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Portfolio EDUC 363

Portfolio EDUC 363 Erica Perdomo University System Ana G. Mendez Facilitator‘s name: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363 Workshops 1-5 Date: December 17, 2011

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Portfolio EDUC 363 Introduction In this electronic portfolio I will be presenting all tasks, presentations, individual assignments and reflective journals, which were made in the class, called Curriculum Planning and Design taught by Professor Lilian Panagiotopoulos. This course was developed in five (5) weeks which were very interesting because we discussed different concepts about curriculum and the preparation and development of a curriculum in education. All assignments were made with my best effort and dedication; some papers are in English and some in Spanish as directed by the teacher. Here I present my work.

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Table of Content Introduction

Workshop 1 Course Evaluation……………………………………………………………………….4 Curriculum Definitions………………………………………………………………….12 Class definitions………………………………………………………………...……….15 Essay about ESOL Standard 6…………………………………………………………..20 Workshop 2 Definitions……………………………………………………………………………….24 Reflective Diary 1&2…………………………………………………………………….28 Class Information………………………………………………………………………...31 Class Activities…………………………………………………………………………..33 Workshop 3 Curriculum Mapping……………………………………………………………………..36 Power point Presentation ADDIE Model………………………………………………..38 Outline ADDIE Model…………………………………………………………………..43 Information about Theoreticians…………………………………………………………45 Workshop 4 Reflexive Journal 3&4…………………………………………………………………...59 Group Activity…………………………………………………………………………...62 Essay about ESOL Standard 8…………………………………………………………...65 Table about Avaluo and Evaluation……………………………………………………...70 Workshop 5 Final Essay ………………………………………………………………………………73 Final Power point Presentation…………………………………………….…………….77 Final Reflexive Journal…………………………………………………………………..83

Conclusion


Portfolio EDUC 363 EDUC 363 Course Evaluation, Assignments per Workshop and Due Dates. Facilitator: Lilian Panagiotopoulos, MEd. Student’s name:__________________________________________________. Please be advised that all assignments must be posted before the due date. Any assignment posted later will be 10 % less of the original points. Workshop 1 Due date: November 19, 2011 Activity/Assignment

Description

Points

Attendance

It’s mandatory in all classes. Inform your facilitator about any absent and consider course policy. Mastery of the material discussed in class about: 1.-Definitions on page 21 ( module) 2.-Definitions of teaching, learning and Instruction. 3.-Definitions of Sociology of Education, Psychology of Education and Philosophy of Education 4.-Needs Assessment 5.- Comparison of Educational Philosophical Schools(Table on page 24). In each workshop, write a definition of Curriculum and posted it on the Discussion Board on Blackboard. Reply to two of classmates’ posting. The definition should grow in each workshop. It should be more complete and detailed than the prior workshop. ESOL Standard 6: Write a two pages paper in which you propose a current and effective ESOL teaching methodology in planning and delivering instruction to LEP students. Make sure to include why this proposed methodology is an effective one and how does it help ESOL students in a classroom. Also, explain what the implications are in knowing about these existing

3x 1= 3

Participation

Define Curriculum See Appendix A

Expository Essay See Appendix B The essay should strictly follow the APA style.

7 x 1=7

1 x 10 = 10

1x 10=10

Grade

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Portfolio EDUC 363 methodologies when planning curriculum Round Table See Appendix C

Discuss and analyze a chosen Educational philosophical school.

Portfolio See Appendixes Ds

Start your portfolio by organizing the materials of this class: definitions, curriculum concept, table of comparison of main Philosophical Schools ,round tables, conclusions and the essay. Total

1x 10=10

40 points

Taller 2: Fecha de entrega: November 26, 2011 Actividad/Asignación

Descripción

Puntos

Asistencia

Es obligatoria en todas las clases. Informe a su facilitador sobre cualquier ausencia y examine la política de curso sobre ausencias Dominio del material discutido en clase sobre: 1. a. Competencias b. Redacción de objetivos y de los dominios cognitivo, afectivo y psicomotor. c. Redacción de metas 2. Busque información sobre los siguientes diseñadores y evaluadores de Currículo e investigación educativos. Lea y subraye lo que considere más importante. a. Allan C. Ornstein b. Francis P. Hunkins c. David G. Armstrong d. Dick W. Carey e. Ronald C. Doll f. Glen Hass 3. investigue sobre los Niveles del Diseño de Sistemas Instruccionales desde Gagné y la teoría de Briggs y los Cuatro niveles: 1. El nivel de sistema, 2. El nivel de curso, 4. El nivel de lección y 4. El nivel de sistema final. Existen catorce pasos de componentes básicos. Escríbalos en una lista.

3x 1= 3

Participación

7 x 1=7

Nota

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Portfolio EDUC 363 Definición de Curriculo See Appendix A

Diario Reflexivo A entregar en el Taller 3

Portafolio

Introduzca en el Discussion Board de Blackboard su 2da definición de Currículo. Opine sobre el concepto dado por dos compañeros. Recuerde completar y detallar más su definición en cada taller El propósito de este diario es el de reflexionar y escribir sobre los conceptos, los sentimientos y las actitudes que se desatan a partir de la discusión y los trabajos de cada taller. Este proceso le ayudará en su autoanálisis, así como propiciará la autoevaluación. Utilizando las siguientes preguntas guías, reflexione sobre lo presentado en los talleres 1 y 2 conteste las mismas en forma de ensayo (mínimo 2 páginas) con excelente gramática, ortografía y puntuación: 1. Hoy aprendí…. 2. Este tema presentado en clase me ayuda a…… 3. Puedo aplicar lo discutido en la clase a mi vida personal y profesional

1x 10=10

1x 15=15

1.-Incluya en su portafolio todas las definiciones, la información sobre diseñadores y evaluadores de Currículo e investigación educativos, los Niveles del Diseño de Sistemas Instruccionales desde Gagné y la teoría de Briggs y los Cuatro niveles,l a segunda definición de Currículo y el Diario Reflexivo así como las actividades y conclusiones de este taller. 2.-Complete el anejo D3 e inclúyalo en el portafolio. Total

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Workshop 3: Due date: December 3, 2011 Activity/Assignment

Description

Points

Attendance

Ii’s mandatory in all classes. Inform your facilitator about any absent and consider course policy. Mastery of the material discussed in class about: 1.-Identify curriculum design models. Make a table to compare and contrast the Models. 2.- Highlight what you consider of

3x 1= 3

Participation

7 x 1=7

Grade

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Portfolio EDUC 363

Define Curriculum See Appendix A

Expository Essay See Appendix B The essay should strictly follow the APA style.

Portfolio

importance about the following authors: a. Tyler Ralph W b. John Dewey c. Mario Leyton Soto d. Hilda Taba e. J Galen Taylor, and William Alexander f. Peter Oliva g. Francis P Hunkins h. Kathryn V Feyereisen, John A. Fiorino, and Arlin T Nowak i. John I. Goodlad, and Maurice N. Ritcher j. John P. Miller, and Wayne Seller k. Jon Wiles, and Joseph C Bondi Write your third definition of Curriculum and posted on the Discussion Board on Blackboard. Reply to two of your classmates’ definitions. Remember that the definition should grow in each workshop. It should be more complete and detailed than the prior workshop. ESOL Standard 8: Based on the curricular models presented during today’s Workshop, write a two pages expository essay in which you explain why it is important to know about these curricular models and how they help in selecting the appropriate content for ESOL students according to student levels of proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Provide some examples of how content can be adapted based on different levels of proficiency taking into account the four language arts. Use APA style 1.-Continue organizing your portfolio by introducing the materials of this class: definitions, curriculum concept, .curriculum design models. Table of comparing and contrasting the models. 2.- Highlight of considerations of importance about the following authors: a. Tyler Ralph W b. John Dewey c. Mario Leyton Soto d. Hilda Taba e. J Galen Taylor, and William Alexander f. Peter Oliva g. Francis P Hunkins

1x 10=10

1x 10=10

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Portfolio EDUC 363 h. Kathryn V Feyereisen, John A. Fiorino, and Arlin T Nowak i. John I. Goodlad, and Maurice N. Ritcher j. John P. Miller, and Wayne Seller k. Jon Wiles, and Joseph C Bondi and your Expository Essay. 3.-Complete the self-reflective sheet (Appendix D3) and insert it in your portfolio. Total 30

Taller 4 Due date: December.10, 2011 Actividad/Asignación

Descripción

Puntos

Asistencia

Es obligatoria en todas las clases. Informe a su facilitador sobre cualquier ausencia y examine la política de curso sobre ausencias Dominio del material discutido en clase sobre: 1. Definiciones de avalúo y evaluación. 2. Propósito y procedimiento de 10 técnicas diferentes de avalúo auténtico usando la tabla en la página 35 de su módulo. 3 Identifique modelos para la evaluación curricular 3. Investigacion sobre investigadores y evaluadores educativos: a. Irlanda Rodríguez b. Lee Cronbach c. Ralph Tyler d. Stufflebeam e. Elliot Eisner f. Michael Scriven g. Malvin C. Alkin Introduzca en el “Discussion Board” de Blackboard su 4ta definición de Currículo. Opine sobre el concepto dado por dos compañeros. Los estudiantes formarán grupos de 6 integrantes, quienes tendrán 6 minutos para discutir 6 técnicas diferentes de avalúo auténtico a la luz de las siguientes preguntas guías: a. ¿En qué consiste el instrumento de avalúo? b. ¿Cuál es su propósito? c. ¿Cómo lo implementarías en tu salón de clase? Luego, los grupos compartirán la información con el

3x 1= 3

Participación

Definición de Currículo Vea Anejo A Mesa Redonda Vea Anejo C

7 x 1=7

1x 10=10

1x 10=10

Nota

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Portfolio EDUC 363 resto de la clase Diario Reflexivo A entregar en el Taller 5

Portafolio Vea Anejos Ds

Utilizando las siguientes preguntas guías, reflexione sobre lo presentado en los talleres 3 y 4 .Conteste las mismas en forma de ensayo con excelente gramática, ortografía y puntuación: 1. Hoy aprendí…. 2. Este tema presentado en clase me ayuda a…… 3. Puedo aplicar lo discutido en la clase a mi vida personal y profesional. Complete la hoja de auto reflexión (Anejo D3) e insértela en su portafolio. Incluya en su portafolio todas las definiciones, manejadas en este taller y las actividades siguientes: 1. Avalúo y evaluación. 2. Propósito y el procedimiento de 10 técnicas diferentes de avalúo auténtico y la tabla completada de la página 35 de su módulo. 3 Los modelos para la evaluación curricular investigados por Ud. y vistos en clase. 3. la información sobre los siguientes investigadores y evaluadores educativos: a. Irlanda Rodríguez b. Lee Cronbach c. Ralph Tyler d. Stufflebeam e. Elliot Eisner f. Michael Scriven g. Malvin C. Alkin , 4. Segunda definición de Currículo y 5.-el Diario Reflexivo así como las actividades y conclusiones de este taller. Total

1x 15=15

45

Workshop 5 Due date: December 17, 2011. Activity/Assignment

Description

Points

Attendance

Ii’s mandatory in all classes. Inform your facilitator about any absent and consider course policy.

3x 1= 3

Grade

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Portfolio EDUC 363 Participation

Define Curriculum See Appendix A

Oral Presentation See Appendix F (bring copies to your classmates)

Mastery of the material discussed in class 7 x 1=7 about: 1.-Comparison and contrast of science and technology using a Venn diagram (English). 2.- In teams, defend the position assigned to each group(English): Team 1: Teachers usually do not develop technological material for curriculum. Team 2: Teachers will always be Important Team 3 The old technology may be useful. 3.- List of the most updated educational technology used in classrooms to share with class (in Spanish).Do a collage in class. 4.-Definition of Educational Technology and Curriculum Mapping, Write your fifth definition of Curriculum and 1x 10=10 posted on the Discussion Board on Blackboard. Reply to two of classmates’ posting. Remember that the definition should grow in each workshop. It should be more complete and detailed than the prior workshop. Each group will choose one of the following 1x 10=10 elements for the curriculum planning and design and discuss them in Spanish, and present them to the class: A- Phases in curriculum development o Conceptualization of the curriculum - Systems theory - Steps for the design of a teaching system - Model for the organization of the curriculum - Technology and the system - Flowchart of tasks to be completed B- Evaluation and assessment needs - Categories of needs - Model for assessment needs -Steps for assessment needs - Students with special needs and multiculturalism -Competencies, skills - Goal and objectives C- Content selection -Criteria -Organization D- Selection of experiences, strategies and resources o-Selection of experiences and strategies

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Portfolio EDUC 363 -Organization -Selection of resources (materials, equipment, physical facilities, personnel, time and cost) Teams should use visual aids, organizers, and/or technology to make their presentations. Write an essay and a reflection about the assigned topic (Spanish) See Appendix G

Curriculum Mapping See Appendix H Bring copies Portfolio Appendices Ds.

