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Chapter 2: Conducting Research in Psychology 1. _____ entails collecting observations, or data, from the real world and evaluating those data as to whether they support our ideas or not. A) Speculation B) Biases C) Science D) Hypotheses Answer: C Page: 39 Topic: The Nature of Science Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 1.1 Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline. 2. Which of the following is true of human observation? A) Our brain perceives events as accurately as the best available digital video equipment. B) Our senses can be fooled with relative ease because of which our observations can lead us astray. C) Generalizations based on our sensory experiences tend to be always correct. D) One of the advantages of human observation is that what we witness in one situation can be easily applied to all similar situations. Answer: B Page: 39 Topic: The Limits of Observation Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 1.1 Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline. 3. _____ sciences study the world of stars, light, waves, atoms, the earth, compounds, and molecules. A) Biological B) Social C) Physical D) Environmental Answer: C Page: 40 Topic: What is Science? Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.1 Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology. 4. _____ sciences study humans both as individuals and as groups. A) Intrapersonal B) Biological C) Physical


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D) Social Answer: D Page: 40 Topic: What is Science? Level: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.1 Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology. 5. _____ helps draw a line between one's belief of the world and the actual reality. A) Problem solving B) Scientific thinking C) Psychological research D) Cultural understanding Answer: B Page: 40 Topic: What is Science? Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.1 Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology. 6. According to the author, the first attitude of science is _____. A) practical thinking B) intellectual honesty C) open skepticism D) questioning authority Answer: D Page: 41 Topic: What is Science? Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.1 Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology. 7. According to Carl Sagan, _____ is the second attitude of science. A) questioning authority B) intellectual honesty C) practical thinking D) open skepticism Answer: D Page: 41 Topic: What is Science? Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.1 Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology. 8. When the central tenet of knowing is not what people think and believe, but rather how nature behaves, then we must accept the data and follow them wherever they take us. This


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attitude is known as _____. A) intellectual honesty B) scientific thinking C) open skepticism D) cultural understanding Answer: A Page: 42 Topic: What is Science? Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.1 Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology. 9. What helps ensure accurate and honest presentation of results? A) When scientists protect their methods of inquiry from others B) When scientists announce their findings immediately after a study C) When scientists ignore data that is contrary to their theory D) When scientists allow their work to be evaluated by other scientists Answer: D Page: 42 Topic: What is Science? Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.1 Describe the basic characteristics of the science of psychology. 10. Intellectual honesty, which is the third scientific attitude, ensures that: A) scientists remain skeptical of new findings. B) scientists do not accept true data as results. C) scientists do not represent false data as true. D) scientists do not reject false results. Answer: C Page: 42 Topic: What is Science? Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 11. Which of the following is the first process of the scientific method? A) Predict B) Observe C) Test D) Interpret Answer: B Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic


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APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 12. The last process of the scientific method is to _____. A) communicate B) observe C) test D) predict Answer: A Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 13. Which of the following is NOT a basic process of the scientific method? A) Observing B) Falsifying C) Interpreting D) Testing Answer: B Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 14. In the _____ and _____ stages of the scientific method, researchers express their expectations as a theory. A) communication; testing B) prediction; interpretation C) observation; prediction D) communication; prediction Answer: C Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 15. A theory is defined as: A) a practice that appears to be and claims to be science, even though it does not use the scientific method to come to conclusions. B) the repetition of a study to confirm the results. C) a specific, informed, and testable prediction of what kind of outcome should occur under a particular condition. D) a set of related assumptions from which testable predictions can be made.


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Answer: D Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 16. Which of the following is true about theories? A) Theories cannot explain facts. B) Theories organize and explain what we have observed. C) Theories prevent people from making observations. D) In science, theories are nothing more than mere guesses. Answer: B Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 17. A casual observation of bus riders’ interactions with each other in New York City and Rock Falls, Iowa, reveals that the number of couples who hold hands, hug, or kiss in public is greater in New York City. Which of the following best explains this observation? A) People will display more affection in densely populated cities because they feel anonymous. B) New York City has a larger ratio of registered Democrats to registered Republicans than Rock Falls, Iowa. C) Couples are more affectionate when there are a lot of other people around to watch them. D) People who use public transport are more likely to hold hands, hug, and kiss than people who do not use public transport. Answer: A Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 18. A _____ is a speciďŹ c, informed, and testable prediction of what kind of outcome should occur under a particular condition. A) theory B) hypothesis C) replication D) variable Answer: B Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic


