Development

12

Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs II

14

Sponsors

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Motion for a Resolution by

The Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs I Adopting a new adoption system: Considering the amount of children growing up in institutions with poor conditions, and the often long waiting time for prospective parents, how can the EU act to improve the efficiency of the adoption system of its Member States, while ensuring that the children’s rights are protected? Submitted by:

Maya Barenholz (NL), Marinos Eliades (CY), Alma Koivisto (FI), Micheline Leufkens (NL), Louisa Theunissen (NL), Lazaros Hadjiforados (Chairperson, CY), Iain Wedge (Chairperson, UK)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Alarmed by the absence of a standardised legal framework regarding intercountry adoptions in the European states, B. Taking into consideration that adoption processes are often extensively lengthy and therefore mentally draining to all parties involved, C. Gravely alarmed by the general understaffing of institutional care facilities throughout Europe, D. Fully aware of the disparate and unsatisfactory living conditions of children in institutional care throughout the European states, E. Taking note that in institutional and foster care children are frequently relocated, negatively affecting their emotional well-being, F. Deeply concerned by the lack of financial support available to institutional care, G. Deeply disturbed by the immense financial burden of the adoption process, H. Noting with deep concern the insufficient communication between adoptive institutions and prospective parents regarding the child’s background, family history, personal needs and medical issues, I.

Noting the lack of available information regarding adoption processes within the European states,

J. Fully aware of the adversity non-traditional couples face during the adoption process, K. Noting with regret the potential of siblings being separated during the adoption process;

1. Calls upon the European Commission to assemble a Stakeholder Group composed of experts aiming to contribute to improving adoption processes; 2. Directs the European Commission to create a Task Force with people that dealt directly with adoption processes to be included in the aforementioned Stakeholder Group as advisors;

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3. Strongly encourages the European Commission to set as a goal for the aforementioned Stakeholders Group the creation of a standardised legal framework regarding intercountry adoption; 4. Encourages the European Council to ensure the aforementioned legal framework is upheld and implemented at a national level; 5. Requests the European states to cooperate with higher education institutions to set up a volunteering programme in which students provide assistance with everyday tasks in institutional care centres; 6. Further requests European states to cooperate with Mental Health Europe 1 to provide psychological screenings for children in care to better assess the individual needs of each child; 7. Recommends European States to provide counselling sessions to children that show signs of mental health issues in these psychological evaluations; 8. Further recommends the European states to cooperate with Eurochild2 to allocate an adequate budget to improve the standard living conditions in adoptive care institutions; 9. Trusts the European Commission to provide adequate financial aid, corresponding to the prospective parents income, for the adoption fees to be in line with current national benefits; 10. Appeals to the European States to monitor the children’s progress and well-being during and after the adoption process; 11. Urges the European Commission to set as a goal for the aforementioned Stakeholders Group the creation of an online platform that contains relevant information about adoption in the various European states, including: a) online training courses b) a helpdesk with live aid from experts; 12. Asks the European Commission to set guidelines on providing equal and transparent opportunities to all people seeking to adopt children; 13. Invites adoption institutions to ensure contact between siblings after the adoption process, through online sources.

Mental Health Europe (MHE) is a non-governmental organisation that advocates for positive mental health and human rights. 2 Eurochild is a network of organisations and individuals working in and across Europe to promote the rights and well-being of children and young people. 1

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Motion for a Resolution by

The Committee on Transport and Tourism Roadwork ahead: Considering that the transport sector makes up 28% of the EU’s greenhouse gas emissions, how should the EU ensure that the transport sector reduces its environmental impact and energy consumption while safeguarding the economic and social gains that transport offers? Submitted by:

Einar Björnsson (IS), Seraphine Borrie (NL), Alexandra Charitaki (CY), Ioana Prica (BE), Freydís Glóð Viborg (IS), François Dejaegere (Chairperson, BE)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Recognizing that due to different geographical factors, Member States: i)

have different tax policies on aviation as a result of varying dependencies on air tourism,

ii) can rely on alternative means of sustainable transport, B. Acknowledging that to be environmentally friendly, electric means of transport need to run on sustainable energy, C. Keeping in mind that vehicles combusting toxic gases such as CO2 affect the physical and mental health of the population negatively, D. Disappointed by the fact that government regulations on environmental pollution are often too lenient in the case of: i)

low emission zones3 being only implemented in small parts of cities,

ii) widely varying degrees of taxation on fossil fuels between Member States, E. Fully aware that in order to increase taxes on aviation in all Member States, a unanimous decision must be made amongst the Member States, F. Taking note of important differences between populations when it comes to the understanding of environmental implications of means of transportation, G. Deeply conscious of the fact that making transportation more environmentally friendly has short term negative economic implications, even though it would be beneficial in the long term, H. Noting with regret that there is a lack of initiative for large companies associated with personal transportation in the EU to become carbon-neutral, I.

