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Whitehead: Juvenile Justice, 7th Edition Test Bank Chapter 02: The History of Juvenile Justice 1. Killing of female children was most closely related to which practice? a. chivalry b. serfdom *c. dowry d. agriculture 2. The killing of unwanted children is called: a. mercy killing *b. infanticide c. euthanasia d. youthanasia 3. In pre-modern times, which of the following was not a way to deal with the difficulty of supporting unwanted children? a. infanticide b. abandonment *c. welfare d. apprenticeships 4. Historically, families would hire surrogate mothers called __________ to care for their children. a. nannies b. guardians c. home teachers *d. wet nurses 5. Due to lack of penalties geared specifically for juvenile offenders, often the laws were not enforced against youths. This is called: a. selective enforcement *b. nullification c. discrimination d. none of the above 6. In England the ages of _____ and _____ became critical markers of differential treatment.


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*a. 7; 14 b. 10; 18 c. 12; 16 d. 13; 18 7. One of the first English institutions to handle problem youths was the ____________. a. Tower of London *b. Bridewell c. Buckingham Palace d. none of the above 8. The earliest youth institutions in the United States were started in such cities as New York and Boston in about 1825. They were known as: a. training schools *b. houses of refuge c. reformatories d. youth prisons 9. The model for the new reformatories was the ________ system. a. domicile *b. cottage c. family d. household 10. In actual practice, the houses of refuge were: a. sanctuaries that protected children from the corrupting influences of cities and ineffective parents b. military atmosphere facilities c. centers of labor exploitation *d. b and c 11. Which of the following was not characteristic of the first juvenile court? a. paternalistic judges b. an emphasis on assistance *c. jurisdiction limited to criminal offenses only d. extensive use of probation 12. The philosophy of juvenile court was based on the English _________ court. *a. Chancery b. criminal c. juvenile


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d. tort 13. The juvenile court had which of the following problems? a. lack of personnel b. overreliance on volunteers c. expanded jurisdiction *d. all of the above 14. According to the text, in calling the people who dealt with juveniles and children in the late 1800s and the early 1900s “child savers,” Platt meant that: a. they were sincere reformers b. they should be praised for their efforts *c. they were capitalists trying to mold workers for factory jobs d. all of the above 15. The most recent trend in juvenile justice appears to be: *a. punitive b. paternalistic c. rehabilitative d. none of the above 16. Throughout most of history there has always existed such status as “child. ” a) True *b) False 17. Infanticide and abandonment were both ways to deal with unwanted children. *a) True b) False 18. The view that children were just “little adults” helped to justify both servitude and apprenticeship. *a) True b) False 19. In pre-modern times, laws allowed for harsh penalties for youths, including death, and these laws were generally carried out in practice. a) True *b) False 20. England was one of the last countries to develop the notion of childhood. a) True


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*b) False 21. John Augustus is often credited as the founder of probation. *a) True b) False 22. In the nineteenth century, a successful outcome for a problem girl was considered to be marriage and a family. *a) True b) False 23. According to the text, a general assessment of many of the institutions for juveniles in the nineteenth century is that in practice they were little more than prisons. *a) True b) False 24. New York City is credited with the founding of the first juvenile court. a) True *b) False 25. Wet nurses were often surrogate mothers for children. *a) True b) False 26. The first juvenile court emphasized due process protections (e. g. , right to counsel) and an adversarial approach. a) True *b) False 27. Many of the children processed in early juvenile courts were the children of immigrants. *a) True b) False 28. The philosophy of juvenile court was called parens patriae. *a) True b) False 29. All historians consider that the progressive reforms for children were benevolent. a) True *b) False


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30. The problems of juvenile court often have been considered problems of implementation rather than problems of fundamental philosophy. *a) True b) False 31. According to the text, the most recent trend in juvenile justice appears to be a re-emphasis on rehabilitation and the parens patriae philosophy. a) True *b) False


Test bank juvenile justice 7th edition whitehead