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APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 19. One _____ would be that older adults make for better drivers than young adults. Thus, a(n) _____ would be that drivers age 40 and older have fewer traffic accidents than drivers age 16 to 39 have. A) hypothesis; assumption B) tenet; theory C) theory; hypothesis D) tenet; hypothesis Answer: C Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 20. A scientist hypothesizes that people from the West Coast of the United States are likely to live longer than people from the East Coast of the United States. Which of the following is a theory that follows logically from the hypothesis stated above? A) Men eat healthier than do women, and men are more likely to get a job in places such as California. B) More movie stars live on the West Coast than on the East Coast. C) There is more nutritious food purchased from health food stores on the West Coast than on the East Coast. D) There are many junk food restaurants all over the East Coast, and these restaurants sell mass quantities of unhealthy products. Answer: C Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 21. To _____ a hypotheses, scientists select one of a number of established research methods, along with the appropriate measurement techniques. A) predict B) observe C) interpret D) test Answer: D Page: 42 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists.


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22. In the fourth step of the scientific method, scientists use mathematical techniques to _____ the results and determine whether they are significant and closely fit the prediction or not. A) interpret B) predict C) observe D) test Answer: A Page: 42-44 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 23. Replication of a study is important: A) to confirm the results of the study. B) to formulate the hypothesis of the study. C) for practitioners of pseudoscience. D) to interpret the results of the study. Answer: A Page: 44 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 24. Whether a result holds or not, new predictions can be generated from the data, leading in turn to new studies. This is how the process of scientific discovery is _____. A) repetitive B) replicative C) cumulative D) degradative Answer: C Page: 44 Topic: The Scientific Method Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 25. The process of scientific discovery is cumulative. This means that: A) older knowledge is discarded for newer and modern knowledge. B) previous knowledge builds on older knowledge. C) newer knowledge is rejected because research is not authentic. D) previous knowledge is retained for lack of new resources. Answer: B Page: 44 Topic: The Scientific Method


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Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 26. _____ refers to practices that appear to be and claim to be science, but in fact do not use the scientiďŹ c method to come to their conclusions. A) Antiscience B) Pseudoscience C) Fringe science D) Protoscience Answer: B Page: 45 Topic: What Science Is Not: Pseudoscience Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 1.1 Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline. 27. Practitioners of pseudoscience: A) conduct carefully planned, scientific studies. B) back up their claims with sound, experimental research data. C) allow their findings to be rigorously scrutinized. D) do not challenge or question their own assumptions. Answer: D Page: 45 Topic: What Science Is Not: Pseudoscience Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 1.1 Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline. 28. Which of the following would be considered a pseudoscience? A) Anthropology B) Astrology C) Psychology D) Biology Answer: B Page: 45 Topic: What Science Is Not: Pseudoscience Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 1.1 Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline. 29. _____ is the hallmark of science. A) Problem solving B) Scientific knowledge C) Open skepticism D) Cultural understanding


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Answer: C Page: 45 Topic: What Science Is Not: Pseudoscience Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 1.1 Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline. 30. If there is scientifically sound evidence for something—even if it is difficult to explain— and it has been replicated, we have to _____ it. A) predict B) accept C) rectify D) test Answer: B Page: 45 Topic: What Science Is Not: Pseudoscience Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 1.1 Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline. 31. Psychology makes use of several types of _____ which are plans for how to conduct a study. A) hypotheses B) research designs C) experiments D) assumptions Answer: B Page: 46 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 1.1 Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline. 32. The design chosen for a given study depends on: A) the method of research. B) the assumed answer. C) the question being asked. D) the subject area being studied. Answer: C Page: 46 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 1.1 Characterize the nature of psychology as a discipline. 33. A _____ is anything that changes within or differs between individuals.


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A) hypothesis B) design C) variable D) theory Answer: C Page: 46 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 34. Attitudes toward pork, grooming procedures, educational status, and number of dental visits per year are all _____ that differ from individual to individual and may be of interest to psychologists. A) commitments B) variables C) hypotheses D) methods Answer: B Page: 46 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 35. Which of the following is true about the principles of research design? A) The design chosen for a given study depends on the answers provided by the population. B) How variables influence each other has more importance than when they influence each other. C) The ďŹ rst step in obtaining a sample is for the researchers to decide the makeup of the entire group. D) Research is almost always conducted on populations, not samples. Answer: C Page: 47 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 36. The ďŹ rst step in obtaining a sample is for the researchers to decide the makeup of the _____ in which they are interested. A) topic of research B) variable C) descriptive design D) group Answer: D


