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great universe stood as territory Aundiscovered

Sputnik, launch by the Soviet Union in 1957, also launched the space race between the U.S.A. and the Soviet Union... control over the skies above was at stake.

belonging to no man or country. It was the late 1950s: a time before color television and cellular phones. A cold war was being waged on Earth and the great race for space was afoot…

fic facts, com Champion of scienti , sworn to p bined Intelligence e rotect objectivity. n surpassable by no

…only the best and brightest, the smartest people in the country were called upon to help direct and support an undertaking of such magnitude and importance: venturing into space.

A trusted group of board members was formed with one man standing as its brilliant leader…

An unbiased organization was needed to stand for reason and objectivity, science and knowledge...

THEN- in 1960- A POWERFUL force known as THE AEROSPACE CORPORATION was born by way of the Congressional Millikan Committee...

...to aid the United States Air Force in applying the full resources of modern science and technology to the problem of achieving those continuing advances in ballistic missiles and military space systems which are basic to national security....

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Dr. Ivan Getting As a physicist and electrical engineer who attended MIT and Oxford, Dr. Getting helped develop a tracking system that allowed antiaircraft guns to successfully destroy the bombs that Germany used during WWII.

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In the early days, Aerospace was heavily involved in the development of missiles and rockets, as the company is still today. As part of project Mercury, just two short years after the creation of Aerospace, John Glenn became the first American to make a trip around Earth in Friendship 7. It was a major leap forward in the space race.

1960 Aerospace is created as an Independent Organization to offer highly educated opinions for U.S. space Operations, Dr. Ivan Getting is the company’s first president. Project was the Mercury U first ma .S.A.’s n spacefligned programht

Before John Glenn went into space, chimpanzees were sent into orbit to test the space capsules…

Over the years AEROSPACE has formed relationships with the U.S. Air Force and NASA, among other agencies, and now helps ensure the success of their missions. These missions range from exploring the unknown in space to protecting our country and planet.

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Dyna-Soar is one of the earliest program offices, which was later cancelled. Aerospace developed the Mercury Pilot Safety Program, increasing the reliablility of the Atlas rockets and providing additional safety features for astronauts. NASA launches Mercury 1, an unoccupied test flight. 1962 USSR (now known as Russia) launches Vostok 1, which carries Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into space, making him both the first ‘spaceman’ and the first human to orbit Earth. John H. Glenn becomes the first U.S. astronaut to orbit Earth in the Mercury Project spacecraft Friendship 7.

HAM took a short 16-minute ride in 1961. Just months later, ENOS orbited Earth twice before returning home safely. Aerospace was assigned responsibility for the Nike Target Program in September of 1960. Testing and evaluating the Nike Ballistic Missile for the Air Force was Aerospace’s first major new project.

From putting navigation satellites in orbit to getting Apollo on the moon...

...Aerospace has had a hand, or at least a finger, in every NASA and Air Force project since its creation.

WHERE does AEROSPACE fit in?

Nike is the Greek goddess of st speed, and vi rength, ctory... not just a snea ker.

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Aerospace begins planning for the Defense Departments Initial Defense Communications Satellite Program. First test flight of the Titan II missile, used as the launch vehicle for the Gemini program. Aerospace provides general systems engineering and technical direction for the Titan II. Aerospace begins support for Advanced Ballistic Reentry System (ABRES). Aerospace begins


Much goes into the launch of a rocket, from trajectory physics to atmospheric density .

Although Aerospace doesn’t launch rockets, its intellectual expertise allows other organizations such as NASA and the Air Force to successfully launch rockets. The Gemini program was another important stride in the race to space. Between 1965 and 1966 ten Gemini spacecraft were launched to test methods of reentry into the atmosphere and subject astronauts to weightless and longer flights.

Many factors affect atmospheric density, including the seasons, latitude, weather conditions, and, at high altitudes, even the time of day.

