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Book of Abstracts // Symposium Programme

Researching Design Education 1st International Symposium for Design Education Researchers CUMULUS Association//DRS SIG on Design Pedagogy Paris, France May 18–19, 2011

CUMULUS // DRS


Cover design by Samantha Schulman Communication Design from Parsons Paris School of Art + Design Logo design by Tanya Benet Communication Design from Parsons Paris School of Art + Design

Š 2011 Cumulus Association // DRS and the Authors. All rights reserved.

Published by CUMULUS ASSOCIATION and DRS

Cumulus the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media Cumulus Secretariat Aalto University School of Art and Design PL 31000, 00076 Aalto, Finland Secretary General Eija Salmi Tel: +358 9470 30534 e-mail: eija.salmi@aalto.fi www.cumulusassociation.org

Design Research Society DRS Secretariat email: admin@designresearchsociety.org www.designresearchsociety.org

LEGAL NOTICE The publisher is not responsible for the use which might be made of the following information.


Researching Design Education 1st International Symposium for Design Education Researchers CUMULUS ASSOCIATION// DRS SIG on Design Pedagogy Paris, France 18–19 May 2011 Organized with the support of Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry Patrons of the Symposium Christian Guellerin, CUMULUS, L'École de Design Nantes Atlantique Michael Tovey, DRS, Coventry University Symposium Convenors Erik Bohemia, DRS, Northumbria University Brigitte Borja de Mozota, CUMULUS, Ecole Parsons à Paris Luisa Collina, CUMULUS, Politecnico di Milano Symposium Organising Committee Christian Guellerin, CUMULUS, L'École de Design Nantes Atlantique Eija Salmi, CUMULUS, Aalto University Brigitte Borja de Mozota, CUMULUS, Ecole Parsons à Paris Justyna Maciak, CUMULUS, Aalto University Erik Bohemia, DRS, Northumbria University Michael Tovey, DRS, Coventry University Sibylle Klose, CUMULUS, Ecole Parsons à Paris Luisa Collina, CUMULUS, Politecnico di Milano Geneviève Sengissen, CUMULUS, L'École de Design Nantes Atlantique Contact persons during the Symposium Geneviève Sengissen, mobile Tel. +33 6 15 15 23 57 g.sengissen@lecolededesign.com Brigitte Borja de Mozota, mobile Tel. +33 6 81 723 310 b.borjademozota@parsons-paris.com

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International Scientific Review Committee Bernadette Blair, Kingston University, UK Erik Bohemia, Northumbria University, UK Brigitte Borja de Mozota, Ecole Parsons à Paris, France Carole Bouchard, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d‟Arts et Métiers, France Luisa Collina, Milano Polytechnic, Italy Frédérique Cuisinier, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, France Bernard Darras Sorbonne University France Gaurang Desai, American University of Sharjah, UAE Hua Dong, Tongji University and Brunel University, China/UK Simon Downs, Loughborough University, UK Linda Drew, DRS, UK Mark Evans, Loughborough University, UK Alain Findeli, Université de Nimes, France Aysar Ghassan, Northumbria University, UK Carolina Gill, The Ohio State University, USA Lance Green, The University of New South Wales, Australia Hilary Grierson, University of Strathclyde, UK Armand Hatchuel, Mines Paristech, France Elvin Karana, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands KwanMyung Kim, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Korea Sibylle Klose, Ecole Parsons à Paris, France Peter Lloyd, The Open University, UK Abby Mellick Lopes, University of Western Sydney, Australia Kathryn McKelvey, Northumbria University, UK Gavin Melles, Swinburne, University of Technology, Australia Priscilla Nainby, Edinburgh Napier University, UK Katrina Nordstorm, Aalto university, Finland Eddie Norman, Loughborough University, UK Jane Osmond, Coventry University, UK Alice Peinado, Ecole Parsons à Paris, France Irini Pitsaki, Northumbria University, UK Olivia Sagan, University College London, UK Andrea Semprini, Université Lumière Lyon 2, France Alison Shreeve, Buckinghamshire New University, UK Kay Stables, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK Mike Tovey, Coventry University, UK Johann van der Merwe, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa