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Page: 47 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 37. A subset of the population is called a _____. A) sample B) variable C) size D) set Answer: A Page: 47 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 38. Research is almost always conducted on the _____. A) population B) sample C) variable D) case study Answer: B Page: 47 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. Questions 39–41 are based on the following scenario: Jessica wants to conduct a study about differences in jealousy between men and women. She asks 400 college men and women a series of questions about hypothetical scenarios of partner infidelity. 39. What is Jessica’s population? A) Men in the United States B) Women in the college C) The 400 college men and women chosen D) Men and women in the United States Answer: D Page: 47 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium


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APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 40. What is Jessica’s sample? A) Men in the United States B) Women in the college C) The 400 college men and women chosen D) Men and women in the United States Answer: C Page: 47 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 41. Which of the following is the most probable reason Jessica’s study may be flawed? A) Her sample’s attitudes may not truly represent the population’s attitudes. B) It is common knowledge that men and women are equally jealous. C) Her sample is not large enough to yield a statistically valid conclusion. D) She carefully selected men and women who had no idea about her study. Answer: A Page: 47 Topic: Principles of Research Design Bloom's: Analysis Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 42. When a researcher is interested in a particular question or topic that is relatively new to the field, it is best to use a(n) _____. A) representative sample B) experimental study C) descriptive design D) case study Answer: C Page: 47 Topic: Descriptive Studies. Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 43. In _____ the researcher makes no prediction and does not try to control any variables. A) representative samples B) experimental studies C) sampling D) descriptive designs Answer: D Page: 47


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Topic: Descriptive Studies. Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 44. “What is variable X?” This is the basic question in a(n) _____. A) descriptive design B) random sampling C) experimental study D) correlational design Answer: A Page: 47 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 45. In a descriptive research design, a psychologist will: A) make predictions about future outcomes. B) manipulate one variable to determine its effect on another. C) ensure the use of a control group. D) define and describe a phenomenon of interest. Answer: D Page: 47-48 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 46. A(n) _____ involves observation of one person, often over a long period of time. A) naturalistic observation B) case study C) interview D) sample Answer: B Page: 48 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 47. The following is an excerpt from an in-depth paper Dr. Paxton wrote about her client: “Miss T. experienced the loss of her parents at an early age. She is now 36, divorced, and has two children. Miss T. has difficulty maintaining steady employment. Eight months ago, she met the criteria for diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Miss T. is responding well to an experimental antidepressant and to cognitive behavioral therapy. She has a hopeful prognosis.”


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This research method is considered _____. A) inferential B) a case study C) naturalistic observation D) correlational Answer: B Page: 48 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 48. An area of psychology called _____ examines in detail the lives of historically important people and provides an example of the richness and value of case studies and studying individual lives over time. A) psychobiography B) psychohistory C) bicameralism D) historicism Answer: A Page: 48 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 49. In a naturalistic observation: A) the researcher asks people directly or indirectly what they think, feel, or have done. B) the researcher observes one person, often over a long period of time. C) the researcher observes and records behavior in the real world. D) the researcher guarantees that each person has the same chance of being in one group as in another. Answer: C Page: 48-49 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 50. In a _____, the researcher tries to be as unobtrusive as possible so as not to inuence or bias the behavior of interest. A) experiment B) survey C) naturalistic observation D) random assignment Answer: C


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Page: 49 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 51. The advantage of naturalistic observation is: A) it allows the psychologist to control the conditions and demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships between variables. B) it gives researchers a look at real behavior in the real world. C) it is easy to administer to large numbers of participants. D) it allows the researcher to ask people directly or indirectly what they think, feel, or have done. Answer: B Page: 49 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 52. Cal believes that a larger percentage of a city’s population will engage in public displays of affection in highly populated cities due to feelings of anonymity when an individual is among a lot of other people. He watches people’s interactions with each other in the university area, and unobtrusively counts the number of couples who are holding hands, hugging, or kissing. He then does the same in the sparsely populated city of Stillwater, Oklahoma. The research method Cal used is known as _____. A) a true experiment B) a case study C) naturalistic observation D) interviewing Answer: C Page: 49 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 53. Which of the following is an example of naturalistic observation? A) A biological psychologist manipulates caffeine dosages administered to rats and records the rats’ running distances. B) A cognitive psychologist who is interested in problem solving asks groups of twenty-yearolds, forty-year-olds, and sixty–year-olds to solve a word puzzle. C) A clinical psychologist carefully considers his client’s responses to questions about her childhood. D) A developmental psychologist watches, from behind a hidden window, the play patterns of four-year-olds.


