Page 1

Erika Lie

516328

Tutors: Daniel & Kirilly

SEMESTER 1 // 2013

wYNDHAM GATEWAY DESIGN PROJECT

STUDIO AIR JOURNAL


table of contents PART A: CASE OF INNOVATIon A.1 . Architecture as Discourse .............................................................................................................................................................................06 A.2. Computation in Architecture.........................................................................................................................................................................12 A.3. Parametric Modelling.............................................................................................................................................................................................16 A.4. Algorithmic Explorations....................................................................................................................................................................................20 A.5. Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................22 A.6. Learning Outcomes...............................................................................................................................................................................................23 References...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

PART b: design approach B.1 . Design Focus .............................................................................................................................................................................................................29 B.2. Case Study 1...............................................................................................................................................................................................................38 B.3. Case Study 2...............................................................................................................................................................................................................42 B.4. Technique Development ................................................................................................................................................................................52 B.5. Technique: Prototype ..........................................................................................................................................................................................56 B.6. Technique Proposal .............................................................................................................................................................................................61 Learning Outcomes ........................................................................................................................................................................................................63 References...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................65

PART c: project proposal C.1 . Design Concept ......................................................................................................................................................................................................69 C.2. Form Finding ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................71 C.3. Tectonic Elements...................................................................................................................................................................................................78 C.4. Final Model ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................80 C.5. Final Outcome ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................86 Learning Outcomes ........................................................................................................................................................................................................93 References...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................95


aBOUT ME My name is Erika and I am a 21-year-old architecture student, currently in my third year of architecture study. I have experienced using 2D and 3D architectural programs for my projects, such as AutoCAD, Revit Architecture, SketchUp, and Rhinoceros. In Studio Air, I wish to explore more about parametric design and modelling, as well as improving my 3D programming skills.


CASE FOR INNOVATION


A.1. ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE


Architecture has a variety of definitions, although these definitions are often incomplete (Williams 2005). This section will talk about the architecture as a discourse. A discourse means discussion or a debate. As such, we will discuss about the discussions around architecture and why such discussions arise. There are a number of ways that architecture motivates a discussion, it could be by its aesthetics, function, or its representation of the social, cultural, and political aspect of its surroundings. Williams (2005) in the journal ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’ talks about looking at architecture as art, focusing on a building’s physical or structural beauty and demands aesthetic brilliance in a building. Buildings that have great aesthetics often has a certain longevity in its appeal, which made those who see it may have a further reflection beyond first glance, thus creating a discourse. Spatial experience has an equally strong effect on those who experience it. Lighting and shadow manipulation in a space it could create a surreal effect that certainly gives an equal or even more longevity in its appeal.

Williams also talked about the functional aspect of architecture: whether a building functions as it is intended to or not. The argument of whether architecture is a functional matter or an art has arisen debate overtime. A building should portray great aesthetic quality without neglecting its function. This issue may motivate architects and designers to produce something that is functional and artistic at the same time. It could bring about a dilemma of whether form-followsfunction or function-follows-form. Architecture can also be a representation of social, cutural, and political aspect of its surroundings; it can be by a number of ways, in its form, its detail or location. In order to bring about such discourse, architectural design must have a strong concept that can be easily seen and understood. On the following pages, I will further discuss these points by looking at two architectural precedents.


Liege-Guillemins Railway Station santiago calatrava, belgium The Liege-Guillemins Railway Station or known as Station Liege by Santiago Calatrava could be seen as an expression of architecture as functional art. The aim of this project is to meet key railway requirements to position Liege as a central North European high speed network, and at the same time making the station’s aesthetics a central concern (De Zeen 2009). The station links two very distinct areas of Liege, an urban area and a landscaped residential area. It strongly functions as a very urban public space and a place that accommodates transportation services. People value both its exquisite design and function, and use it for its original purpose, a train station. Despite its function as a daily transportation centre, what makes this project really interesting is its beautiful, modern design. The design itself and the concept behind the design are very distinct and therefore it is continually appreciated. The concept for the design was transparency and an urban dialog with the city (Arcspace 2009). Transparency is expressed by the monumental vault which is constructed of glass and steel and the canopies that extends over the platforms. The glass structure represents an interaction or an urban dialog between the interior of the station and the city. The way this station is organized vertically and the continuous strips of commercial units, pedestrian bridges and walkways are arranged as such to achieve high-level of comfort, services and facility for passengers, and at the same time creates a beautfiul sight. Materials used for this project such as the glass and steel structure of the roof and the absence of a façade strongly contribute to its beautiful aesthetics. As addressed on the previous discussion, here, the beauty of the station’s aesthetics and the way it represents an urban dialog with its surroundings through the design itself and the material choices contributes to the discourse of architecture.


