Page 1

Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-electronic-commerce-2008-5th-edition-turban

Chapter 2 E-Marketplaces: Structure, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts True-False Questions 1.

The functions and efficiency of an e-market are the same as that of a physical marketplace. Answer: False

Difficulty: East

Page Reference: 44

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills 2.

The emergence of electronic marketplaces has resulted in lower information search costs for buyers and lower transaction and distribution costs for sellers. Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 44, 45

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills 3.

Although both marketplaces and marketspaces can sell physical products, the marketspace also can sell digital products, which are goods that can be transformed to digital format and delivered instantly over the Internet. Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 45

AACSB: Use of information technology 4.

Front end refers to the activities that support online order fulfillment, inventory management, purchasing from suppliers, payment processing, packaging, and delivery. Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 45

AACSB: Use of information technology 5.

In marketing, an intermediary is a third party that operates between sellers and buyers. Intermediaries of all kinds offer their services on the Web. Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

AACSB: Use of information technology

Page Reference: 45


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E-Marketplaces: Structure, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts

6.

WebMD, which is the largest U.S. medical services company, is known mainly for its webmd.com consumer portal, but its core business is being an e-intermediary. Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 46

AACSB: Use of information technology 7.

The major B2B e-marketplaces are electronic storefronts, Internet malls, and exchanges. Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 47

AACSB: Use of information technology 8.

A portal is an information gateway that attempts to address information overload by enabling people to search and access relevant information from disparate IT systems and the Internet, using advanced search and indexing techniques, such as Google’s desktop. Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 49

AACSB: Use of information technology 9.

Intermediaries are human or electronic agents that play an important role in EC by providing value-added services such as making payment arrangements to buyers and sellers. Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 51

AACSB: Use of information technology 10.

Travelers using airline Web sites to book their flights directly without the use of travel agents is resulting in the reintermediation of travel agents. Answer: False

Difficulty: Hard

Page Reference: 53

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills 11.

Search engines not only “search and match,” but also have capabilities that can be used to perform routine tasks that require intelligence. Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

AACSB: Use of information technology

Page Reference: 57


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-electronic-commerce-2008-5th-edition-turban

12.

An electronic shopping cart is an order-processing technology that allows customers to accumulate items they wish to buy while they continue to shop. Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 58

AACSB: Use of information technology 13.

Shopping carts for B2B are fairly simple, but a shopping cart for B2C may be more complex. Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 59

AACSB: Use of information technology 14.

An auction is a competitive process and market mechanism that uses a competitive process by which a seller solicits consecutive bids from buyers or a buyer solicits bids from sellers. Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 59

AACSB: Use of information technology 15.

Negotiation and bargaining are two types of auctions where prices are not fixed, but rather are allowed to fluctuate as market supply and demand change. Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 60

AACSB: Use of information technology 16.

Reverse auctions are bidding or tendering systems in which the buyer places an item for bid on a request for quote (RFQ) system; then potential suppliers bid on the job, with the price reducing sequentially, and the lowest bid wins. Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 61

AACSB: Use of information technology 17.

E-auctions are becoming less important selling and buying channels for companies and individuals. Answer: False

Difficulty: Easy

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Page Reference: 62


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E-Marketplaces: Structure, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts

18.

The major limitations of e-auctions are insufficient security, risk of fraud, and a limited pool of participants. Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 62

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills 19.

A limitation of e-bartering for businesses is that excess capacity items such as office space, storage, factory space; idle facilities; and labor cannot be bartered. Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 64

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills 20.

Online negotiation can be facilitated by computer technology for the negotiation process and software agents for searches and comparisons. Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 64

AACSB: Use of information technology 21.

Due to the lack of hurdles, the adoption and growth of m-commerce has been widespread. Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 66

AACSB: Use of information technology 22.

The Internet economy’s low barriers to entry are both an opportunity and a threat to businesses. Answer: True

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 68

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills 23.

Strong competition for commodity-type products, such as toys and CDs, was a major contributor to the collapse of many dot-com companies, which suggests that a company needs to use innovative strategies to survive and prosper in the Internet economy. Answer: True AACSB: Analytic skills

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 68


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-electronic-commerce-2008-5th-edition-turban

24.

Because the strength of each of Porter’s five forces varies considerably from industry to industry, it would be a mistake to draw general conclusions about the impact of the Internet on long-term industry profitability. Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 70

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills 25.