Alarmed by the lack of benefits for the private consumer to choose a sustainable and environmentally friendly means of transport,

J. Emphasising that there is a lot of progress that can still be made in the price and efficiency of public transport in some Member States; 1. Calls upon Member States to introduce minor taxation on plane tickets which are already present in France and the Netherlands;

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A low-emission zone is a limited area where access by some polluting vehicles is restricted or forbidden.

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2. Invites Member States to further allocate dedicated parking areas with charging stations for electric cars; 3. Requests the European Commission to encourage and subsidise the implementation of lowemission zones in Member States; 4. Recommends the European Commission to collaborate with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)4 to improve policies on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, by encouraging aviation companies to enable customers to pay for their carbon footprint; 5. Asks the European Commission to create a colour coding system that shows the GHG emissions of a means of transport, including if one has paid to compensate for its carbon footprint; 6. Urges Member States to progressively promote the use of private sustainable transport through: a) following the example of Norway to remove or lower taxes on private sustainable vehicles, b) progressively increasing taxes on fossil fuels; 7. Encourages the European Commission to subsidise specific eco-friendly public and private transportation projects; 8. Suggests the European Commission to fund the advertisement of public transport; 9. Designates the European Commission to further extend the European Local Transportation Information Service (ELTIS)5 to also include bad practices and a portal for sustainable non-urban transportation methods.

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The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a United Nations agency that fosters the planning and development of international air transport. 5 ELTIS is a non-profit portal funded by the European Commission in order to facilitate knowledge sharing on good practices in sustainable urban mobility..

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Motion for a Resolution by

The Committee on Foreign Affairs In deep water: Due to global warming, the Arctic sea is becoming increasingly more accessible, with new sea routes opening up. As Russia is claiming large parts of the Arctic by using military power to secure trade routes and oil and gas reservoirs, the EU and its allies are faced with a dilemma: how can the EU protect its economic and military interests while safeguarding the fragile arctic environment? Submitted by:

Eiður Atli Axelsson (IS), Hanna Regína Einarsdóttir (IS), Kjartan Ragnarsson (IS), Saifullah Shah (UK), Maksim Shybun (BY), Jelle Zegers (NL), Karl Bertellini Vederhus (Chairperson, IT/DK)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Seriously concerned that: i)

the melting of the Arctic ice-covered regions is increasing at an alarming rate due to the process of Arctic amplification6,

ii) the permafrost that is melting is releasing a considerable amount of Carbon Dioxide and Methane into the atmosphere, B. Recognising that eight nations in total have territories in the Arctic Region, of which three are EU members and two are members of the European Economic Area (EEA)7, C. Taking into account that the Arctic is inhabited by groups of diverse and vulnerable people and that there are endangered local flora and fauna species, D. Observing that new trade routes8 are being increasingly exploited as a result of the melting of Arctic permanent ice, E. Further observing that these new trade routes can replace longer, less sustainable, and more dangerous sea routes, F. Taking into consideration the abundance of natural resources within the Arctic and their increasing availability due to the melting of the ice, G. Noting with regret that the increased interest in the Arctic’s natural resources and its sea routes negatively affects the environment and its indigenous people who are dependent on the land for their survival, H. Appreciating the existence of the Arctic Council as a platform for discussion and cooperation between the states that share territories in the Arctic, I.

Acknowledging that the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) defines Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ), which represents areas where vessels have the right of free

Arctic amplification: Because of ice melting, the sun's radiation is being increasingly absorbed by the dark ocean surface. This phenomena makes the average temperature increases faster than other places on Earth. 7 The EU members with territories in the Arctic are Sweden, Finland and Denmark through Greenland. The EEA members are Norway and Iceland. 8 Such as the Northwest Passage or the Northern Sea Route. 6

