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Chapter 02 Chemistry of Life

Multiple Choice Questions 1. The smallest unit of an element that still retains the chemical and physical properties of that element is called: A. an isotope B. a nucleus C. an atom D. a molecular bond E. neutrino An atom is the smallest unit of an element that still retains the chemical and physical properties of that element.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

2. In an atom, the number of protons always equals the number: A. of electrons B. of neutrons C. of neutron and protons D. of quarks E. of neutrinos In an atom, the number of protons always equals the number of electrons.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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3. Examine the section of the periodic table in figure 2.1. The element ____ will behave similar to carbon. A. Ca B. S C. Ar D. Si E. Mg Si or silicon will behave similar to carbon.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: figure 2.1 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

4. ____ elements occur naturally. A. 112 B. 92 C. 64 D. 32 E. none of the above There are 92 naturally occurring elements.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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5. The atomic number of an atom is determined by the number of ______. A. protons B. neutrons C. electrons D. protons and neutrons E. none of the above The atomic number of an atom is determined by the number of protons.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

6. The periodic table of the elements is arranged according to _____________. A. increasing valence B. increasing number of neutrons C. increasing number of protons D. increasing number of neutrinos E. none of the above The periodic table is arranged according to increasing number of protons.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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7. _________ are basic building blocks of matter that cannot be further broken down by ordinary chemical means. A. Atoms B. Molecules C. Compounds D. Emulsions E. Elements Elements are basic building blocks of matter that cannot be further broken down by ordinary chemical means.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

8. In an atom, any given orbital can hold only ___ electrons. A. 2 B. 4 C. 6 D. 8 E. 10 In an atom, any given orbital can hold only 2 electrons.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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9. The inner shell of any atom can contain up to ______ electrons. A. 8 B. 2 C. 6 D. 4 E. 16 The inner shell of any atom can contain up to 2 electrons.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

10. Isotopes of an element differ due to the number of ______. A. protons B. neutrons C. electrons D. both protons and electrons E. neutrinos and protons Isotopes of an element differ due to the number of neutrons.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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11. Carbon dating is a common method employed in dating certain kinds of fossils. It is based upon the radioactive decay of an isotope of carbon (C14). Referring to the atomic number of carbon attained from figure 2.1, determine how many neutrons exist in C14. A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 4 E. 6 Carbon fourteen possesses two additional neutrons.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: figure 2.1 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

12. ______, such as iodine 131 can be used in medicine to produce various images of organs and tissues. A. Mixtures B. Tracers C. Emulsions D. Colloids E. None of the above Tracers, such as iodine 131 can be used in medicine to produce various images of organs and tissues.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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13. ________ can be carefully introduced into tissues to kill cancer cells. A. Electrons B. Neutrinos C. Emulsions D. Colloids E. Radioisotopes Radioisotopes can be carefully introduced into tissues to kill cancer cells.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

14. An electrically neutral atom will have equal numbers of ____________. A. electrons and neutrons. B. protons and neutrons. C. isotopes and electrons. D. electrons and protons. E. none of the above. An electrically neutral atom will have equal numbers of electrons and protons.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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15. Two or more atoms that combine are defined as ___________. A. atomic units B. a molecule C. a compound D. an isotope E. an ion Two or more atoms that combine are defined as a molecule.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

16. Ca3(PO4)2 represents a/an _____. A. element B. mixture C. compound D. molecule E. colloid Ca3(PO4)2 represents a compound.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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17. The formation of ______ bonds involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another nearby atom. A. covalent B. ionic C. hydrogen D. polar E. all of the above The formation of ionic bonds involves the transfer of electrons from one atom to another nearby atom.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

18. In 1901 the Noble Prize in Physics was awarded to _____ for his work with X-Rays. A. Louis Pasteur B. Patrick Manson C. Wilhelm Roentgen D. Pierre Curie E. T. H. Huxley In 1901 the Noble Prize in Physics was awarded to Wilhelm Roentgen for his work with XRays.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: Historical Focus Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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19. Atoms that share electrons have _____ bonds. A. covalent B. neutral C. hydrogen D. colloidal E. ionic Atoms that share electrons have covalent bonds.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

20. A molecule results from _____. A. the shape of individual atoms B. an attraction between neutrons C. a transfer or sharing of electrons D. peptide bonds E. none of the above A molecule results from a transfer or sharing of electrons