Because of intense competition on the Web, new companies cannot establish good corporate images quickly as Amazon.com had done when it had few online competitors. Answer: False

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 73

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Multiple Choice Questions 26.

Fundamentally, the success of the pure-play jewelry e-tailer Blue Nile was due to the company’s use of Internet technologies to: a. b. c. d.

go public provide quality ratings eliminate intermediaries offer lower prices than competitors

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference:

43

AACSB: 27.

Traditional and electronic markets have three main functions, which include each of the following EXCEPT: a. transforming raw materials into finished products. b. matching buyers and sellers. c. facilitating the exchange of information, goods, services, and payments associated with market transactions. d. providing an institutional infrastructure, such as a legal and regulatory framework that enables the efficient functioning of the market. Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Page Reference: 44


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E-Marketplaces: Structure, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts

28.

Digital products have different cost curves than those of regular products because:

a. b. c. d.

in digitization, most of the costs are variable and fixed costs are low. in digitization, most of the costs are fixed, and variable costs are very low. in digitization, most of the costs are fixed, but variable costs are high. in digitization, all of the costs are variable.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Hard

Page Reference: 45

AACSB: Analytic skills 29.

The portion of an e-seller’s business processes through which customers interact, including the seller’s portal, electronic catalogs, a shopping cart, a search engine, and a payment gateway is referred to as the _____________ of the business. a. b. c. d.

front end back end infrastructure intermediary

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 45

AACSB: 30.

All the activities that are related to order aggregation and fulfillment, inventory management, purchasing from suppliers, accounting and finance, insurance, payment processing, packaging, and delivery are done in what is termed the_______ of the business. a. b. c. d.

front end back end infrastructure intermediary

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 45

AACSB: 31.

The major __________ e-marketplaces are storefronts and Internet malls. a. b. c. d.

B2B C2B B2B2C B2C

Answer: D AACSB:

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 47


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-electronic-commerce-2008-5th-edition-turban

32.

An electronic storefront includes several mechanisms that are necessary for conducting the sale. The most common mechanisms include each of the following EXCEPT: a. b. c. d.

an electronic catalog; a search engine a supply chain a payment gateway

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 47

AACSB: 33.

_______________ are online markets owned and operated by a single company and may be either sell-side or buy-side. a. b. c. d.

Private e-marketplaces Commercial portals E-malls B2B marketplaces

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 48

AACSB: 34.

A(n) _____________ is a single point of access through a Web browser to help users find relevant and accurate business information and reduce information overload.

a. b. c. d.

intermediary search engine information portal browser

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 49

AACSB: 35.

Finding relevant and accurate information is often time-consuming and requires access to multiple systems causing organizations to lose a lot of productive employee time. One solution to this problem is the use of: a. b. c. d.

portals. intermediaries. browsers. intranets.

Answer: A AACSB:

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 49


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E-Marketplaces: Structure, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts

36.

A type of broker that helps consumers compare different stores is a: a. b. c. d.

virtual mall. search agent. shopping facilitator. metamediary.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 52

AACSB: 37.

Human or electronic intermediaries attempt to address each of the following limitations of direct interaction EXCEPT: a. b. c. d.

search costs. lack of privacy for those wanting to remain anonymous. contract risk. product distribution.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 52

AACSB: 38.

The elimination of various types of agents that mediate between buyers and sellers, such as travel and insurance agents, is referred to as: a. b. c. d.

remediation disintermediation e-distribution automation

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 53

AACSB: 39.

A mode is purchasing where prices are negotiated or discounted is ________________, which refers to nonfixed prices, such as those in auctions or stock markets.

a. b. c. d.

dynamic pricing commodity pricing pre-shopping negotiation

Answer: A AACSB:

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 54


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-electronic-commerce-2008-5th-edition-turban

40.

Although used occasionally in B2C commerce, customized catalogs are especially useful in B2B e-commerce for each of the following reasons EXCEPT: a. e-catalogs can show only the items that the employees in a specific organization are allowed to purchase. b. Intranets, in particular, can deliver customized catalogs to different business customers. c. e-catalogs can show the buyer’s ID number for the item, model, or SKU number rather than the seller’s ID numbers. d. E-catalogs can be customized to show the same item to different customers at different prices, reflecting discounts or purchase-contract agreements. Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 56

AACSB: 41.