Total

This task has two parts: essay and reflection. 1.-Write an essay about your Oral Presentation topic. 2.- Write a reflection based on the questions on Appendix D, page 63 (module)

1x 45-45

Practice the phases of curriculum mapping. (Discussion, debate and present information) Complete your portfolio with all the materials of this last workshop. Hand it in your facilitator in this class,. All self-assessment and reflection written assignments, together with the selection of work done during the course, will be assembled in a portfolio strictly following the guidelines of portfolio elaboration in Appendices Ds.

1x20-20

Total

150 300 points

1x 55-55

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Definitions contained in the Discussion Board What is Curriculum? Here are some definitions in English and Spanish. Definition of Curriculum for the Workshop 1-5 Tanner (1980) defined curriculum as ―the planned and guided learning experiences and intended outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences under the auspices of the school, for the learners‘ continuous and willful growth in personal social competence‖. In my personal opinion curriculum is like a plan or guide that let us know the objectives, goals, instructions or evaluations for a class.

Por otra parte, Currículo también puede ser considerado como todas las intenciones u objetivos que toman lugar en una escuela, con la finalidad de alcanzar las metas de aprendizaje en el alumno que la misión de la institución busca. Por lo tanto, consideramos como parte del currículum a los siguientes aspectos: Intenciones Educativas, Objetivos académicos, Actividades de Aprendizaje, Medios de Socialización, Misión y Filosofía de la Institución, Normas de Disciplina institucional, Plan de Estudios y Listas de Materias, etc. Todos los aspectos anteriores deben estar de alguna manera incluidos en el currículo educativo.

Definición de currículo En cuanto a la definición de currículo quisiera agregar que existen varios tipos de currículo, estos son los siguientes: currículo abierto, currículo cerrado, currículo explicito y currículo latente. El currículo abierto hace énfasis en el proceso del aprendizaje, sus objetivos son definidos en términos generales, terminales y expresivos. La evolución se centra en la observación del


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proceso de aprendizaje, con el fin de determinar el nivel de comprensión del contenido. Este es elaborado y aplicado solo por el profesor. El currículo cerrado hace énfasis en los resultados, sus objetivos, contenidos y estrategias pedagógicas están ya determinadas por tanto la enseñanza es idéntica para todos los estudiantes. La evaluación se centra en el ritmo de aprendizaje de los estudiantes, pero los objetivos y su metodología son variables. La elaboración del programa y la aplicación está a cargo de diferentes personas. El currículo explicito. Generalmente está constituido por docente o personas involucrado con el sistema educativo. Este currículo marca principalmente habilidades cognitivos, información de las diferentes asignaturas para cada nivel. El currículo latente es aquel que se transmite de manera implícita, no aparece escrito pero tiene gran influencia tanto en el aula como en la propia institución educativa. Al no estar escrito permite que se pueda aprender más por las relaciones sociales que se establecen y se manifiestan por lo que se declara en la transmisión de determinados contenidos. Definición y Conclusión de Currículo. En conclusión, el currículo es una herramienta primordial para que la práctica pedagógica funcione eficazmente, es un elemento imprescindible para comprender la educación la cual se encuentra estrechamente relacionada con los contenidos utilizados en la docencia. Además en el currículo se encuentran componentes y determinaciones muy diversas sobre el sistema escolar de innovación pedagógica. Por otra parte, el currículo reúne características que lo hacen eficiente para las necesidades de la comunidad educativa, una de ellas es la flexibilidad, ya que, el currículo debe estar atento a todos los cambios que se dan en el sistema educativo y en la sociedad, por lo tanto


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no debe ser algo rígido y eterno sino que debe estar en permanente desarrollo y mejora; otra característica del currículo es la interdisciplinariedad, la cual permitirá un pensamiento cooperativo y una construcción colectiva del mismo, buscando integrar las diferentes disciplinas y alcanzar la unidad en la diversidad; además, el currículo debe estar acorde y responder al objetivo y a los principios de la institución educativa. J. Londoño (2001) Definitions of Curriculum Curriculum is a statement of what students should know, be able to do, how it is taught, how it is measured, and how the educational system is organized. • Curriculum can be approached as content (knowledge, skills and values), product (desired learning outcomes) and process (interactions in the classroom). • Curriculum development is a process involving planning, designing, implementation and evaluation. • Curriculum can be considered a discipline because it has an organized set of theoretical principles; it includes a body of knowledge and skills and has its theoreticians and its practitioners. • The relationship between curriculum and instruction is interdependent, continuous, repeated and never-ending.


Portfolio EDUC 363

Running head: DEFINITIONS FOR WORKSHOP 1

Definitions Erica Perdomo University system Ana G. Mendez Facilitator‘s name: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363Curriculum Planning and Design Workshop 1 Date: November 19, 2011

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Agent of Change: is a person whose presence or thought processes cause a change from the traditional way of handling or thinking about a problem. Axiology: the branch of philosophy dealing with values, as those of ethics, aesthetics or religion. Assessment: the act of assessing; appraisal; evaluation. Formative: this means giving form or shape. Summative: also means additive. Competencies: is a possession of required skill, knowledge, qualification or capacity. Quality control: a system for verifying and maintain a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment or materials, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. Designer: a person who devises or executes designs, especially one who creates forms, structures, and patterns, as for work of art or class. Curriculum Specialist: is a person that is a specialist creating something and this person has a lot of responsibilities or duties. Strategy: a plan, method, or series of maneuvers or stratagems for obtaining a specific goal or result. Experimentation: the act, process, practice, or an instance of making experiments or learn thorough experiences. Facilitator: a person responsible for leading or coordinating the work of a group, as one who leads a group discussion. Philosophy: The rational investigation of the truths and principles of being, knowledge, or conduct.


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Curriculum guide: is a practical guide that we can follow to make many things in a different or a specific way. Goals: the result of achievement toward which effort is directed. Method: a procedure, technique, or a systematic way of doing something. Model: a standard or example for imitation or comparison. Objectives: something that one‘s effort or actions are intended to attain or accomplish. Pilot: a guide or leader. Planning: is the act or process of making goals or develop strategies to achieve these goals. Feedback: a reaction or response to a particular process or activity and also can be a way that we can revise or make a correction through this feedback. Revision: the act of amending or altering. System: any formulated, regular, or special method or plan of procedure. Systematic: having, showing or involving a system, method or plan. Systemic: process that collects and examines information about school wide issues and then utilizes that data to determine priority goals, to develop a plan and to allocate funds and resources. Assessment Technician: are formative evaluation methods that serve two purposes they can help you do assess the degree to which your students understand the course content and they can provide you with information about effectiveness of your teaching methods. Curriculum Technician: under direction perform technical and responsible functions and activities pertaining to state testing and accountability project; perform responsible and specialized secretarial critical tasks; responsible for specialized unit of actively which may include directing of other personnel; and do other related work as required.


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Educational technology: is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources. Teaching: Is the act to provide or give knowledge, skills, ideas and experiences to a person who has no knowledge of this; with the intervention to understand and make use of them. Learning: Is a process in which we learn new abilities, knowledge, conducts or values as a result of an experience or observation. Instruction: is a way in which we can teach skills or strategies to make something. Sociology of Education: is the study of functional relationship between education and the other great institutional orders of society such as the economy, religion, the polity and kinship. It concentrates on educational system or subsystems or individual school or college. Psychology of Education: psychology concerned with human maturation, school learning, teaching methods, guidance, and evaluation of aptitude and progress by standardized tests Philosophy of Education: Application of philosophical methods to the theory and practice of education. Among the topics investigated in the philosophy of education are the nature of learning, especially in children; the purpose of education, particularly the question of whether the chief goal of educators should be imparting knowledge, developing intellectual independence, or instilling moral or political values; the nature of education-related concepts, including the concept of education itself; the sources and legitimacy of educational authority; and the conduct of educational research.


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References: Answer Corporation, 2011. Philosophy of education Retrieved from the following World Wide Web: http://www.answers.com/topic/philosophy-of-education Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT), June 1, 2004 Retrieved from the following World Wide Web: http://ocw.metu.edu.tr/file.php/118/molenda_definition.pdf Merriam-Webster, Incorporated, 2011 Educational Psychology. Retrieved from the following World Wide Web: http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/educational%20psychology Nimesh Suranga, June 26, 2009. Sociology of Education. Retrieved from the following World Wide Web: http://sociology-4-all.blogspot.com/2009/06/sociology-of-education.html http://m.dictionary.com/d?o=&l=dir


Portfolio EDUC 363 Running head: ESSAY ABOUT A TEACHING METHODOLOGY

First Essay Erica Perdomo University system Ana G. Mendez Facilitator‘s name: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363Curriculum Planning and Design Workshop 1 Date: November 19, 2011

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The ESOL Standard 6 consists in several methodologies that can be implemented in the teaching process for ESOL students. These methodologies can help the students to gain knowledge and learn a second language easily. The Standard 6 takes into consideration the following: the various strategies and techniques that enhance success for ESOL students, and also this standard is focused in meeting the needs of able students through moderate pacing and classroom planning with ESOL students in mind. In this essay I will propose an ESOL teaching methodology for LEP students. This methodology is called the Cooperative learning, which helps students to learn through the interaction with each other. Based on this teaching method, the ESOL students actively exchange knowledge and experiences, because there is a sharing component inherent in this activity. Therefore, these students benefit from the different perspective that others may contribute. In addition, there is the potential to learn in an engaging environment, which encourages the flow of new ideas and leads to a heightened awareness of the class. One of the reasons for why I choose this methodology is because with this method the students can improve their intercultural relations and they also can dedicate more time to homework. Moreover, this methodology is very effective because the students learn how to be responsible for what they learn and they have the opportunity to share their knowledge with confidence in themselves. Furthermore, the Cooperative Learning can help the ESOL students to integrate well with other approaches and this can motivate the socialization in the classroom (Methodologies, Approaches and Techniques). One way to integrate this type of methodology in the classroom is through group activities, in where exists an effective classroom management to avoid any problem or situation with the students. An example of a group activity can be a reading lesson, in which the students


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read and analyze the lesson and will be able to answer future questions. During this class activity the teacher has the opportunity to evaluate the students in many ways such as the grammar, pronunciation and discipline; doing this the students can share ideas, gain knowledge, and increase their social skills through the interaction with others. As a matter of fact, a group activity can be implemented using a cooperative management that helps teachers to give directions and provide positive examples that can give the students a better understanding of what they are doing. In the same way, this process can help us to achieve our goals and obtain an excellent learning process. On the contrary side, we can say that this methodology can be negative in some ways. One of the reasons is that sometimes there are a lot of students with different types of intelligences and this method cannot be an effective technique to teach students that have an interpersonal intelligence, because of this fact this kind of student usually learns individually and can get frustrate with a group activity. In conclusion, the cooperative learning is an excellent teaching methodology that we can use as a teacher of ESOL students. This is a great technique that can help the students to gain knowledge, improve their language and increase their learning skills. Moreover, these activities give us the opportunity to implement activities and include them in the educational curriculum. As I was explaining before, this methodology sometimes can be unusable because it may not be too effective for what we want to achieve with certain information. After all, in my personal opinion I think that this ESOL standard includes a lot of methodologies and this is an effective element to be included in our curriculum as a future teacher; because the students can get benefits from it and also us as teachers can enrich our knowledge and through this process we can provide the students a quality education.