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Contents Tuesday 17 May 2011 ..................................................................................................................... iv Wednesday 18 May 2011 ................................................................................................................ vi Thursday 19 May 2011 .................................................................................................................... ix Researching Design Education: Opening Addresses ........................................................................... 1 Michael TOVEY & Christian GUELLERIN List of abstracts Design schools as agents of (sustainable) change: A Design Labs Network for an Open Design Program ........................................................................................................................................... 2 Ezio MANZINI Design Economics – microeconomics and macroeconomics: exploring the value of designers „skills in our 21st century economy ................................................................................................................ 3 Brigitte Borja De Mozota Design Education Research – A Failure of Imagination? .................................................................... 4 Andrew POLAINE The Nature of Effective Research Contributions in Design Education ................................................. 5 Eddie NORMAN Retrofitting Science Education at Aalto University Design Factory: Conceptualizing Scientific Facts .. 6 Katrina NORDSTROM Why does designing a learning environment require a real collaboration between design and cognitive psychology? ...................................................................................................................... 7 Frédérique CUISINIER, Elise TORNARE Design Innovation: Research-Practice-Strategy .................................................................................. 8 Alice D. PEINADO, Sibylle KLOSE Does Design Education Always Produce Designers? .......................................................................... 9 Peter Lloyd The Way We Were? Signature pedagogies under threat. ................................................................. 10 Alison SHREEVE Materials & Design: From Research to Education ............................................................................ 11 Elvin KARANA Researching Design Education: A „Wicked‟ Problem For a „Wicked‟ Discipline ................................ 12 Jane OSMOND New postgraduate educational models between globalization and local culture .............................. 13 Luisa COLLINA Case Studies in the Evaluation and Evolution of Tools to Support Design Education ......................... 14

Mark EVANS Turning an idea into a valuable teaching resource and research output! .......................................... 15

Kathryn MCKELVE On the concept of “education through design” .................................................................... 16 Alain FINDELI Using design thinking and co-creation to re-imagine curriculum ...................................................... 17 Linda DREW Inclusive design: an emerging design research topic in China .......................................................... 18 Hua DONG Importance of Pedagogic Research in Design .................................................................................. 19 Erik BOHEMIA

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Pre Symposium Activity Organized by: Ateliers de la Recherche en Design Venue: Lieu du Design Paris Ile de France 74 Rue du Faubourg Saint Honore, 75012 Paris, France Tel. +33 140 415102 www.lelieududesign.com Access: by metro- line 1 and 5 to Bastille stop, line 8 to Ledru Rollin stop 17.00 – 20.00 Welcome get-together Meeting at Centre de documentation/Lieu du Design (left side of the building at the end) at 17.00. VIP visit of delegates together with the Press to the exhibition opening. Exhibition: “Objets du numérique, design d‟un nouveau monde industriel” Curated and organized by teacher & designer Jean Louis Frechin, ENSCI, Research Lab. Contact persons: Benedetta Valabrega benedettavalabrega@gmail.com (Lieu du design) Brigitte Borja de Mozota Tel. +33681723310

Symposium Day 1 Venue: La Bourse de Commerce 2, rue de Viarmes, 75001 Paris, France www.ccip75.fr Access: by metro- line 1 to Louvre-Rivoli stop, line 4 to Les Halles stop Lunch venue: Au Chien qui Fume 33, rue du Pont Neuf, 75001 Paris, France Tel. +33 142 36 07 42 vi


Symposium Day 1 09.00-09.30

09.00–9.30

Registration coffee – Bourse du Commerce Main Hall Espace Baltard Espace Louvre-Rivoli Espace Chatelet – Room 1 Room 2 Les Halles Room 3 Poster session: kick-off / Morning round Chairs: Luisa Collina & Alessandro Biamonti

09.35–10.00

Welcome & Opening

10.00–10.35 10.40–11.15

Ezio Manzini Brigitte Borja de Mozota Andy Polaine

11.20–12.00 12.00–13.45

14.00–14.30 14.30–15.00 15.05–15.15 15.15–15.45 15.45–16.15 16.15–17.05 17.05–17.30

17.45– 19.00– 20.30–

Mike Tovey (DRS) Christian Guellerin (Cumulus) Morning Session Chair: Mike Tovey

Lunch – Au Chien qui Fume, 33, rue du Pont Neuf, 75001 Paris Tel : +331 42 36 07 42

Education research for improving Design Education

Innovate in design education Chair : Erik Bohemia

Chair: Brigitte Borja de Mozota

Eddie Norman Katrina Nordstrom

Peter Lloyd Alison Shreeve

Luisa Collina Alain Findeli

Chair: Christian Guellerin

Exploring Design education

Short break

Frédérique Cuisinier Elvin Karana Linda Drew Alice Peinado & Jane Osmond Mark Evans Sibylle Klose Poster session: discussion (Afternoon round)

Chairs: Luisa Collina & Alessandro Biamonti + Coffee and networking break Day One wrap up by Christian Guellerin (Cumulus) Mike Tovey (DRS) ------------------------------------Parsons governance invites to Fashion show