1963 Project 57 begins at The Aerospace Corporation. The study seeks to clarify areas where space systems could be used for military applications. 1964 Aerospace begins assisting the Air Force with planning for the proposed Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), a precursor to the International Space Station which was later cancelled.

Gemini wa named af s the third zoter constella diac Castor and tion. the Gem Pollux, are the brini twins, ot Helen of Thers of roy.

Aerospace begins support for the Defense Satellite Communications System Satellite (DSCS). 1965 Gemini 3 carries two American astronauts into space.

Scientists at Aerospace became interested in these factors and proposed to the Air Force a spacecraft that could measure density at an altitude of 100 miles. The satellite was launched in 1968 and was also able to measure time and location of energy in the atmosphere caused by solar storms.

This led to one of Aerospace’s major contributions, developing an understanding of the earth’s upper atmosphere, and later allowed scientists to explain otherwise puzzling occurrences in the Earth’s atmosphere.

More Aerospace scientists also helped form a second, even better, model explaining how the radio waves used to communicate with spacecraft travel through the ionosphere. Their model helped resolve baffling questions.

“Being an astronaut is easy...there’s no pressure” HA,HA, HA-HA,HA!!

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support for Initial Defense Communications Satellite Program (IDCSP), an important step in Military Satellite Communications.

1967 Aerospace begins support for UK communications satellite system Skynet.

While the race to get to space was underway, Aerospace was also working with missiles, communication satellites, and reconnaissance technology...

Aerospace Assisted on projects such as the TACSAT (Tactical Communication Satellite), the world’s largest communication satellite weighing in at 1600 lbs. TACSAT delivered information on That’s a two different bands, s much as a the UHF and X-band, n elephant to ground stations !! and even some mobile stations. 7

1968 The USSR sends its Zond 5 lunar mission capsule around the Moon and back safely to Earth, a significant first. The first piloted mission of the Apollo Project, Apollo 7, successfully tested hardware for the space craft in Earth orbit. Launched with the new Saturn V rocket, Apollo 8 makes the first-ever manned lunar orbit, proving that NASA was ready to land a man on the Moon. 1969 Apollo 11 lands on the


moon...“one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.� 1970 The first Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite is launched. Aerospace provided systems engineering and technical direction to the program from its beginnings in the 1960s. 1971 The first launch of Titan IIID launch vehicle.

A space race breakthrough came for the U.S.A. on July 20, 1969, when Apollo 11 landed on the moon and Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first people to set foot on the lunar landscape. The U.S. had won the race but the cold war raged on. A major victory achieved, the U.S. strived for command of space and technology.

The first two Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) II spacecraft are launched. 1972 NASA begins development of the space shuttle. Aerospace performs advanced space program analysis and program studies for the project. 1973 Aerospace officially begins work on the Global Positioning System. Aerospace came up with the concept for GPS and helped the Air Force and other partners develop and deploy the system. 1974 Defense Department establishes a program based on the Global Positioning System concept.

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1975 Aerospace begins tests on airborne UHF terminals for the Air Force Satellite Communications System, AFSATCOM, which will provide the Air Force with worldwide communications capabilities.

Today, the struggle for space has been improved. The United States, Russia (formerly the Soviet Union), and other nations have a mutual understanding, making no claim to space for any country. Since the end of the space race, many nations, including the U.S.A. have worked together in later years on projects such as the International Space Station.

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1976 Aerospace establishes a

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B A L SKY

Am sta erica’s tion in s first pac e.

Why have a lab... in SPACE?!??!!

program office to support the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). 1978 The first Fleet Satellite Communications— FLTSATCOM—satellite is launched. The first GPS satellites are placed in orbit.

to enable long-term exploration of space and provide benefits to people on Earth.

The INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION lets scientists conduct experiments under unique conditions allowing for technology breakthroughs that may not happen as quickly on Earth.

Skylab was visited by three different crews as part of the Apollo program. The lab was used to study microgravity and medicine. It observed Earth from afar and had an x-ray telescope— thanks to co-experimenter, Aerospace.