New Museum of Contemporary Arts new york, sanaa The New Arts Museum by SANAA is one of my favourite projects. It has a simple and minimalist design yet powerful and outstanding. The design has a clear concept,w while it also gives a sense of lightness and cleanliness in its structure and construction. The theory behind the design itself relates to the surrounding buildings and the typical construction of New York. The structure of the museum was a stack of boxes in various sizes and heights, placed on top of another. The significant shifting of these boxes creates a sense of dynamism and results in a distinct and attractive shape, combining elegant and urban concept. The boxes in the structure might represent the surrounding location, with is squared blocks and buildings (Archdaily 2010). The building itself is intended as a home for contemporary art and an incubator for new ideas. Each ‘boxes’ in the structure have varying uses, for example first four floors as public galleries, auditorium as basement, and the top as office. The varying heights and sizes is due to its different functions, for example a wide flexible open space is needed for exhibition gallery (De Zeen 2007). How this project contributes to architectural discourse is that it represents the surrounding urban environment clearly on its structure. And what i find very interesting with this project is how such as simplicity can be beautiful and certainly bring about a discourse beyond first glance.


A.2. COMPUTATION IN ARCHITECTURE


As technology evolve from time to time, the development of computer programs and discovery of new materials continues. This has opened more possibilities of design, manufacturing and construction method in architecture, as well as producing new styles of architecture that were not possible to be created or even imagined before. Architectural design is an activity that relates with internal drawn inspirations and external imposed constrains that needs to be taken into consideration, such as site conditions, climate, functionality, cost, building codes, etc. In order to minimise these constraints, design must possess a problem solving quality. One must set a goal to accomplish, which is to deal with the external issues and the design must accomplish that goal. As discussed on the previous section on architecture as a discourse, meeting the functional requirement of a building while maintaining aesthetic quality of the design is no easy task to fulfil. One needs both rational and creative ability in the process of design. This is where computer programs benefits designers (Kalay 2004). Computer programs provide a number of advantages for designer. It allows designer to produce and construct very complex forms that were very difficult and expensive to design, produce, and assemble using traditional construction technologies. It also broadens the range of achievable geometry, for instance: the introduction of the ‘Folding’ concept which allows designers to construct a “rubbersheet” geometry of continuous curves and surfaces. Folding lets designers to produce a new distinctive form of architecture that combines the quality of built space, aesthetics, and utility. Computer programs also helped architects or designers to present their work to clients easier and more efficiently (Kolarevic 2003). The Guggenheim Bilbao Frank Gehry is an example of ‘smooth’ architecture which is a result of the use of digital media that challenges the traditional processes of design and construction. It signifies the emergence of curvilinear forms and rounded contours that was ignored in the past decades. Creating these sort of forms were very difficult to do until the appearance of CAD/CAM technologies (Kolarevic 2003).


The development of three-dimensional digital modelling software also allows designer to base their design on topology, a branch of mathematics that are concerned with the properties of objects that are preserved through deformations. For example, the Torus House by Preston Scott Cohen that is based on its topological origins (Kolarevic 2003). The research on computer-aided design has been directed towards developing computational program that may provide various levels of assistance to designer by helping them with smaller or larger parts of design processes. Today, these programs range from drafting to modelling systems. There are those that produce 2D drawings such as AutoCAD, and 3D NURBS modelling program such as Rhino that allows us to alter the shape of a NURBS object using control points. Also, in programs like Rhino, the design process history is recorded in the program so we are able to go back and edit mistakes we made in the previous step of the design process. This efficiently minimises mistakes and makes it easier for designers to achieve their design goal (Kalay 2004).


Torus House by Preston


A.3. Parametric modeling Parametric modeling is a result of the development of computer-aided design programs. As Woodbury (2010) stated: ‘Design is change. Parametric modeling represents change.’ Architectural design shifted as CAD develops and landed in new style that Patrik Schumcher (2010) acknowledges as Parametricism. According to Schumacher (2010), Parametricism implies that ‘all architectural elements and complexes are parametrically malleable’. It is against the basic classical geometrical figures such as rectangles, cubes, cylinders, pyramids and spheres, and supports new and more animate geometrical shapes, such as splines, nurbs and subdivs. These sort of dynamic figures are designed to respond to attractors (can be in form of points) and using these attractors, are able to be reshaped and thus designers can create new figures and forms. An advantage of parametric design is in its flexibility. Using the so-called ‘attractors’, designers can modify the NURBS form to however they like. Elements can be manipulated easily with fewer problems hence it boosts designers’ creativity. It also provides new design solutions for designers as it allows us to be able to produce and construct much more complex forms. Another advantage is it allows us to create more than one prototype for our design, which we can later select which one is the best to continue with the design process. However, there are several drawbacks of parametricism. First of all is that it may cause “death of the pencil sketch”. The future generation of designers might be really caught up with using CAD programs that they did not use manual drawings anymore. Manual drawings often allows more natural creativity and ideas to flow, resulting into a more honest design. Design might also become too automated and it might actually limits creativity and results in a repetitive style of design.


Made entirely of thin, elastically-bent plywood strips, the innovative structure of this pavilion demonstrates the latest developments in material-oriented computational design, simulation, and production processes in architecture.