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References: Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R.T.; Structuring Cooperative Learning: Lesson Plans for Teachers; Minneapolis, MI; Interaction Book Co. 1984 Kagan, Spencer; Cooperative Learning; San Diego; Resources for Teachers; 1994 Methodologies, Approaches and Techniques Retrieved on November 18, 2011 from the following World Wide Web: http://www.tcnj.edu/~eslsla/Methodologies/methodindex.htm Slavin, Robert; Cooperative Learning; New York; Longman; 1983


Portfolio EDUC 363 Titulillo: DEFINICIONES DEL TALLER 2

Definiciones Erica Perdomo Sistema Universitario Ana G. MĂŠndez Profesora: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363 Taller 2 Fecha: Noviembre 25, 2011

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Definición de Competencias: Por competencia entendemos la capacidad de poner en práctica de forma integrada aquellos conocimientos adquiridos, aptitudes y rasgos de personalidad que permiten resolver situaciones diversas. El concepto de competencia va más allá del‖ saber‖ y el ―saber hacer‖ ya que incluye el ―saber ser‖ y el ―saber estar ―. El hecho de ser competente exige más que la simple adquisición de conocimientos y habilidades. Las competencias implican la capacidad de utilizar estos conocimientos y habilidades en contextos y situaciones diferentes. Esta aplicación requiere comprensión, reflexión y discernimiento teniendo en cuenta la dimensión social de las acciones. En la enseñanza obligatoria, se debe priorizar la adquisición por parte de todo el alumnado de las competencias que se consideran básicas, es decir, aquellas competencias que favorecen la autonomía necesaria para el aprendizaje y para el desarrollo personal y social. Las competencias básicas tienen un importante carácter transversal. El currículo de las etapas obligatorias las recoge en un sentido amplio y extenso. Definición de Redacción de objetivos y de los dominios cognitivo, afectivo y psicomotor. Objetivos del dominio cognoscitivo El dominio cognoscitivo incluye a aquellos objetivos que, una vez conseguidos, hacen que el alumno sea capaz de reproducir algo que ha sido aprendido con anterioridad. Estos objetivos son los más abundantes en las tareas educativas y su justificación es clara. Dentro del dominio cognoscitivo se incluyen también las aptitudes y habilidades para usarlos; en otras palabras: la capacidad para resolver problemas y las técnicas para operar en su resolución. Las seis categorías principales que componen el área de dominio cognoscitivo están agrupadas por orden de dificultad: Conocimiento, Comprensión, Aplicación, Análisis, Síntesis, Evaluación. Está extraído de las clasificaciones de Bloom, adaptadas a investigaciones actuales.


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Objetivos del dominio afectivo Las características de los objetivos afectivos -según Bloom- pueden resumirse en los puntos siguientes: El desarrollo de los objetivos afectivos es paulatino y, por tanto, su medición es posible sólo después de largo tiempo. Las conductas afectivas experimentan cambios más bruscos que las conductas cognoscitivas. El patrimonio afectivo es personal con proyección en lo social. El problema de las actitudes surge a la hora de la evaluación. Se puede suponer el logro de objetivos de actitud, aunque no puedan acreditarse fehacientemente. No obstante en todo proceso educativo el aprendizaje de actitudes es necesario tenerlos en cuenta. Objetivos del dominio psicomotor. Dentro de este dominio se clasifican fundamentalmente las destrezas. Estas son conductas que se realizan con precisión, exactitud, facilidad, economía de tiempo y esfuerzo. Las conductas del dominio psicomotriz pueden variar con frecuencia, energía y duración. La frecuencia indica el promedio o cantidad de veces que una persona ejecuta una conducta. La energía se refiere a la fuerza o potencia que una persona necesita para ejecutar la destreza, y la duración en el lapso durante el cual se realiza la conducta. Definición de Redacción de metas: Son declaraciones que describen la conducta que se espera del estudiante en términos generales. La redacción de metas se refiere a un plan o enunciado que debe responder a las necesidades del todos los estudiantes y a los diferentes niveles de aprendizaje y que al final obtendremos como resultado satisfactorio el aprendizaje que los estudiantes hayan alcanzado por medio de estas metas.


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Referencias: Todas las definiciones anteriores fueron obtenidas el 25 de Noviembre del 2011 de las siguientes p谩ginas electr贸nicas: http://competentes.wordpress.com/2008/04/26/competencias-basicas-definicio/ http://www.uhu.es/cine.educacion/didactica/0023taxonomiaaprendizaje.htm http://www.slideshare.net/guest33b6e9/clasificacion-taxonomia-de-bloom


Portfolio EDUC 363 Titulillo: DIARIO REFLEXIVO #1

Diario Reflexivo Erica Perdomo Sistema Universitario Ana G. MĂŠndez Profesora: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363 Taller 1-2 Fecha: Noviembre 26,2011

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En la clase del primer taller me sentí muy ansiosa y curiosa porque estaba muy interesada en conocer de que se trataba esta clase y como iba a ser desarrollada. Sin embargo, mis sentimientos de curiosidad fueron disminuyendo poco a poco ya que esta clase capta mi atención y responde a todas mis inquietudes. Además, me siento libre de opinar y de involucrarme en todas las actividades de la clase, en donde tengo la oportunidad de compartir conocimientos y experiencias con mis compañeras. Por otro lado, en esta primera clase aprendí diferentes conceptos tales como: teaching, learning and instruction y su relación entre ellas, de hecho estas definiciones las comprendí y las entendí por medio de un grafico que resumió y detalló cada una de estas definiciones. También, aprendí mucho acerca de las escuelas filosóficas tales como idealismo, pragmatismo, realismo y existencialismo y por medio del estudio de estas escuelas tuve la oportunidad de identificar cual es mi propia filosofía educativa lo cual me pareció muy interesante. Por otra parte, en la segunda clase, aprendí cual es la diferencia entre Meta y Objetivos y el significado de cada una de ellas. Por consiguiente decimos que las metas son enunciados que no se pueden medir y que utilizan verbos indefinidos como por ejemplo: comprender, entender, apreciar, etc. En cambio los objetivos son medibles y visibles en cuanto a la enseñanza y aprendizaje como por ejemplo: cuando tenemos como objetivo que los estudiantes puedan ser capaces de escribir su propio nombre. Luego conocí las definiciones de los diferentes tipos de objetivos que existen en el currículo tales como los objetivos afectivos, en donde se toman en cuenta las emociones aptitudes y sentimientos, los objetivos psicomotrices en los que los estudiantes aprenden por medio de la ejecución, precisión y planificación. Y por ultimo tenemos los objetivos cognitivos que se basan en el conocimiento, análisis, aplicación y comprensión de un tema determinado. En


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adición, en esta clase también discutimos cuales son los objetivos instruccionales, en que se basan y como se puede aplicar en el sistema educativo. Con relación a lo aprendido en la clase del segundo taller, quisiera agregar que aprendí a reconocer la importancia de redactar objetivos efectivos y las implicaciones que estos tienen en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de los estudiantes. También pude comparar y entender las diferencias entre la redacción de competencias y la redacción de objetivos, y por medio de ejemplos se me facilitó entender y aprender esta información para ponerlos en práctica en el campo profesional. En resumen, las clases del primer y el segundo taller me parecieron muy interesantes y practicas ya que realizamos diferentes actividades de clase y de grupo, las cuales me sirvieron de alguna manera para reforzar el contenido ya conocido y para entender de una manera más clara el tema desarrollado en la clase. Yo pienso que todos los conocimientos desarrollados y aprendidos en esta clase me ayudaran en mi futuro profesional. Estos contenidos y estrategias obtenidas puedo implementarlas en el momento que tengamos que realizar cualquier currículo educativo. Sin duda alguna, estas clases fueron enfocadas totalmente en lo que es el currículo, como se diseña este currículo y como lo podemos implementar en el sistema educativo. Además, entendí cual es la diferencia entre el diseño de currículo y el plan de currículo y como estas dos se relacionan entre sí. Por otra parte, también discutimos el diseño instruccional de Gagne y Briggs y los diferentes pasos en el enfoque de estos dos espléndidos teóricos. De verdad me gustaron mucho estas clases, fueron muy interesantes y productivas.


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Información sobre los niveles del diseño de sistemas instruccionales desde Gagné y la teoría de Briggs y los cuatro niveles. Introducción: En esta lectura se define el diseño instruccional y se explica, de manera general, los pasos en el enfoque de sistemas de Gagné y Briggs. La lectura fue tomada del libro: Good, T. y Brophy, J. (2000). Psicología educativa contemporánea. México: McGrawHill. Capítulo 9 Diseño instruccional: un panorama En capítulos anteriores se estudiaron las jerarquías de aprendizaje y el análisis de tarea, la instrucción programada con su énfasis en el secuenciamiento cuidadoso de cuadros y las ideas acerca de la estructuración y secuenciamiento de la información alrededor de conceptos clave. También se describieron hallazgos que indicaban que ciertos textos son más "considerados" que otros debido a que están organizados alrededor de mecanismos de estructuración que proporcionan coherencia y fluidez. Todas estas ideas sugieren que la instrucción será más efectiva cuando el contenido sea dividido en unidades y por último en lecciones individuales que son estructuradas y secuenciadas para maximizar la claridad y facilidad de aprendizaje y para minimizar el potencial de confusión. El diseño instruccional es el arte (y ciencia aplicada) de crear instrucción clara y efectiva. Requiere atención a los materiales y actividades al igual que a los métodos instruccionales e incluye ciclos de exanimación y revisión además de la creación de versiones originales (Gagné, Briggs y VVager, 1988; Posner y Rudnitsky, 1986). La presente cobertura del diseño instruccional comienza con el enfoque de los sistemas que definió en forma original el campo. A continuación, se considerarán enfoques desarrollados de manera reciente que son más compatibles con los modelos constructivistas de la enseñanza empleados en la actualidad (véase Bonner, 1988; Kember, 199.1; Merrill, Li y Jones, 1990; Reigeluth, 1989; Tennyson y Rasch, 1988). El enfoque de los sistemas de Gagné y Briggs Gagné y Briggs (1979) declararon que el diseño instruccional es realizado de manera más efectiva usando un enfoque de los sistemas, un enfoque que comienza con el análisis de necesidades y objetivos, sigue a través del desarrollo y aplicación de planes detallados para seleccionar y probar materiales y procedimientos instruccionales diseñados para lograr estos objetivos, y continúa a través de tantos ciclos de revisión como puedan ser necesarios para producir resultados aceptables (véase figura 9.1). El enfoque de los sistemas comienza con cualesquier objetivos que hayan sido adoptados (por los diseñadores mismos o por otros autorizados para hacerlo) y luego recurre a modelos de enseñanza, teorías de aprendizaje y otras fuentes relevantes para construir un sistema instruccional adecuado. Los componentes incluidos en el sistema deben ser mutuamente re forzantes, pero no necesitan ser idénticos en formato ni derivados de una sola teoría, mientras sean adecuados para los estudiantes y los objetivos. Por ejemplo, los diseñadores instruccionales podrían usar las conferencias y el modelamiento para desarrollar conocimiento y comprensión, además de usar cuestionamiento y discusión seguidos de ejercicios para promover la aplicación. El enfoque de los sistemas implica que quienes elaboran materiales instruccionales deben pasar en forma rutinaria por las 14 etapas mostradas en


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la figura 9.1, y continuar reciclando a través de ellas hasta que un sistema instruccional ha probado su efectividad. Sin embargo, esto rara vez se hace. En consecuencia, los materiales con los que trabajan los profesores de manera típica son menos que ideales y en ocasiones tienen defectos graves. Por consiguiente, aun cuando no se espera que la mayoría de los profesores diseñen sistemas instruccionales que se extiendan a lo largo de varios niveles de grado, necesitarán conocer principios básicos de diseño instruccional a fin de identificar y corregir defectos en los materiales que se les dan. Además, se espera que la mayoría de los profesores adapten los materiales a sus clases y desarrollen programas remediales para los estudiantes que los necesiten. Estas actividades requieren la capacidad para ejecutar las primeras nueve etapas de la figura 9.1. Gagné y Briggs identificaron etapas del nivel del sistema, etapas del nivel del curso y etapas del nivel de la lección. Las etapas del nivel del sistema se refieren al desarrollo del sistema como un todo, incluyendo todos los cursos u otras subdivisiones dentro de él. Al desarrollar un curriculum de matemáticas elementales, por ejemplo, el trabajo a nivel del sistema incluiría decidir qué enseñar, secuenciar estos objetivos y luego asignar una porción de la secuencia a cada grado. Habría revisiones al comienzo de cada año y cuando se introduzcan temas nuevos que se basen en contenido enseñado antes pero, en general, el material sobre aprendido sería reducido en forma progresiva y el material nuevo sería aumentado en forma progresiva. Algunas etapas del nivel del sistema (1-3) tienen que ver con la planeación inicial anterior al desarrollo de lecciones y materiales, y otras (10-14) se refieren a la evaluación, revisión y diseminación que seguiría a dicho desarrollo, las etapas del nivel del curso (4-5) se refieren al desarrollo de cursos separados dentro del sistema mayor y las etapas del nivel de la lección (6-9) se refieren al desarrollo de lecciones individuales dentro de estos cursos. Figura 9.1

Etapas en el diseño de sistemas instruccionales Nivel del sistema 1. Análisis de necesidades, objetivos y prioridades. 2. Análisis de recursos, restricciones y sistemas de distribución alternativos. 3. Determinación del alcance y secuencia del currículum y cursos: diseño del sistema de distribución. Nivel del curso 4. Determinación de la estructura y la secuencia del curso. 5. Análisis de los objetivos del curso. Nivel de la lección 6. Definición de los objetivos de desempeño. 7. Preparación de planes (o módulos) de la lección. 8. Desarrollo o selección de materiales y medios. 9. Evaluación del desempeño del estudiante (medidas de desempeño) Nivel del sistema final 10. Preparación del profesor. 11. Evaluación formativa 12. Prueba de campo, revisión. 13. Evaluación sumatoria. 14. Instalación y difusión.


