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Chapter 02 Studying Human Sexuality

Multiple Choice Questions 1. The primary purpose of the sex information/advice genre is to A. sell copies of the printed material or raise ratings. B. inform the public about sexual behavior. C. disseminate research-based findings. D. enhance the reputations of experts in the field of sexuality. Refer to page 31

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

2. The focus of the sexual information/advice genre is on A. simplified how-to information or morality. B. issues of interest to young women. C. variant sexual behavior. D. sexual behaviors within the context of celebrity marriages and extramarital affairs. Refer to page 31

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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3. In order to lend scientific credibility to their materials, the sexual information media A. make up false research studies. B. present actors who pose as experts in sexuality. C. use the trappings of social science and psychiatry without the substance. D. pay experts large sums of money to present information made up by the media. Refer to page 31

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

4. Why do sex books and interviews with sex experts on television tend to be repetitive? A. They all went to the same school. B. Sex research is a small discipline and the scope of the media is narrow. C. None of the information presented is based on actual research. D. The media has a liberal bias. Refer to page 32

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

5. Many of the "sex experts" in the media are A. entertainers. B. authors. C. lecturers. D. all of these. Refer to page 32

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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6. One way to assess the credibility of a website with information about sexuality is A. to ask a licensed sex therapist about it. B. investigate its sponsor. C. look for it on Google Scholar. D. look for testimonials on the site. Refer to page 31

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

7. Statistics about sexual behavior that are promoted the most in the media tend to A. reflect current scholarly research. B. support widely held media preconceptions. C. show the persuasiveness of aberrant sexual behaviors. D. reinforce sexual stereotypes. Refer to page 32

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

8. One conclusion about Dr. Charles Roselli's research on the sexual orientation of rams concluded that A. sexual orientation is genetic. B. sexual orientation is the result of rejection from the mother. C. a homosexual orientation could be cured with hormone treatments. D. homosexuality was caused by a defective gene. Refer to page 33

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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9. The media typically depict alcohol use as __________ leading to risky sexual behavior. A. sometimes B. never C. always D. occasionally Refer to page 33

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

10. Which of the following statements is a value judgment? A. Young men and women should masturbate regularly. B. Young women tend to be sexually inexperienced. C. Men tend to have more sex partners over a lifetime than do women. D. A sizable percentage of college men believe that pornographic films offer factual information about sexual behavior. Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Difficulty: Moderate

11. The main difference between a value judgment and an objective statement is that objective statements A. describe actual behavior. B. recommend how individuals should act. C. offer specific examples. D. are based on the opinions of experts. Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Difficulty: Moderate

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12. Which of the following does NOT describe objective statements? A. They describe how people actually behave. B. They can be validated empirically. C. They take into account the cultural relativity of most human behavior. D. They suggest ideals or desirable ways of behaving. Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

13. A simplistic, rigidly held, overgeneralized belief about an individual or a group of people is a(n) A. stereotype. B. opinion. C. judgment. D. biases. Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

14. Value judgments serve to A. clarify views of human sexuality. B. foster objectivity in the study of sexuality. C. obscure the search for understanding about sexuality. D. undermine sexual norms in society. Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

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15. Jed states that all men want sex all the time. Although several of his friends have tried to convince him otherwise, he maintains that "we're all that way." This is an example of a(n) A. stereotype. B. opinion. C. judgment. D. biases. Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

16. According to sociologists, sexual stereotyping A. helps us determine fact from fiction. B. can help us to understand the opposite sex. C. is used to justify discrimination. D. None of these Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Moderate

17. An opinion differs from a fact in that an opinion is A. not true. B. too simplistic. C. always a value judgment. D. not based on concrete evidence or accurate knowledge. Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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18. A bias in scientific inquiry causes us to A. select information that supports our view or belief. B. question the results of our research. C. make value judgments about the research of others. D. engage in unethical practices. Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

19. Which of the following is NOT a stereotypical belief? A. Elderly people have no interest in sex. B. Unprotected sexual contact with a new partner can transmit STIs. C. Gay men have a lot of sex. D. African American women are more sexually liberated than White women. Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

20. Stereotypical beliefs A. are surprisingly flexible. B. change as new research is described to the public. C. are based on objective studies. D. are resistant to change. Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Moderate