To be successful and useful, large e-catalogs need a(n) __________________. a. b. c. d.

search engine directory data mining technology enhanced viewing capability

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 57

AACSB: 42.

A ____________ has capabilities that can be used to perform routine tasks that require intelligence such as providing customers with assistance based on their movements on a Web site. a. b. c. d.

search engine intelligent engine software agent software engine

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 58

AACSB: 43.

Popular search engines include all of the following EXCEPT: a. b. c. d.

Google MSN AltaVista Lycos

Answer: B AACSB:

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 58


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E-Marketplaces: Structure, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts

44.

A(n) ____________ is an order-processing technology that allows customers to accumulate items they wish to buy while they continue to shop. a. b. c. d.

intelligent agent e-fulfillment agent electronic shopping cart merchant server

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 58

AACSB: 45.

The most common and traditional form of auctions in which one seller entertains bids from many buyers is referred to as: a. b. c. d.

forward auctions reverse auctions. double auction. e-auctions.

Answer: A

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 61

AACSB: 46.

An auction in which there is one buyer and many potential sellers; or in which a buyer places an item for bid on an RFQ system and the lowest bid wins is referred to as all of the following EXCEPT: a. b. c. d.

reverse auctions. forward auctions. bidding system. tendering system.

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 61

AACSB: 47.

What is a benefit of e-auctions to sellers? a. b. c. d.

Convenience since the bidding can occur anywhere and any time. High stickiness to the Web site. Anonymity. The optimal price is determined by the market.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Hard

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills

Page Reference: 62


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-electronic-commerce-2008-5th-edition-turban

48.

Organizations are embracing mobilized computing technologies for several reasons EXCEPT: a. b. c. d.

It improves the productivity of workers in the field. Wireless telecom support for mobility is growing quickly. Wireless security problems have been solved with encryption. The prices of notebook computers, wireless handhelds, and smart phones continue to fall and their capabilities continue to increase.

Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 65

AACSB: 49.

EC competition is very intense because online transactions enable each of the following EXCEPT: a. For buyer, e-markets reduce the cost of searching for product information; e.g., sellers, models, prices, frequently to zero. b. Higher prices because of a greater number of potential buyers. c. Setting up a Web site is relatively easy and inexpensive, and doing so reduces the need for a sales force and brick-and-mortar stores. d. Product or service differentiation and personalization. Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 68

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills 50.

Which of the following statements about differentiation and personalization is not correct? a. Products must be differentiated for perfect competition. b. Consumers like differentiation and personalization and are frequently willing to pay more for them. c. Differentiation reduces the substitutability between products, benefiting sellers who use this strategy. d. Price cutting in differentiated markets does not impact market share very much: Answer: A AACSB:

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 68


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E-Marketplaces: Structure, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts

51.

It can be said that competition between companies is being replaced by competition between ___________ . a. b. c. d.

industries digital products and services differentiated products and services networks

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 69

AACSB: 52.

The Internet has influenced industry structures in each of the following ways EXCEPT: a. A flood of new entrants has come into many industries because of reduced barriers to entry. b. Increases differences among competitors whose offerings are kept proprietary. c. There has been a shift in bargaining and buyer power to end users. d. Industries are more efficient overall. Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 70

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills 53.

Impacts of e-marketplaces on B2C direct marketing include all of the following EXCEPT: a. The existence of e-marketplaces has increased the promotion of products and services through direct marketing. b. The administrative work related to physical delivery, especially across international borders, can be reduced significantly, cutting the cycle time by more than 90 percent. c. Brand images for new companies have become more difficult to establish. d. EC enables customization of products and services, which is changing marketing and sales activities both in B2C and in B2B. Answer: C

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 73

AACSB: Reflective thinking skills 54.

One of the major benefits of e-markets is the improvement in supply chains with the creation of a(n) _____________________. a. b. c. d.

hub-based chain customized chain support chain logistics chain

Answer: A AACSB:

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 76


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-electronic-commerce-2008-5th-edition-turban

55.

______________ provides customers with exactly what they want, when and where they want it. Effective communication between the supply chain and the factory floor is needed to make it happen

a. b. c. d.

Virtual manufacturing Demand-driven manufacturing Build-to-order manufacturing Real-time manufacturing

Answer: B

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 78

AACSB:

Fill In the Blanks 56.