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Pictures of Activities developed In Class Erica Perdomo EDUC 363 Workshop 1 and 2

Group Activity Workshop 1

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Table of Educational Philosophical Schools/ Workshop 2

Individual Work about make a Goal and Objective for a Class. Workshop 2

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Group Work with Marta and Erica Workshop 2 Planning and Curriculum Design

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Erica Perdomo

Curriculum Mapping Definition and Activity Workshop 3 EDUC 363

Curriculum Mapping Definition

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Curriculum Mapping Activity

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University System Ana G. Mendez Erica Perdomo

EDUC 363 Facilitator‘s name: Lilian Panagiotopoulos Workshop 3 Date: December 5, 2011

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Portfolio EDUC 363 Running head: OUTLINE ABOUT THE ADDIE MODEL

Outline Erica Perdomo University System Ana G. Mendez Facilitator‘s name: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363 Workshop 3 Date: December 5, 2011

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Portfolio EDUC 363 Outline

ADDIE Model

Introduction

I- Definition and Emphasis of the ADDIE Model a) Analysis b)Design c) Development d)Implement c) Evaluation II- Analysis Phase a) Who is your audience? b) What is the best medium to deliver this content? c) What are you trying to do? III- Design Phase a) Provide sample designs b) Review of any difficulties/obstacles in design IV- Development Phase a) Product is developed according to agreed upon guidelines b) No further modifications until Evaluation Phase V- Implement Phase a) Deliverable is distributed VI- Evaluation Phase a) Feedback received b) Minor content changes/additions/deletions c) Periodic updates to content

Conclusion

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Information of authors if curriculum Workshop #3

Tyler Ralph W Ralph W. Tyler's long and illustrious career in education resulted in major contributions to the policy and practice of American schooling. His influence was especially felt in the field of testing, where he transformed the idea of measurement into a grander concept that he called evaluation; in the field of curriculum, where he designed a rationale for curriculum planning that still has vitality today; and in the realm of educational policy, where he advised U.S. presidents, legislators, and various school leaders on new directions and improvements for public schooling. After starting his career in education as a science teacher in South Dakota, Tyler went to the University of Chicago to pursue a doctorate in educational psychology. His training with Charles Judd and W.W. Charters at Chicago led to a research focus on teaching and testing. Upon graduation in 1927, Tyler took an appointment at the University of North Carolina, where he worked with teachers in the state on improving curricula. In 1929 Tyler followed W. W. Charters to the Ohio State University (OSU). He joined a team of scholars directed by Charters at the university's Bureau of Educational Research, taking the position of director of accomplishment testing in the bureau. He was hired to assist OSU faculty with the task of improving their teaching and increasing student retention at the university. In this capacity, he designed a number of path-breaking service studies. He made a name for himself at OSU by showing the faculty how to generate evidence that spoke to their course objectives. In this context, Tyler first coined the term evaluation as it pertained to schooling, describing a testing construct that moved away from pencil and paper memorization examinations and toward an evidence collection process dedicated to overarching teaching and learning objectives. Because of his early insistence on looking at evaluation as a matter of evidence tied to fundamental school purposes, Tyler could very well be considered one of the first proponents of what is now popularly known as portfolio assessment. Contribution to Testing and Curriculum Development The years Tyler spent at OSU clearly shaped the trajectory of his career in testing and curriculum development. His OSU ties brought him into the company of the Progressive Education Association and its effort to design a project dedicated to the reexamination of course requirements in American high schools. Known as the Eight-Year Study, the project involved thirty secondary schools that agreed to experiment with various alternative curricula approaches. The purpose of the study was to help colleges and high schools better understand the effects of the high school experience on college performance and other post - high school events. Tyler was chosen as the director of evaluation for the study, recommended for the job by Boyd Bode, who witnessed Tyler's work with faculty at OSU. Tyler designed methods of evaluation particular to the experimental variables of the Eight-Year Study. The details of this work are captured in Tyler and Smith's 1942 book on the evaluative component of the Eight-Year Study. The finding of the Eight-Year Study threw into question the tradition of supporting only one set of high school experiences for success in college and opened the door for more alternative thinking about the secondary school curriculum. For Tyler, the Eight-Year Study not only provided a venue for his creative perspective on evaluation but it also forced him to think about a rationale for the school curriculum. Answering a call from the participating schools in the study for more curriculum assistance, Tyler designed a curriculum planning rationale for the participating schools. After moving to the University of


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Chicago in 1938 to take the position of chairman in the Department of Education, Tyler continued to cultivate his ideas on the rationale, using it in a syllabus for his course on curriculum and instruction and eventually publishing it in 1949, under the title Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. In the rationale, Tyler conceived of school action as moving across a continuum of concerns that speaks to school purposes, the organization of experiences and the evaluation of experiences. His basic questions are now famous: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? The rationale also highlighted an important set of factors to be weighed against the questions. Tyler believed that the structure of the school curriculum also had to be responsive to three central factors that represent the main elements of an educative experience: (1) the nature of the learner (developmental factors, learner interests and needs, life experiences, etc.); (2) the values and aims of society (democratizing principles, values and attitudes); and (3) knowledge of subject matter (what is believed to be worthy and usable knowledge). In answering the four questions and in designing school experience for children, curriculum developers had to screen their judgments through the three factors. Tyler's rationale has been criticized for being overtly managerial and linear in its position on the school curriculum. Some critics have characterized it as outdated and atheoretical, suitable only to administrators keen on controlling the school curriculum in ways that are unresponsive to teachers and learners. The most well-known criticism of the rationale makes the argument that the rationale is historically wedded to social efficiency traditions. Tyler offered no substantive response to these criticisms, believing that criticism of his curriculum development work required some discussion of an alternative, which none of the critics provided. Tyler's reputation as an education expert grew with the publication of Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Because of the value Tyler placed on linking objectives to experience (instruction) and evaluation, he became known as the father of behavioral objectives. This led many to again characterize his work in the tradition of the social efficiency expert aiming to atomize the curriculum with hyper-specific objectives. Tyler, however, claimed no allegiance to such thinking. To him, behavioral objectives had to be formed at a generalizable level, an idea he first learned in graduate school under Charles Judd, whose research focused on the role of generalization in the transfer of learning. And although Tyler understood that schooling was a normative enterprise, he showed great regard for the exercise of local prerogatives in the school and cited a concern for "children who differ from the norm" as an educational problem needing attention. Advisory Role Tyler also exercised enormous influence as an educational adviser. Rising to the position of Dean of Social Sciences at the University of Chicago, Tyler assisted Robert Hutchins in restructuring the university's curriculum in the late 1940s and in founding the university's Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions. During this time Tyler also started his career as an education adviser in the White House. In 1952 he offered U.S. President Harry Truman advice on reforming the curriculum at the service academies. Under Eisenhower, he chaired the President's Conference on Children and Youth. President Lyndon B. Johnson's administration used Tyler to help shape its education bills, most notably the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, in which he was given the responsibility of writing the section on the


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development of regional educational research laboratories. In the late 1960s Tyler took on the job of designing the assessment measures for the National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP), which are federally mandated criterion-reference tests used to gauge national achievement in various disciplines and skill domains. After leaving the University of Chicago in 1953, Tyler became the first director of the Advanced Center for Behavioral Science at Stanford University, a think tank for social scientists that Tyler founded with private monies. He formally retired in 1967, taking on the position of director emeritus and trustee to the center and itinerant educational consultant. Given the longevity of his career in education and wide-ranging influence of his work in the policy and practice of public education, especially in the realm of curriculum development and testing, Tyler could very well be seen as among the most influential of figures setting the course for the American public school during the second half of the twentieth century. Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/ralph-w-tyler#ixzz1f24N4yA8 John Dewey John Dewey 1859-1952 John Dewey, who was to become one of the most powerful influences on educational thought in the 20th Century, was born in the town of Burlington, Vermont, in 1859. His father was proprietor of the local general store where, apparently, locals would foregather from time to time to discuss, with equal interest, affairs of both state and locality. According to one apocryphal story the store window carried the legend: Hams and cigars: smoked and unsmoked. The intimate small-town ethos of 19th century Burlington played a large part in forming Dewey's educational outlook in two ways: one negative, one positive. On the negative side he was convinced at a very early stage that the traditional, formal, desk-bound approach to schooling which was typified by the small town and rural schools of his childhood was futile. This kind of schooling was inadequate for the growing USA: a new society being born out of a simple agricultural economy which was being transformed by unprecedented industrialisation, immigration, rapid population growth, and drastic social change. (The old education) was predominantly static in subject matter, authoritarian in methods, and mainly passive and receptive from the side of the young. ... the imagination of educators did not go beyond provision of a fixed and rigid environment of subject matter, one drawn moreover from sources altogether too remote from the experience of the pupil. On the positive side Dewey was convinced that the ordinary contacts of day to day community life, be they social, economic, cultural or political, provided real and significant learning situations. For Dewey politics was not just a matter of national importance removed from the concern of the ordinary citizen but a matter of vital and immediate interest to the community. He believed that the school should prepare the child for active participation in the life of the community: he believed that education must break down, rather than reinforce, the gap between the experience of schooling and the needs of a truly participatory democracy: The school is primarily a social institution. Education being a social process, the school is simply that form of community life in which all those agencies are concentrated that will be most effective in bringing the child to share in the inherited resources of the race, and to use his own powers for social ends.... education, therefore, is a process of living and not a preparation for future living.


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Dewey graduated from the University of Vermont in 1879. After a period spent teaching high school he went to John's Hopkins University where he gained his Ph.D. degree in 1884. By his middle thirties he was Head of the Department of Philosophy, Psychology and Pedagogy at the University of Chicago. It was here, in 1896, that Dewey established his famous 'laboratory school' . Dewey's laboratory school was not intended to implement a structured pedagogical plan. It was intended as a laboratory in two senses: firstly it was intended to facilitate research and experimentation into new principles and methods and secondly, it was designed to allow the children to take an experimental approach to their own learning. The laboratory school was to be the testing ground for Dewey's philosophical ideas and their implementation: education is the laboratory in which philosophical distinctions become concrete and are tested. ... If we are willing to conceive of education as the process of forming fundamental dispositions, intellectual and emotional, toward nature and fellow men, philosophy may even be defined as the general theory of education. The furniture of the traditional school tells the story of traditional education; it is a story of submission, immobility, passivity and dependency. Just as the biologist can take a bone or two and reconstruct the whole animal, so, if we put before the mind's eye the ordinary school room, with its rows of ugly desks placed in geometrical order, crowded together so that there shall be as little moving room as possible, desks almost all of the same size, with just space enough to hold books, pencils and paper, and add a table, some chairs, the bare walls, and possibly a few pictures, we can reconstruct the only educational activity that can possibly go on in such a place. It is made for listening - because simply studying lessons out of a book is only another kind of listening; it marks the dependency of one mind upon another ... it means, comparatively speaking, passivity ... For more Information for Jonh Dewey is in this link below: http://www.admin.mtu.edu/ctlfd/Ed%20Psych%20Readings/dewey.pdf Mario Leyton Soto El modelo de planificación curricular integrado, se sustenta en la planeación educativa del profesor chileno Mario Leyton, que a raíz de las reformas educativas sucedidas en el siglo XX, en los pueblos latinoamericanos, organizó el currículo partiendo de una estructuración teórica en el que se sitúan tres componentes: elementos esenciales, procesos básicos y concepto fundamental. El énfasis en el desarrollo de una planificación curricular especificado en un modelo de planeación educativa, representa una concepción de trabajo unificado sobre la base de necesidades y expectativas de los estudiantes, estudiantes, profesores y la comunidad. En la perspectiva expuesta, se presenta un trabajo que comprende, definiciones, antecedentes, aportes teóricos fundamentales para sustenta un currículo sobre la base de la formación docente y el modelo curricular integrado de Mario Leyton. Por último las reflexiones y referencias. http://www.buenastareas.com/ensayos/Modelo-De-Planificaci%C3%B3n-CurricularIntegral/345777.html Hilda Taba DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULA