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Answer: D Page: 49 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom’s: Application Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 54. _____ are a widely-used technique for gaining information about peoples’ thoughts and behaviors. A) Correlational designs B) Naturalistic observations C) Case studies D) Interviews Answer: D Page: 49 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 55. Both _____ and _____ involve specific questions, usually asked precisely the same way to each respondent. A) case studies; interviews B) interviews; surveys C) double-blind studies; case studies D) surveys; double-blind studies Answer: B Page: 49 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 56. One of the pitfalls of collecting data via large-scale interviews and surveys is that: A) they cost too much. B) one cannot prevent experimenter expectancy effects. C) one can get biased responses. D) they are time-intensive. Answer: C Page: 49 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 57. A representative sample is a _____.


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A) subset of the population that truly reflects the characteristics of that population B) randomly generated series of numbers that help researchers select people to participate in a study C) research method that employs such techniques as interviewing and surveying D) number of individuals a researcher knows whom the researcher can easily persuade to participate in a study Answer: A Page: 49 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 58. One of Alfred Kinsey’s contributions to the scientific study of sex was his method of _____. A) planning careful observations of real-world sexual behavior B) selecting samples of people worldwide to study human sexual tendencies C) considering sexual orientation on a continuum D) publishing data in peer-reviewed, scientific journals Answer: C Page: 50 Topic: Descriptive Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 59. _____ measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another. A) Descriptive statistics B) Descriptive designs C) Correlational designs D) Random assignments Answer: C Page: 50 Topic: Correlational Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 60. In correlational designs, the basic question is: A) What is X an example of? B) What is variable X? C) How does X result in Y? D) Is X related to Y? Answer: D Page: 50 Topic: Correlational Studies


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Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 61. _____ are useful when the variables cannot be manipulated and are controlled by the experimenter. A) Correlational studies B) Experimental studies C) Single-blind studies D) Descriptive statistics Answer: A Page: 51 Topic: Correlational Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 62. Which of the following statements regarding correlation statistics is true? A) The major advantage of the correlational approach is that it establishes whether one variable actually causes the other or vice versa. B) Correlation by itself is a necessary and sufficient condition for causation is experimental studies. C) Correlational studies are useful when the variables can be easily manipulated; that is, controlled by the experimenter. D) Correlational designs measure two or more variables and their relationship to one another. Answer: D Page: 51-52 Topic: Correlational Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 63. The major limitation of the correlational approach is: A) it influences the behavior of the participants via the experimenter’s knowledge of who is in which condition. B) the probability of social desirability bias is extreme. C) it does not establish whether one variable actually causes the other or vice versa. D) people do not always accurately report their true thoughts or feelings. Answer: C Page: 52 Topic: Correlational Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 64. Which of the following indicates the magnitude and the direction of the relationship


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between two variables? A) Confounding variables B) A random assignment C) An experiment D) Correlation coefficients Answer: D Page: 52 Topic: Correlational Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 65. Correlations range between –1.00 and +1.00. Coefficients near 0.00 are an indication of: A) a direct and positive association between variables X and Y. B) the lack of any relationship between variables X and Y. C) an increase in variables X and Y. D) a decrease in variable Y as variable X increases. Answer: B Page: 52 Topic: Correlational Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 66. What happens as a correlation approaches +1.00 or -1.00? A) The strength of the relationship increases. B) The strength of the relationship decreases. C) There is an inversely proportional relationship between the two variables. D) There is no relationship between the two variables. Answer: A Page: 52 Topic: Correlational Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 67. Dr. Butcher calculated a +0.87 correlation coefficient between the number of days students attended class for the semester and their final exam scores. What can he interpret from this finding? A) Students’ absences caused them to do well in the final exam. B) Students’ absence from classes had no effect on their final exam scores. C) A very large number of students attended classes for the semester. D) A good attendance record will allow students to perform well in exams. Answer: D Page: 52 Topic: Correlational Studies


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Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 68. What is important while interpreting correlations? A) A correlation does not mean there is a causal relationship between the two variables. B) Correlation is necessary and sufficient for causation. C) When one variable causes another, it is not necessarily correlated with it. D) Variable X is correlated with variable Y. Hence X causes Y. Answer: A Page: 52 Topic: Correlational Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 69. A(n) _____ is characterized by experimental manipulation of a predicted cause. A) variable B) assignment C) experiment D) effect-size Answer: C Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 70. The _____ variable in an experiment is an attribute that is manipulated by the experimenter under controlled conditions. A) quantitative B) independent C) confounding D) outcome Answer: B Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 71. The _____ is the condition that the researcher predicts will cause a particular outcome. A) outcome variable B) quantitative variable C) independent variable D) confounding variable