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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21. CaCl2 is a salt that forms as the result of a/an _____ bond. A. covalent B. hydrogen C. polar D. non-polar E. ionic CaCl2 is a salt that forms as the result of an ionic bond.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.1 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

22. The biologically important properties of water are due to what attributes of water? A. polarity B. hydrogen bonding C. water being liquid at room temperature D. high heat of vaporization E. all of the above The biologically important properties of water are due to its polarity, hydrogen bonds, ability to stay liquid at room temperature, and high heat of vaporization.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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23. Choose the most correct statement concerning the nature of water. A. In polar molecules atoms share electrons evenly. B. A calorie is the amount of heat energy to raise 1 gram of water 1C. C. Hydrophilic molecules do not interact with water. D. Hydrophobic molecules interact with water. E. Water has non-polar properties. A calorie is the amount of heat energy to raise 1 gram of water 1C.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

24. Which of the following characteristics of water is most responsible for the sinking of the Titanic? A. The polar nature of water. B. The high heat of vaporization. C. The stability of water. D. Water is most dense at 4 degrees Celsius. E. Water molecules are cohesive. Since water is most dense at 4 degrees Celsius, ice including icebergs, will float in liquid water.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Evaluate/Create Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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25. On a warm day in April, Tina jumped into the swimming pool. To her surprise the water was really cold. Which property of water did she discover? A. Water molecules are cohesive B. Water is a temperature buffer C. Water possesses hydrogen bonds D. Water is a non-polar molecule E. Water is most dense at 4 degrees Celsius Water is a good temperature buffer because a great deal of energy is required to raise the temperature of water.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Evaluate/Create Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

26. Choose the correct statement concerning water. A. Water is a polar molecule. B. Water is the most abundant molecule in the body. C. 60-70% of total body weight of most organisms is water. D. Due to hydrogen bonding, water molecules are cohesive. E. All of the choices are correct. Water is a polar molecule. Water makes up 60-70% of the total body weight of a typical organism and it is the most abundant molecule in the body. Water is cohesive due to hydrogen bonding.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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27. Choose the most correct statement concerning water. A. Water is the universal solvent, especially for polar molecules. B. The temperature of liquid water rises and falls quickly. C. Water has a low heat of vaporization. D. Liquid water is less dense than frozen water. E. All of the choices are correct. Water is considered the universal solvent.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

28. William noticed blood mysteriously climbing up a capillary tube. This is an example of the ________ nature of water. A. crystalline B. polar C. cohesive D. non-polar E. colloidal Water climbing up a capillary tube is an example of the cohesive nature of water.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Evaluate/Create Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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29. Ions that interact with water are called ___________. A. adhesive B. hydrophobic C. cohesive D. hydrophilic E. colloidal Ions that interact with water are called hydrophilic.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

30. In water, hydrogen bonding occurs between the hydrogen atom in one molecule and: A. an oxygen atom in the same molecule B. an oxygen atom in a different molecule C. a hydrogen atom in the same molecule D. a hydrogen atom in a different molecule E. none of the above In water, hydrogen bonding occurs between the hydrogen atom in one molecule and an oxygen atom in a different molecule.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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31. In an acidic solution: A. the number of H+ is less than the number of OHB. the number of OH- is greater than the number of H+ C. the number of H+ is equal to the number of OHD. the number of H+ is greater than the number of OHE. none of the above In an acidic solution the number of H+ is greater than the number of OH-

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

32. In a basic solution: A. the number of OH- is less than the number of H+ B. the number of OH- is greater than the number of H+ C. the number of H+ is equal to the number of OHD. the number of H+ is greater than the number of OHE. none of the above In a basic solution the number of H+ is greater than the number of OH-

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.2 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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33. Which of the following are ranked correctly, in order of increasing alkalinity? A. sodium hydroxide, tomatoes, milk, lemon, hydrochloric acid B. rainwater, milk, stomach acid, ammonia, Great Salt Lake C. oven cleaner, eggs, soda, tomatoes, lemon juice D. stomach acid, lemon juice, rainwater, baking soda, milk E. hydrochloric acid, soda, bread, blood, oven cleaner The correct ranking is: hydrochloric acid, soda, bread, blood, and oven cleaner.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: Figure 2.9 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