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010, Universitat Stuttgart

Material behavioral features of the elastically bent thin plywood strips inspired the computational model of the design. This is later translated to the design using parametric principles. Parametric dependencies in this project were defined through a large number of physical experiments that focuses on the deflections of the plywood strips. These experiments results in a relevant geometric information generated and then outputs data required for both the structural analysis model and the manufacturing with an industrial robot (Universitat Stuttgart, 2010).


The ContemPLAY Pavilion / DRS + FARMM, QUEBEC

The ContemPLAY pavilion project purpose was to investigate new methods of practice. The structure itself was an assembly of planar plywood ribs joined together with triangulated sheet metal nodes. The pavilion’s hybrid lightweight space frame is formed by laminated plywood ribs and steel tubes clad with sinuous plywood strips. Such complex structure was able to withstand both axial and bending forces. The complexity of the structure of this pavilion was a result of parametric modeling and digital fabrication. Parametric modeling leads to a rapid and flexible design exploration that allows designers to develop prototypes and test the implications of the constraints on each prototype, and results in a unique shaping of the project. The form was based on a Mobius strip, and the digital model was created using Grasshopper. Therefore this pavilion would be very relevant for our future project in this subject (Archdaily, 2010).


A.4. ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION

I chose to include this algorithmic exploration because it is one of my successful attempt of Grasshopper experiment. From this particular exercise, I learned about the Geodesic option in Grasshopper, which is useful for creating patterns on the surface of an object and also the Explode Tree option that allows us to divide the surfaces into separate curves. In this exercise we also applied our knowledge about basic curve making, manipulating curves using points, and lofting from previous algorithmic explorations. From my own experience exploring Rhino and Grasshopper, I think digital modeling/parametric modeling benefits designers through the idea of connecting separate elements together, and later modifying/manipulating it. Like what we did with in this exercise, we referenced curve elements, put on points in it, modify their form and connect them to a command to further manipulate its form (for example: lofting/Geodesic). Hence we were also able to create more prototypes of the form.


As discussed on previous sections, the key advantage of parametric modeling was that it enables rapid and flexible design exploration. Designers can develop virtual prototypes and do a test on each to see which works. The revolution in digital modeling has enabled new generation designers to create anything that they are capable of imagining.


A.5. CONCLUSION To sum up, we have discussed about architecture as a discourse and focuses on architecture as a functional art, and accomplish a balance of aesthetic beauty and functionality. The development of computer-aided design programs provides benefits for architects or designers to achieve this. Usage of CAD programs lets designers develop new structural forms, to produce and construct very complex forms that were very difficult and expensive to design, produce, and assemble using traditional construction technologies. It saves workload, time and money to create something with a good built quality, aesthetics and utility. Furthermore, computer technology revolution has also led to the development of parametric modelling in architecture. Parametric modelling enables designers to model anything they are capable of imagining, allowing rapid and flexible design exploration. However, parametric modelling has its drawbacks, such as the ‘death of pencil sketch’, and too automated design. Learning from these past few weeks, a design approach that I would like to undertake for future projects is to first consider the brief and figure out what the function of the structure would be and how it implicate surrounding environments. Then sketch an idea of the design and translate it to a parametric modeling program. I think the best way to use a parametric design program like Rhino is to use it as a tool to express a design instead of making it a starting point on the design process, so we can produce a design that is not only aesthetically good, but also able to confront physical limitations and complications of construction.


A6. LEARNING OUTCOMES Theoretically, I have learned about the advantage and disadvantage of computational architecture and parametric design, also the discourse around architecture through the readings and through looking at various precedents. Looking up different precedents also gave me an insight on how such complex forms are developed, what are the steps in the design process. Meanwhile, by doing the Grasshopper exercises, I learned a lot on how to use various commands to generate forms. I have limited 3D program skills so the tutorials and exercises were really great help. I wish to apply these theory and practical skills in my future projects.


REFERENCE LIST Archdaily, ‘New Art Museum / SANAA’ 28 Jul 2010. Retrieved on 2 March 2013. <http://www.archdaily. com/70822> Arcspace, ‘Liège Guillemins TGV Station - Santiago Calatrava’, retrieved on 2 March 2013, < http://www.arcspace.com/features/santiago-calatrava/liege-guillemins-tgv-station> De Zeen, ‘Liège Guillemins TGV Station by Santiago Calatrava’, retrieved on 2 March 2013, < http://www. dezeen.com/2009/12/02/liege-guillemins-station-by-santiago-calatrava/> De Zeen, ‘New Museum of Contemporary Art in New York by Kazuyo Sejima + Ryue Nishizawa/SANAA’, retrieved on 2 March 2013, <http://www.dezeen.com/2007/11/22/new-museum-of-contemporary-art-in-newyork-by-kazuyo-sejima-ryue-nishizawasanaa/> Furuto , A. ‘The ContemPLAY Pavilion / DRS + FARMM’ 03 Aug 2012. ArchDaily. Retrieved on 2 March 2013. <http://www.archdaily.com/258929> Kalay, Y.E., Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25 Kolarevic, B., Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 3 - 28. Schumacher, P, ‘Patrik Schumacher on parametricism - ‘Let the style wars begin’’, retrieved on 2 March 2013, < http://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-critics/patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.article> Williams, R., ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp. 102 - 116. Woodbury, R., (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48