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Answer: C Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 72. The _____ variable is the outcome, or response to the experimental manipulation. A) predictor B) experimental C) categorical D) dependent Answer: D Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 73. The independent variable is a(n) _____, and the dependent variable is a(n) _____. A) cause; effect B) experiment; correlation C) effect; correlation D) experiment; cause Answer: A Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. Questions 74–78 are based on the following situation: Dr. Bischer is conducting a study to determine if men who wear a new type of soccer uniform made from a specially designed fabric will perform better in soccer matches. She recruits a professional soccer team to participate. She randomly assigns half of the men to wear the newmaterial uniforms made in the color blue and the other half to wear old-material uniforms made in the color red. Although the men know of the uniform test, they are not told which of the uniforms is made from the new material. They are asked to wear their assigned uniforms and score as many goals as possible in a practice game against one another. Dr. Bischer is noting the number of goals scored. Ultimately, the men who are wearing the old uniforms score more goals and therefore win the game. Dr. Bischer speculates that the new uniforms are not more beneficial to performance than the old uniforms, but she will rerun her study a few more times. 74. What is the dependent variable in Dr. Bischer’s study? A) The old uniforms


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B) The new uniforms C) The number of goals scored D) The color blue or red Answer: C Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 75. What is the independent variable in Dr. Bischer’s study? A) The type of uniform worn—old or new material B) The number of goals scored C) The men who did not know their roles in the study D) Trying to score as many goals as possible Answer: A Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 76. From a scientific viewpoint, why was it important for Dr. Bischer to randomly assign the men to wear new uniforms or old uniforms? A) Some of the men will feel it was unfair that they did not get new uniforms and will not be motivated to be competitive—in this case, therefore, the uniform assigned was simply the luck of the draw. B) She wanted the men to feel they all had a chance of wearing their old uniforms, in which they would likely be more comfortable. C) Some of the men who could not participate that day were then used as a control group, and she wanted to make sure she had an even number of new and old uniforms left over. D) She wanted to ensure that the two groups were, on average, similar in ability and motivation, so that any differences in the end would be due to the experimental manipulation. Answer: D Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 77. What was the experimental group in Dr. Bischer’s study? A) The men who wore the old-material red uniforms B) The men who wore the new-material blue uniforms C) Keeping track of whether or not each man received a new uniform D) The total number of goals scored by both the red team and the blue team Answer: B


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Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 78. Which of the following best explains Dr. Bischer’s decision to conduct this study again? A) She did not believe the initial findings that the old-material uniforms are better. B) She wants to make sure her findings were not simply due to chance. C) She wishes to report only data that verify her initial beliefs. D) Since it was a practice match, she felt the players were taking liberties by not applying themselves to the game. Answer: B Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Analysis Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 79. The _____ consists of those participants who receive the treatment or whatever is thought to change behavior. A) scientific group B) control group C) experimental group D) hypothetical group Answer: C Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 80. The participants in a(n) _____ do not receive the independent variable or treatment. A) control group B) experimental group C) hypothetical group D) scientific group Answer: A Page: 53 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 81. Clients undergoing treatment for phobic disorder agree to participate in a clinical trial of a new antidepressant medication. The clients are randomly divided into two groups. Both receive


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pills to take on a daily basis, but only one of the groups receives pills with the newly produced, active ingredients. The other group’s pills contain no active ingredients. In this study, the group that receives the pills that do not contain the active ingredients is called a(n) _____. A) treatment group B) control group C) sham-operated group D) experimental group Answer: B Page: 53-54 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 82. In a study on sugar consumption and activity level, an artificial sweetener would be an appropriate _____. A) ipsative B) pseudoscope C) nocebo D) placebo Answer: D Page: 54 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 83. Clients undergoing treatment for phobic disorder agree to participate in a clinical trial of a new antidepressant medication. The clients are randomly divided into two groups. Both receive pills to take on a daily basis, but only one of the groups receives pills with the newly produced, active ingredients. The other group’s pills contain no active ingredients. In this study, the pills that contain no active ingredients are said to be _____. A) placebos B) ipsatives C) nocebos D) an experimental group Answer: A Page: 54 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 84. An additional variable whose influence cannot be separated from the independent variable being examined is a(n) _____. A) dependent variable