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21. What is a stereotype? A. a simplistic overgeneralized belief about people or ideas B. a statistically based general statement about a group of people C. an exaggeration based on a personal experience D. a statement of personal preference or inclination Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

22. The notion that gay male relationships are doomed to fail is an example of A. an urban myth. B. conventional wisdom. C. cultural insensitivity. D. a sexual stereotype. Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

23. The notion that women need a reason for sex; men need a place is an example of A. a cultural norm. B. sexual bias. C. ethnographic profiling. D. a sexual stereotype. Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Easy

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24. A schema performs all of the following functions EXCEPT that it does not A. organize knowledge. B. filter the mass of information we receive. C. determine what we will regard as important. D. ensure that the information we receive is accurate. Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

25. According to sociologists, sexual stereotyping is often used to A. make sense of ambiguous research findings. B. understand the motivation behind the behaviors of various groups of people. C. create hypotheses for research. D. justify discrimination. Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

26. An egocentric fallacy is the mistaken belief that A. one's sexual behavior is superior to others. B. one's intellectual ability is superior to others. C. one's own values are held by others. D. others disagree with most of our values. Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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27. Portia and Ellen are firmly convinced that their Ivy League college culture is superior to others in every way. They view students at other institutions with disdain. Portia and Ellen may be demonstrating A. ethnocentrism. B. phallocentrism. C. cultural exclusivity. D. egocentric fallacy. Refer to pages 35-36

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

28. Janet and Joshua conclude that a particular tribe is bizarre because the men adorn themselves by making holes in their genitalia and filling the holes with little wire rings. They overlook the fact that in our culture, we pierce our ears, tongues, eyebrows, and other body parts. This is an example of A. the egocentric fallacy. B. ethnocentrism. C. stereotyping. D. observational research. Refer to pages 35-36

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

29. Ethnocentrism is reinforced by A. government-sponsored research. B. objective studies. C. societal norms and the media. D. opinions, biases, and stereotypes. Refer to page 36

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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30. A(n) ______________ is group of people distinct from other groups because of cultural characteristics, such as language, religion, and customs that are transmitted from one generation to the next. A. urban tribe B. society C. outgroup D. ethnic group Refer to page 36

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

31. ___________________ is the method in which a hypothesis is formed from impartially gathered data and tested empirically. A. The scientific method B. The experiment C. Deduction D. Observational research Refer to page 36

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

32. The drawing of a general conclusion from specific facts is A. induction. B. deduction. C. logic. D. reliability. Refer to page 36

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Moderate

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33. How do the methods employed by sex researchers compare with those used by other social scientists? A. Sex researchers cannot conduct experiments without risking STI transmission. B. Sex researchers must conduct their observations and experiments covertly. C. Because of subject matter, sex researchers must develop completely new methods. D. Sex researchers use familiar methodologies but are constrained by taboos and additional ethical concerns. Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

34. Which of the following is NOT a common methodology used in social science research? A. clinical research B. unethical research C. experimental research D. observational research Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

35. Ethical considerations for research in sexuality include A. an attempt to get the most representative sample possible. B. informed consent from the participants. C. minimization of bias. D. the careful selection of the appropriate research method. Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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36. An in-depth examination of an individual or group is called A. ethnocentric bias. B. a biased sample. C. survey research. D. clinical research. Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

37. A researcher is interested in studying the relationship between illegal drug use and certain high-risk sexual behaviors. She collects questionnaires from college students and faculty and has each subject identified by their Social Security number. This researcher may be most in jeopardy of violating the principle of A. informed consent. B. debriefing after deception. C. right to withdraw. D. confidentiality. Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

38. Dr. Martinez wants to conduct research on university students' sexual behavior. After designing the study, he must A. publish his results in the popular press so all subjects can read about themselves. B. notify college administrators about which students are participating. C. demonstrate to a research review board that ethical guidelines will be followed. D. show that his ethnicity will not bias his results. Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

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39. In scientific research, an attempt to generalize the findings of a study with a smaller number of subjects to a larger population is known as a(n) A. critical sample. B. representative sample. C. biased sample D. inferential sample. Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

40. Dr. Barnes is interested in the sexual behavior of middle-aged adults. She goes to a large corporation and collects data on all clerical workers who meet this criterion. Dr. Barnes calls her study "The Sexual Behavior of Middle-Aged American Workers." Dr. Barnes could be criticized on the grounds that A. she has not followed standard ethical guidelines satisfactorily. B. the findings are not based on a representative sample. C. experimentation would have been a better methodology for this study. D. her study suffers from ethnocentrism. Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

