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Chapter 02 The Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table Short Answer Questions 1. List the three primary particles found in an atom. proton, electron and neutron

2. What is the value of the mass number in the isotope

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3. What is the term for atoms of the same element having different masses due to a different number of neutrons? isotopes

4. What is the process by which certain isotopes emit particles and release large amounts of energy? radioactive decay

5. What do we call electrically charged particles that result from the gain of one or more electrons by a parent atom? anions

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6. Dalton proposed that all atoms of an element have identical properties. Briefly, explain why this proposal is invalid. Isotopes of an element have different properties, particularly their mass.

7. J. J. Thomson in 1897, announced that cathode rays consisted of a stream of _______. electrons

8. In one sentence, state Rutherford's important contribution to our knowledge of atomic structure. He concluded that atoms have a small, heavy, positively charged nucleus surrounded largely by empty space, occupied by electrons.

9. What instrument is used to study the wavelengths of light emitted and absorbed by atoms? a spectrophotometer

10. In Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom, what is an "orbit"? An orbit is a circular path followed by the electron.

11. In Bohr's theory of the atom, what is the number n (n = 1, 2, 3, ...) called? quantum number

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12. In one sentence, explain the meaning/consequences of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. It is impossible to know the exact position and momentum of a particle, such as an electron in an atom.

13. In modern atomic theory, Bohr's orbits are replaced by atomic orbitals. What is an atomic orbital? It is a region of space where an electron is likely to be found; or, an electron "cloud".

14. Which two scientists in 1869 arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic masses to form a precursor of the modern periodic table of elements? Mendeleev and Meyer

15. Who stated that the elements, when arranged according to their atomic masses, showed a distinct periodicity of their properties? Dimitri Mendeleev

16. In the modern periodic table, how are the elements arranged? by increasing atomic number

17. The modern periodic law states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of what property? atomic number

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18. What do we call the horizontal row of elements on the periodic table? periods

19. How many periods are found on the periodic table? seven

20. Which period contains the element sodium? period three

21. What do we call the columns of elements on the periodic table? groups

22. For an atom, what number gives the number of electrons and protons found in that atom? atomic number

23. What is the general name given to the elements of Group IA (1)? alkali metals

24. What term is used for the elements straddling the "staircase" boundary between the metals and nonmetals? metalloids

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25. For a representative element, how can we deduce the number of valence electrons in a neutral atom from the position of the element in the periodic table? the group number is also the number of valence electrons

26. In what way(s) are the three orbitals in the 2p sublevel similar? In what way(s) are they different? They have the same shape and the same energy. They are oriented differently in space.

27. What requirement must be met in order for two electrons to coexist in the same orbital? they must have opposite spins

28. State the Aufbau Principle. Electrons occupy the available orbital of lowest energy first.

29. Give the electronic configuration in an atom of neon, element number 18. 1s22s22p6

30. Give the electronic arrangement in an atom of strontium, element number 38. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s2

31. How many valence electrons are present in a chloride ion? eight

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32. State the Octet Rule. Elements tend to react in such a way as to attain the electron configuration of the atoms of the noble gas nearest to them in the periodic table.

33. Give the name of a Group VIIA (17) ion that has the following electronic arrangement: 1s22s22p63s23p6 chloride

34. Give the complete electronic arrangement of a sulfide ion, S2-. 1s22s22p63s23p6

35. Atoms with the biggest radii occur in the _______ _______ region of the periodic table. bottom left

36. How would you expect an Al3+ ion to compare in size with an Al atom? Explain why. The ion will be much smaller. In forming the ion, the atom loses all its outermost electrons. The net positive charge on the ion ensures that all the electrons in the ion are strongly attracted to the nucleus, keeping the ion small.

37. Which group of elements has the highest ionization energies? Which group has the lowest? Group VIIIA (18) are the highest; Group IA (1) are the lowest.

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38. Explain what is meant by electron affinity. It is the energy released when a neutral atom gains an electron to form an anion.