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B) confounding variable C) independent variable D) quantitative variable Answer: B Page: 54 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 85. A psychologist in a laboratory is studying participants’ perceptions of the attractiveness of several perfume odors. However, as he conducts his study, people are cooking their lunches in the break room next door, and the smell of onions and fish is making its way into the lab. He should cease his experiment for the day because the food smell is most likely _____. A) a nocebo B) a control variable C) a confounding variable D) a placebo Answer: C Page: 54 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 86. In _____, participants do not know the experimental condition to which they have been assigned. A) case studies B) single-blind studies C) interviews and surveys D) descriptive studies Answer: B Page: 56 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 87. Jack is a participant in a cognitive experiment, but he does not know if he is in the experimental group or the control group. The researchers, however, are aware of the condition to which he has been assigned. The study in which Jack is participating is called _____. A) a single-blind study B) a double-blind study C) a hierarchical model study D) naturalistic observation Answer: A


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Page: 56 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 88. Which of the following is an advantage of double-blind studies? A) It prevents experimenter expectancy effects. B) It ensures that participants know the experimental condition to which they have been assigned. C) It helps avoid the possibility of confounding variables influencing an experiment. D) It ensures that any differences between the groups at the end of the experiment are not affected by the independent variable. Answer: A Page: 56 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 89. Which of the following is a necessary precaution in order to avoid the possibility that participants will behave in a biased way? A) Surveys B) Case studies C) Descriptive studies D) Single-blind studies Answer: D Page: 56 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 90. In _____, neither the participants nor the researchers know who has been assigned to which condition. A) double-blind studies B) case studies C) surveys D) interviews Answer: A Page: 56 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists.


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91. Why would researchers design a study in which neither the participants nor the investigators interacting with them know whether the participants have been assigned to a control group or to an experimental group? A) In this design it is easier to statistically analyze the results of the study. B) If the participants were given their choice of groups, the group memberships would be representative. C) The experimenters’ expectancies might influence the participants’ behavior. D) Participation in the study would decrease if people had this knowledge beforehand. Answer: C Page: 56 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 92. In which of the following does each participant have an equal chance of being placed in each group? A) Case studies B) Naturalistic study C) Interviews D) Random assignments Answer: D Page: 56 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 93. _____ occurs when the behavior of the participants is influenced by the experimenter’s knowledge of who is in which condition. A) Experimenter expectancy effect B) Subject-expectancy effect C) Placebo effect D) Pygmalion effect Answer: A Page: 56 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 94. Which of the following is an example of a self-fulfilling prophecy? A) Chad says, “I am going to buy my mother a sweater for her birthday” but ends up buying her a scarf. B) Margaret says, “I am going to hate this party!” and then has a bad time at the party. C) Snowy says, “You’d better buy the diamond ring now, because the sale ends today,” and the


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customer does buy it. D) Xu says, “I am going to make the best pie anyone has ever eaten!” and her family has to eat the pie. Answer: B Page: 57 Topic: Experimental Studies Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 95. _____ is a quantitative method for combining the results of all the published and even unpublished results on one question and drawing a conclusion based on the entire set of studies on the topic. A) Meta-analysis B) Meta-physics C) Reporting bias D) Systematic review Answer: A Page: 57 Topic: Meta-Analysis Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 96. To do a _____, the researcher converts the findings of each study into a standardized statistic known as effect size. A) reporting bias B) systematic review C) random assignment D) meta-analysis Answer: D Page: 58 Topic: Meta-Analysis Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 97. _____ is a measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables. A) A sample size B) Effect size C) Z-value D) A self-report Answer: B Page: 58 Topic: Meta-Analysis Bloom's: Knowledge


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Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 98. Which of the following is an indication of whether all of the research on a topic has or has not led to consistent ďŹ ndings and what the magnitude of an experimental effect is? A) Measure B) Placebo C) Meta-analysis D) Assignments Answer: C Page: 58 Topic: Meta-Analysis Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 99. The tool used to assess thought or behavior is called a _____. A) non-empty set B) subset C) sample space D) measure Answer: D Page: 58 Topic: Commonly Used Measures of Psychological Research Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 100. _____ are people’s written or oral accounts of their thoughts, feelings, or actions. A) Self-reports B) Random assignments C) Behavioral measures D) Physiological measures Answer: A Page: 59 Topic: Self-Report Measures Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 101. In a(n) _____, the answers are often open-ended and not constrained by the researcher. A) survey B) interview C) questionnaire D) case study Answer: B


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Page: 59 Topic: Self-Report Measures Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 102. In a(n)_____, responses are limited to the choices given. A) case study B) questionnaire C) interview D) experimental study Answer: B Page: 59 Topic: Self-Report Measures Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 103. Which of the following is an advantage of self-report questionnaires? A) Self-report questionnaires are the most commonly used tools of psychological research. B) In self-report questionnaires, people are always the best sources of information about themselves. C) In self-report questionnaires, we have to assume that people are accurate witnesses to their own experiences. D) Self-report questionnaires are easy to use, especially in the context of collecting data from a large number of people at once. Answer: D Page: 60 Topic: Self-Report Measures Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 104. _____ involves the systematic observation of people’s actions either in their normal environment or in a laboratory setting. A) Self-reports B) Physiological measures C) Behavioral measures D) Interviews Answer: C Page: 60 Topic: Behavioral Measures Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists.