IMAGE SOURCES http://www.archdaily.com/70822/new-art-museum-sanaa/ http://www.archdaily.com/258929/the-contemplay-pavilion-drs-farmm/ http://www.arcspace.com/features/santiago-calatrava/liege-guillemins-tgv-station/ http://en.wikiarquitectura.com/images/1/11/00gug.jpg http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=4458 http://www.mimoa.eu/images/16357_l.jpg http://www.pscohen.com/torus_house.html


DESIGN APPROACH


This section will discuss about our teams chosen area of interest by showing the results of our research in case studies and the outcomes of our design explorations. We will also show our process of developing a technique that could be used for our future design, as well as how this technique might fulfill our design intent for the Wyndham Gateway Project.


B.1. DESIGN FOCUS

geometry Once we understood the meaning of architecture as a discourse and the relation between architecture and parametric design, the next step is choosing a parametric approach to develop our skills and technique to produce a design that generates a new form of discourse. We decided to pursue geometry as our parametric approach that we believe will assist us well as a starting point in our concept and technique developent process. Geometry itself has a great degree of versatility and flexibiility in its approach that other techniques such as sectioning, patterning, panelling and many others are able to be incorporated. As it is a very broad technique, there are a great variety of stlyle and form representation, including simplicity, fluidity, sharp or bubbly form and many more. The style that we are most interested in is simplicity.

So far, the precedents related to geometry that we have looked at have a complex and interesting form, yet after looking at it in detail, it is actually consisted of small simple shapes that were brought together and thus generates a complex form. This complexity within simplicity concept is what we were going to explore more in our development process. Also, we were able to see the technique that is used in most geometric design approach, which is form and surface manipulation. Often the design explored with both form and surface manipulation and resulted in beautiful results. It also gives us an idea of the constructability of the design. There is a broad variety of construction and fabrication technique in geometry, including ribs , load bearing structure, etc. Our initial idea takes into account the users that will pass by in high speed. We wanted to create something that is understandable , buildable, and provides an interesting spatial experience for the users.


VoltaDom installation ARCHITECT: Skylar Tibbits + SJET The VoltaDom installation which occupies corridor spanning building 56 & 66 on MITâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s campus contains hundreds of vaults that is reminiscence of the vaulted ceilings of historic cathedrals. These vaults provide an articulation of the surface and though the whole surface is a repetition of vaults it accumulates into a complex form. One can see different formsof the installation by standing in different spots in different points of views. The fabrication process of this installation was done by transforming the complex curved vaults into developable strips that makes the assembly easier by just simply rolling the strips and putting it together. We believe that the idea of repetition and complexity within simpicity in this installation will be applicable to the Wyndham City Project. We could also apply the fabrication process into the gateway design.


GRIDSHELl BY MATSYS Gridshell by Matsys focuses on the design and construction of a wooden gridshell. The materials for this installation consists of only straight wood members bent along geodesic lines. The design objective was to develop a design that minimises material waste while maximizing its architectural presence in space. The structure integrates geometry, structure, and material perfomrance. Also in this precedent we see how a repetition in the components that assemble the entire piece, which are strips of wooden members. These strips were bent along geodesic lines so that they produce this particular form. It is a manipulation of the original geometry which appeared to be an oval. We find this piece interesting as it reflects gives a sense of fluidity as well as complexity within simplicifty in its form that we believe suit our chosen appraoch.


b.2. CASE STUDY 1.O EXPLORATION | GRIDSHELL BY MATSYS Our Group chose to explore the Gridshell model as we found the form to be interesting while not too complicated to understand. We chose the one with less complicated definition so that we can have a better understanding of it. The simplicity of the Gridshell definition allowed us to understand it quickly and enables us to modify it into various mutations.

Above is the definition of the Gridshell model. From this definition, we understood the steps taken to get the form. To start off, we need to reference the curves into Grasshopper, then divide the curves into points, explode these points with Explode Tree, and connect them with Arcs to create the basic form. The next step is to loft it and create a surface geodesic.


To extend the Gridshell model, we experimented with various Grasshopper tools using trial-and-error system, applying the appropriate tools to the original definition. Some of the tools we used which resulted in quite a succesful outcome include: Pipes, Triangulation, Extrusion, Offset, Connect, Dotnet VB Script, Quadrangulate, Repetition (of definition). Our exploration resulted in a variety of interesting forms. Among those we have chosen four iterations that we thought are the most significant out of all outcomes. Our selection criteria were: 1. One that has the most significant modification; 2. More succesful than the others in terms of the form of the outcome reflects our design intention (fluidity and movement and complexity in simplicity)


To achieve this outcome, we undertook the followin steps: 1.started off by offsetting the curves to create offseted surface; 2.Connected both the surfaces using the VB script tool; 3. Use Graft Tree command to make hexagonal holes on the surface and lofted them. This form could be applied architecturally as an installation, its complex honeycomb shape gives an interesting and eye-catching look that will certainly capture the interest of users. The hexagonal holes could be applied to surfaces of other objects as well.