41. Dr. Johnson would like to study sexual attitudes of the American male. To obtain subjects for his research, he stands outside a Hooters restaurant and asks for volunteers. This is an example of a(n) _________ sample. A. biased B. androgynous C. ethnocentric D. exclusionary Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

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42. Which of the following is NOT a sampling-related problem that occurs in sex research? A. African Americans and Latinos are overrepresented in most studies. B. College students are the main population group studied. C. Volunteers may not be truly representative of the whole population. D. Gay men and lesbians who have come out may be distinct from those who have not. Refer to page 38

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

43. Clinical research A. can make inferences about cause and effect. B. is theoretical in nature. C. emphasizes the study of normal individuals. D. is usually descriptive in nature. Refer to page 38

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

44. A major limitation of clinical research is A. the emphasis on extrapolation from individual case data. B. the fact that unhealthy providers create unhealthy clients. C. the emphasis on pathological behavior. D. the fact that the results cannot be replicated. Refer to page 38

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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45. It is important to think critically when reading sex research studies because A. sex research is fraught with violations of taboos and norms. B. student volunteers frequently give misleading or inaccurate responses. C. informed consent can create response bias. D. most research samples have several potential limitations. Refer to pages 37-38

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

46. An ad in the campus newspaper indicated that $20 will be paid to male volunteers who participate in a study of male sexual response. What might one assume about the volunteers? A. They are likely not doing well in their college classes. B. They are not a representative sample of college-age males. C. They are exhibitionists. D. They are engaging in a form of prostitution. Refer to page 38

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Difficulty: Moderate

47. Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using questionnaires in sex research? A. Relatively little time is required of the respondent. B. It is easy to guarantee anonymity. C. The researcher can obtain in-depth information. D. They are inexpensive to administer. Refer to page 39

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

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48. Which of the following is NOT a limitation of using survey research? A. When asked about their sexual experiences, some people exaggerate or minimize them. B. The interviewer's sex may influence the results. C. Respondents may feel uncomfortable about revealing personal information in some settings. D. All of the above are limitations of survey research. Refer to page 39

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

49. A disadvantage of the survey method is that A. it is difficult to maintain anonymity and confidentiality. B. there are high costs involved in actually collecting this type of data. C. self-reports of behavior can be inaccurate. D. they require a considerable time commitment from subjects. Refer to page 39

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

50. An interviewing research technique using computer and audio assistance is known as the A. audio-CASI method. B. CAT/PET method. C. computer generated audio-response method (CGAR). D. computer-aided audio-cassette method. Refer to page 39

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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51. The sample sex research questionnaire in your text is: A. Personal Inventory of Sexual Behaviors B. Orgasmic Readiness Scale C. Sexual Orientation Identity Uncertainty D. Kinsey's Continuum of Sexual Orientation Refer to pages 40-41

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

52. A major problem with observational research in the natural environment is that A. it always involves a very small sample size. B. it raises the ethical issue of informed consent. C. it is actually clinical research. D. researchers prefer to manipulate independent variables. Refer to page 42

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

53. Those factors which the experimenter varies to observe their effects are A. dependent variables. B. control variables. C. confounding variables. D. independent variables. Refer to page 42

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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54. Those factors which are affected by the manipulation of other variables are A. dependent variables. B. response variables. C. confounding variables. D. independent variables. Refer to pages 42-43

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

55. Dr. Gupta compares the GPAs (grade point averages) of college students who are in monogamous romantic relationships with the GPAs of those who have multiple sexual partners. What research method is she using here? A. observation B. experimentation C. correlation D. clinical research Refer to page 44

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

56. Jennie found a correlation between marital satisfaction and sexual frequency. What conclusion should she draw from her finding? A. Marital satisfaction causes people to have sex more frequently. B. Sexual frequency causes people to be more satisfied with their marriage. C. Either A or B. D. None of the above Refer to page 43

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

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57. A major limitation of correlational studies is that they cannot A. indicate which variable causes the other to change. B. accommodate large numbers of subjects. C. be ethically used in research on sexuality. D. show relationships between variables. Refer to page 43