39. _________ is the ion responsible for the regulation of blood pressure and involved in the transmission of neural impulses. Ca2+

Multiple Choice Questions 40. What does the mass number minus the atomic number represent? A. Number of protons B. Number of electrons C. Number of neutrons D. Number of protons - number of neutrons E. Number of neutrons - number of protons

41. In a neutral atom, what number equals the number of electrons? A. Atomic number B. Mass number C. Mass number minus the atomic number D. Both A and C E. None of the above

42. Given that helium has an isotope atom. A. 1 B. 2 C. 4 D. 6 E. 0

, predict the number of electrons in a helium

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43. How many neutrons are present in an atom of the isotope A. 3 B. 4 C. 7 D. 10 E. none of the above

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44. Microwaves, light and X-rays are all forms of ____________. A. Electricity B. High energy electrons C. Electron repulsion D. Electromagnetic radiation E. Radioactivity

45. Where are the alkaline earth metals located on the periodic table? A. IA (1) B. IIA (2) C. IIIA (3) D. VIIA (17) E. VIIIA (18)

46. How many orbitals are in an s sublevel? How many in a p sublevel? A. S: 1, p: 2 B. S: 2, p: 3 C. S: 1, p: 3 D. S: 2, p: 6 E. S: 3, p: 3

47. How many electrons are present in an atom of silicon? A. 14 B. 16 C. 18 D. 24 E. 26

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48. Give the name of a Group IA (1) ion that has the following electronic arrangement: 1s22s22p6 A. Lithium ion B. Sodium ion C. Potassium ion D. Magnesium ion E. Calcium ion

49. What ion carries two negative charges and is isoelectronic with K+? A. O2B. S2C. F2D. Cl2E. Ar2-

50. What kind(s) of particles can be found outside the nucleus of an atom? A. Protons B. Neutrons C. Electrons D. Protons and electrons E. Protons and neutrons

51. The total mass of the protons in any neutral atom is about _______ times the total mass of electrons in the atom. A. 0.0005 B. 0.3 C. 1 D. 2 E. 2000

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52. What is the quantity represented by the mass number minus the atomic number? A. Number of atoms B. Number of neutrons C. Number of electrons D. Number of protons E. Number of particles in the nucleus

53. Which isotope of hydrogen has two neutrons? A. Hydrogen-1 B. Hydrogen-2 C. Hydrogen-3 D. Deuterium E. H2

54. Which of the following accounts for the fact that chlorine has an atomic mass of 35.45 amu rather than a whole number? A. Isotopes B. Electrons C. Protons D. Radioactivity E. Isomers

55. Who discovered that cathode rays consist of a stream of negative particles, electrons? A. Crookes B. Thomson C. Geiger D. Rutherford E. Bohr

56. Who discovered the existence of the atomic nucleus? A. Crookes B. Thomson C. Geiger D. Rutherford E. Bohr

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57. In Rutherford's experiment, which led to the discovery of the atomic nucleus, what type of particle or ray was fired at the gold foil target? A. Alpha B. Beta C. Gamma D. Neutrons E. Cathode rays

58. In Mendeleev's table of the elements, they were arranged according to ______________. A. Atomic number B. Mass number C. Atomic mass D. Neutron number E. Density

59. The modern periodic table is arranged according to what property? A. Atomic number B. Mass number C. Atomic mass D. Neutron number E. Density

60. What do we call a complete horizontal row of elements on the periodic table? A. Group B. Period C. Family D. Representative elements E. Transition elements

61. What are all the elements in the A-groups often called? A. Transition elements B. Lanthanides C. Metals D. Non-metals E. Representative elements

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62. Which of the following elements is a metalloid? A. C B. Ge C. Pb D. N E. P

63. Where are the halogens located on the periodic table? A. Representative elements B. Transition metals C. Group VIIA (17) D. Group IIA (2) E. Group IIIA (3)

64. How many valence electrons are in an atom of carbon? A. 8 B. 6 C. 4 D. 1 E. 0

65. What is the lowest energy sublevel of a principal level? A. d B. e C. f D. s E. p

66. How many sublevels are there in the third principal energy level? A. 3 B. 2 C. 1 D. 0 E. 4

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67. How many orbitals are there in the second principal energy level? A. 2 B. 3 C. 1 D. 0 E. 4