Aerospace helped evaluate the risk to the public from trash that survived reentry and the risk from the potential increase in space debris.

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A Korean civilian airliner is shot down by Russian fighters after accidentally intruding into Soviet air space. To prevent any such tragedy from happening again, President Reagan declassifies GPS, making the system available to civilians.

Aerospace helped to develop an observation window that satisfies the strict optical requirements for the photographic experiments conducted on the station.

The comforts of Earth like sleeping bags, toliets, showers, and kitchens had to be redesigned to allow astronauts to live in microgravity.

1982 Aerospace supports the first successful test flight of the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), a two-stage solid-fueled rocket booster later used to help deliver large payloads into space. 1983 President Reagan proposes the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Aerospace provides support to the program from the mid- to late-1980s.

Aerospace has been involved in addressing many technical concerns arising from the development and deployment of the International Space Station. Earth’s gravitational force held Skylab in its orbit from 1973 until 1979 when it unexpectedly reentered the Earth’s atmosphere and crumbled.

1981 NASA conducts the first flight of the space shuttle Columbia, the world’s first reusable space vehicle.

Trash and how to dispose of it is a big problem for humans in space. Typically, trash is stored and disposed of on return to Earth. For the Space Station another solution was proposed to this problem: discard the trash overboard so that it burns up during reentry.

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1985 Aerospace participates in the successful testing of the anti-satellite (ASAT) program. Aerospace plays an important role in the development of the Air Force Consolidated Space Operations Center


Why is the

space shuttle so great?

Aboard the space shuttle Challenger Dr. Sally Ride became the first American woman in space.

External Tank

1986 The Space Shuttle Challenger explodes 73 seconds after liftoff, killing its crew of seven. The Shuttle Program goes into hiatus as the cause of the accident is investigated.

Crew Compartment

Aerospace began working on the space shuttle, officially called the space transportation system, early in 1972. The space shuttle was, and still is, unique because it launches like a rocket and has controls like a plane. The controls allow the orbiter to actually land like a plane. The orbiter has a cargo bay and crew compartment with a flight deck that has adjusted air pressure where astronauts live and conduct experiments.

On top of bring a math and science whiz, she was also a jock... Sally Ride was a nationally ranked tennis player her junior year in high school.

(CSOC) ground-control facility opened in Colorado Springs.

Solid Rocket Booster

Cargo Bay

Orbiter (122 ft.)

1988 The first space launch of a Titan II from Vandenberg Air Force Base. Aerospace provided systems engineering and integration for the family of converted launch vehicles. 1989 Titan IV and Delta II launched. The first operational GPS Block II satellites are deployed. 1990 NAVSTAR GPS becomes operational. Launch of the Hubble Space Telescope. 1991 The first launch of the Atlas II launch vehicle.

Dr. Ride joined the Aerospace team as a board member in 2004.

Technolog used spacy e shuttle fuin being used el pumps is in artificial hearts that are undergoing trials in pemedical ople!!

Columbia Challenger Discovery Atlantis Endeavour 12

Main Engines

The first space shuttle, Columbia, successfully launched from Edwards Air Force Base in California as STS-1 after 9 years of work.

STS-124 was launched in 2008 to deliver a robotic arm on the International Space Station and STS-125 is scheduled to visit the Hubble Telescope for repairs. 13

1994 The Federal Aviation Administration announces that GPS is operational and integrated as a part of the U.S. air traffic control system. The Air Force announces the completion of the 24 Block II GPS satellite constellation. The Department of Defense adopts the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) concept for the next generation of launch vehicles.


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Satellites were first used by the Military, for observation, navigation, and data collection. AEROSPACE has supported the operation of various satellite programs, some such as as GPS, eventually carried over into civilian use.

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Space technology impacts your life on a daily basis, especially satellites...