An e-marketplace is a virtual marketplace in which sellers and buyers meet and conduct different types of transactions. Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 44

AACSB: 57.

A marketspace is a marketplace in which sellers and buyers exchange goods and services for money or for other goods and services, but do so electronically. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 45

AACSB: 58.

All the activities that are related to order aggregation and fulfillment, inventory management, purchasing from suppliers, accounting and finance, insurance, payment processing, packaging, and delivery are done in what is termed the back end of the business. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 45

AACSB: 59.

In marketing, an intermediary is typically a third party that operates between sellers and buyers. Difficulty: Easy AACSB:

Page Reference: 45


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E-Marketplaces: Structure, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts

60.

The front end is the portion of an e-seller’s business processes through which customers interact, including the seller’s portal, electronic catalogs, a shopping cart, a search engine, and a payment gateway. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 45

AACSB: 61.

An electronic or Web storefront refers to a single company’s Web site where products and services are sold. Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 47

AACSB: 62.

To attract users to shopping malls, vendors use rich media called virtual reality to relate the content via digital representation to potential buyers. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 47

AACSB: 63.

Private e-marketplaces are online markets owned and operated by a single company. Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 48

AACSB: 64.

An information portal is a single point of access through a Web browser to critical business information located inside and outside of an organization. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 49

AACSB: 65.

Commercial (public) portals are portals that offer fairly routine content for broad audiences and are the most popular portals on the Internet; e.g., yahoo.com, aol.com, and msn.com. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 49

AACSB: 66.

E-marketplaces, especially for B2B and mega B2C such as Amazon.com may be plagued by information overload. Difficulty: Medium AACSB:

Page Reference:50


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-electronic-commerce-2008-5th-edition-turban

67.

In cyberspace, there are intermediaries that provide and/or control information flow. These electronic intermediaries are known as infomediaries. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 51, 52

AACSB: 68.

A broker is a company that facilitates transactions between buyers and sellers. Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 51

AACSB: 69.

A special type of intermediary in e-commerce is the B2B e-distributor which connect manufacturers with business buyers, such as retailers or resellers in the computer industry. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 53

AACSB: 70.

Disintermediation is the elimination of intermediaries between sellers and buyers. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 53

AACSB: 71.

A search engine is a computer program that can access databases of Internet resources, search for specific information or keywords, and report the results. Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 57

AACSB: 72.

An electronic shopping cart is an order-processing technology that allows customers to accumulate items they wish to buy while they continue to shop. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 59

AACSB: 73.

Dynamic pricing refers to prices that are not fixed, but that are allowed to fluctuate as supply and demand in a market change. Difficulty: Easy AACSB:

Page Reference: 60


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E-Marketplaces: Structure, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts

74.

Priceline.com pioneered the name-your-own-price model. In this C2B model, a potential buyer specifies the price or other terms that he or she is willing to pay to any willing and able seller. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 61

AACSB: 75.

Mobile commerce refers to the conduct of e-commerce via wireless devices or from portable devices. Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 64

AACSB: 76.

Location-based commerce is an m-commerce application targeted to a customer whose preferences and needs and location (e.g., using GPS) are known in real time. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 65

AACSB: 77.

Because of these interrelationships, the business model of the Internet economy has been called the Internet ecosystem. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 67

AACSB: 78.

Differentiation involves providing a product or service that is unique and not available elsewhere. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 68

AACSB: 79.

The competitive forces model is a model devised by Porter that says that five major forces of competition determine industry structure and how economic value is divided among the industry players in an industry; analysis of these forces helps companies develop their competitive strategy. Difficulty: Medium AACSB:

Page Reference: 69


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-electronic-commerce-2008-5th-edition-turban

80.

E-learning systems offer two-way video, on-the-fly interaction, and application sharing. Such systems provide for interactive remote instruction systems, which link sites over a highspeed intranet. Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 79

AACSB:

Essay Questions 81.

Briefly describe how electronic marketplaces have changed the processes used in trading and supply chains. Greater information richness of the transactional and relational environment. Lower information search costs for buyers. Diminished information asymmetry between sellers and buyers. Greater temporal separation between time of purchase and time of possession of physical products purchased in the e-marketplace. Greater temporal proximity between time of purchase and time of possession of digital products purchased in the e-marketplace. The ability of buyers and sellers to be in different locations.