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

58. The sex researcher who wrote Psychopathia Sexualis was A. Sigmund Freud. B. Havelock Ellis. C. Richard von Krafft-Ebing. D. Alfred Kinsey. Refer to page 44

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

59. According to Sigmund Freud, the part of the body that is involved with the earliest form of erotic pleasure is the A. penis or vagina. B. penis or clitoris. C. mouth. D. anus. Refer to page 45

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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60. According to Sigmund Freud, the fear that a phallic-stage boy feels because of his desires toward his mother leads to A. neurosis. B. penis envy. C. repressed libido. D. castration anxiety. Refer to page 45

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

61. The stage of psychosexual development in which little girls sexually desire their fathers is commonly known as the A. Oedipus complex. B. Electra complex. C. incestuous stage. D. latency stage. Refer to page 45

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

62. According to Sigmund Freud, girls and boys develop feminine and masculine identities when they A. begin to desire their parent of the other sex. B. relinquish their desire for the other-sex parent and begin to identify with their same-sex parent. C. begin to express their libido in socially acceptable ways. D. reach the genital stage of development. Refer to page 45

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Moderate

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63. Five-year-old Kayla is unhappy when she discovers that her brother has a penis and she does not. According to Freud, Kayla A. has penis envy. B. has castration anxiety. C. is about to enter the latency stage. D. None of these Refer to page 45

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

64. A major weakness of Freud's theory of sexuality was A. the emphasis on unconscious forces such as libido. B. the overemphasis on adolescent and adult sexual expression. C. the fact that there were no empirical data to support his ideas. D. his view that excessive masturbation is the root of many personality problems. Refer to page 45

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

65. Which statement best reflects the views of Havelock Ellis regarding the nature of female sexuality? A. Women are naturally asexual and if interested in sex, it is merely as a way to achieve pregnancy. B. Women's animal lusts cause men to lose control and engage in intercourse to the point of weakness and illness. C. Women have sexual desires no less intense than those of men. D. Women experience themselves as anatomically defective without a penis. They compensate by devoting themselves to husband and children. Refer to page 46

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Difficulty: Difficult

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66. Havelock Ellis viewed the so-called abnormal sexual behaviors as A. the result of excessive autoeroticism. B. due to moral degeneracy and inferior genetic inheritance. C. sexual instincts that have been repressed too long. D. exaggerations of normal sexual behavior. Refer to page 46

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Moderate

67. Which statement best summarizes Havelock Ellis's view of homosexuality? A. He saw it as a harmless congenital condition. B. He believed that excessive masturbation led to homosexuality. C. He viewed such interests as a type of immature sexuality. D. He considered female homosexuality as a superior sexual lifestyle. Refer to page 46

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

68. One of the most important findings in Kinsey's work was that A. children had sexual thoughts and experiences. B. a vast majority of women masturbated several times a day. C. there was extraordinary diversity in sexual behavior. D. few people understood or used contraceptive devices. Refer to page 47

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

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69. The development of the Kinsey scale was an attempt to A. classify sexual behaviors in terms of their normality and abnormality. B. evaluate the masculinity and femininity of his subjects. C. represent the proportion of an individual's sexual behaviors with the same or other sex. D. measure the frequency of autoerotic behavior among subjects of different ages. Refer to page 48

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

70. Corinne has predominantly had sexual relations with other women, but has had considerable sexual contacts with men as well. On Kinsey's scale, Corinne would be a A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5 Refer to page 48

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Difficult

71. A major weakness of Kinsey's research was A. his failure to survey sufficient numbers of women and ask them the same questions as male respondents. B. the lack of empirical data on which to base his conclusions. C. the omission of legal and moral guidelines regarding desirable sexual behavior. D. that its strictly quantitative approach ignored other key dimensions of sexual behavior. Refer to page 48

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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72. There was a firestorm of controversy after Kinsey published his works. Some people still believe that Kinsey's findings A. resulted in the conversion of some children to a homosexual orientation. B. are a contributing factor to the number of unplanned pregnancy. C. are responsible for a moral breakdown in the United States. D. None of these Refer to page 47

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

73. William Masters and Virginia Johnson contributed all of the following to our understanding of human sexual behavior EXCEPT they did not A. provide detailed descriptions of the physiological responses that accompany sexual activity. B. support Freud's distinction between clitoral and vaginal orgasms. C. discover the physiological similarity in the responses of men and women. D. determine that women reached orgasm primarily through stimulation of the clitoris. Refer to pages 48-49