Walk to Fashion show Parsons Paris

NOTE: Ride by bus is possible ask Parsons Students for RATP Tickets

Fashion show Parsons Paris

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Wednesday 18 May 2011 Evening activity Organized by Parsons Paris School of Art and Design Pre-registration needed Venue: Cirque d‟Hiver de Paris 110 Rue Amelot, 75011 Paris, France Access from Bourse de commerce: guided walk with Parsons Paris students; by bus from Chatelet line 96 and 29; by metro line 11 from Chatelet les Halles or Les Halles stop to Republique stop 18.00 – 22.00 Parsons Paris Fashion Show 2011 This annual event features the capsule collections of graduating class and highlights the work of outstanding 2nd and 3rd year students from Parsons Paris College of Art. The Fashion Show 2011 will be held in a truly extraordinary venue: the Cirque d‟Hiver de Paris – a preferred venue of Kenzo and other great designers. Contact person Marion Millet marion.millet@parsons-paris.com

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Symposium Workshop Day 2 Pre-registration needed Venue: Strate College Designers 27, avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92310 Sèvres, France Access: by train from SNCF Montparnasse to Bellevue; by metro line 9 to Pont de sevres stop; by tram line T2 from Val de Seine-la Defense to Musée de Sèvres ou Brimborion stop; by buses 169, 179, 279 to Brimborion – Division Leclerc station 10.00 – 13.00 Workshop: Dissemination Strategies – Author, Editor and Publisher The Workshop aim is to outline and discuss strategies that might help you to get published. We have invited three workshop facilitators to provide you with perspectives from a book author (Kath McKelvey), a journal editor (Professor Peter Lloyd) and a publisher (Caroline Walmsley, AVA Publishers). The book author will share with you her strategies and the journey she took to publish her course resources in a series of textbooks. During the second part of the workshop the journal editor will outline strategies on how to prepare a submission for an international journal. During the last part of the workshop the publisher will provide you with a practical advice on how to develop a proposal for a book. We have allocated 50 minutes for each session with 2 x 10 minutes breaks. Please note that the workshop is limited to only 45 people in order to enable discussion amongst the participants. The workshop is free to symposium participants and you will need to indicate if you would like to attend this workshop when you register for the symposium. 09.30-10.00 10.00-12.00

Registration and Morning coffee Chairs: Erik Bohemia + Luisa Collina How to disseminate your research? Caroline Walmsley, AVA Publishers What is peer review process? Peter Lloyd Publishing a Text Book Kath McKelvey CLOSE

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Michael TOVEY * DRS / Coventry University

Welcome on behalf of the DRS. The overarching aim of the symposium is to explore how innovation in education is informed by and is informing design research. Key questions such as are there sufficient links between design research and design teaching, and whether or not they should be closer will be addressed. Examples from Coventry University will be used to demonstrate the potential utility of research in design pedagogy for informing curriculum design and for providing the framework for investment in teaching facilities. The creation of the DRS Special Interest Group in Design Pedagogy will be signalled as a vehicle for clarifying the role of design research in providing the theoretical underpinning for design education.

Christian GUELLERIN** CUMULUS / L'École de Design Nantes Atlantique

Welcome on behalf of CUMULUS. Design Schools, aware of the social responsibilities of designers as well as their economic responsibilities are becoming the key actors in Higher Education capable of uniting „science and conscience‟, „social and economic‟, „use, expectations and needs‟ with the aim to plan for tomorrow, a more sensible future than the present. With such a mission, no doubt that design research will be primary to enlighten design education.

Corresponding author: School of Art and Design | Coventry University Priory Street | Coventry CV1 5FB | UK e-mail: adx907@coventry.ac.uk * * Corresponding author: L’Ecole de design Nantes Atlantique Rue Christian Pauc BP30607 | 44306 Nantes cedex 3 | France e-mail: c.guellerin@lecolededesign.com *

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Ezio MANZINI* DIS Politecnico di Milano - DESIS Network

Design schools are, first and foremost, places where the next generation of design experts are educated. This fundamental educational role, can be considered an investment on the future: if we want to build a better future, we have to prepare better people, in this case, better designers. However, to build a better future, design schools now have the potential to play a second important role: that of agents of sustainable change. That is, critical and creative actors in the on-going transition towards sustainability. It is important to note that this second role (agents of change), largely reinforces the first one (to educate future generations of designers): as the world continues to undergo fundamental changes, the most effective way to prepare future (competent) designers is to involve students in problems, opportunities and design methods that today appear radically new and as yet involve only a small number of active minorities. Thanks to this involvement, students have the potential to play a meaningful role in contemporary society now (empowering the innovation processes that active minorities are generating) while simultaneously equipping themselves to be the leading designers of the future (when the problems, opportunities and design modalities that are emerging today will become the new standards). This paper discusses the motivations and practical possibilities for design schools to play the role of agents of change and operate, as a whole, as a large and articulated design agency: a free design agency where a multiplicity of school-based design labs collaboratively search for unconventional, critical, alternatives. And, doing so, develop an Open Design Program for sustainable social change. In my view, in acting as agents of change, design schools will do precisely what they should do: operate as free cultural entities capable of using that freedom to promote the social good, even when this contradicts mainstream models. *