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passage, but that the country owning these EEZ has exclusive rights on the exploitation of its natural resources, J. Reminding that, according to UNCLOS, a country must prove the geological boundaries on its continental plate to claim a territory, K. Further reminding that these continental shelf boundaries are debatable and difficult to document because of the current presence of ice, L. Regretting that the tensions between opposing parties originating from the process of territorial claim have led to increased military presence both by NATO and Russia in the region Arctic, M. Recognising that increased public concern for climate related matters has led to a stronger environment-protection mandate for governments, in particular those in Northern Europe and Canada, N. Expressing appreciation to Canada for recently declaring a large part of its arctic territories as conservation zones, O. Concerned by the fact that the environment-protection agenda is not prioritized by the governments of Russia and the USA, P. Noting with concern the lack of coordination in the efforts of stakeholders to facilitate trade and maintaining the integrity of the Arctic; 1. Urges the EEA Member States of the Arctic Council to strive towards adapting the Council to the ever changing region they represent through: a) an enlargement of its competences to include discussing matters of military, navigation, trade and resource exploitation, b) giving advising rights to entities with Observer status within the council; 2.

Strongly proclaims the need for EEA Member States of the Arctic Council to: a) Initiate a process of disarmament in the region alongside all the other members of the Arctic Council, b) Jointly establish an Arctic demilitarized zone, similarly to the one present in Antarctica;

3. Requests the EEA Member States to: a) Create large Arctic conservation zones, b) Involve indigenous Arctic communities more in the decision making process; 4. Calls upon the EEA Member States of the Arctic Council to support environmental and wildlife conservation missions to help protect areas affected by the destruction of natural habitats; 5. Invites EEA members of the Arctic Council to: a) further integrate Arctic protection into the educational curriculums of their own countries, b) endorse through the Arctic Council increased presence of Arctic protection in the curriculums of other Arctic Council Member States; 6. Encourages all the Arctic Council Member States to create joint agreements regarding drilling and excavation in the Arctic; 8


7. Further encourages all the Arctic Council Member States to increase funding and support for neutral geological research in the Arctic; 8. Condemns the unjustified extension of Arctic borders by Arctic Council Member States; 9. Recommends the Arctic Council members to jointly agree on a system of tariffs on cargo ships docking at harbours within their national Arctic territories.

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Motion for a Resolution by

The Committee on Culture and Education Following the example: Approximately 38% of the EU's population suffers from mental disorders such as depression and anxiety each year. Stress, societal pressure and school pressure negatively impact mental health and subsequently day-to-day functioning. What can the EU do to prevent and reduce the prevalence of mental disorders and help young people with mental health issues excel in life? Submitted by:

Ísabella Rán Bjarnadóttir (IS), Kristín Ósk Guðmundsdóttir (IS), Paula Lorberga (LV), Sigurður Einarsson Mäntylä (IS), Ifthene Mebarki (BE), Mees van der Velden (NL), Valérie Cafaro (Chairperson, CH)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Fully alarmed by the fact that half of mental disorders affecting the youth are developed before the age of 14,9 B. Appalled by the fact that 50% of cases of major depressions stay untreated,10 C. Disturbed by the decreased opportunities of employment given by employers to condendants with mental disorders, D. Deeply concerned about the intensive academic pressure observed from the early stages of education systems and onwards, E. Alarmed by the lack of infrastructure supporting mental health in educational institutions across Europe, F. Bearing in mind that stress affects young people‘s health negatively, possibly leading to a lack of sleep, poor eating habits, self-harm, depression and anxiety, G. Noting with regret that mental disorders are culturally perceived differently and handled as a taboo subject in some member states, H. Taking note of a rising percentage of young people enrolling into tertiary education, increasing competition between students, I.

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Gravely concerned by the depiction of mental disorders on social media platforms, which romanticise the issue;

Eurofund (2019) ‘‘Crisis point: Well-being of young people still defined by the economic crisis“ WHO (2012) ‘‘Depression in Europe: facts and figures“

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1. Invites educational facilities to introduce educational courses for parents concerning the mental health of their children; 2. Appeals to Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) such as Young Minds 11, to continue creating media campaigns to raise awareness about mental health; 3. Further appeals that NGOs continue to provide assistance in redirecting mental health patients to seek further help; 4. Requests Member States to enforce more flexible work opportunities for people with mental disorders, such as being able to work from home or with flexible hours; 5. Encourages Member States to follow the example of the Finnish school system, adapting their curriculums to focus on measures such as: a) A creative early education, b) No standardised testing, c) No comparison between schools; 6. Requests Member States to ensure the presence of at least one qualified mental health professional per school and work environments; 7. Appeals to Member States to introduce psychological screening tests to detect early signs of mental disorders in school environments; 8. Asks the European Commission to promote online platforms that offer counseling services, whilst safeguarding the anonymity of students searching for help; 9. Seeks that the European University Union (EUA)12 to rework the admission requirements at their universities, including the individual‘s soft skills13 into the evaluation process; 10. Requests Member States to implement education on mental health from early stages in the school curriculum; 11. Calls upon social media platforms to take measures that help individuals with mental health issues.

