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Hobart and William Smith Colleges ​grafton respected panel today we were presenting a group 21 the final group I'm Joel Thompson and this is saeed far she and we're going to talk about our project which is designing super oleophobic services for touchscreen applications so touchscreens are everywhere these days they're so pervasive in today's society in every household from children to seniors from cell phones to laptops to computers and even eventually maybe televisions they're everywhere and they're probably here to definitely here to stay i would say and we see the main problem with this or is that they have fingerprint smudges as we continue to use them and they tend to accumulate dirt this can reduce the sensitivity sensitivity and functionality and also it reduces the aesthetic appeal of the device to combat this issue current products that are offered you have some spray coating or liquid applications they have for various apple products and such you have the film protector the plastic film protector and as well Apple and Blackberry boast how they are built-in fingerprint display as well but looking deeper you see that the spray coating applications they're not ideal because they would need take time to dry and frequent applications and they don't fully remove the smudges with the film protected area plastic protectors in trying to put them you there ceptable to forming bubbles underneath and that's also not ideal and they could it could be susceptible to scratches as well and the bulletin this fingerprint feature is not fully has not been fully realized because customers have increasingly given negative review saying that it's not really there if at all and it disappears up for a couple of uses so what do we propose having a nanostructure textured surface with the coated with an oleophobic material so we take our inspiration from our nature's herself famous self-cleaning mechanism the lotus leaf where it has hierarchical pillared structures waxy structures that are able to prevent water droplets from wetting the surface and they take out any particulates as they roll off the pedal so in trying to mimic this design researchers of comps with various models to try and understand this phenomenon there's the Cassie Baxter model and the Wenzel model the Cassie Baxter is the ideal model where you have the air pockets in between the pillars supporting the droplet and giving that true greater than 150 degree contact angle as you can see in that picture and that's what we really need and the Wenzel state the the fluid penetrates in between the microstructures and it's the contact angles lower and that is even though give some degree of hydrophobicity or Olaf obesity is not the diol the maximum achievable and there's a critical a pitch distance or the distance between the pillars that where you transition from one state to the other so our design goals are to have a boil water repellency that is transparent and durable for the usage of the device and ultimately potentially integrated into the device wealth now I'll pass it on to Syed to talk about the fabrication so in order to first to achieve this job or achieve these goals are we need to go to a seasoned fabrication processes so what we did at the beginning was that we had to create these nanopillars on top of our glass substrate and then in order to protect those nanopillars from big enough and to add an extra support we decided to deposit several layers of cells nanocrystals or CNCs and finally to reinforce the hydrophobicity of the surface we're going to treat the surface with a low surface energy material at the end so moving forward to the fabrication via these nanopillars initially we created a mask so we went to a series of techniques that were done in the clean room after these the after the mask was created we started with clean black wafers glass wafers we did do a clean the wafers with the our state and we deposited a layer of silicon dioxide on top of our glass substrate we are using the mask and father I thought about photo lithography techniques we transfer the design from the mask to dr to the glass substrate we expose and develop the surface and then finally using the reactive ion etching process we created our our our nanopillars and at the end we stripped off the photoresist from the surface the next step was to deposit the cnc or cellulose nanocrystals on on top of her nano structures we did that using electrostatic layer by layer deposition in which it will allow us to have several layers of these crystals on top of a nerve so using the API which sustains a positive charge and knowing that our CNCs are previously functionalized with carboxylic moves which are negatively charged we deposited CNCs up to five layers on top up for our glass substrate and at the end we were able to wash the surface off the next step was to reinforce the hydrophobicity of the surface we introduce a very no surface energy material a slate material which has a long carbon chain with fluorines dashed away and was a dip coating process and we did that for several times until the surface was fully coated with with with this compound now we have to go back and check whether our design meets and the customer requirements or the hypothesis that we made at the beginning so we need to do that surface up we need to take separate images to make sure that our Nana players are there later on we have to do the contact angle measurement to see how our sample or surface reacts and in terms of commonalities in contact with oil or water and at the end