Corresponding author: Industrial Design, Arts, Communication and Fashion Politecnico di Milano | DESIS-Design for Social Innovation for Sustainability Via Durando 38/A | 20158 Milano | Italy e-mail: ezio.manzini@polimi.it

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Brigitte Borja De Mozota* Parsons Paris College of Art & Design

Design activity is now integrated into society and organizations and this means the end of the „design planet „. So it is worthwhile researching about design in economics -microeconomics and macroeconomics. This paper will first explore what is economics and what is the economics of design: looking at the design activity as a profession, as an industry, as employment statistics, as economic welfare. Then exploring how this economics viewpoint has some impact on design education:

*

„Single loop design education‟ is about how the design discipline is used to answer the demand for accelerating change in this 21st century transition and service economy: changing the context and preferred designers skills without changing design education

„Double loop design education‟ is about introducing profound behavioural change in both design education and business education. Design defined through its specific skills means inventing common learning spaces and changing organizations capital integrating design as resource.

Corresponding author: Parsons Paris College of Art & Design 14 rue Letellier | 75015 Paris | France e-mail: brigitte.borja@parsons-paris.com

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Andrew POLAINE * Lucerne University of Applied Sciences & Arts

For a profession that claims imagination and divergent thinking to be among its key attributes, design research has failed to ignite public imagination. Despite efforts by the likes of John Maeda (2009), the rhetoric of STEM – science, technology, engineering, and mathematics – dominates the media. Science writers expound in newspaper columns, entire TV channels are devoted to the wonders of science. Science is, of course, important, but this one-sided view of research has not been counter-balanced by an equivalent, passionate exploration of the boundaries of design in the public sphere. Yet the potential is there – arguably, a handful of TED Talks have done more to raise the awareness of the importance of design than several decades of design research publication. Although there are exceptions, design education research has failed to imagine an integrated vision of design in the way that science achieved. This paper argues that design has bought into an illusionary practice versus theory and research divide from which science does not suffer and is a call to arms for design researchers to bring their activities into a broader, public discourse. Despite the rhetoric of interdisciplinarity, design education research has become too convergent in its thinking and discipline specific. Like the towers of medieval San Gimignano, careers are built by adding layers to one's own discipline tower and attempting to demolish those of others. As practices such as service design, which are inherently transdisciplinary, engage in projects at the public policy and service level, it is essential for design to explicitly articulate the process of design synthesis (Kolko, 2011) in order to gain and maintain credibility, for such projects offers an opportunity to bring design‟s value and activities on par with the sciences.

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Corresponding author: Design & Kunst | Lucerne School of Applied Arts & Sciences Sentimatt 1 | CH-6003 Luzern | Switzerland e-mail: andrew.polaine@hslu.ch

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Eddie NORMAN* Loughborough University

The paper begins by discussing the problematic nature of design education research: the essential requirement for continuous curriculum development and the difficulties of making effective research contributions in this context. It will then consider two particular case studies: the IDATER (International Design and Technology Education Research and Curriculum Development, 1988-2001) and the subsequent Design & Technology (D&T) Association Education and International Research Conferences (2002 onwards). The IDATER conferences were established in 1988 to develop a research foundation for the introduction of the National Curriculum in England in 1990. The D&T Association conferences continued these efforts, and also brought the research contributions into closer proximity with teachers. Research published through these conferences ie contributions to IDATER and the D&T Association International Research Conferences), has been analysed in terms of their originators, methods and intentions, and placed in the context of wider research contributions to design and technology education in this period. A sample of 3 IDATER conferences were selected and analysed: 1990, 1995 and 2000. These are representative of the conferenceâ€&#x;s lifecycle. The 2005 D&T Association Conference was analysed for comparison Some conclusions are then offered concerning the nature of effective research contributions and research infrastructure for these areas of design education.