For the iteration above, we incorporated a number of different tools into the original definition of the Gridshell, by repeating the definition and experimenting with number slider to create different amount of points, thus resulting in a strange but interesting orientation of geodesic curves. It would make a great installation although the constrution process might be a little difficult. The geodesic curves used in this iteration can also be applied as a facade of a building, creating a bird-nest like texture.


Enhancing the original model, this form came about by extruding the orginal definition along a certain vector. The geodesic curves of the gridshell model were extruded to create an enhanced spatial representation thus provided a different sensation. This form would be a good architectural installation and probably a facade as it has an interesting form and could manipulate the lights that came through.

This form was achieved by modifying the originial shape of the Gridshell to bring about more fluidity. Also, in order to generate more fluidity, we simply allowed the geodesic curves to take on a pipe form.


b.3. CASE STUDY 2.O CANTON TOWER BY INFORMATION BASED ARCHITECTS The Canton Tower building is great example of geometry in architecture. We decided to include this project as a precedent because it relates to our design idea, which is achieving a sense of fluidity and movemen in design through achieving complexity within simplicity. What we find interesting about this project is that the idea behind it is simple, but it results in a complex structure; it is basically a concrete core wrapped in a web-like surface, created from intersecting triangular lattice including structural steel, concrete columns, rings and diagonal tubes that spirals up to 600m high. It is also consists of two elliptical shapes that twist 45 degrees relative to each other, resulting in a ‘waist’ which is 22 meters wide at its narrowest. This results in a flexible form, giving us the a sense of smoothness, fluidity, and movement, as if the tower is twisting and moving upwards. It is obvious that the tower was designed using a parametric software, looking at its complexity and highly futuristic design. Based on our further research about The Canton Tower, we found out that the design, in fact, is intented to demonstrate complexity while maintaining a simple overall identity. The architects aimed to create a ‘female’ skyscraper, being ‘complex, transparent, curvy, gracious, and sexy’ as opposed to the usual ‘male’ characteristics, ‘being introvert, strong, straight, rectangular’. They wanted a ‘rich and human-like’ free-form structure that represents the characteristics of Guangzhou as a dynamic and exciting city. In order to achieve these design intent, they did lots of experimenting and exploring new forms through parametric software, allowing for a greater degree of complexity and freedom. Thus, we think the designers have succeeded in achieving their design intent, to create a complex and freeform structure from a simple idea. We decided to examine how this project was produced using parametric tools by attempting to re-engineer this project using Grasshopper and Rhino.


RE-ENGINEERING of

Above is the original diagram of construction process of the Canton Tower that we used as a reference to create our own definition. Source: designboom.com


the canton tower


RE-ENGINEERING of

1. To start off, we created two ellipses and gave certain parameters to the top one so that we could play around with it at later steps. We then made a number of control points around the ellipse and connected them to build a basic cylinder

2. Apply pipe form to the outer grids of the cylinder to make it more rigid and column-like

3. With the parameter (number slider) on top that has been set earlier, control the rotation of the cylinder. Since the control points and lines were already built, we knew that rotating the top ellipse would result in a natural concentration towards the central twisting point.


the canton tower

4. We created the spiral by making a grid of poins along the curve which we accomplised by dividing the points along the rebuilt curve evening, eventually settling on 23 along each curve. When we attempted to create curves between each 45 degree point, we found that it joined vertically, not horizontally. Hence a flip in the matric was needed.

5. In order to create the intersecting diagonal line, we attempted to geodesic node to connect both diagonal curves. However, we encountered a problem during this stage, the last values of each row of matrix would not join properly with the first values, and thus the resulting in an improper twist on the model. Therefore in the end, we used line node to create 23 sets of lines connecting manually, resulting in a very large definition. Nevertheless, this attempt was succesful.

6. After creating elipses on each level as to imitate the orginial version of the tower using the explode tree command, we finally reached the final step, which is to angle the rotation a little bit in accordance to the XY plane.


ORIGINAL TOWER

OUR MODEL


DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES Our attempt of re-engineering the Canton Tower was succesful. We created a model that is very similar to the original tower. It has a similar feel, depth of height and similarity in all the major elements. As we mimicked the construction process of the actual tower, but using our own definition, we are able to achieve a very similar structure with just several minor differences. The differences are probably caused by our limited parametric modelling skills, as there are some elements we failed to achieve after experimenting with Grasshopper.

DIFFERENCES

Similarities

• The direction of the twist is reversed. • The different size of the vertical outer grids (vertical columns) • One set of elements is recessed, as opposed to our model which is all operated on the same control points. • Our model has a more condensed centre • Original building has smoother touch • The ‘waist’ of our model is right at the center of the tower, whereas the ‘waist’ of the orginial tower was further up from the centre.