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collection of various satellite renderings 12

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DOWN 2. Smallest satellites in space 3. A Geostationary satellite program 4. Brother of Helen of Troy 5. Launches like a rocket, lands like a plane 6. First space station 8. In between Mercury and Apollo 11. Went on an Odyssey to Saturn 14. World’s largest communications satellite

…From navigation…

Aerospace begins assisting the Department of Defense with the transition from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) to the National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). 1995 Aerospace begins conducting independent assessments for the International Space Station. 1997 The Milstar satellite system is declared operational.

1998 Aerospace is involved in both High and Low components of the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) satellite constellation to meet U.S. surveillance needs.

...to weather forecasting and storm tracking…

The Aerospace Corporation’s Center for Orbital and Reentry Debris Studies is established to track space debris and investigate reentry breakup characteristics of satellites and rocket states. 2001 Aerospace supports planning for Space Radar, which will provide global persistent

…even television and radio.

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Aerospace plays significant role in the launch of the first Milstar 1 satellite.

NASA launches the Cassini spacecraft on a sevenyear journey to explore the moons of Saturn. Aerospace provided technical support during various phases of the program.

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ACROSS 1. Chance geologist on Mars 5. Launched in 1957, it fueled the space race 7. Primary primate in space 9. One of the first men on the moon 10. Helps the Air Force and other agencies protect the U.S.A. and the planet 12. Orbits Earth once every 97 minutes 13. Ghostly geologist on Mars 15. Original developer of GPS; Oxford and MIT alumnus 16. Goddess of strength and victory 17. The first shuttle in space 18. One of the first men on the moon 19. It doesn’t stand for Giant Purple Spider

The Aerospace Corporation participated in the planning and helped develop system requirements.

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At 43.5 feet in length and 14 feet across, the tractor-trailer sized HUBBLE telescope roaming above Earth’s atmosphere can capture clear images from orbit that the biggest telescopes on Earth can’t see at all! Hubble

Weather is monitored by the NOAA, or National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, using two types of satellites: geostationary and polar-orbiting.

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Hubble is the largest telescopes roaming around in space while Aerospace’s Picosats are among smallest observation satellites staying close to its mother spacecraft.

Each of the two tethered together picosats weigh in at just 2.2 lbs and are a mere 4-by-4-by-5 inches. Both equipped with a camera to explore the outer area of a space craft, while only one has a propulsion system to allow for movement. er omet A pic al to is equ 00001 0000 .0 0 00 eters m

GOES, a NASA and NOAA mission using geostationary satellites, monitor a constant area, such as the western hemisphere, about 22,240 miles above the Earth.

Polar-orbiting satellites circle 540 miles above Earth making just over 14 trips a day.

Jason-2 reporting for oceanography satellite duty, sir.

Bradford Parkinson, chairperson of the Aerospace board of trustees, shares the Charles Stark Draper Prize with Ivan Getting, the company’s first president, for their contributions to the development of GPS.

The successful demonstration launch of the evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) Delta IV Heavy.

Aerospace conceived the mission, designed and built the “picosats,” tested their components, and handled flight operations.

2005 Aerospace support the Air Force Affordable Responsive Spacelift (ARES) launch system demonstration

DMSP studies environmental elements such as land and surface water temperatures, water currents, ice, snow, and cloud features, the information is later used in military operations around the globe. 16

2003 Space Shuttle Columbia breaks apart during reentry. Aerospace plays an important role in analyzing the Columbia debris to help determine the cause of the accident.

2004 The Cassini spacecraft is inserted into near-perfect orbit around Saturn. Aerospace provided technical support during various phases of the program.

Aerospace also works with NOAA and the U.S. Air Force in using the Defense Meteorology Satellite Program (DMSP).

The images retrived from these two cameras serve different needs in space based on their sizes. The astronauts however, get to see everything first-hand.

2002 The Atlas V and Delta IV evolved expendable launch vehicles (EELVs) are successfully launched. Aerospace helped design the model for the Delta IV rocket’s solid-fuel engines. Aerospace plays an integral role in developing the Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) program to succeed Milstar, and supports development of a transformational communications architecture.

Having Aerospace on-hand has allowed NASA to orchestrate missions to repair the telescope after assisting in its 1991 launch.