Young Minds is a British NGO, whose goal it is to ensure the best possible mental health support for the youth, by creating campaigns, publishing articles and holding public speeches. 12 The European University Union (EUA) represents more than 800 universities and national rectors from all over Europe. 13 Social Skills are personal attributes that enable someone to interact effectively and harmoniously with other people. 11

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Motion for a Resolution by

The Committee on Regional Development Efficiency’s building blocks: Buildings are the biggest energy consumer in Europe, accounting for around 40% of all energy consumption in the EU. With technological advances improving the energetic efficiency of many equipments, what can the EU do to promote renovations in older facilities, and ensure new constructions are on the path towards nearly zero-energy buildings? Submitted by:

Leonardo D'Antonio (CH), Vilhelm Hayen (SE), Konný Íris Káradóttir(IS), Guoyongyan Shi (LV), Carolina Vieira (Chairperson, PT)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Alarmed by the fact that 75% of building stock in the European Union (EU) is energy inefficient, B. Deeply disturbed that buildings are responsible for 36% of CO2 emissions in the EU, C. Aware that the Amsterdam Declaration14 is outdated and risks hindering energy efficiency improvements of historic residential buildings, D. Noting that over a third of the EU’s building stock is over 50 years old, E. Further noting that 9 out of every 10 buildings will be occupied by 2050, F. Expressing its appreciation for already existing measures for a sustainable society such as the Horizon 2020 project and the 2012 Energy Efficiency directive15, G. Deeply concerned that Member States are not enforcing the policies agreed upon in the EU’s Energy Efficiency Directive, H. Noting with approval that Member States such as Latvia have invested in nearly zero-energy buildings16 projects and funded energy efficiency renovation for historical residential buildings, I.

Realising the lack of awareness on the benefits of increasing energy efficiency in the building stock to reach the EU climate goals,

J. Taking into consideration the lack of incentives for private owners to renovate buildings and make them more energy efficient, K. Regretting the EU’s dependence on non-renewable energy sources imported from countries outside of the EU, L. Welcoming the new energy labels approved by the European Product Database for Energy Labels (EPREL)17; 14

The Amsterdam Declaration of 1975 defends the conservation of the EU’s architectural heritage. The Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) establishes a set of measures to make sure the EU reaches its 20% energy efficiency target by 2020. 16 Nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEB) have a very high energy performance,as they only consume a very low amount of energy, which comes mostly from renewable sources 17 The European Product Database for Energy Labels provides energy labels and is mandatory for appliances sold in the EU. 15

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1. Calls upon the European Commission to cooperate with the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group18 in increasing the energy efficiency of European cities, through projects such as collective district heating19; 2. Requests the Member States to implement improved targets for the renovation of energy inefficient buildings for the period of 2020 to 2050; 3. Urges the European Commission to propose an updated version of the Amsterdam Declaration that includes additional regulations for historical residential buildings, taking into account current climate goals; 4. Appeals to the European Commission to provide funds for nearly zero-energy building projects and the renovation of historical residential buildings as part of its climate budget; 5. Congratulates the European Commission on the Horizon Europe programme, to continue the work done within Horizon 2020; 6.

Instructs the European Commission to update the 2012 EU Energy Efficiency Directive, with special attention to: a) making policies regarding energy performance of buildings legally binding; b) updating and extending the 2020 energy performance goals;

7. Seeks the European Commission to introduce a media campaign regarding energy efficiency that targets home buyers; 8. Encourages Member States to provide incentives for private owners to make buildings more energy efficient, such as tax breaks on renovations regarding energy performance; 9. Reminds the European Commission to update the EU’s Energy Efficiency Obligation Scheme (EEO)20 to mandate a faster reduction in energy usage per year than the current 1.5% target; 10. Suggests the Member States to find efficient green energy sources; 11. Invites the European Commission to negotiate an agreement with Iceland in order to build and connect a power cable delivering the country’s excess green energy to the European energy systems; 12. Instructs the EPREL to evaluate the effect of the newly implemented 2021 European energy labels on a yearly basis for a three year period following its implementation.