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The second and final period of Hilda Taba‘s independent scientific career began in 1951, when she accepted a proposal for the reorganization and development of social studies curricula in Contra Costa County, in the San Francisco Bay area. At the same time, she became a full professor of education at San Francisco State University. This was the period when her expertise in the areas of curriculum design, intergroup education and development of cognitive processes won her international recognition. Mary Durkin (1993, p. ix), the former social studies curriculum co-ordinator for the county, describes the beginning of Taba‘s research and its character in Contra Costa as follows: It was a fortunate coincidence that Dr. Hilda Taba joined the staff of San Francisco State at the same time as the Director of Curriculum of Contra Costa County Department of Education in California was searching for a consultant whose mode of thinking was compatible with staff‘s to write a social studies teacher guide. The Contra Costa County Board of Education provided Taba with ample time by not setting a deadline for the guides. Seven years were spent on two studies of children‘s thinking and the guides. The process included conferences with content specialists, in-service workshops, and the writing, testing and rewriting of the guides. In her turn, Taba (1962, p. 482) saw the problems connected with the social studies curriculum and the reasons for selecting a specific strategy for curriculum development in this way: The analysis of the problems required change in the curriculum and the approach to making this change was made by the county curriculum staff in co-operation with the school principals. This analysis suggested that the usual efforts—institutes, lectures, required attendance of college classes—had not over a period of years produced much curriculum improvement and did not seem promising for making changes in the structure of curriculum. Furthermore, since the county staff had been responsible for developing curriculum guides and units, the teachers in various districts tended to regard the county as authoritarian and it was difficult to kindle their initiative for curriculum improvement. For these reasons, the county staff was searching for some kind of grass-roots approach that would promise greater participation and involvement in the whole process of curriculum improvement, and at the same time improve the human relations between the schools and the county office. So, the beginning of the study was largely concerned with the identification and analysis of teachers‘ problems in the field of social studies. The teachers, after they had identified mismatches in the curricula they were using with their expectations for them, were asked to develop their own teaching/learning units. As the teachers‘ expertise was not sufficient for curriculum development, seminars and consultancy sessions were organized. The members of the research team primarily provided this kind of in-service training for co-operating teachers. Later on, this function was gradually taken over by the county staff as their expertise through inservice training that was especially organized for them increased. Teachers who developed the new 7 teaching/learning units first checked them in school practice. Then they underwent a critical revision and were again tried out, but this time by a larger number of teachers. This procedure was applied many times, until results satisfying the needs of teachers at different schools were achieved. Usually, the curriculum for an entire grade involved from five to eight units. The planning of general steps and procedures of curriculum development were the responsibility of Taba‘s research team at the beginning of the study. Then, similarly to the development of teacher guidance abilities, this function was gradually taken over by the county curriculum staff as its expertise increased. Consequently, the research programme was aimed at the re-education of the whole staff and at producing pilot models of curriculum development and teaching (Taba, 1962, p. 482–93). The main purpose of the study was to provide a flexible model


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of curriculum renewal, based on conjoint efforts of practising teachers and educational administrators responsible for school curricula. It is important to mention that many ideas underlying Taba‘s curriculum model, such as the notion of a ‗spiral‘ curriculum, inductive teaching strategies for the development of concepts, generalizations and applications; organization of content on three levels—key ideas, organizational ideas and facts—and her general strategy for developing thinking through the social studies curriculum significantly influenced curriculum developers during the 1960s and early 1970s. Many general principles and ideas of curriculum design developed by Hilda Taba belong to the foundations of modern curriculum theories, and are frequently referred to by other authors. Many of Taba‘s ideas on curriculum design can be considered as a further elaboration of Ralph Tyler‘s rather psychological principles of curriculum development: attributing to them a more pedagogical and practical nature. This is well evidenced by reconsidering the meaning and nature of Tyler‘s (1969) rationale of curriculum design: (1) stating educational objectives; (2) selecting and (3) organizing learning experiences; and (4) assessing the achievement of objectives. In her version, Taba introduced notions of multiple educational objectives and four distinct categories of objectives (basic knowledge, thinking skills, attitudes and academic skills). This approach allowed Hilda Taba to relate specific teaching/learning strategies to each category of objectives. In this sense, her classification of educational objectives has some similarities with Gagné‘s (1985) system of learning outcomes and the conditions of learning which explain the ways for reaching desired outcomes. Also, the sophisticated classification of educational objectives allowed Taba to give to Tyler‘s notion of learning experiences a more specific and practical meaning by considering separately the selection and organization of instructional 8 content and strategies of learning. As stated by Hilda Taba in her teacher handbook for elementary social studies: the selection and organization of content implements only one of the four areas of objectives—that of knowledge. The selection of content does not develop the techniques and skills for thinking, change patterns of attitudes and feelings, or produce academic and social skills. These objectives only can be achieved by the way in which the learning experiences are planned and conducted in the classroom. […] Achievement of three of the four categories of objectives depends on the nature of learning experiences rather than on the content (Taba, 1967, p. 11). Hilda Taba died unexpectedly on 6 July 1967, at the peak of her academic capabilities and power. Some of Taba‘s philosophical ideas on curriculum development There are many academic papers in English and in Estonian describing Hilda Taba‘s ideas and research on specific areas of education. But there are fewer writings on Taba‘s general principles and beliefs regarding research and education that made her work unique, inventive and original. Many of the ideas that made Taba world famous kept developing and evolving gradually throughout her career. A preliminary, and therefore incomplete, analysis of her scientific heritage suggests at least four principles that seem to govern her vision of curriculum theory and curriculum development (Krull & Kurm, 1996, p. 11–12): 1. Social processes, including the socialization of human beings, are not linear, and they cannot be modelled through linear planning. In other words, learning and development of personality cannot be considered as one-way processes of establishing educational aims and deriving specific objectives from an ideal of education proclaimed or imagined by some authority. 2. Social institutions, among them school curricula and programmes, are more likely to be effectively rearranged if, instead of the common way of administrative reorganization— from top to bottom—a well-founded and co-ordinated system of development from bottom to top can be used.


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3. The development of new curricula and programmes is more effective if it is based on the principles of democratic guidance and on the well-founded distribution of work. The emphasis is on the partnership based on competence, and not on administration. 4. The renovation of curricula and programmes is not a short-term effort but a long process, lasting for years.9 the principle of considering social processes as non-linear is the most important one, and it probably governs all of Hilda Taba‘s educational work. Taba pointed out already in her doctoral dissertation that ‗ends and aims, as they are in actual life, seldom present themselves as simple and easily comprehensible units‘ (1932, p. 142) and, therefore, ‗a purposive act must be regarded primarily as an outgrowth of previous activity and not as an independent unit starting and activating because of some end or purpose clamoring for actualization‘ (1932, p. 143). Applying the principle to curriculum design, this means that it is unreal and impossible to set up rigid general goals of education from which more specified objectives would be derived for a concrete plan. The general goals are also subject to modification in order to become adapted to the real circumstances, whereby they are dependent more or less on the content and character of the educational step planned. The second principle of the efficiency of the bottom-up approach suggests the most convenient way to help individuals and human social organizations to accept and to adapt to new situations and ideas. Taba‘s view can be well interpreted in the light of Donald Schön‘s concept of ‗dynamic conservatism‘ (Schön, 1971), which expresses the tendency of individuals and social organizations to oppose energetically changes that derange or offend their convictions and understandings by building up structures and mechanisms that will interfere with these changes. The expected changes in the individual or social consciousness will take place only if individuals or groups, under pressure to introduce these changes, conserve or acquire the ability to learn. So, the changes and learning underlying it take place more easily, and meet less opposition if they are not imposed by the central institutions but are initiated in the periphery, and gradually spread all over the structure. The third and fourth principles underline the necessity for the democratic guidance of curriculum development and the long-term nature of this process, and are essentially derived from the first two principles. They are explicitly spelled out in the description of the organization for social studies curriculum development used in Contra Costa county (see Taba, 1962, p. 482– 89) Probably the most characteristic feature of Hilda Taba‘s educational thinking was the ability to see the forest for the trees, pointing to her capability to discriminate between the essential and the non-essential or the important and the unimportant. She was never misled by the outside lustre of an idea even when facing the most advanced educational innovations of the day, and she always scrutinized them for their educational purpose or value. An episode described in the commemorative article by A.L. Costa and R.A. Loveall (2002) is good evidence of this aspect 10 of Taba‘s thinking. Taba, when visiting a prestigious American university in the 1960s, was led to a computer centre where a huge mainframe computer was used for developing one of the first teaching machines. Her judgement on the value of this enterprise was fast and rather disappointing: ‗Million-dollar machine, ten cent idea‘ (Costa & Loveall, 2002, p. 61). http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/publications/ThinkersPdf/tabae.pdf J Galen Taylor Galen (Greek: Γαληνός, Latin: Claudius Galenus of Pergamum; 129 C.E. – c. 210 C.E.) was the Greek physician and philosopher whose views were most instrumental in the development of medicine in the late Greco-Roman period. Galen valued observation, experimentation, and


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logical analysis in the studies of medicine, and conducted a number of anatomical studies by dissecting living animals. Galen's experimental methods foreshadowed later developments of Western scientific medicine. He is rightly regarded as the pioneer in surgery, making use of his knowledge of anatomy as the basis for surgical procedures that are used to this day. Yet his experimental methods were forgotten by later generations, who simply accepted as dogma the theories that he derived from research and careful observation. While Galen's his contribution in medical science is comparable to that of Hippocrates, his fame was overshadowed by that of Hippocrates. It is known that Galen extensively studied Plato and Aristotle, and wrote a number of works in philosophy. Unfortunately, those philosophical treatises were lost. Over 20 volumes of writings accredited to Galen are still in existence, however half of these works may not have been the works of Galen himself. Galen‘s collected works total 22 volumes, including the 17 volumes of On the Usefulness of the Parts of the Human Body. He is said to have written at least one sentence per day for most of his life. Some Galenic works exist only in Arabic translations, and many others have been lost. Some of his treatises on philosophy, logic, physics, and ethics perished in a fire that consumed the Temple of Peace in 191 C.E. Galen attempted to synthesize the best ideas of his predecessors both in medicine and in philosophy and logic. Ancient medicine practitioners disagreed over whether a doctor should rely only upon experience in treating an illness, or whether he should treat an illness based on accepted principles and theories. Galen applied Aristotelian critical empiricism, making careful observations and using comprehensive theory to give meaning to his observations. He admitted at the same time that practical experience was a valuable source of medical knowledge. In his Introduction to Logic, recognizing the limits of Stoic and Aristotelian logic, he introduced relational syllogisms to show how two conditional statements could be combined to arrive at a third conclusion. Galen developed a ―theory of demonstration‖ which involved making careful observations and applying logic to discover medical truths. He conducted numerous experiments on live animals to demonstrate the functions of various organs and parts of the body. He cut the nerve bundles of a live pig one at a time, to illustrate which functions were affected by each one. When the laryngeal nerve was cut the pig would stop squealing; this nerve is now also known as Galen's Nerve. He also tied the ureters of living animals to show that urine comes from the kidneys, and severed spinal cords to demonstrate paralysis. Galen also experimented with barbary apes and goats, though he emphasized that he practiced on pigs because, in some respects, they are anatomically similar to humans. Galen was able to use his methods to construct viable explanations of physiology and pathology. Some of his ideas were in error, because he assumed that human anatomy was identical to that of the animals he studied. Galen attacked skeptic epistemology on the grounds that nature could not have supplied humans with sensory organs that were intrinsically deceptive. At the same time, he urged very careful observation of all the circumstances surrounding sensory impressions. In medicine, a small variation in the circumstances of two patients with similar symptoms could give each patient‘s symptoms an entirely different significance.