doing some mechanical testing and quality testing to make sure that the shadow doesn't vary off and also it's transparent to the ER to the length so moving forward this is just an optical microscope image just to have an idea of how long the server should look like but if you go if they move basically a little bit closer we should see exactly the United players that we design and fabricate on the surface of the glass they're about half a micron in in in length and then the diameter of them are about the three 3 2 4 micro meter and the period and then pre-audit distance between the pillars are about 50 mile meter the picture on the right shows you just the one color by itself and how it's basically attached to the surface the next so now that we know that that we have the we have our manual pattern design on the surface we needed to make sure that we were able to achieve a high contact angle when the water droplet or when the oil droplet is placed on the server the picture on the left shows the modified surface a patterned surface and the picture on the right is just a glass substrate as you can see we're able to achieve obtain up to 151 degrees of contact angle as opposed to the picture in the white which is sheila's maximum of 30 20 to 30 degrees of contact angle so the water basically flows on the on the regular surface as opposed to our surface where the water forms a droplet and with that hopefully another packet on the meeting we did the same Tesla coil as you know an oil has a lower surface tension so it's easier for it to flow and surface we were able to obtain up to 80 degree angle we boil the picture the right choice oil droplet on a plain glass substrate for it gives us a contact angle a very low I think about 20 degrees we did this test for several different samples and the average that we got for a water droplet was 134 the industry standard for a 540 surfaced about 150 so we're very very close to the to what's expected and for our oil droplet it's about 80 degrees which is very close to 90 degree that is the limit for Hydra for a repellency of the droplet from the surface and then we need to make we need to make sure that are designed this table for useless over time since the customers are going to be using this over and over for a longer period of time one of the industry's standard test is the mechanical rubbing test where you use a dry cloth and rub the surface for as many as many times until you see the figuration in its properties we went away up to a thousand rubs without seeing any any changes in the all-new Felicity or a hydrophobicity of their surface that we had saying goes for the transparency so well since we're going to use this as the final glass substrate on the display of the device it needs to be hundreds and transparent without any light diffraction or anything and as you can see you but just by the despite a winning visual inspection which we see that the way for the design wafer is able to transparent transmitted light without any any problems so going back to our use goals that we said at the beginning would you see that our oil and water resistance our goal was fully achieved or transparencies achieved completely the second goal that we had was durability which was achieved to the point of hundred thousand drops as was previously described a test and the last goal that we had was to implement us on an actual surface of their a device such as a cell phone display or a touchscreen display what you weren't able to do that yet and moving forward is up nessa said that we're planning to take is the first thing to do is to try to implement our design our paper and a bigger scale and put it on a man an actual device to see how the customer at their reaction or basically they're the how empowering word for us we also need to optimize the hydrophobicity of the surface by changing the pillar size our the distance between the players through the time constraints we were able to change our design for so many times but there is still space there for us to go there and try to optimize our our our final design and these are references and in thank you for listening and ignore any questions I'd be happy so I have a so this is a comparative one where this treatment the Ottawa with all shipping discount so the on the left side that one is a pattern with a novel what is this a glass substrate which is pattern yeah nanopillars on area then it is also with the second communication access on the right size does not like just a class so did you compare glass with nanopatterning but with all this sighting echo fluoro side modification we we didn't do the contact angle measurement but we just like dropping the droplets on the surface you can see the degree to which the surface is the hydrophobic so for let's say for the picture on the right shouldn't you put a droplet on the surface it will form a bubble and you clear it clearly shows that your surfaces like super hydrophobic when you have the patterned surface without the surface treatment they will create out it won't be the water won't rolled off the surface you will see on its own place but it won't create a whole full bubble so it's still it still no it doesn't wet that much but it's still it's not complete yet it's also hair yours weight of 12 flat surface modifier was silent yeah the one of the way first like go we had like it didn't etch properly there was no I think so I guess we we tried it and it was it was less than the the one that we saw with the pattern no no so that others if I whatever that because the Nano Sasha but it's already like a pretty beat micro oh yeah it's I think it's yeah it's like the deposition I mean the fabrication constraints like with the lab debate access to so y'all started fair yeah also is a kind of modification in fact you wish one stone like yeah I I do believe that America my decision had a bigger chunk of that work but the constraint we had was the he knew it was so hard cuz undergrad students that we don't have access to the kingdom so i guess if we could do electron beam lithography then we could have like Vera's a great show the best ratio that we could go with what the department was alive as you are working top ten use


resolutions so then these two word people guess the next question and then in terms of the processing cost of this processing it's not one of the cheapest you know weapons it head for some kind of larger scale like actually called does this very similar process very very similar process I could Apple there's his millions of dollars the biggest the biggest cost is there is a mask at night I can imagine them and their the mask you can use it for a million times over and over again so basically the more wafers you create your overall cost will be lower because because of math or and if you have the gravity max a clean room building or if you have access to green room for any company it's pretty feasible for them since they're not needing them aside like that but here's the question you guys wouldn't evasion selling the actual phone with this is sort of you know where you basically make the schooling you own some kind of substrate and then I assume somehow attached or anything good advice exactly so yes the four companies day the display has like several layers out of the caster when I last last near is just a glass there I'm sure which way we're trying to focus on that so they go to archive weathers right now to break the glass room when it's just a bit one who asked by a grand off and then put on the surface so what we're trying to do is we try to convince these manufacturers to come for our best which is traded able to our which is a yeah which Jesus saw their success the company produces the phone you know the calling is sort of should be a marginal cost for them and if you're dealing only with one you know basically later one coating you know top of all of this you know you should you should do something that the cost sense basically in order to be compatible with your own cost advice so that's the dental cost structure is given the technology that you're using is something that's bringing up you know dynamics sa Africa sorry you can hear the answer oh I think that makes sense yeah it does mention that the COS chart well this is more of a reach it with more research for our second but I mean we could we could batch process the oh the wafer stuff that's more in a manufacturing stage or something spray-on lay around yet once you purchase yeah the having the coating itself should be at the manufacturing stage like you could batch process it like it's because it's dipping it into the Holy phobic coding soul ya know it's meant to last okay thank you Richard Gilder Graduate School - American Museum of Natural History.

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