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Corresponding author: Loughborough Design School | Loughborough University Leicestershire | LE11 3TU | UK e-mail: E.W.Norman@lboro.ac.uk

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Katrina NORDSTROM* Aalto University

Traditional engineering education in the European system continues to face many challenges. Classes are often large, topics are scientifically demanding and the curriculum is multidisciplinary, containing natural sciences, engineering and technology, including a significant mathematics-physicsinformation sciences requirement. Teaching scientific fact in the engineering curriculum is thus clearly a challenge. On one hand, mastering a scientific discipline or domain, and command of facts is an essential part of the learning process, whereas achieving a deep learning process, where knowledge is created or constructed by every learner is difficult to achieve in the traditional instruction and classroom setting. Accordingly, to develop every-day, real-life “classroom� tools for teaching of scientific fact in conjunction with development of social and team work skills, this communication presents the design and results of teaching science at Aalto University Design Factory with the aim of developing a concrete model of engagement through student commitment to shared tasks via problem solving. Deep learning of scientific fact can be facilitated by using non-conventional tools for teaching, learning and presentation such as drama, video, posters, model making and other similar means. It is also time to break free of the PowerPoint tradition in order to generate successful approaches for establishing student engagement and maintaining such engagement. The aim of this communication is to a) provide evidence-based assessment of learning for demonstrating that deep learning of scientific fact can be achieved and how the skills associated with scientific disciplines can most effectively be adopted into student learning processes, b) propose that focusing on group activities and development of the learning space, real-life and virtual, allows students more broader means for evidence based learning, and c) demonstrate the value of creativity as part of coaching novices into experts as part of a team via continuous engagement.

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Corresponding author: Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology | University Kemistintie 1| PO 16100, 00076 Aalto | Finland e-mail: katrina.nordstrom@tkk.fi

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Frédérique CUISINIER*, Elise TORNARE University of Paris Ouest

This communication discusses the necessity of a real collaboration between design and psychology (regarding particularly cognition, emotion and development) to enhance the design of learning environments. Knowledge building represents a major development at both the individual and societal level. Previously seen in terms of initial training, knowledge building now stresses learning throughout the individual‟s lifelong. The Information and Communication Technologies for Education (ICT-E) seem useful in this respect. But their really rapid development highlights new issues. Learning design is a new topic which aims to give some answers to those deep changes. The skills of the learning designers in the formalization of objects, tools and learning spaces are essential. How can designers create, maintain and focus people‟s attention on the learning content? How can they organize the space and shape the tools of knowledge building? How can we integrate the learner‟s perceptions and attitudes? What specifications are required according to the learner developmental level? Conceptual clarification and development of integrative models specifying the different layers of design (design of the program, the sequence, the activities, the objects and the content of learning) is essential. However, there is a risk of reductionism if these approaches are limited to a list of prescriptive steps without considering the learning situation as a psychological one. We claim that a cross-discussion between the psychologist and the designer would be a highly valuable dialogue. Psychology proposes analytical frameworks for these very complex processes involved in knowledge building. The researcher in psychology have an expertise about learning processes, cognitive development, information processing, the effects of cognitive overload (when the information to be treated is excessive or too complex), the emotional and motivational factors in learning (which are beginning to be better identified and understood).The collaboration between psychology and professional designers is certain to provide a fruitful response.

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Corresponding author: University of Paris Ouest 200 Avenue de la République | 92 001 Nanterre Cedex| France e-mail: fcuisinier@free.fr

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Alice D. PEINADO*, Sibylle KLOSE Parsons Paris College of Art & Design

This paper explores the development of two joined MA/MBA programmes sharing a research component. The aim will be to engage students with research problematics proper to design but which at the same time go to fuel a truly theoretical perspective as well as practical enactment of the design process. Design research declines itself through three sequential semester long modules that progressively have students engage in ever complex methods and research practices proper to design. Moving from the basics to intermediate and finally advanced approaches, students will gain a thorough understanding of how research informs the designerâ€&#x;s problem solving skills and risk taking approaches. Simultaneously they will engage in theoretical and practical exercises aimed at pushing the frontiers of strategic innovation in their respective fields. At the end, we hope that innovation will result from the balance between research, practical application and strategic insight in a holistic, systemic framework. Research emerges here as an intrinsic component of the design process.

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Corresponding author: Parsons Paris College of Art & Design 14 rue Letellier | 75015 Paris | France e-mail: alicepeinado@yahoo.com

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Peter Lloyd* The Open University

By questioning what we mean by the term „designer‟ this paper describes the ideas behind a new Open University course in Design Thinking. The paper shows how the creative skills of students can be consciously developed, and deliberately applied outside of the creative industries in what are termed „embedded‟ contexts. The distance learning model of education pioneered by The Open University is briefly sketched before the developments and ideas behind the new course in Design Thinking, in particular the concept of „social practice‟ are explained in detail. The paper presents the results of an extensive student and tutor survey regarding the course before concluding that, although it is possible to teach design practice by distance, practicebased expertise for tutors remains a critical success factor.