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Galen opposed the Stoic concept of a ―unitary‖ psychology by conducting experiments to show that the brain was the source of voluntary action. He also argued that the mind existed in the human brain, not in the heart as Aristotle believed. On the Elements According to Hippocrates describes a system of four bodily humors: blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm, which were identified with the four classical elements and were on a cycle in tune with the four seasons. Galen's theories, in accord with Plato's, emphasized purposeful creation by a single Creator ("Nature"; Greek: phusis). Galen's authority dominated Western medicine until the sixteenth century, when Vesalius presented the first serious challenge to his hegemony. Medical practitioners accepted Galen‘s explanations of physiology and anatomy rather than conducting further studies. Blood letting became a standard medical procedure. Medieval Islamic medicine drew on the works of the ancient Greeks, especially those elucidated by Galen, such as his expanded humoral theory. Most of Galen's Greek writings were first translated to the Syriac language by Nestorian monks in the university of Gundishapur, Persia. Muslim scholars primarily in Baghdad translated the Syriac manuscripts into Arabic, along with many other Greek classics. They became some of the main sources for Arabian scholars such as Avicenna, Rhazes, and Maimonides. Galen was known in Arabic as Jalinos, and many people with that name today are considered to be descended from him. Galen was born around 129 C.E. in Pergamum (modern-day Bergama, Turkey), the son of Aeulius Nicon, a wealthy architect who made sure his son received a broad education. Galen studied mathematics, grammar, logic; and the philosophy the four major schools of the time, the Platonists, the Peripatetics, the Stoics, and the Epicureans. He also studied agriculture, architecture, astronomy, and astrology. When Galen was about sixteen years old, his father had a dream that he should study medicine. For four years he served as a therapeutes ("attendant" or "associate") of the healing god Asclepius in the local temple. After his father died in 148 or 149 C.E., Galen studied abroad in Smyrna, Corinth and Alexandria. Galen later declared that students should "…look at the human skeleton with your own eyes. This is very easy in Alexandria, so that the physicians of that area instruct their pupils with the aid of autopsy" (Kühn II, 220, L. Edelstein, trans.). It is not clear whether Galen himself studied in this fashion, but he did conduct dissections of monkeys and pigs to demonstrate. When he returned to Pergamum in 157 C.E., Galen worked as a physician in a gladiator school for three or four years. He later remarked that wounds were "windows into the body." Galen performed audacious operations that were not used again for almost two millennia, including brain and eye surgery. Galen performed cataract surgery by inserting a long needle-like instrument into the eye behind the lens and pulling it back slightly to remove the cataract. After civil unrest broke out in 162 C.E., Galen moved to Rome where he wrote extensively, lectured and publicly demonstrated his knowledge of anatomy. He gained a reputation as an experienced physician and his practice had a widespread clientele. He returned to Pergamum briefly in 166–169 C.E., then was recruited by the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus to serve the army in their war against the Germans. When the Black Plague hit Rome, Galen was made personal physician to Marcus Aurelius and Aurelius' son, Commodus. Galen spent the rest of his life in the Imperial court, writing and experimenting. He performed vivisections of numerous animals to study the function of the kidneys and the spinal cord. His favorite subject was the Barbary ape, because of its resemblance to the human body. It is reported that he employed 20 scribes to write down his words.


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Based upon the Suda Lexicon (written around 1000 C.E.), Galen died in Rome around 199-200 C.E. New research suggests that Galen may have lived into his eighties (possibly as old as 87), based on Byzantine and Arab copies of works which appear to have been written as late as than 207 C.E. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Galen

William Alexander Author of Are You a Good Teacher? (1959); The Changing Secondary School Curriculum (1967); The Emergent Middle School (1969); and The Changing High School Curriculum (1972). Regarded as the ―Father of the Middle School,‖ William Marvin Alexander (19 February 1912-28 August 1996) is best remembered for his contributions to curriculum development and middle level education. Alexander championed the rights of both adolescents and teachers. He insisted that schools in the middle provide developmentally appropriate education to students. He also advocated teacher education programs for teachers who want to build the bridge between elementary and high school. Alexander attended Bethel College, and upon graduation in 1934, settled into a teaching career in the McKenzie public schools. He had a dual position¾teaching in the elementary school in the morning and the high school in the afternoon. The walk between the schools gave the novice teacher time to reflect on the lack of communication between the elementary and senior high school¾a thought that would cause dramatic changes in school organization 30 years later. Not yet a licensed teacher, Alexander spent his summers at the George Peabody College for Teachers. His studies inspired him to pursue a career in education. Under the guidance of Hollis L. Caswell, Alexander completed a master‘s degree in history and education. When Caswell was offered a position at Columbia University‘s Teachers College in 1937, he encouraged Alexander to join him. Alexander‘s move was pivotal. As Caswell‘s research assistant, he studied prominent public and private schools in the city. He took courses with Teachers College professors and prestigious and controversial leaders in education, including George Counts, Jesse Newlon, and Goodwin Watson. All of these men studied the relationship between society and schools and their curricula—an idea that impacted Alexander‘s vision for creating middle level curriculum. Alexander completed his doctorate in 1939 and accepted the position of Assistant Director of Curriculum for the Cincinnati (Ohio) public schools. Curriculum development in Cincinnati mainly consisted of producing printed courses of study to guide instruction, and then, of promoting these guides to the teachers. Alexander‘s understanding of how curriculum should be formed was quite different. He believed that curriculum development should be a deliberate process by which teachers adapt the curriculum to meet the needs of their classrooms. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Alexander became an Office of Price Administration wartime consumer information consultant. In 1943, Alexander received a U.S. Naval Reserve commission and served in the Naval Orientation Training Program at Princeton University. He ended his tour of duty in New Haven, Connecticut, where he helped close out Yale University‘s Naval ROTC at the end of the war. Upon leaving the Navy, Alexander was named Director of Curriculum for Battle Creek (Michigan) public schools. The knowledge base that Battle Creek established for its students impacted Alexander‘s work in creating courses of study geared toward the needs of adolescents.


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In 1949, Alexander became Superintendent of schools in Winnetka, Illinois. Although he stayed in Winnetka for only one year, he learned a great deal about school organization from the North Shore community‘s school campuses that housed grades 6, 7, and 8. These schools would serve as models for his conceptualization of the middle school. Alexander accepted a position as Professor of Education at the University Of Miami School Of Education in 1950. He remained in Miami for eight years before joining the faculty of the George Peabody College for Teachers. In 1963, Alexander returned to the Sunshine State to teach at the University of Florida. In 1963, Maurice Johnson, Director of the Junior High Project at Cornell University, invited Alexander to deliver the keynote address at a conference. The title of the speech was ―The Dynamic Junior High School.‖ As Alexander thought about his speech, he struggled to describe how junior high schools were dynamic. He looked for examples of innovative junior high schools. He found his efforts to be futile. The nature of the junior high school was static¾merely a scaled-down version of a high school. Alexander‘s speech could have been a depressing report of how junior high schools were failing America‘s youth. A delayed flight, however, gave Alexander the time he needed to outline a new focus and organization for the school ―between‖ the elementary and high school-the middle school. The content of his Cornell address would forever alter the nature of education at the middle level. Educators and citizens were receptive to creating schools that respond to the needs of young people. Alexander‘s plan challenged the traditional grade organization plans—8–4 and 6– 3–3—because they neglected students in the middle grades. He proposed that the middle school bridge the gap between elementary and high school, and bring continuity to the educational program. The major components of the middle school included a comprehensive curriculum plan, a home-base advisory class, team planning and team teaching, a variety of instructional plans, numerous exploratory courses, health and physical education programs aimed at adolescents, and planning and evaluation systems for teachers. The school would address issues pertinent to adolescents, give students support and guidance in their education, and allow students to engage in innovative methods of learning that would extend and enhance knowledge. In 1966, Alexander was awarded federal funds for a National Defense Education Act Middle School Institute. The yearlong Institute enabled educators and administrators to study middle schools and formulate ideas about middle level education. While running the Institute, Alexander noted that literature on middle level education was lacking. Determined to change this situation, Alexander wrote The Emergent Middle School (1969), one of the most influential books on middle level education. Alexander published the first national survey on the status of middle schools, A Survey of Organizational Patterns of Reorganized Middle Schools (1968). This benchmark study identified and described middle schools, bringing attention to the need to restructure American education to include the middle school. Alexander established the first middle school teacher education program in the United States at the University of Florida in Gainesville. He created the Florida League of Middle Schools, the first, state middle school organization in the United States. He conducted several national studies on middle schools, and authored more than 250 professional publications, many of which have expanded the knowledge base of middle level education. He spent a year at the University of Teheran in Iran as a Fulbright Lecturer before his retirement from the University of Florida in 1977. Following his retirement, Alexander was the recipient of numerous awards. Alexander was named a member of Kappa Delta Pi‘s Laureate Chapter in 1978. In 1981, he was honored with


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the John H. Loundsbury Award, the highest honor given by the National Middle School Association. The American Education Research Association recognized his Sustained Contribution in the Field of Curriculum in 1983. http://www.kdp.org/meetourlaureates/laureates/williamalexander.php Peter Oliva Oliva (1982) described curriculum and instruction as two entities. You could have a situation in which the two entities are apart, called the dualistic model (see Figure 1.2a). What takes place in the classroom under the direction of the teacher has little relationship to what is stated in the curriculum plan. Planners ignore what teachers are doing and vice-versa. The curriculum or the instructional process may change without affecting one another. This separation will do serious harm to each other. On other occasions, curriculum and instruction are mutually interdependent as shown in the concentric model (see Figure 1.2b). In this model curriculum assumes the superordinate position while instruction is subordinate; that is, instruction is a subsystem of curriculum which is itself a subsystem of the whole system of education. This model implies a system that is hierarchical, with curriculum dominating instruction. Instruction is not a separate entity but a very dependent portion of the curriculum entity. In other situations, curriculum and instruction may be separate entities with a continuing circular relationship, called the circular model (see Figure 1.2c). Curriculum makes a continuous impact on instruction and similarly instruction impacts on curriculum. This model assumes that instructional decisions are made after curriculum decisions are made. But, these curriculum decisions are later modified when they have been implemented and evaluated in the classroom. This process is continues, repeated and never-ending. Of all the models, the cyclical model seems to the best alternative as it emphasizes the need for a close working relationship between implementers and planners. Though curriculum and instruction may be different entities they are interdependent and cannot function in isolation. It is impossible to plan everything that happens in the classroom in the curriculum document. It should be accepted that what is planned on paper may not work exactly because the numerous factors operating in the classroom are impossible to predetermine. The constant feedback from the classroom as to what works and what does not work has to be recycled to curriculum developers so necessary adjustments and modifications can be made to the curriculum plan. This may explain the need for pilot-testing a curriculum before it is widely implemented. http://capl.oum.edu.my/v3/download/preparatory%20programme/HQOE%201%20Fundamental %20to%20Curriculum%20Full.pdf Francis P Hunkis It is a major premise of Ornstein and Hunkins, L. Thomas Hopkins, John Goodlad, and John Dewey that philosophy drives, or should drive all curriculum. The values that are weighed when decisions are made about even the smallest and most apparently insignificant portions of curriculum development are grounded in a philosophy, whether it is hidden or conscious. Values and decisions are reflections of a philosophy, even if it is not consciously formulated. To the extent that this is indeed true, is the extent to which every individual educator should have a working philosophy. Because absent one, an educator may be acting from prejudice, improper acculturation, ill-formed conscience or misconception without realizing it. If any aspect of the curricular process fails to yield its place to an overall philosophy, it is an invitation to reflection,


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an invitation to ferret out ruts of tradition, habits of error, and lazy thinking. For an educator, the unexamined life is most inexcusable. In educational circles there are two major philosophic strands, traditionalist and contemporary. Each of these two can be further subdivided. Perennialism and essentialism are traditionalist philosophies, as are idealism and realism, while progressivism and reconstructionism are contemporary, as are pragmatism and existentialism. While Ornstein and Hunkins attempt a small sketch of the relationships of these two groups of fourfold philosophies, a inquirer into the nature of their relational constellation is left unsatisfied. While it could be said that there is a close relationship between realism and perennialism, that essentialism is derived from idealism and realism, and that progressivism is pragmatic, it might be better to simply say that all eight of these categories are simply attempts to create taxonomy for various philosophical, educational, and ultimately historical ideas. Taxonomy, by its nature, is ideal and not actual. A more realistic way to convey these philosophies would simply be to take the major thinkers who are mentioned in the chapter—Hutchins, Dewey, Bloom, Maslow, and others—and summarize what they taught. While classification helps by way of its power of generalization, it also obfuscates by this same virtue. There is not one thinker here who fits exactly in any one of these eight categories. And it is these thinkers who have made that waves that has led others to generalize, and not the other way around. That being said, I will briefly sketch an overview of these idealized philosophic divisions. http://www.reconciled.com/ci411/summaries.htm John Goodlad http://www.slideshare.net/ferdametric/john-goodlads-contribution-to-american-curriculumpresentation Jon W. Wiles Jon Wiles is a highly experienced educator who has provided curriculum leadership to schools and educational agencies for over thirty years. His specialty is the creation and implementation of curriculum plans. Wiles‘s work as an educational consultant has taken him to hundreds of agencies in more than forty states and a dozen foreign nations in Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean. Wiles is the author or coauthor of twelve widely used books addressing curriculum and educational leadership. His text, Curriculum Development: A Guide to Practice (Seventh Edition), has been used for nearly thirty years in colleges and universities throughout the world to train curriculum leaders. Other areas of publication by Wiles include teacher training, administration, school supervision, theory of change, politics of education, middle grades education, and technology. http://www.sagepub.com/authorDetails.nav?contribId=630508