34. Joining small molecules (monomers) together to form longer chains (polymers) requires a process called _____________. A. hydrolysis B. dehydration reaction C. monomerization D. emulsification E. None of the choices are correct Joining small molecules (monomers) together to form longer chains (polymers) requires a process called a dehydration reaction.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.4 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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35. Sugars with three to seven carbon atoms are called _____. A. monosaccharides B. disaccharides C. trisaccharides D. polysaccharides E. steroids Sugars with three to seven carbon atoms are called monosaccharides.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.4 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

36. ______ is the storage form of glucose found in plants; _______ is the storage form of glucose in animals. A. Glycogen; starch B. Ribose; deoxyribose C. Hexose; maltose D. Pyruvic acid; glycogen E. Starch; glycogen Starch is the storage form of glucose found in plants, and glycogen is the storage molecule of glucose in animals.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.4 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

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37. _______ passes through the digestive tract as fiber or roughage. A. Chitin B. Glucose C. Glycogen D. Starch E. Cellulose Cellulose passes through the digestive tract as fiber or roughage.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.4 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

38. The building block molecules of polysaccharides are: A. amino acids B. disaccharide C. monosaccharides D. glycerol E. steroids Monosaccharides are the building block molecules of polysaccharides.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.4 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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39. The process of breaking lipids into smaller molecules is called: A. denaturation B. emulsification C. polymerization D. saturization E. anabolism The process of breaking lipids into smaller molecules is called emulsification.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.5 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

40. Choose the correct statement. A. Saturated fatty acids have double bonds between the carbons. B. Unsaturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the carbons. C. Steroids are common polysaccharides D. Phospholipids have two fatty acids. E. Testosterone and cholesterol are polypeptides. Phospholipids are comprised of two fatty acids.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.5 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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41. Which of the following would most likely be safer for the cardiovascular system? A. butter B. lard C. animal fat D. corn oil E. none of the above Corn oil would most likely be safer for the cardiovascular system.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: Section 2.5 Level of difficulty: Apply/Analyze Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

42. Proteins are comprised of: A. lipids B. amino acids C. monosaccharides D. polysaccharides E. nucleic acids Proteins are comprised of amino acids.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: Section 2.6 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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43. Glucose breakdown leads to _________. A. DNA replication B. ATP buildup C. RNA synthesis D. ATP degradation E. ADP breakdown Glucose breakdown leads to ATP buildup.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: Section 2.7 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: missing word sentence Topic Area: Chemistry

44. The sides of the DNA ladder (backbone) are: A. N-C-C-N-C-C-N B. the R groups C. the nitrogenous bases D. composed of nucleic acids E. None of the choices are correct. The R groups, sugars and phosphate molecules, make up the sides of the DNA ladder.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: Section 2.7 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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45. The protein structure of alpha helix and beta pleated sheets refers to the: A. primary structure B. secondary structure C. tertiary structure D. quaternary structure E. none of the above The protein structure of alpha helix and beta pleated sheets refers to the secondary structure.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: Section 2.6 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

46. When an ATP molecule is used to supply energy, which of the following occurs? A. the terminal phosphate bond is completed. B. a phosphate bond is removed. C. ADP is removed. D. oxygen is removed. E. none of the above. ADP is removed when an ATP molecule is used to supply energy.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: Section 2.7 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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47. Which of the following nitrogenous bases is NOT found in DNA? A. cytosine B. thymine C. uracil D. guanine E. adenine Uracil is not found in DNA.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: Section 2.7 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

48. DNA is shaped like a ___. A. single strand B. beta-chain C. double decker D. double helix E. poly helix DNA is shaped like a double helix.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.7 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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49. A species has 29% of its DNA composed of the nucleotide containing guanine (G). What percent does the nitrogen base thymine (T) equal? A. 58% B. 42% C. 21% D. 67% E. 29% The nitrogen base thymine (T) would equal 21%.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: 2.7 Level of difficulty: Evaluate/Create Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

50. ATP carries energy in the form of: A. high-energy carbohydrate bonds B. high-energy protein bonds C. high-energy lipid bonds D. high-energy phosphate bonds E. high energy hydrogen bonds ATP carries energy in the form of high-energy phosphate bonds.

Chapter reference: 2 Figure/section reference: Section 2.7 Level of difficulty: Remember/Understand Question type: multiple choice Topic Area: Chemistry

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