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Difficulty: Moderate

74. The highly successful approach to treatment of sexual problems developed by Masters and Johnson was based on A. behavioral therapy. B. sex education. C. drug therapy. D. Freudian therapy. Refer to page 49

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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75. How did Masters and Johnson collect data used to detail human sexual response? A. oral interviews B. written surveys C. correlations D. observation and direct measurement Refer to page 48

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

76. One obstacle to sex research today which was also experienced by Alfred Kinsey is A. the difficulty getting female subjects to participate. B. the lack of willingness of participants to be observed in sexual situations. C. the fear that surveys may change the sexual orientation of the participants. D. the attack on the value of sex research by some members of Congress and conservative groups. Refer to page 49

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

77. According to the National Survey of Family Growth, sexual behaviors among males and females in the 2006-2008 study were ______________________ those found in the 2002 report. A. far more conservative than B. less conservative than C. generally the same as D. nearly nonexistent compared to Refer to page 52

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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78. Which of the following was NOT a finding of The National Health and Social Life Survey? A. Americans are largely monogamous. B. Orgasms are the rule for men, the exception for women. C. Americans are fairly traditional in terms of preferred sexual practices. D. The average American has sex 3-5 times per week. Refer to pages 51-52

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

79. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2009), researchers surveyed students in grades 912 and found that the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse before the age of 13 was A. 6%. B. 8%. C. 11%. D. 15%. Refer to page 53

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

80. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey suggested that roughly ____% of students, grades 9-12, had engaged in sexual intercourse. A. 20 B. 38 C. 46 D. 55 Refer to page 53

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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81. According to the National College Health Assessment, ____ of college women had at least one sexual partner during their last school year. A. 92% B. 87% C. 72% D. 67 % Refer to page 54

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

82. Respondents of the National College Health Assessment who were sexually active indicated that _______ were the most commonly used forms of birth control. A. condoms and birth control pills B. vaginal foam and birth control pills C. condoms and diaphragms D. injectable contraception (Depo Provera) and condoms Refer to page 54

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

83. According to the National College Health Assessment what percentage of respondents had used (or had a partner who used) emergency contraception during the last school year? A. 6% B. 11% C. 16% D. 21% Refer to page 54

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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84. The most expansive nationally representative study of sexual and sexual-health behaviors, published in 2010, was called A. the National Health and Social Life Survey. B. the National College Health Assessment. C. the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. D. the National Survey of Family Growth. Refer to page 54

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

85. Feminist theorists attempt to understand the female experience in relation to A. hormonal differences between males and females. B. anatomical differences between males and females. C. the social construction of gender asymmetry. D. the religious teachings of Christianity. Refer to page 56

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

86. Which of the following is TRUE of feminist scholars? A. They believe in the superiority of the female experience. B. They believe power is a critical element in male-female relationships. C. They believe that gender is not a significant variable in most aspects of social life. D. They believe that the female experience of sex has been overstated. Refer to page 56

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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87. The terms homosexual and heterosexual were coined by A. Evelyn Hooker. B. Magnus Hirschfeld. C. K. H. Ulrichs. D. Karl Kertbeny. Refer to page 57

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

88. Why was the research of Evelyn Hooker important? A. She demonstrated that women reached orgasms primarily through stimulation of the clitoris. B. She emphasized the need for more research on the sexual behavior of ethnic minority groups. C. She showed that gay men could not be distinguished from heterosexual men on the basis of personality characteristics. D. She analyzed the power aspect of relationships between the sexes. Refer to page 58

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

89. Why was the 1973 removal of homosexuality from the DSM-II (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) significant? A. It meant that homosexuality per se was not considered a mental illness. B. It supported the idea that homosexuality was due to poor parenting and therefore not a choice made by individuals. C. It supported the theories of Ulrichs and Hirschfeld. D. It demonstrated that the life experiences and values of homosexuals were no different from those of heterosexuals. Refer to page 58

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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90. The position of most major mental health organizations regarding "reparative" therapy for homosexuality is that it should A. be initiated whenever consent is given by the individual. B. not be done. C. always be attempted. D. be undertaken for gay men but not lesbians. Refer to page 58