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105. Which of the following is true about behavioral measures? A) Behavioral measures are more susceptible to social desirability bias than are self-report measures. B) Behavioral measures provide more objective measurements because they come from a trained outside observer. C) Under this measure, people cannot modify their behavior even if they know they are being observed. D) Behavioral measures are not very time-intensive. Answer: B Page: 60 Topic: Behavioral Measures Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 106. A major drawback of behavioral measurement is: A) it can be time-intensive. B) it can confuse the participants. C) participants assume that they are accurate witnesses of their own experiences. D) participants become judgmental towards the method. Answer: A Page: 60 Topic: Behavioral Measures Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 107. Rita conducts a study in which she videotapes college students interacting with each other before and after performing a series of cognitive tasks that were presented as “Intelligence tests that can affect your college tuition charges.” She then has a carefully trained team observe and record the participants’ actions, noting visible signs of anxiety. What type of measure is Rita using? A) Physiological B) Self-report C) Behavioral D) Experimental Answer: C Page: 60 Topic: Behavioral Measures Bloom’s: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 108. Which of the following is considered impractical for wide-scale studies? A) Surveys B) Questionnaires


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C) Behavioral measures D) Case studies Answer: C Page: 60 Topic: Behavioral Measures Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 109. Which of the following is true of behavioral measures? A) Behavioral measurement does not require too much time to collect and code the data. B) It is possible to collect data on a large number of participants at once, and therefore behavioral measures are very useful for large-scale studies. C) People are not able to modify their behavior while they are being observed, watched, and/or measured using behavioral measures. D) Behavioral measures involve the systematic observation of people’s actions either in their normal environment or in a laboratory setting. Answer: D Page: 60 Topic: Behavioral Measures Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.2 Explain different research methods used by psychologists. 110. Scientists use_____, mathematical procedures for collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting numerical data, to make sense of their data. A) actuarial science B) econometrics C) biostatistics D) statistics Answer: D Page: 61 Topic: Making Sense of Data with Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 111. Researchers use _____ to describe, summarize and organize data. A) descriptive statistics B) inferential statistics C) t-test D) statistical inference Answer: A Page: 62 Topic: Descriptive Statistics


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Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 112. The _____ is the arithmetic average of a series of numbers. A) standard deviation B) mode C) median D) mean Answer: D Page: 62 Topic: Descriptive Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 113. What is the mean of the following set of numbers: 10, 15, 20, 35, 55? A) 10 B) 27 C) 35 D) 135 Answer: B Page: 62 Topic: Descriptive Statistics Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 114. The ____ is calculated by adding all the numbers together and dividing by the number of scores in the series. A) median B) mean C) mode D) standard deviation Answer: B Page: 62 Topic: Descriptive Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 115. The _____ is the middle score, which separates the lower half of scores from the upper


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half. A) frequency B) mode C) median D) mean Answer: C Page: 62 Topic: Descriptive Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 116. The _____ is simply the most frequently occurring score. A) mode B) median C) standard deviation D) frequency Answer: A Page: 62 Topic: Descriptive Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 117. The_____ is a statistical measure of how much scores in a sample vary around the mean. A) mean B) standard deviation C) mode D) median Answer: B Page: 62 Topic: Descriptive Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 118. The most common way to represent variability in data is to calculate the _____. A) frequency B) standard deviation C) median D) mode Answer: B Page: 62


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Topic: Descriptive Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 119. A class’s mean score on the midterm exam was 78.2, and the standard deviation was 15.8. The class’s mean score on the final exam was 81.3, with a standard deviation of 4.5. Based on these statistics, which of the following can be interpreted? A) The class performed much better on the midterm exam than on the final exam. B) There was more variability in the scores on the final exam than on the midterm exam. C) The most common score on the final exam was lower than the most common score on the midterm exam. D) There was more variability in the scores on the midterm exam than on the final exam. Answer: D Page: 62 Topic: Descriptive Statistics Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 120. The _____ is the number of times a particular score occurs in a set of data. A) variance B) standard deviation C) percentile D) frequency Answer: D Page: 62 Topic: Descriptive Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 121. A graph of frequency scores is known as a _____. A) contingency table B) tabulation C) distribution D) correlation Answer: C Page: 62 Topic: Descriptive Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic


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APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 122. _____ allow us to determine how likely it is that two or more samples came from the same population. A) Predictive inferences B) Statistical inferences C) Descriptive statistics D) Inferential statistics Answer: D Page: 63 Topic: Inferential Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 123. 5% is the most frequent choice made by psychological researchers and is referred to as the _____. A) variance B) statistical inference C) probability-level D) standard deviation Answer: C Page: 63 Topic: Inferential Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 124. The _____ is used to compare two means. A) F-test B) T-test C) arithmetic mean D) interquartile mean. Answer: B Page: 63 Topic: Inferential Statistics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 2.4 Design and conduct basic studies to address psychological questions using appropriate research methods. 125. _____ contains rules governing the conduct of a person or group in general or in a speciďŹ c situation or standards of right and wrong.


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A) Fallibilism B) Rationality C) Ethics D) Logical holism Answer: C Page: 66 Topic: Research Ethics Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology. 126. Which of the following is true of Stanley Milgram’s famous study of obedience? A) It explained many aspects of learner-teacher interactions. B) It showed how people are quick to make judgments about groups. C) Although it yielded powerful results, it placed great distress on participants. D) It showed how psychologists chose to manipulate theories to suit their conclusions. Answer: C Page: 66-67 Topic: Research Ethics Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology. 127. Informed consent to participate in a psychological study means that: A) the participant knows his or her role in the study and understands its risks and benefits. B) the researcher carefully selects and approves each participant for the study. C) the institution in which the study will be has approved the study. D) all parties involved in a study—including researchers, participants, and institutional administrators—know the study’s results. Answer: A Page: 67 Topic: Ethical Research with Humans Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology. 128. It is vital for research participants to understand that their role in a study is completely voluntary. There should be special consideration for children. This is known as _____. A) beneficence B) respect for persons C) informed consent D) justice Answer: B


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Page: 67 Topic: Ethical Research with Humans Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology. 129. Institutions conducting research will evaluate every proposed study’s beneficence, which is: A) each participant’s guarantee that no personal, and confidential information will be revealed. B) each person’s awareness that he or she can discontinue participation at any time. C) the ratio of benefits to costs (e.g., stress, discomfort) of the research. D) the extent to which the participant knows his or her role in the study. Answer: C Page: 68 Topic: Ethical Research with Humans Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology. 130. In research analysis and reports, data are never directly aligned with an individual respondent, thereby protecting his or her identity. Thus, _____ is maintained. A) credibility B) reliability C) validity D) confidentiality Answer: D Page: 68 Topic: Ethical Research with Humans Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology. 131. Under the guidelines of _____, researchers must design studies in which there is an equitable selection of participants and in which the participants will share equally the costs and benefits of participating in the study. A) beneficence B) justice C) confidentiality D) respect for persons Answer: B Page: 68 Topic: Ethical Research with Humans Bloom's: Knowledge


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Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology. 132. The process of informing participants of the exact purposes of the study, revealing any and all deceptive practices, and explaining why they were necessary to conduct the study and ultimately what the results of the study were is known as _____. A) decreeing B) descriptive statistics C) scientific thinking D) debrieďŹ ng Answer: D Page: 68 Topic: Ethical Research with Humans Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology. 133. _____ is required to minimize any negative effects experienced as a result of the deception. A) Problem solving B) DebrieďŹ ng C) Psychological research D) Cultural understanding Answer: B Page: 68 Topic: Ethical Research with Humans Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology. 134. Every time research is conducted, _____ must have reviewed all study proposals to make sure human research conducted under its auspices follows ethical guidelines. A) a research student B) two fellow researchers C) a government agent D) an institutional review board Answer: D Page: 68 Topic: Ethical Research with Humans Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology.


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135. Which of the following best completes the analogy? Human research participants – Informed consent; Animal research subjects - _____. A) Humane treatment B) Euthanasia C) Brain imaging D) Selective breeding Answer: A Page: 69 Topic: Ethical Research with Animals Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology. 136. A(n) _____ design makes use of naturally occurring groups rather than randomly assigning subjects to groups. A) experimental B) descriptive C) quasi-experimental D) correlational Answer: C Page: 70 Topic: Bringing It All Together Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Basic APA LO: 5.1 Recognize the necessity of ethical behavior in all aspects of the science and practice of psychology.


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