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Corresponding author: Department/School | The Open University PO Box 197 | Milton Keynes MK7 6BJ | United Kingdom e-mail: p.lloyd@open.ac.uk

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Alison SHREEVE * Buckinghamshire New University

This paper draws on a range of empirical research to explore some of the key aspects of learning and teaching that we may take for granted in higher education creative arts and design subjects. These form the „natural habitat‟ that many of us experienced as students and as lecturers. However, with increasing pressures on education, not least the emphasis on STEM subjects in the UK and the changing political and economic environment for Higher Education generally, some of these practices may no longer be sustainable. I will undertake a timely review of some „signature pedagogies‟ for our disciplines and the potential threats to their survival that we face today. Beginning with an overview of the nature of knowledge in art and design and how this might be conceptualised I will explore the implications this has for learning in the university. I will examine how learning and teaching is framed and students are enabled to learn. This will also address issues inherent within the cultural practices of these disciplines which might present barriers to learning for some students. Although signature pedagogies identify those ways of learning that are characteristic of the discipline we are also faced with new technologies in learning and practising. These technological changes are impacting our learning environments, and may significantly change how we teach. However, for many sub-disciplines practical and haptic experiences, „learning through doing‟, remains a fundamental part of learning to practice art and design. If we are to maintain some of the key signature pedagogies we need to be aware of them and to articulate and defend them in the face of economic and political challenges.

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Corresponding author: School of Design, Craft and Visual Arts | Bucks New University Queen Alexandra Road| High Wycombe HP11 2JZ | United Kingdom e-mail: alison.shreeve@bucks.ac.uk

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Elvin KARANA* Delft University of Technology

Materials are the common subject of a number of various disciplines such as materials science, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, architecture, industrial design, etc. Although the scale- from nano particles to giant concrete pieces- and the application- from telephones to bridges- noticeably change in these disciplines, the very fundamental question remains the same: how do we select a right material for a particular application? The common follow up answer is again a question: what are the main requirements and constraints? Requirements and constraints are usually technical which can be numerically expressed in variables, such as strength, thermal conductivity, elasticity, etc. However, when it comes to design related disciplines, requirements and constraint cover also the intangible aspects which are difficult to be described by objective values: such as meanings we attribute to materials (e.g. modern, feminine, aloof, etc.) or emotions elicited by materials (e.g. surprise, hate, love, etc.). In addition, in different stages of a design process, the broadness of the required materials information can differ tremendously. While a rough overview about a material family might be sufficient in a concept creation phase, much more detailed information regarding technical properties of a material might be needed in an embodiment design. Considering these points, it is not wrong to say that design related disciplines require different materials selection tools and methods (than the ones used in engineering and materials science) which can be used in different phases of a design process and support designers in understanding both tangible and intangible material aspects. These contrasting needs in different disciplines lead to discussions over „materials training‟ on industrial design programmes. Formal and informal discussions with design students and professional designers across years and the partial reanalysis of the author‟s doctoral data have been used for (1) creating material driven design projects, (2) developing a new „materials‟ course, (3) creating a material library to support material education in design. In this paper, the reflection of the research on design education regarding those three directions will be discussed.

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Corresponding author: Industrial Design Engineering | Delft University of Technology Landbergstraat 15 | 2628 CE Delft | The Netherlands e-mail: E.Karana@tudelft.nl

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Jane OSMOND* Coventry University

From 2005-2010 the author was involved in identifying threshold concepts in design for the Centre of Excellence for Product and Automotive Design (CEPAD) at Coventry University. The research involved gathering information from 90 industrial design students, via one-to-one interviews, focus groups and questionnaires. Two whole-staff meetings were also held, alongside oneto-one interviews with nine members of staff. The results of the research into threshold concepts has been published as a series of papers and book chapters (Osmond et al 2010; Osmond and Turner 2010; Osmond 2009; Osmond and Turner 2008; Osmond et al 2008). An overall view of the journey and subsequent identification of the threshold concept „the toleration of design uncertaintyâ€&#x;, is also outlined in a paper presented at the 2010 Design Research Society Conference held in Montreal (Tovey et al 2010). However, this position paper focuses on a theme that emerged from the research, which then found echoes in anecdotal discussions at creative arts conferences during the five-year period of research: namely what appeared to be the lack of a fully supported culture of educational research into teaching and learning practices within the creative arts disciplines . The paper then considers the consequences of this in the current economic climate, and the concomitant role of the Design Research Society in increasing the range of published materials available.

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Corresponding author: Centre for Excellence for Product and Automotive Design | Coventry University | Coventry |UK e-mail: arx162@coventry.ac.uk

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Luisa COLLINA* Politecnico di Milano

How is the design profession changing in the last decades and which are the new challenges for design education? Focusing on a specific case, the Product Service System Design MSc. taught in English to Italian and international students of the Design School at Politecnico di Milano, the author reflects on the present and future of designers as “reflexive professionals” (to quote Donald A. Schön) called upon to act in uncertain and vaguely defined contexts, tackle problems in highly original ways and come up with wide-ranging, experimental and innovative solutions resorting to complex and hybrid techniques and tools either purposely designed or taken from other fields.