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John Miller Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Centre for Teacher Development John P. (Jack) Miller, Ph.D., is Professor in the Department of Curriculum, Teaching, and Learning at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) at the University of Toronto and Head of OISE‘s Centre for Teacher Development. He has also been Visiting Professor at Shinwa Women‘s University in Kobe, Japan, and at Rietsumeiken University in Kyoto, Japan. Professor Miller teaches courses in holistic education and spirituality in education. He has also led workshops and given keynote addresses on those topics at conferences around the world. Notable among his many books, chapters, and journal articles are Holistic Learning and Spirituality in Education: Breaking New Ground (2005), Education and the Soul: Toward a Spiritual Curriculum (2000), The Contemplative Practitioner (1994), Holistic Learning: The Teacher’s Guide to Integrated Studies (1990), The Holistic Curriculum (1988), The Compassionate Teacher (1981), and John (Jack) Miller has been working in the field of holistic education for over 30 years. He is author/editor of more than a dozen books on holistic learning and contemplative practices in education which include Education and the Soul, The Holistic Curriculum and Educating for Wisdom and Compassion. His writing has been translated into eight languages. The Holistic Curriculum has provided the framework for the curriculum at the Whole Child School in Toronto where Jack has served on the Advisory Board. Jack has worked extensively with holistic educators in Japan and Korea for the past decade and has been visiting professor at two universities in Japan. Jack was one of 25 scholars invited to a UNESCO conference on cultural diversity and transversal values held in Kyoto and Tokyo in 2007. He teaches courses on holistic education and spirituality in education at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto where he is Professor. Humanizing the Classroom (1976). His writing has been translated into seven languages. http://www.corwin.com/authors/533030 http://fcis.oise.utoronto.ca/~jmiller/


Portfolio EDUC 363 Titulillo: DIARIO REFLEXIVO DE LOS TALLERES 3Y4

Diario Reflexivo Erica Perdomo Sistema Universitario Ana G. MĂŠndez Profesora: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363 Taller 3y 4 Fecha: Diciembre 10, 2011

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En la clase del taller 3 aprendí mucho acerca de los diferentes tipos de modelos curriculares que existen y que podemos utilizar en el salón de clases tomando en cuenta las necesidades de nuestros estudiantes. Durante esta clase me sentí muy animada y entusiasmada en querer aprender más del currículo y su proceso de creación. Pienso que esta clase fue muy productiva y creativa ya que desarrollamos varias presentaciones en las cuales demostramos la importancia de cada uno de estos modelos curriculares y los beneficios que podemos obtener por medio de estos. Por otra parte, también tuvimos la oportunidad de crear nuestro propio ―curriculum mapping‖ creo que esta fue una actividad verdaderamente emotiva ya que nunca había creado un currículo para una clase. Esta experiencia me pareció muy interesante y agradable al mismo tiempo, ya que pude poner en práctica mis conocimientos adquiridos en la teoría. Entre otras cosas también aprendimos un poco de los diferentes autores del currículo que han hecho una excelente labor en la creación de los mismos. En continuidad, la clase del taller cuatro también me gusto ya que pude presentar mis conocimientos y compartir con mis compañeras ideas y opiniones acerca de la definición de avalúo, evaluación, y medición. En la discusión de estas definiciones entendí que estas están ligadas de alguna manera entre sí. En la definición de avalúo aprendí que este es un proceso con el cual vamos a evaluar, en cambio la evaluación son los aspectos y criterios que vamos a evaluar. Por último, tenemos la medición en la que debemos utilizar alguna herramienta con la que nos permita evaluar los conocimientos que un estudiante ha aprendido. Por otra parte, en esta cuarta clase también aprendí las diferentes fases en la evaluación curricular, las cuales son las siguientes: área del currículo a evaluar, recolección de la


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información, análisis de la información y el reporte de resultados. Todas estas fases están concentradas en la evaluación del material curricular, área en donde se va a implementar el currículo, cuales son los aspectos a evaluar y por ultimo proveer recomendaciones para un mejoramiento en el futuro. Durante el desarrollo de esta clase realizamos una actividad que consistía en unas presentaciones que nos ayudarían a comparar los diferentes modelos curriculares que hay. Estas presentaciones me parecieron muy interesantes ya que en ellas se mencionaba la importancia de cada uno de los diferentes modelos del currículo de acuerdo con los autores Tyler, Taba entre otros. Mientras hacíamos las presentaciones pude aprender que estos modelos son muy importantes ya que nos permite logar nuestras metas en el proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje. Finalmente, en esta clase aprendí mucho sobre la evaluación curricular y sobre los diferentes tipos de evaluación curricular que existen. Entre estos tipos de evaluación curricular tenemos la evaluación formativa que consiste en evaluar el contenido o material a desarrollar durante una clase o actividad. Por otro lado, tenemos la evaluación sumativa que esta consiste en el grado o calificación que obtenemos de la evaluación del conocimiento de los estudiantes. En conclusión, pienso que todo lo que aprendí en esta clase me va a servir mucho en mi futuro como maestra, ya que desarrollamos diferentes temas muy esenciales para la educación en general. Con todos estos conocimientos adquiridos puedo estar preparada y tener una base al momento de llevarlos a la práctica. En adición, yo pienso que esta clase es muy importante en nuestra preparación como maestras, porque con lo que aprendimos en ella podemos guiarnos para desarrollar nuestros conocimientos de una manera eficaz en el campo educativo.


Portfolio EDUC 363 Titulillo: TRABAJO DE GRUPO DEL TALLER 4

Comparación de Modelos Sistema Universitario Ana G. Méndez Profesora: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363 Taller 4 Fecha: Diciembre 10, 2011 Integrantes del Grupo: Martha Bustamante Nubia Sánchez Migdalia Bordonada Erica Perdomo

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Conclusión y comparación de los 4 modelos de Currículo Tyler‘s Model Based on how simplify the Curriculum development process. Consists in four primary steps:

Taba‘s Model Based on 7 steps of the curriculum development. 1. Identify the needs of the students. 2. Develop objectives.

Development on performing objectives by defining appropriate learning objectives. Development of activities. Introducing useful learning experiences. Organization of activities. How can the education experience be properly organized? Evaluation. How the curriculum can be evaluated.

3. Choose content that matches the objectives. 4. Organize content considering the learners experiences and background. 5. Select instructional method that promotes student engagement. 6. Organize learning experiences by sequencing content. 7. Evaluate to ensure mastery.

Humanistic Approach Model Based on life experiences, creative problem solving and active student participation. Aspects of the Humanistic Approach: Informal Curriculum and Hidden Curriculum.

ADDIE‘s Model Based on 5 steps that should be included in the moment to create a curriculum. Analyze: audience, identify new behavioral outcome, types of learning and timeline for project completion. Design: documentation of projects instructional, visual and technical strategies.

Strong arguments that is the total person, the cognitive, the affective, and even the spiritual self-who is Development: involved in gaining different activities to knowledge. help students learn. Select methods. The students self concept in self-esteem Implement: procedure are essential factors in for training and this process. facilitator and the learners is developed. Evaluation: perform external evaluations observe the learner and revise training.


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Conclusion In conclusion, the Tyler‘s model is based on the natural structure and knowledge, the needs of the society and the needs of the learner. In comparison with the others models, the Tyler‘s model is similar in the development of the objectives that Taba‘s model had. On the other hand, we have the Humanistic Approach that encourage the self reflection, promote cooperative learning, independent learning and the total person in the cognitive, effective and even the spiritual self. In the final point, we have the ADDIE‘s model that is based on the creation process of the curriculum. This model take into consideration the following aspect: analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation of the process that need to follow in order to create a curriculum. As a final though, we can say that all curriculum models are useful because they provide guidance and structure. System models bring various groups, individual, information and activities together to achieve the goal, and provide continuous feedback in order to improve the curriculum.


Portfolio EDUC 363 Running head: THE ESOL STANDARD 8

Essay #2 Erica Perdomo University system Ana G. Mendez Facilitator‘s name: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363Curriculum Planning and Design Workshop 3 Date: December 3, 2011

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The ESOL Standard 8 consists in selecting an appropriate ESOL content and develops this content according to student levels in the four language arts such as listening, speaking, reading and writing. The applications of this content have to take into account the basic interpersonal communication skills and the cognitive academic language proficiency of the ESOL students, so we can be able to improve their knowledge and capacity to learn another language through this standard. As a teachers we must select and create an instructional material for LEP students, taking into consideration the verifying proficiency in oral and literacy skills of our students and also evaluate how this instructional material help and support the students to develop their interpersonal communication skills and their cognitive academic language. Furthermore, we have to continuously make sure that this instructional material is updated and if it‘s effective for the students learning. During my research I found what it is important to know about the different curriculum models that exist; and according to these curriculum models, the teaching process has to be taking into consideration to the ESOL student‘s needs. There are a lot of curriculum models and many of these models take into account the following objectives: determine the student‘s needs seating objectives, determine an adequate content, and determine a good schedule, selecting and preparing audiovisual materials and create an evaluation program of the content. In addition, these curriculum models helped us to manage the class and turn a plan into practice. Moreover, to make mention of some of the curriculum models there are three that I want to mention. The first one is the Taba‘s model which is an interactive model. The second is the Tyler‘s model which is a linear model that is based on objectives, selection of learning experiences and organization of learning experiences and evaluation.


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Continuously, we have the Wheeler‘s model and this is developed as a cyclical model. And the last one, we have the Ker‘s model which is divided in four areas: objective, knowledge, evaluation and school learning experiences. This model also is divided in three groups such as affective, cognitive and psychomotor. This entire curriculum models mention above is very important, because these models it teaches us that all models are develop stage by stage in a systematic process and according to the ESOL student‘s needs. On the other hand, it is very important to know about this curriculum models, because this can help us to create an organized curriculum to meet all the students‘ needs according to their cultural backgrounds, values, experiences and levels of proficiency language. Also with all these curriculum models we can be able to analyze them and see how we can help the ESOL students to learn a second language in an easy way. Furthermore, with all these curriculum models we can be able to identify what are the student‘s needs from all points of view taking into account their levels in speaking, listening, reading, and writing. After this identification we can create an appropriate content that can help the ESOL students to improve their skills and knowledge in this four language areas. A perfect example to do this can be a lesson that includes some activities that can encourage the students to do many things at the same time. An appropriate example to adapt the content for ESOL students can be through a lesson of reading. An adequate class activity it can be a story in which the students have to participate in reading, listen to the other student‘s opinions, give their own ideas or comments and write a summary of this story. With this activity we are encouraging the students to do many things at the same time and through these they are getting knowledge and they are learning a second language.


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During this activity the teacher has to ask questions about the story and give answers in a repetitive way to achieve the learning in the students throw memorization. The teacher also can use pictures to demonstrate to the students what an object is, how we can write the name of this object and how we can pronouns this word; doing this we are improving and giving the students the content that goes with their needs in a creative and motivated way. In conclusion, it is very important to know all about the different curriculum models that exist, their principle objectives and how can they be adapted to help the ESOL students. In the same way, the ESOL standard 8 is also very important to take into consideration, because this standard specifies the correct way to select and develop an appropriate ESOL content taking into consideration the students levels in interpersonal communication skills, their levels in the four language arts areas, and in their cognitive academic language proficiency.