• Very similar feel, Depth of height • The major elements are recognised • Models are very close to actual form of the building • The construction process is similar to the original

This definition could be applied or modified into something less monumental, such as an installation or a sculpture. In terms of the Wyndham gateway project, the techinique used in this definition such as the Pipes, Geodesic Nodes, Lines and Planes can be used and explored further to create an eye-catching and interesting form.


b.4. TECHNIQUE

MATRIX EX


E DEVELOPMENT

XPLORATION


Our matrix exploration resulted in various interesting outcomes. However, most of these outcomes appeared to be very difficult to construct and to determine the material choices. Although most of them represents our design direction which is fluidtiy and movement and complexity within simplicity, they look monumental and tower-like and might not be the best choice for the gateway design. Hence we proceeded to do further explorations with our own designed prototype.


matrix of own prototype design

After a discussion we had in class with our tutors, we felt like our design with the canton tower is too monumental and we decided to explore more with our own prototype design with our design direction in mind.


B.5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES

This is the iteration we decided to use. It was chosen because we had an idea of how it will be constructed and how it could the concept may represent our argument in an simple way. We thought that the other iterations were either very hard to construct or distracting in relationship to our established interests and desired effects. The structural concept of the fabriaction technique found in this form is that both the top and bottom edges of the ribs has to be attached to a planar surface in order to support and hold them in place, preventing the structure from collapsing. The ribs are leaning diagonally, providing a sense of closure and the way that they are also arranged in curvy direction instead of a straight one provides a fluidity and movement effect, giving passerbys different views of the design as they travelled through it in high speed. This was what we were trying to achieve in the design for the project. The technique/concept can be adapted to the context of the project, by changing the shape and direction of the planar surface (which acts as the base for the ribs) and the pattern, width, orientation and number of ribs could be modified too, in such way that will lead to an interesting design with an appropriate construction method.


MODEL MAKING We modelled the iteration to see how it could be constructed, what materials would be suitable for it and how it responds to light. Because of the shape and orientation of the form which is curving in such way, we needed a light-weight and possibly bendable material to construct this model. There are some issues we identified during the process of fabricating this prototype model: 1. The upper planar surface, the one that is attached on the top edge of the ribs should be made of a lighter material so that it can hold the ribs in place, preventing it from collapsing; 2. Ribs needs to be placed within the planar instead of plainly imposed on the surface in order to get a rigid structure 3. We faced several issues while building this model, for instance, the digital model of this iteration turned out to be very small in scale, the width of the ribs and planar surface are very thin and thus makes it difficult to construct. We needed a thicker light-weight material that is rigid enough to support itself.


We also modelled a small structural section of the Canton Tower to compare it with the first one. It was turned out to be more difficult as the structure was consisted of pipes. It is also less possible to use this construction technique with a light-weight material. Therefore, we assume that this technique is would not be appropriate with our current design idea. However, we will still keep this technique as an option in case it will be useful in the future design changes and development.


DEVELOPING TECHNIQUE

SERPENTINE PAVILION BY SOU FUJIMOTO We did some further research on precedents in order to develop our technique. We looked at the Serpentine Pavillion by Sou Fujimoto. It is a good example of architecture that provides a different view if you look at it from different points. From the inside, one can see a pattern that has been built within the geometry, while from the outside, one can only see an ordinary crystal box.


Croation Pavilion, Venice Biennale

This is another precedent that shows how architecture changes form as the users changes perspective when they were moving from one spot to another. We felt that both precedent are relevant to our argument because of the movement and fluidity concept that we want to apply in our design, by creating a perspective trick for the users.


B.6. TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL Our technique adopts the idea from our precedents and our own algorithmic explorations and experimentation with the prototypes. The technical achievement that we acquired with our technique includes an understanding of the construction process, material choice, and lighting of our proof of concept model. It gets its form by arranging a set of ribs supported by two planar surfaces that holds them in place. This arrangement brings about the concept of simplicity within compliexity that is represente by the repeating ribs. The set of ribs that is set out along the curving direction of the planar surface provides a sense of dynamism; as users pass by the installation in high speed, they may see different views of the design as though the installation itself is moving as a result of changing perspective of light and shadow. The concept and technique represents the characteristics of Wyndham City as a dynamic city that is always developing and moving forward. Why does our proposal deserved to be developed? We thought the technique and idea that we proposed will be a great starting point to develop the design of the Wyndham project further, the design is flexible and could be modified and adjusted to the brief in the future. It would also satisfy the objectives of Wyndhamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s brief. However, there is a limitation in our proposed approaches. So far we have only considered to represent one Wyndham characteristics and have yet to incorporate the sense of scale, interaction, and landscape of the site. We wish to examine thes factors in more depth and incorporate it in our design concept.