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Corresponding author: INDACO | Politecnico di Milano via Durando 10 | 20158 | Milano |Italy e-mail: luisa.collina@polimi.it

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Mark EVANS* Loughborough University

The use of design tools forms a central component of academic study in the creative disciplines, with applications ranging from 3D modelling software to colour specification. The vocational nature of design requires educators to expose students to tools that have been validated through use by designers during professional practice, although an opportunity also exists for academic research to be more pro-active in both the evaluation of emerging tools and development of new resources. This approach enables educational institutions to be at the forefront in both the selection and development of new techniques that support teaching and learning. This paper explores this approach through descriptions of two case studies in which PhD research was used to inform educational practice in industrial design education. The first case study, supported by Hewlett Packard USA, evaluated the use of the Tablet PC as a mobile design studio that could integrate sketching with other core design activities, such as computer aided design and data collection via web browsing. The second case study, supported by the Industrial Designers Society of America, developed a compact card-based tool (iD Cards) to support understanding and communication in the use of design representations during new product development. The paper provides examples of the methods used and identifies positive outcomes in the contribution to student learning.

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Corresponding author: Loughborough Design School | Loughborough University Leicestershire | LE11 3TU | UK e-mail: M.A.Evans@lboro.ac.uk

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Kathryn MCKELVEY* Northumbria University

This paper attempts to describe the journey of a teacher who became an author in Higher Education. The journey began with a simple idea about a fundamental resource book, designed to improve teaching in design and illustration classes with ever increasing numbers of novice fashion students, back in 1991. This resource was a taxonomy of fashion, designed to increase the awareness of garment shapes, context, proportion, terminology, construction, production and finish, with a view to improving student knowledge, design and visual communication skills. The paper reflects upon the subsequent publications that built on the previous resource, as outputs of rigour, significance and integrity in shaping the author‟s approaches to teaching and research in fashion. It describes the initial development of the original idea and the subsequent acceptance of this for publication and illustrates how this one idea allowed for further opportunities for publications in a partnership with a global publisher. There are resource issues around gathering content for publications of rigour and originality and there have been challenges around communicating in the publications themselves due to technological and economical constraints. There are also practical resource issues around creating and designing the publications as well as the need for the development of personal skills when keeping up with changes in technology and the fashion industry. Each publication requires careful planning and needs to have unique „reasons for being‟ that make it different to the competition. It describes the positive aspects of working with a colleague who brings similar skills and understanding, but a different handwriting and point of view to the publications. It looks at the impact of updating original editions and keeping the works contemporary. It also looks at personal and practical insights learned across almost 20 years of being an author with the same publisher.

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Corresponding author: School of Design | Northumbria University City Campus East 2 | NE1 8ST | United Kingdom e-mail: Kathryn.mckelvey@northumbria.ac.uk

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Alain FINDELI* Université de Nimes

The purpose of the seminar is not to try to answer such legitimate questions as, for instance, “How should we teach design?” or “What kind of designers should we train (or educate)?”, questions already present in the very first chapter of Moholy-Nagy‟s Vision in Motion (1947). Instead, I would like to take this opportunity to re-read and discuss Herbert Read‟s Education through Art (1943) in order to imagine what the concept of “education through design” could mean today. In other words, it consists in questioning the possible contribution of some sort of design education to general education: primary and secondary, but also adult education. My hypothesis is grounded in the following three sources: 1) Moholy-Nagy‟s conviction that basic design should be taught in all academic professional programs, i.e. not only to future architects and designers, but also to future doctors, engineers, lawyers, etc. 2) Howard Gardner‟s multiple intelligences model and 3) The experience of Waldorf schools and their underlying education principles, where artistic activities are systematically integrated in all subject matters (mathematics, grammar, history, sciences, etc.). The relevance of what I am trying to weave with those threads is further strengthened by the fact that Read‟s concept of “education through art” has been adopted by Christopher Frayling in his now famous and more than widely discussed typology of art & design research (“research by (or through)…”), by the current interest in the teaching of “design thinking” in professional disciplines other than design (in a restricted, non-Simonian sense), as well as by the acknowledgment, in education science, of creativity as a central aspect of the learning process.