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References: Dr. Nutta‘s. Florida Performance Standards for Teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages. Retrieved on December 2, 2011 from the following Web site: http://education.ucf.edu/esol/docs/25_ESOL_perf_standards.pdf USF College of Education, 2009. ESOL Resources by Performance Standard. Retrieved on December 2, 2011 from the following Worldwide Web: http://www.coedu.usf.edu/main/esol/Resources_PerfrmStndrd.html#Standard6


Portfolio EDUC 363 Titulillo: DEFINICION DE AVALUO Y EVALUACION

Tabla con Definiciones Erica Perdomo Sistema Universitario Ana G. MĂŠndez Profesora: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363 Taller 4 Fecha: Diciembre 5, 2011

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Definiciones de Avaluó y Evaluación Avaluó

Evaluación

Es el proceso de obtener información sobre que El concepto de evaluación se refiere a la acción aprende el estudiante, como lo aprende y como

y efecto de evaluar, un verbo cuya etimología

sabemos que lo aprende para mejorar el

se remonta al francés évaluer y que

proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje.

permite señalar, estimar, apreciar o calcular

http://www.cayey.upr.edu/files/u18/RedactandoAval__oMC.pdf

el valor de algo. Una evaluación también es un examen escolar que permite calificar los conocimientos, las aptitudes y el rendimiento de los alumnos. http://definicion.de/evaluacion/

Los estudiantes escribirán el propósito y el procedimiento de 10 técnicas diferentes de avalúo auténtico usando la siguiente tabla: Técnicas de Avaluó

Propósito

Procedimiento

CAT

Conocer si el alumno entiende los conceptos presentados en un momento específico de la instrucción.

Realizar preguntas y por medio del CAT se pretende responder sobre la cantidad de estudiantes que han aprendido los conceptos y lo que se debe cambiar en la instrucción de acuerdo a la respuesta del estudiante. Pasos: definir los objetivos, escribir preguntas, construir la encuesta, hacer un prueba, preparar una carta de presentación, distribución y recogido de respuestas y tabular las respuestas y compartir los resultados. Se realizan después de una clase o actividad, puede ser escrito o práctico.

Classroom Assessment Technique

Encuestas

Permite obtener información sobre la percepción de la facultad y el estudiante sobre el programa de destrezas de información.

Exámenes

Facilita evidenciar la memorización de datos y el crecimiento del aprendizaje.


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Mapas Conceptuales

Utilizarlo con el propósito de organizar la información de arriba hacia abajo por niveles para un mejor entendimiento.

Son representaciones graficas de la información de forma organizada y lógica.

Ensayos

Que los estudiantes demuestren su entendimiento respecto a los conceptos y su relación entre ellos.

Realización de preguntas abiertas que ofrece flexibilidad en las respuestas y disminuye el control.

Entrevista

Se busca la reacción de la persona a cerca de la instrucción.

Minute Paper

Obtener retroalimentación inmediata sobre un tema o contenido.

Preguntas que pueden ser abiertas o cerradas, que presenta lo que la persona piensa y siente acerca de la información provista. Entregar a cada estudiante un papel con las instrucciones y pedirles que respondas a las preguntas presentadas acerca de la clase.

Rubricas

Organizar la información para poder archivarla y presentarla en un resumen breve y ordenado.

Se debe realizar una tabla para colocar en orden todos los puntos importantes que queremos destacar. Esta es una herramienta esencial al examinar.

Lista Focalizada

Permite al estudiante recordar los puntos más importantes a un tema especifico, tema o lección. Se pueden diagnosticar errores, clarificar ideas, y relaciones entre conceptos o destrezas y estructuración del pensamiento.

Preparar la lista focalizada en grupos pequeños o individualmente. Pida a los estudiantes que escriba una definición para cada una de las palabras claves en su lista.

Diario Reflexivo

A través de este los estudiantes tienen la oportunidad de efectuar una reflexión diaria sobre su desarrollo en la clase.

Proveer al estudiante una hoja de papel que contenga tres preguntas las cuales el estudiante debe responder de acuerdo a lo aprendido en clase. Estas preguntas son: que aprendiste hoy?


Portfolio EDUC 363 Running head: FINAL ESSAY FOR WORKSHOP 5

Final Essay Erica Perdomo University System Ana G. Mendez Facilitator‘s name: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363 Workshop 5 Date: December 13, 2011

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In this essay I will be talking about the elements in the process of planning and designing a curriculum; based on that we can say that the curriculum planning is very important in the educational process, because through this we can develop a class or activity in a proper, organized and systematic way. Within the designing process of a curriculum we can find some elements that can be part of the preparation of the curriculum. These elements are the following: selection of content, organization, criteria, selection of experiences or strategies and selection of resources. The selection of content phase consist in perform an analytical study of the needs of the educational community such as students, teachers and parents. This phase is very essential because through this we can take into consideration a context or a specific bases that guide the process of curriculum preparation that meet all the educational needs that students probably have. With the correct selection of content we can provide the students an adequate knowledge according to their levels. The selection and organization also are very important and essential, because at the moment that we are preparing the curriculum we realized that it is impossible to include everything in a single curriculum. So that‘s why it‘s very important to consider the selection of content and we can use this medium to organize and prioritize the appropriate content that is going to be part of a educational curriculum. Moreover, in planning a curriculum design I think that one of the most valuable things to take into consideration is the criteria for the curriculum. These criteria are the following: 1Search for topics and content that materializes the goals that we want to achieve. 2- Propose models that allow for the adoption trends and education proposals and then select an example of


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these models. 3- Offer possibilities to compare and present alternatives. 4-We have discretion to amplify the panorama in a positive way that facilitates the learning process. Subsequently, another factor that influences in curriculum planning is the organization, which is very important because we can keep control of the steps that we need to continue in the developing or creating process of the curriculum. Through the organization process we can accomplish the followings: establishing the purpose and goal of learning, selecting the right content that apes in accordance with the interest obtained and set a time line for completing content matters. On the other hand, during the curriculum planning we also have to take account the resources or didactic material and strategies to use. Resources are means used by the teacher to facilitate the process of students learning. Some examples include the following: books, computers, graphics, rubrics, mappings, etc. However, the strategies that we are embedded in constructivism and through these we can get the teacher to implement a new role. For example: facilitate learning to students allowing them to experiment and become more profound in what they discover. In conclusion, we can say that the process of planning and curriculum design is composed of many elements that are needed to carry out this essential academic tool. However, all these elements together support the planning process leading to pre-determined results based on the students needs and adjust to the available resources. Finally, we understand that curriculum planning is the process of anticipation of the actions to be undertaken at the educational institution in order to live, build and internalize learning experiences in the student desirable.


Portfolio EDUC 363 References: Feldman Daniel, 2000. Aportes para el debate curricular. Retrieved on December 16, 2011 form the following worldwide web: http://estatico.buenosaires.gov.ar/areas/educacion/docentes/superior/normativa/mdycweb.pdf Grace, Selecci贸n de Contenidos. Retrieved on December 16, 2011 from the following worldwide web: http://educacion.relacionarse.com/index.php/146255

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Elementos de Planificación y Diseño del Currículo Sistema Universitario Ana G. Méndez Profesora: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363 Presentación Final Realizada por : Erica Perdomo

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Selección de contenidos en la planificación curricular Corresponde a la tercera etapa del desarrollo curricular. Dentro de la selección de contenidos es importante tomar en cuenta los siguientes pasos: 1. Estudio analítico de la institución o centro educativo. 2. Estudio de las necesidades de la comunidad educativa (estudiantes) 3. Estudio del contexto o temas que se van a desarrollar. 4. Establecer bases viables para guiarnos en la preparación del currículo.

Criterios de la Planificación Curricular Los criterios clásicos que se suelen establecer para la selección de contenidos son los siguientes: •Criterio psicométrico: pone el acento en las características básicas de los alumnos. •Criterio logo céntrico: se apoya prioritariamente en la estructura interna de la disciplina que desarrolla. También se suele denominar criterio lógico o epistemológico. •Criterio socio métrico: se centra en la búsqueda de aquellas informaciones, habilidades y conocimientos que demanda el contexto social. Se seleccionan aquellos núcleos de contenido con mayor proyección social.

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Organización de Estrategias Por medio de la organización podemos lograr lo siguiente: Establecer un objetivo o meta. Selección de un contenido adecuado de acuerdo a las necesidades. Programar un calendario de ejecución e implementación.

Selección de Experiencias Esta es una fase crucial en la creación del currículo. Tomando en cuenta las experiencias podemos manejar y elegir los contenidos que nos sirvan para alcanzar los objetivos que solo por medio de estos contenidos podemos lograr.

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Selección de Estrategias Dentro de la selección de estrategias podemos mencionar las siguientes:

1. Métodos 2. Técnicas 3. Recursos Didácticos

Selección de Recursos Materiales educativos orales: como las exposiciones, las conferencias, los diálogos, los debates, discos y grabaciones sobre temas educativos, etc. Materiales educativos escritos: como los textos de consulta, enciclopedias, libros diversos, folletos, separatas, papelógrafos organizadores visuales, etc. Materiales Educativos Audiovisuales: como cine, video-casetes, programas televisivos, programas en la computadoras, etc. Materiales Educativos volumétricos como maquetas, figuras geométricas, representaciones, objetos varios. Materiales educativos cibernéticos: máquinas de enseñanza, computadoras, software diversos, etc..

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Alguna Pregunta???

Referencias: http://educacion.relacionarse.com/index.php/146255 http://estatico.buenosaires.gov.ar/areas/educacion/docentes/superior/nor mativa/mdycweb.pdf http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/pdf/761/76111491018.pdf http://www.monografias.com/trabajos19/estrategiasaprendizaje/estrategias-aprendizaje.shtml http://www.monografias.com/trabajos76/planificacioncurricular/planificacion-curricular2.shtml http://www.monografias.com/trabajos76/planificacioncurricular/planificacion-curricular3.shtml

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Portfolio EDUC 363 Titulillo: DIARIO REFLEXIVO DEL TALLER 5

Diario Reflexivo Erica Perdomo Sistema Universitario Ana G. MĂŠndez Profesora: Lilian Panagiotopoulos EDUC 363 Taller 5 Fecha: Diciembre 16, 2011

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Haga una reflexión contestando la siguiente pregunta: 1. ¿Cómo planifica aplicar lo que ha aprendido? La forma más efectiva para aplicar los conocimientos obtenidos en la clase de planificación y diseño curricular es por medio de la práctica. La práctica es una actividad elemental en el desarrollo educativo, en donde podemos obtener experiencias y tendremos la oportunidad de reforzar los conocimientos y desarrollar nuevas habilidades y destrezas que nos servirán en nuestro futuro profesional. Yo pienso que una manera correcta de planificar la implementación de conceptos aprendidos, es por medio de la selección de contenidos apropiados tomando siempre en cuenta las necesidades de nuestros educandos. Por otra parte, pienso que todos los conocimientos adquiridos me guiaran en la preparación de cualquier actividad, lección, o currículo educativo. 2. Identifique los conceptos erróneos que tenía sobre currículo, y señale cuáles eran sus debilidades. Mencione como contribuyó el curso a su crecimiento y que áreas fortaleció. En realidad yo no tenía ningún concepto erróneo sobre lo que es currículo, porque desde un principio supe que el currículo era una guía en donde se establecen objetivos, metas, actividades, contenidos y evaluaciones las cuales deben ser implementadas con el propósito de satisfacer las necesidades educativas de un estudiante. No obstante, pienso que una de mis debilidades o desventajas era que no tenía un tiempo bien establecido para profundizar en el contenido desarrollado en clase, esto debido al tiempo limitado en el que se desarrollo la clase. Honestamente pienso que esta clase es muy importante y esencial en el proceso educativo y creo que debería ser desarrollada en un periodo más largo que 5 semanas. Por otro lado, pienso que esta clase contribuyo al enriquecimiento de mis conocimientos previos y me ayudo a desarrollar nuevas experiencias y habilidades que pondré en práctica en mi


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futuro profesional en el campo educativo. También fortaleció mis ganas por seguir aprendiendo mas sobre como diseñar, planificar e implementar un currículo tomando en cuenta como base los contenidos discutidos en esta clase. Finalmente, le agradezco mucho a la profesora Lilian Panagiotopoulos por su empeño y esfuerzo concentrado en hacer de esta una clase motivada, creativa, positiva, práctica y sobre todo interesante.


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Conclusion In this class I learned many interesting facts and concepts about the planning and curriculum design process and the importance in the education field, in my personal opinion I think that this class was a very good and essential in my learning process. I really liked to learn how to we can create a curriculum and how this curriculum is going to help me in my future. This class gives me the opportunity to meet education strategies that I did not know. Teacher thank you very much for making this class interesting and unforgettable class.

Planning Curriculum Design  

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