68. Which of the following correctly gives the electron capacity of a principal energy level in terms of the number n? A. n B. 2n C. 2n + 2 D. N2 E. 2n2

69. What is the electron configuration of sulfur, atomic number 16? A. 1s21p62s22p6 B. 1s22s22p62d6 C. 1s22s22p63s23p4 D. 1s22s22p63s23d4 E. 1s22s22p63s22d4

70. Which one of the following electron configurations is appropriate for a normal atom? A. 1s12s1 B. 1s22s1 C. 1s22s22p8 D. 1s22s22p43s1 E. 1s22s22p63d1

71. Which of the following elements is most likely to form a 2+ ion? A. Li B. K C. Al D. N E. Cu

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72. Give the complete electronic configuration of a sodium ion. A. 1s22s22p5 B. 1s22s22p6 C. 1s22s22p63s1 D. 1s22s22p63s2 E. 1s22s22p63s23p64s1

73. Which of the following ions does not follow the octet rule? A. Na+ B. Ca2+ C. Al3+ D. N3E. Cl2-

74. Which of the following atoms has the biggest size (radius)? A. Na B. Al C. Cl D. Rb E. I

75. Which of the following elements has the highest ionization energy? A. Li B. B C. O D. F E. He

76. Which of the following elements has the lowest ionization energy? A. Li B. B C. O D. F E. Ne

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77. The electron affinity is _________________. A. The energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom B. The force between two electrons in the same orbital C. The force between two ions of opposite charge D. The energy released when an isolated atom gains an electron E. The attraction of an atom for an electron in a chemical bond

78. Which one of the following elements has the highest electron affinity? A. Li B. K C. Kr D. O E. Cl

79. Which of the following statements relating to Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom is incorrect? A. The lowest energy orbit has quantum number n = 1 B. The highest energy orbits are farthest from the nucleus C. In a transition from the n = 3 to the n = 1 level, light is emitted D. Energy differences between energy levels can be calculated from the wavelengths of the light absorbed or emitted E. The Bohr model consists of energy levels that are evenly spaced, like the rungs of a ladder

80. Who proposed that electrons could behave like waves, as well as like particles? A. Thomson B. Rutherford C. Bohr D. De Broglie E. Heisenberg

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True / False Questions

81. In the calcium atom represented by the symbol and 20 electrons. TRUE

, there are 20 protons, 20 neutrons

82. All atoms of a particular element have identical chemical properties. TRUE

83. An atom cannot be created, divided, destroyed or converted to any other type of atom. FALSE

84. The atomic number of an ion tells us the number of protons that are present. TRUE

85. If an atom gains one electron, it becomes an anion. TRUE

86. The first experimentally based theory of atomic structure was proposed by John Dalton. TRUE

87. J. J. Thomson was the first to state that an atom is mostly empty space. FALSE

88. Short wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation have more energy than long wavelengths. TRUE

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89. Bohr was the first to use the term "orbit" to explain the fixed energy levels of electrons. TRUE

90. Niels Bohr developed a theory which accounted for the lines in the visible region of the hydrogen spectrum. TRUE

91. In Mendeleev's table, the elements were arranged according to their atomic mass. TRUE

92. There are nine periods on the periodic table. FALSE

93. Sulfur (S) is one of the representative elements. TRUE

94. Europium (Eu) is a lanthanide element. TRUE

95. Arsenic (As) is a metalloid. TRUE

96. Valence electrons are involved when atoms form bonds. TRUE

97. There are a maximum of 50 electrons in principal energy level number five. TRUE

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98. Atoms of the noble gas elements, Group VIII A (18), do not form bonds with any other elements. FALSE

99. There are eight valence electrons in a chloride ion. TRUE

100. The ions formed from Group IIA (2) atoms have charges of 2+. TRUE

101. Cations tend to be formed from metal atoms, while anions are formed from non-metal atoms. TRUE

102. The atoms of smallest radius are those of elements in top left hand part of the periodic table. FALSE

103. The halogens, Group VII A (17) have the lowest ionization energies of any group in the periodic table. FALSE

104. The last period in the periodic table is incomplete. TRUE

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