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Corresponding author: Applied Arts | Université de Nimes Rue du Docteur Georges | Salan 30021 | Nîmes Cedex 1 | France e-mail: alain.findeli@unimes.fr

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Linda DREW* Vice Chair DRS Council and independent researcher

This paper begins with a discussion of approaches to co-creation and the application of design thinking (Sanders and Stappers, 2008). In this discussion, examples of co-creation approaches include Open Space Technology (Owen, 1997) a model of collaborative, research-informed facilitation and writing mostly used in higher education settings. The discussion reveals aspects of these approaches which enhance co-creation and peer to peer facilitation as well as high quality research-informed writing and curriculum development using the cognitive characteristics of design thinking (Oxman, 1999 & 2004). Significant features of the OST model are assessed to understand relevance for educators and practitioners in design as an anti-hierarchical approach to research-informed writing and curriculum development. The paper goes on to analyse two case studies of different stages in the experience of a group of art and design educators brought together to re-imagine a research-informed curriculum after an institutional merger. The group uses co-creation and OST informed approaches such as World CafĂŠ and Bar Camps to co-create a blueprint for a research-informed curriculum. This analysis draws on evaluation reports. The paper concludes with suggestions for further development in design Higher Education contexts.

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Corresponding author: Vice Chair DRS Council and independent researcher United Kingdom e-mail: l.drew4@btinternet.com


Hua DONG* Tongji University and Brunel University

Inclusive design has more than 15 years of development history in western countries, but it is still a relatively new topic in China. In 2010, the author piloted a new postgraduate course „inclusive design‟ at the College of Design and Innovation (D&I) at Tongji University, a newly established design school to reform design education in China. The new course was aimed to help the students develop a people-centric attitude and a consciousness of socially sustainable design. Seven postgraduate students registered the new course. The learning and teaching was organised around three assignments (literature review and share, case study analysis, and team-based design audits) and 18 formal lectures and seminar sessions where the backgrounds, principles, processes, methods, tools and resources of inclusive design were introduced systematically. It was found that the students learned the principles best through projects that require them to understand the real users‟ needs, e.g. the design audit of the Shanghai metro. They adopted emersion methods and consulted „critical users‟ in auditing the Shanghai metro. When proposing design solutions, they were conscious of social inclusion (e.g. producing non-obtrusive design that benefits all). A number of potential research directions of inclusive design in the context of China were also identified in the paper.

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Corresponding author: College of Design and Innovation | Tongji University | 1239 Siping Road | Shanghai 200092 | P.R.China | School of Engineering and Design |Brunel University | Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH | UK e-mail: Hua.Dong@brunel.ac.uk

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Erik BOHEMIA* Northumbria University

Higher Education in the UK is being rapidly transformed. Factors contributing to this transformation include government policies affecting Higher Education such as level of funding, increased number of HE providers coupled with HE sector „deregulation‟ and massification of HE. Other factors impacting on HE are associated with commodification of education which is closely connected with forces of globalisation which in turn are contributing to internationalisation of HE. Lastly factors associated with changes taking place in society and the move towards the knowledge economy are shifting a landscape of employment and what skills count for employers. This again contributes to the transformation that is taking place within the HE sector. In the paper, I will argue that design education is not immune from the forces described above. Therefore, there are significant pressures on established practices within design education such design studio, crit and the „master apprentice‟ teaching model. There are also debates with regard to the content the design curriculum should contain in order to „produce‟ design graduates with „desirable‟ skills which will result in better chance of employment. Therefore, I will argue that it is imperative in these taxing times that design educators continue research their educational practices and the assumptions underpinning these practices. The reason for this is so that they will be able to respond to the changes described above with informed knowledge. This means that they will be able to (re)design curriculum in order to incorporate „desired‟ changes and/or to „preserve‟ elements that are deemed important to produce a relevant design education.

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Corresponding author: School of Design | Northumbria University Newcastle upon Tyne | NE1 8ST | United Kingdom e-mail: erik@theglobalstudio.eu

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Book of Abstracts // Symposium Programme The 1st International Symposium for Design Education Researchers is taking in Paris, France on 18–19 May 2011. The Symposium was held under the auspices of the CUMULUS Association and the Design Research Society's Design Pedagogy Special Interest Group. We would like to thank to Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry for their kind support to host this important event. The symposium's overarching aim is to explore how innovation in education is informed by and is informing design research. In order to do this the symposium convenors have invited a diverse mix of speakers to explore the symposium's theme. The 1st International Symposium for Design Education Researchers provided a space for design educators to continue to review their educational practices and the assumptions underpinning these practices.

DesignResearchSociety Design Pedagogy SIG The Symposium Proceedings are available online from the following websites DRS http://www.designresearchsociety.org Cumulus http://www.cumulusassociation.org Symposium http://collab.northumbria.ac.uk/2011paris/

Book of Abstracts and Programme: 1st International Symposium for Design Education Researchers  

Researching Design Education Book of Abstracts and Symposium Programme 1st International Symposium for Design Education Researchers CUMULUS...

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