Difficulty: Hard 82.

Page Reference: 44

What are information portals? List and identify 3 major types of portals. An information portal is a single point of access through a Web browser to critical business information located inside and outside of an organization. Many information portals can be personalized for the users. Commercial (public) portals. These portals offer content for diverse communities and are the most popular portals on the Internet. Although they can be customized by the user, they are still intended for broad audiences and offer fairly routine content, some in real time Corporate portals. Corporate portals provide organized access to rich content within relatively narrow corporate and partners’ communities. Publishing portals. These portals are intended for communities with specific interests. These portals involve relatively little customization of content, but they provide extensive online search features and some interactive capabilities. Mobile portals are portals that are accessible from mobile devices Knowledge portals. Knowledge portals enable access to knowledge by knowledge workers and facilitate collaboration.

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 49


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E-Marketplaces: Structure, Mechanisms, Economics, and Impacts

83.

Identify and briefly discuss the roles and value of intermediaries in e-marketplaces. Intermediaries (brokers) play an important role in commerce by providing value-added activities and services to buyers and sellers. Web sites that gather and organize large amounts of data and act as intermediaries between those who want the information and those who supply the information are one type of infomediary. One type offers consumers a place to gather information about specific products and companies before they make purchasing decisions. It is a third-party provider of unbiased information; it does not promote or try to sell specific products in preference over other products or act on behalf of any vendors There are many types of intermediaries. In cyberspace, there are intermediaries that provide and/or control information flow. These electronic intermediaries are known as infomediaries. The information flows to and from buyers and sellers via infomediaries. Frequently, intermediaries aggregate information and sell it to others. Online intermediaries are companies that facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers and receive a percentage of the transaction’s value.

Difficulty: Medium 84.

Page Reference: 51

List and briefly discuss three reasons why EC competition is extremely intense. Lower search costs for buyers. E-markets reduce the cost of searching for product information (e.g., sellers, models, prices, etc.), frequently to zero. This can significantly impact competition, enabling customers to find cheaper (or better) products and forcing sellers, in turn, to reduce prices and/or improve customer service. Sellers that provide information to buyers can exploit the Internet to gain a considerably larger market share. Speedy comparisons. Not only can customers find inexpensive products online, but they also can find them quickly. For example, a customer does not have to go to several bookstores to find the best price for a particular book. Lower prices. Companies can offer low prices due to their low costs of operation (no physical facilities, minimum inventories, etc.). Customer service. Such service is an extremely important competitive factor. Barriers to entry are reduced. Setting up a Web site is relatively easy and inexpensive, and doing so reduces the need for a sales force and brick-and-mortar stores. Virtual partnerships multiply. With access to a Web of expertise and the ability to share production and sales information easily, the ability of a firm to create a virtual team to exploit an EC opportunity increases dramatically. The Internet reducing interaction costs, the time and money expended when people and companies exchange goods, services, and idea.

Difficulty: Easy

Page Reference: 68


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-electronic-commerce-2008-5th-edition-turban

85.

List and discuss four impacts of e-marketplaces on B2C direct marketing: Product promotion. The existence of e-marketplaces has increased the promotion of products and services through direct marketing. New sales channel. Because of the direct reach to customers and the bidirectional nature of communications in EC, a new distribution channel for existing products has been created. Direct savings. The cost of delivering information to customers over the Internet results in substantial savings to senders of messages. Major savings are realized in delivering digitized products such as music and software rather than physical ones. Reduced cycle time. The delivery time of digitized products and services can be reduced to seconds. Cycle time can be reduced through improvements along the supply chain by using RFID. Improved customer service. Customer service can be greatly enhanced by enabling customers to find detailed information online. Brand or corporate image. On the Web, newcomers can establish corporate images very quickly. A good corporate image facilitates trust, which is necessary for direct sales. Customization. EC enables customization of products and services.. If done properly, a company can achieve mass customization that provides a competitive advantage and increases the overall demand for certain products and services. Advertising. Direct advertising creates a fundamental change in the manner in which advertising is conducted, not only for online transactions but also for products and services that are ordered and shipped in traditional ways.

Accessibility. The ability to access a market anytime from any place, especially with wireless devices, enhances direct e-marketing.

Difficulty: Medium

Page Reference: 73

Test bank electronic commerce 2008 5th edition turban  

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