This image of the Space Shuttle was taken by one of the picosats!!

intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance to the Department of Defense.

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Everyone knows that GPS provides great directions when you’re lost but do you ever wonder where that idea came from?

program to create a transformational spacelift capability for a wide range of payloads.

The Air Force began work on GPS technology in 1963 under project 621B. Aerospace’s own Dr. Getting started work on GPS back in 1972. It was actually invented at Aerospace for military use and years later brought to the public.

Launches begin using the Delta IV launch vehicle 2006 The first launch for the Wideband Gapfiller System (WGS), which will augment the communications capabilities of the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) to provide communications between command posts and the battlefield.

GPS or the Global Positioning System, as it is more technically known, operates on a 3-point system, sort of like a tripod, each point needing the others for the system to work.

2007 The first launch for the next-generation Block IIF Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites.

The satellite constellation is made of 24-plus satellites each with an accurate atomic clock. All the satellites clocks are synced up, so they all tell the same time.

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Ground stations send commands, collect data, and monitor satellites to be sure they’re working properly.

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2008 The first launch of the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) High, a constellation of high- and low-altitude satellites with a consolidated, common ground system built to meet U.S. surveillance needs for the next 20 to 30 years.

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First launch of the Advance Extremely High Frequency satellite program, which will provide worldwide, secure, survivable satellite communications, and advanced services across a broad range of mission areas. Dr. Wanda Austin is selected as Aerospace’s first female president. 2009 The first launch for the National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), which will combine civil and military polar weather satellite programs POES and DMSP into a single program.

...A receiver, like your cell phone, processes the information and provides a location based on the distance from each satellite to the receiver. 19


Satellites provide the ability to learn more about Earth and space through observation.

NASA’s Twin Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, were launched on June 10 and July 7, 2003. After seven months of deep space travel they touched down on precise landing points.

Space- Based Infrared System or SBIRS is a defense satellite that can detect missile launches.

These mysterious rings are made of billions of particles of ice and rock, some no bigger than a grain of sand, some the size of a school bus...

Opportunity here, coming at you live from MARS!

infrared view of a missile being launched

CASSINI embarked on a 2004 mission to study the rings and moons of Saturn, 2.2 billion miles away. Aerospace was on hand to provide technical support and conduct an independent review of ground operations and of the trajectory design.

JUNO is a robotic spacecraft being developed to study Jupiter. The giant planet has an extreme magnetic field, Juno will be closely looking at its gravitational field along with other characteristics of the plant.

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iew r’s v Rove Mars of

Spacecraft such as the MARS LANDER have allowed us to learn more about other planets as well. The scientific instruments aboard the Phoenix Mars Lander are able to gather information on the geology biology, on Mars and give scientists an idea if some form of life could have survived there.

2012 The first launch of the GPS III satellites, the fifth generation of Navstar satellites.

Spirit and Opportunity act as stand-ins for human geologists, with mini laboratories on board and a robotic arm, complete with elbow and wrist, capable of movement similar to that of a human arm. They explore the planet and send back data for scientists on Earth to use.

Sunlight powers these robots, allowing them to explore Mars and send information back to scientists on Earth even in the extreme Martian temperatures, which can vary by more than 100Âş C.

The Rovers even have discovered evidence of water on Mars!!!

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The initial launch for Transformational Communications, which will provide unprecedented satellite communications with Internet-like capability at 100 times the capacity of the Wideband Gapfiller System.


A lot has happened since Aerospace’s founding in 1960, when the space program was just beginning. New technologies and discoveries have helped shape the world we live in and continue to teach us about our planet and space beyond.

From a time when no one thought man would be able to walk on the moon...

...to NOW, having the ability to keep in man in space for months at a time, track locations on Earth using satellites in space, and operate robots from Earth that are whipping around the milky-way. Stay tuned for the Next Aero Adventure:

WHAT ELSE IS OUT THERE AND HOW DO ROCKETS GET THERE?

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Aerospace Adventures