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

91. Current research shows that sexual attitudes and behaviors are __________ among lowand middle-class African Americans. A. highly similar B. very different C. more subculturally based D. in agreement with stereotypical thinking Refer to pages 60-61

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

92. Research has found that Latinos who had greater identification with mainstream culture had ________________ sexual attitudes than those who had less identification with mainstream culture. A. more conservative B. more liberal C. similar D. None of these. There have been no reliable studies because of cultural differences and language barriers. Refer to page 62

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

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93. Okazaki (2002) reported that Asian American adolescents and young adults tend to be A. sexually progressive and early sex initiators, compared to White adolescents and young adults. B. sexually conservative and later sex initiators, compared to White adolescents and young adults. C. essentially the same in sexual behavior and attitudes as White adolescents and young adults. D. more likely to experience sex with same sex partners than White adolescents and young adults. Refer to page 63

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

94. For the Iranian American women, _________ has been a major factor in the construction of women's sexual self, gender role, gender identity, and knowledge about sex. A. income B. culture C. literacy D. education Refer to page 64

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

True / False Questions 95. Sex advice columnists are bound by a strict code of professional ethics. FALSE Refer to page 30

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

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96. The influence of nature versus nurture on sexual orientation has been resolved after a lengthy debate. FALSE Refer to page 33

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

97. When it comes to media reports about sexuality, what passes for fact can be disguised moral judgment. TRUE Refer to page 32

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

98. To say that masturbation is an immature form of sexual behavior is a value judgment. TRUE Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

99. If a researcher wanted to know about the contraceptive techniques used by poor people, and only African Americans were surveyed, the sample would be biased. TRUE Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

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100. Opinions are not based on accurate knowledge or concrete evidence. TRUE Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

101. A personal leaning or inclination is called a bias. TRUE Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

102. Once personal biases are recognized and overcome, it becomes less important to apply objective methods of social science research. FALSE Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

103. The term fallacy was coined by feminists to describe male stereotypes of women. FALSE Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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104. The "phallic fallacy" is the mistaken belief that our experiences and values are shared by others. FALSE Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

105. In conducting sex research, we generalize our findings from a random sample to a representative sample. FALSE Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

106. A criticism of the clinical research method is that it lacks depth. FALSE Refer to pages 38-39

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

107. Survey research results are only as accurate as the memories of the survey respondents. TRUE Refer to page 39

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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108. Many people believe Kinsey's work was responsible for a moral breakdown in the United States. TRUE Refer to page 47

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

109. Dependent variables are those factors that the investigator manipulates in order to observe the effects on the independent variable. FALSE Refer to page 42

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

110. If two variables occur together with great statistical regularity, we may conclude that they are correlated. TRUE Refer to page 43

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

111. According to Sigmund Freud, a person's gender identity is formed during the Oedipal stage. FALSE Refer to page 45

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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112. Havelock Ellis believed that homosexuality was learned. FALSE Refer to page 46

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

113. Alfred Kinsey's studies of sexual behavior revealed that there was tremendous consistency between public standards of sexual behavior and actual sexual behavior. FALSE Refer to page 46

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

114. Masters and Johnson are well known for their laboratory observations of sexual behavior among rats. FALSE Refer to pages 48-49

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

115. The National Health and Social Life Survey suggested that on average Americans have sex about once a week. TRUE Refer to page 51

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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116. To modern feminist scholars, power is a critical element in male-female relationships. TRUE Refer to page 56

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

117. The American Psychiatric Association has removed homosexuality from its list of psychological disorders. TRUE Refer to page 58

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

118. The common Latino stereotype of machismo is as negative for Latino males as it is for non-Latinos. FALSE Refer to page 61

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

119. Traditional Japanese values allowed sexual freedom for men, but not for women. TRUE Refer to page 63

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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120. Most Middle Eastern immigrants have a good understanding about sexuality-related topics. FALSE Refer to page 64

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

Fill in the Blank Questions 121. The sex __________ genre provides sexual information in a simplified manner that both entertains and informs. advice Refer to pages 30-31

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

122. The evaluation of a sexual behavior based on personal, moral, or ethical standards rather than objective ones is a __________ judgment. value Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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123. When a researcher describes a sexual behavior as it really is, and does not cloud it with his or her beliefs, prejudices, or value judgments, that researcher is demonstrating __________. objectivity Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

124. Personal thoughts and beliefs, not based on accurate knowledge or concrete evidence are _________. opinions Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