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The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group is comprised of 94 cities committed to addressing climate change. District heating is the collective supply of heat to all inhabitants of a city. 20 Energy Efficiency Obligation Schemes are energy saving obligations imposed under the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) on energy distributors, which have to achieve yearly energy savings of 1.5% annual sales to final consumers in the EU. 19

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Motion for a Resolution by

The Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs II Breaking bad: The EU is the leading producer of synthetic drugs such as MDMA. The production of synthetic drugs is highly dangerous, as it uses flammable substances, triggers organised crime and threatens nature through illegal dumping. How should the EU counter the production of drugs in its internal market while safeguarding the freedom of movement? Submitted by:

Caterina Chelini (IT), Tim Hultman (SE), Sturla Jónsson (IS), Jeanne Lynch (BE), Nelleke Peutz (NL), Irene Ricca (IT), Philip Stoot (NL), Julia Galera (Chairperson, PL)

The European Youth Parliament, A. Acknowledging that the European Commission has already directed a collective action towards legislation on drugs through the EU Drugs Strategy and the EU Action Plan on Drugs, B. Recognising that the difficulty of identifying new precursors causes a ‘cat-and-mouse’ game21 in which the producers remain uncaught and the national authorities fail to efficiently regulate the production of synthetic drugs, C. Concerned by the long legislative process of placing newly discovered precursors under control, D. Bearing in mind that the EU Action Plan on Drugs failed to establish collective legislation on synthetic drugs, due to insufficient acknowledgement of different opinions of Member States regarding drugs, within the EU Drugs Strategy, E. Alarmed by the inability of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to limit synthetic drugs trafficking, due to the free movement of goods and freedom of movement between Member States, F. Recognising the inability of national authorities to discover small-scale production of synthetic drugs in kitchen labs,22 G. Further acknowledging that using flammable substances in the production process of synthetic drugs in densely populated areas puts the surrounding communities in danger, H. Deeply concerned about the health of EU citizens being jeopardised due to a lack of education regarding the use of synthetic drugs, I.

Noting with regret that the use of new and unknown precursors to produce purer synthetic drugs poses a more serious risk to the health and well-being of European citizens,

J. Deeply disturbed by the environmental consequences of illegal dumping of chemical waste from synthetic drug production;

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a cat-and-mouse game: in the context of the synthetic drugs this refers to the fact that every time a precursor is recognised and put under strict control, a new and unknown precursor is used as a substitute in the production of a new synthetic drug. 22 kitchen labs: secret small-scale production sites of synthetic drugs located in the home environment.

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1. Recommends the European Commission to shorten the long legislative process of placing a recently discovered precursor under control; 2. Instructs the European Commission to immediately contain the spread of newly discovered precursors by: a) giving national authorities the ability to confiscate the substance b) monitoring the distribution of the drug; 3. Calls upon the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) to frequently update new psychoactive substances (NPS) within their definition of chemical substances that require control; 4. Encourages all Member States to strictly follow the actions in the EU Action Plan on Drugs regarding the exchange of drug-research related data; 5. Instructs the European Commission to amend its EU Action Plan on Drugs along the lines of: a) b)

changing the timetable for an open dialogue on the EU Action Plan on Drugs from annually to biannually, doubling the number of meetings of National Drug Coordinators;

6. Strongly advises the European Commission to pay close attention to synthetic drug trafficking in the next EU Action Plan on Drugs; 7. Instructs Member States to aggressively undertake measures to fight drug trafficking at borders; 8. Encourages the European Commission and the involved organisations and authorities to organise annual conferences to specifically evaluate synthetic drug trafficking; 9. Urges the European Police Office (Europol) and the European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training (Cepol) to continue and expand their collaborative effort on law enforcement training regarding identifying and dismantling small-scale drug production sites across all Member States; 10. Directs the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) to create an educational package of the necessary information on drug use; 11. Advises the Member States to implement this educational package in their school curriculums; 12. Calls upon the EMCDDA to renew their platform on drug use to become more accessible and effective through adding: a) the possibility to ask questions, b) stories about drug addiction and its consequences, c) instructions on what to do when taking drugs; 13. Requests the European Commission to tackle the environmental consequences of the contamination caused by drug dumping through funding: a) scientific research on effective environmental decontamination, b) the process of water decontamination. 15


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Resolution Booklet of Reykjavík 2019 - 2nd National Selection Conference of EYP Iceland  

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