â&#x20AC;&#x153;Much like other design methods, the use of prototypes, precedents, and metaphors is intended to provide the designer with a starting point from which to develop the new design.â&#x20AC;? - Yehuda E. Kalay, Architectureâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), p. 5


LEARNING OUTCOMES After the mid-semester presentations, we received several feedbacks from the critics, including: 1. For future development, narrow down the ideas into just one main focus; 2. Consider how people will react to the site, incorporate sense of people, scale, movement, and interaction; 3. Precedent must be more related to the argument and well represent your ideas; 4. Put the physical model on the actual site to get a better idea of scale and how and where to put your model; 5. Look at how the precedents manage to finally became a project; 6. Incorporate more light and shadow on the physical model. So far, we have tried to fulfill all the learning objectives listed: 1. We have discussed how our proposed approaches may relate and benefit Wyndham and we have also listed the shortcomings; 2. We have supported our argument by providing our research outcomes, such as the precedents, definitions, and explorations. It is from these research and explorations did we get the idea of what will work and what won’t (advantages and drawbacks of our proposed design briefs); 3. All the members of the team including myself have been developing computational techniques throughout the weeks, by doing algorithmic explorations with Grasshopper and Rhino and familiarizing ourselves with their various tools and commands as well as researching for example definitions on the internet to be applied to our own;

4. We also have succesfully develop the “ability to generate a variety of design possibilities for a given situation” through manipulating existing definition, as seen on the matrix listed earlier in this journal, and various iterations outcomes; 5. We have also developed the “skills in various 3 dimensional media” by using digital models from Rhino and printing it out in Fablab and fabricated them into physical prototypes to investigate the scale, material effects, and identified issues regarding fabrication and assembly; 6. We have also demonstrated our ability to use Grasshopper as a parametric modelling tool, as can be seen on our succesful explorations outcome and the diagram that has been listed earlier on this journal. We also succesfully reverse-engineered the Canton Tower which showed our ability to utilize Grasshopper as a parametric modelling tool. Through all our theoretical research, precedents, algorithmic and prototypes explorations, we have achieved a starting point from which to develop a design even further.


reference LIST 1. All definition and matrix by Erika, Thea, Sheehan 2. http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html 3. http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/sg2012-gridshell/ 4. http://matsysdesign.com/2012/04/13/sg2012-gridshell/ 5. http://www.designboom.com/architecture/information-based-architecture-cantontower/ 6. http://www.archdaily.com/89849/canton-tower-information-based-architecture/ 7.http://www.serpentinegallery.org/2013/02/sou_fujimoto_to_design_serpentine_gallery_pavilion_2013.html 8. http://www.archdaily.com/74469/croatian-pavilion-at-the-venice-biennale/


PROJECT PROPOSAL


EYECATCHING

LONGEVITY

REPRESENTS WYNDHAM

WYNDHAM GATEWAY PROJECT

NEW DISCOURSE

SPATIAL EXPERIENCE

GROWTH


C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT Several core ambitions extracted from Wyndham’s document is as follows: 1. “Exciting, eye catching installation at Wyndham’s Western Gateway” 2. “Upgrade the condition and aesthetics of its streetscapes” 3. “Feature a prominent entry statement” 4. “Have longevity in its appeal, encouraging ongoing interest in the Western Interchange by encouraging further reflection about the installation beyond a first glance” 5. “Propose new, inspiring and brave ideas, to generate a new discourse.”

Taking into consideration the feedback given by the crit jury on our mid-semester presentation, we decided to narrow down onto developing just one concept that is able to respond to the site. Also taking into account how users will respond to the site, by incorporating the sense of scale, movement, and experience. In recent years, Wyndham has been developing rapidly, as seen on its high rate of population growth. Being the fastest growing municipality in Victoria, the city has flourished from what was once a natural landscape to a rural community, and as activities of human settlements increases, becoming a continuously developing suburban settlement and a rapid growth in density. In respond to this as well as the core ambitions on the design brief, we have decided our concept to be that of GROWTH; something that’s rises and increases in density.

As such, the design must represent something that gives the idea of the city’s growth by embodying elements of rise and changes in density. It must be understandable and obvious yet not too literal, while maintaining to be eye-catching as to be appreciable for the community and those who encounter it. The gateway is also something that will be experienced over a distance on a freeway, thus the design should be able to provide an interesting spatial experience for the users; not only will it serve its eye-catching visual purpose, but also gives an ecxiting and interesting experience that may encourage further relfection beyond first glance. Hence this settles our concept and design intent, leading us to next step of our project development, exploration to find a form that is appropriate to our concept and the design brief.


THE SITE

Before further development of form finding, it was essential to decide on the type of form we will use and where in the site would it be build upon. We decided to locate the installation at between site B and site C; the road from city to Wyndham. In order to establish an entry and prominent welcome statement, we have chosen to position the installation on the road that brings people to Wyndham. The type of form would be a tunnel-like form, as the design should be exciting and eye-catching. Tunnel form would be best for the installation as it opens a possibility for light and shadow manipulation that will provide an appealing spatial experience as travellers go through the interior of the tunnel.