125. The purpose, potential risks, and the benefits of participating in a research study are explained to a subject, and the subject understands and agrees to participate. This subject is giving __________ consent. informed Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

126. In conducting research, a small group that resembles the larger population in important and relevant ways is called a __________ sample. representative Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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127. Clinical research is limited by its focus on the __________ aspects of behavior. pathological Refer to page 38

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

128. When people select only information and evidence that supports their individual beliefs, they are demonstrating personal __________. biases Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

129. A stereotype is a type of ____________. It is a way in which we organize knowledge within our thought processes. schema Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

130. A ____________ is an error in reasoning that affects our understanding of a subject, distorts our thinking, and leads us to false conclusions. fallacy Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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131. While visiting the Far East, Marvin is shocked to see that most of his male sex partners are not circumcised. He concludes that these people are still primitive, since they must not have had the medical facilities to perform circumcision. He is committing an error known as the __________ fallacy. ethnocentric Refer to page 35

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Easy

132. Participants in a survey do not indicate any identifying information on their questionnaires. This is done to ensure confidentiality and __________. anonymity Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

133. _____________ studies measure two or more naturally occurring variables to determine their relationship to each other. Correlational Refer to page 43

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

134. Havelock Ellis, an early researcher, challenged the view that masturbation and female sexuality were __________ behaviors. abnormal Refer to page 46

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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135. Michel Foucault argued that human sexuality is rooted in __________ and not in nature. society Refer to page 58

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

136. _____________ is a trait in Latino life, which is a commitment to family and family members. Familismo Refer to page 61

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

Short Answer Questions 137. What are the guidelines for evaluating popular reports in the media of sex information? Be skeptical. Search for biases, stereotypes, and lack of objectivity. Look for moralizing. Go to the original source or sources. Seek additional information. Feedback: Refer to page 32

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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138. In reading or studying about sexual behavior, how can one tell the difference between objective information and value judgments? Objective statements describe how people actually behave, and the truth of this description can be tested empirically (data gathered) to support or refute the statement. Value judgments indicate how people should behave and cannot be verified or refuted empirically. Feedback: Refer to page 34

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Difficulty: Moderate

139. Define and give an example of an ethnocentric fallacy. The ethnocentric fallacy refers to the belief that one's ethnic group, nation, or culture is superior to that of others. For example, African Americans may view Whites as "too uptight" sexually, whereas Whites may view African Americans as "too loose" sexually. Feedback: Refer to pages 35-36

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

140. Explain what is meant by the principle of informed consent. The principle of informed consent requires that research participants have full knowledge of the purpose, potential risks, and benefits of being a subject. The subject must freely volunteer to participate, and he or she has the right to withdraw at any time from participation without penalty. Feedback: Refer to page 37

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

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141. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the clinical research method? Advantages: It is an in-depth, comprehensive study of a single case or small number of cases of people with mental health problems. Clinical research is descriptive. It concentrates on unhealthy or dysfunctional behaviors. Disadvantages: It is not easily generalized nor representative. Its emphasis on pathological behaviors may reflect an unwarranted assumption about what is pathological (e.g., the Victorian attitude toward masturbation). Inferences of cause and effect cannot be drawn from clinical research. Feedback: Refer to pages 38-39

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Difficulty: Moderate

142. What is the difference between experimental research and correlational studies? Experimental research systematically varies independent variables in order to observe the effects on the dependent variables. Correlational research measures the regularity with which two variables occur together. Experimental research is able to establish cause-effect relationships among variables; correlational studies cannot tell us which variable causes the other to change. Feedback: Refer to pages 42-43

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Difficulty: Moderate

143. What was Richard von Krafft-Ebing's most significant contribution to our understanding of human sexuality? Krafft-Ebing's Psychopathia Sexualis documented a wide range of sexual behaviors that had never been described before. The "darker sides" of sexual behavior became available for study. Feedback: Refer to page 44

Bloom's Taxonomy: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy

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144. What are the two main reasons that Freud's influence among sex researchers has dwindled? His work's lack of empiricism. His inadequate description of female development. Feedback: Refer to page 45

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy

145. How did Havelock Ellis view masturbation? He believed that it was widespread, that it was not abnormal, that it was not linked to a mental or physical problem, and that it had a positive function: it relieved tension. Feedback: Refer to page 46

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

146. What was the importance of Alfred Kinsey's study of human sexual behavior in America? It established the great discrepancy between public standards of sexual behavior and actual practice. It revealed an enormous diversity of sexual practices in men and women. He devised the Kinsey Scale to represent the proportion of an individual's sexual behaviors with the same or other sex. He found that many people had same-sex sexual experiences, and he discovered that sexual preferences could change over the course of a person's lifetime. Feedback: Refer to pages 46-48

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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147. What were the pioneering accomplishments of Masters and Johnson? A systematic study of the physiological mechanisms involved in the human sexual response and the articulation of several key ideas: (1) they discovered that, physiologically, male and female sexual responses are very similar; and, (2) they demonstrated that women achieve orgasm primarily through clitoral stimulation. Feedback: Refer to pages 48-49

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

Essay Questions 148. For their class project, college students want to conduct a survey on "Attitudes Toward Condom Use Among Sexually Active College Students." Describe some of the problems and issues that must be resolved if their survey is going to be worthwhile. The two general concerns they face are: (1) ethical concerns related to the use of human beings as subjects; and, (2) methodological concerns regarding sampling techniques and their accuracy. First, a review board or human subject committee must approve the study for ethical concerns. Second, the group must determine how to obtain a representative sample of the population they are interested in. Third, they must be concerned with adequate representation or omission of ethnic groups and/or sexual minorities such as homosexuals. Fourth, they must be aware of the errors likely in self-reports of sexual behavior. Fifth, questionnaire creators must watch that their own biases do not affect question wording. Sixth, they need to be aware of how a researcher's gender may affect outcome. Seventh, they must be aware of the reluctance of some ethnic groups to respond to such questions. Finally, they must be careful about the generalizations they make from their study. Feedback: Refer to pages 36-41

Bloom's Taxonomy: Application Difficulty: Moderate

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149. Why was Havelock Ellis considered the "earliest important modern sexual thinker"? Summarize his contributions. His work was not based on the heavy traditional moralism of his predecessors. He saw the understanding of sex as a means to understanding all life. Contributions: (1) Recognition that sexual values and behaviors differed from species to species and culture to culture (i.e., that sexual values were relative). (2) Normalization of masturbation and other forms of autoeroticism. (3) Acceptance of female sexuality as normal and perhaps distinct from that of men (erogenous zones). (4) Redefinition of normal behavior. Saw abnormal behavior as an exaggeration of normal behavior. (5) Reevaluation of homosexuality as both congenital and harmless, and not immoral or criminal. (6) Toleration of sexual variation. Feedback: Refer to page 46

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

150. Compare and contrast the contributions of Kinsey with those of Masters and Johnson. Kinsey and Masters and Johnson took an empirical approach to understanding sexual behavior and were all pioneers in sex research. Masters and Johnson, as well as Kinsey, focused on actual sexual behavior rather than on value judgments regarding sexual behavior. Kinsey attempted to collect data on the frequency of different kinds of sexual behavior during the 1950s by use of the survey method. Masters and Johnson used laboratory observation and experimentation to discover the physiological changes during sexual activity. Masters and Johnson later wrote about therapeutic techniques for people with sexual problems. Feedback: Refer to pages 46-49

Bloom's Taxonomy: Analysis Difficulty: Moderate

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151. What is familismo, and what is its relationship to sexual practices? Familismo is the trait of Latino life that describes the commitment to family and family members. Familismo can be a strong factor in reducing unsafe sexual practices with partners outside of primary relationships. For many Latino men who have sex with men, familismo and homophobia can create conflict because of families' negative feelings about homosexuality and their emphasis on the traditional heterosexual family. Feedback: Refer to page 61

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

152. Discuss why many female Middle Eastern Immigrants have poor understanding about sexually-related topics. Traditional beliefs dictate that women should not learn about sexual relationships until marriage. Their primary source of sexuality education, beside the media, comes from married friends. Many messages these women receive are confusing, and have resulted in a sense of self-worthlessness. Gender, birth order, family honor, religion, and traditional cultural values are highly regarded, and are associated with lower status for women, male dominance, and discrimination against women. Feedback: Refer to page 64

Bloom's Taxonomy: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate

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Test bank human sexuality 8th edition yarber  

test bank human sexuality 8th edition yarber. Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-human-sexuality-8th-edition-yarber

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