C.2. form finding


FINALISING the main form To stay relevant with Geometry as our design technique which was mentioned earlier in the journal, our form development process still involves form and surface manipulation and we also take into consideration the concept of complexity within simplicity and aim to apply this onto our form. We started off by the main form of the tunnel. As our aim is to represent growth, we decided to create as if the installation emerges from the ground and grows up (1). To achive this, we created a continuous shape and trimmed it with a square plane. (2) As seen here, the form is divided into two parts as to give an impression that it continues from above ground to underground and back again, as well as giving a sense of enclosure and interesting spatial experience for users as they pass through. In order to create an eye-catching form and also to enhance spatial experience through manipulation of light and shadow, we came up with an idea of perforation. Thus we continued by exploring 3 algorithims that generates surface perforation.


1

View from drivers perspective

2

Side view


ITERATION 1: boolean

This is the first iteration which was the result of our exploration with the Boolean method. The boolean method involves creating tubes and placing them on the surface of the form to then trim it to achieve perforation. By using these the boolean circles (/tubes) we wanted to create a sense of increasing density by varying the sizes of the circle as to relate to our concept of growth. However, the outcome were not very successful as we encountered a number of issues in Grasshopper that we could not resolve, resulting to an undesirable outcome.


ITERATION 2: voronoi

Another perforating method that we explored is the Voronoi tool. The idea is to paneling the surface with varying sizes and density of the voronois to create a sense of growth. However the outcome was still not what we were looking for.


final iteration: grid STRUCTURE

We made a few changes to the form to give more sense of growth. Instead of both sides rising up, we altered it so that the form grows gradually from the ground from one end until the other. In our next exploration, as advised by our tutors, we refered back and focus more on our previous case study to avoid a jump-off. Here, we looked back at the Canton Tower and tried to apply the idea of surface manipulation in the intersecting grids as well as surface manipulation on its smooth twist. As we created grids instead of perforating the surface, we came about a two-layered structure, which fortunately looked interesting and aesthetically pleasing, it also brings about a unique lighting and shadow in the interior of the tunnel. To give an impression of growth in density, we tried to create a different density on the grids, however after hours of experimenting with Grasshopper we could only get a density difference at the end of the tunnel.


Side View

Front view

Back view

Aerial Persepective


C.3. tectonic elements Upon finalising our final form, we then considered how this form is going to be constructed in real life. Again, we drew inspiration from the construction technique of the Canton Tower. The grids in the tower appeared to be connected to each other in a way that the outest and inner grid support the middle part. There is a ‘skeleton’ system in this construction, and we wanted to apply it to our form. So there will be a skeleton on the outer and inner part of the grids that holds and support them to provide sufficient structure and rigidity. The material of our choice is brushed metal, for both the structure and the skeleton.

Metal panel

Metal ribs (‘skeleton’)

Metal ribs (‘skeleton’)


Fabrication process:

PREFABRICATION

TRANSPORT

ASSEMBLY

Materials are to be fabricated off site. Each rib to be fabricated as metal panels.

The metal panels are then transported to the site

and begin the assembly.

The ribs are to be screwed to the panel by using cleats


C.4. FINAL MODEL As our model consisted of many curving and twisting ribs, it became impossible to unroll and laser cut it properly as we wanted. Therefore, we straiteghned the shape of the ribs and sectioned it to make it possible to laser cut and build. Firstly, the model is unrolled into ribs separately, according to its direction, veritcal and horizontal. It was then numbered accordingly for reference and using a grasshopper definition, we created tabs on each ribs to make it easier to assemble. After it was nested, it is ready to be sent for laser cutting.


c.5. final outcome


South Elevation

East Elevation

West Elevation


learning outcome By the end of this subject, i have learned so much about parametric modelling, developing arguments, proposal, and teamwork. We have encountered numerous problems and difficulties along the way but nevertheless, it has been a great pleasure to learn new things throughout the semester. In respond to the learning objectives: 1). So far, i have been able to incorporate feedback given by the jury during crits and identifying the shortcomings of our proposal, and thus improving things that needed to be improved. Our groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design process has been very volatile, we underwent quite significant changes in each phases which could be a jump-off in the overall argument. It is not an easy task to weave the ideas together. Nevertheless, we finally settled into one concept that incorporates almost all our ideas throughout the semester. 2) I believe that all of our group members have greatly developed and improved their ability to generate mulitpile design possibilities for a proposal, although most of us are not familiar with 3D programs such as Rhino and Grasshopper, we have finally developed our skills and thus able to create iterations with these programs; 3). I have developed the understanding of architecture as a discourse, the relation between architecture and its surroundings and how it is a subject of a discourse. 4). Finally, one that is the most challenging task in this subject is to make a case for proposal. There are many things that need to be taken into consideration and to mix a number of ideas together is quite complicated. Nevertheless, we were able to finally get a concept that we all agree with. Finally, I believe that parametric modelling is a brilliant tool for architects to design new form of architecture which cannot be achieved with hand-drawing only, although one needs sufficient skills to be able to operate it to its full extent.


REFERENCE LIST 1. All definition and model by Erika, Thea, Sheehan 2. Site Plan retrieved from Wyndham Project Document


Studio AIR Semester 1, 2013


Studio Air Journal (Erika Lie 516328)  

Architecture Design Studio Air Erika Lie (516328)

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