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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1 Which manufactured products contain minerals or elements extracted from mineral resources? 1) _______ A) aluminum beverage cans B) baby powder C) "pencil lead" D) copper electrical wiring E) all of the above 2 Which geologic processes depend on the physical or chemical properties and response of minerals to environmental conditions and forces? 2) _______ A) melting, crystallization, and volcanism B) erosion and sediment transport C) mantle convection, plate tectonic motions, and mountain building D) crustal deformation, earthquakes, and faulting E) all of the above

Which of the following best defines a mineral and a rock?

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3) _______ A) A rock has an orderly, repetitive, geometric, internal arrangement of minerals; a mineral is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of rocks. B) A mineral consists of its constituent atoms arranged in a geometrically repetitive structure; in a rock, the atoms are randomly bonded without any geometric pattern. C) A rock consists of atoms bonded in a regular, geometrically predictable arrangement; a mineral is a consolidated


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aggregate of different rock particles. D) In a mineral the constituent atoms are bonded in a regular, repetitive, internal structure; a rock is a lithified or consolidated aggregate of minerals.

Which is not a requirement? To be a mineral it must be or have ________.

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4) _______ A) inorganic solid substance B) orderly regular atomic or ionic structure C) well formed external crystal shapes D) naturally occurring E) definite chemical composition

Minerals consist of an ordered array of atoms or ions that are ________.

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5) _______ A) chemically bonded in a regular crystalline structure B) all the same size and charge C) physically attached to each other by shared protons D) always backed together in cubes or octahedra

Which one of the following is not true for minerals? 6) _______ A) They have a specific, internal, crystalline structure. B) They can be identified by characteristic physical properties. C) They have a specific, predictable chemical composition. D) They can be a liquid, solid, or glass.

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Opal is not a mineral because it has variable amounts of water in the silica and ________.

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7) _______ A) it is found in a variety of different rock types and geologic environments B) it lacks an orderly internal structure C) it is not always the same colour D) it is not stable and often fractures

Which of the following rock types are not comprised mostly of minerals.

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8) _______ A) coal, obsidian, and pumice B) limestone and rock salt C) sandstone and conglomerate D) granite and basalt 9 While there are 92 naturally occurring elements, these combine in various proportions and structures to make nearly ________ minerals. 9) _______ A) 40,000 B) 4,000 C)


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400,000 D) 400

Which of the following is not a fundamental particle found in atoms?

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10) ______ A) electron B) selectron C) neutron D) protons

Which of the following denotes the tiny, but very massive, central part of an atom?

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11) ______ A) valence shell B) core mass C) nucleus D) inner shell

Which of the following denotes the massive, positively charged, nuclear particles?

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12) ______ A) isotrons B) protons C) electrons D) neutrons

What, basic, atomic particles occupy space in an atom outside of the nucleus?

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13) ______ A) neutrons B) electrons C) protons D) morons

What are the lightest or least massive of the basic atomic particles?

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14) ______ A) uranium nuclei B) neutrons


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C) electrons D) protons

Atoms of the same element, carbon for example, always have the same ________.

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15) ______ A) atomic weight B) number of electrons in the valence bond level C) number of protons in the nucleus D) number of electrons in the nucleus E) number of neutrons in its chemical bonds

In a neutral atom such as helium or native copper, the number of protons in the nucleus ________.

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16) ______ A) increases from element to element by even multiples of 8 B) is usually greater than the number of neutrons C) is different for each isotope D) is equal to the number of electrons in the outer shells

Which element is the first and lightest element in the periodic chart?

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17) ______ A) oxygen B)


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sodium C) hydrogen D) helium

The electrons in the outermost shell of an element are referred to as ________.

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18) ______ A) valence electrons B) outies C) positrons D) aberrant electrons E) non-bonding electrons 1 When two or more elements combine to form a mineral they do so in definite proportions represented by a simple chemical formula for that ________. 19) ______ A) isomer B) polymorph C) isotope D) compound 2


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Generally ions end up with the stable, noble-gas, configuration having ________ electrons in their outermost shell. 20) ______ A) two B) eight C) no D) twelve

What is the name given to an atom that gains or loses electrons in a chemical reaction?

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21) ______ A) ion B) nucleon C) isotope D) molecule 2 ________ compounds have strong electrostatic bonds and achieve their electrical neutrality by combining opposite charges in fixed ratios. 22) ______ A) Metallic


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B) Covalent C) Polymorphic D) Ionic

Which of the following is an accurate description of ionic bonding?

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23) ______ A) Nuclei of bonding atoms exchange electrons; the resulting ions are bonded together by the attractive forces between the two electrons. B) Atoms of different elements, having gained or lost electrons, form bigger negative or smaller positive ions that are held together by their opposite charges. C) Nuclei of two different atoms share electrons, and the resulting compound is tightly bonded by the very strong, induced, ionic nuclear bonds. D) Atoms of two different elements share electrons and protons; the resulting compound is bonded together by the strong, binding energy of shared protons.

The three types of bonding that form the main structures in minerals are ________.

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24) ______ A) single, double, and triple B) electrical, magnetic, and gravitational C) stable, radioactive, and unstable D) covalent, ionic, and metallic 2


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In ionic compounds, ________ have lost one or more electrons to acquire positive charge and a smaller radius than their neutral atom, while ________ have gained one or more electrons to acquire a negative charge and a larger radius than their neutral atom. 25) ______ A) stable isotopes, unstable isotopes B) cations, anions C) anions, cations D) daughter isotopes, parent isotopes

In which type of chemical bonding are electrons shared between adjacent atoms?

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26) ______ A) covalent B) subatomic C) ionic D) isotopic

How do the electrons behave in a mineral with metallic bonding? 27) ______ A) They are tightly bound to certain atoms and cannot readily move. B) They can move relatively easily from atom to atom inside the mineral.

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C) They move to adjacent negative ions, forming positive ions. D) They react with protons to make neutrons in the outer valence shells.

Which of the following is correct for isotopes of the same element?

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28) ______ A) The atoms have different numbers of neutrons and the same number of protons. B) The atoms have the same number of electrons and different numbers of protons. C) The atoms have different numbers of protons and the same number of neutrons. D) The atoms have different numbers of electrons but the same number of neutrons.

An atom's mass number is 13 and its atomic number is 6. How many neutrons are in its nucleus?

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29) ______ A) 6 B) 13 C) 19 D) 7

Natural carbon consists of three isotopes: 12, 13 and 14.. Why is its atomic weight 12.011 g/mol? 30) ______ A) 12 Only the C is stable and the heavier forms decay because they are radioactive. B) 12.011 is the true weight and 12 is just rounded off.

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C) There are impurities of some heavier elements. D) There is very little of the two heavy carbon isotopes and most atoms are still 12C. 3 Some elements are radioactive and their unstable ________ spontaneously decay at a fixed rate to give off ________ and sometimes other subatomic particles, providing the basis for dating geologic materials and events. 31) ______ A) ions, heat B) electrons, positive charges C) polymorphs, chronitons D) nuclei, electromagnetic energy (X-rays or higher) 3 When elements or compounds combine in the same proportions but in more than one structural arrangement, relative to each other, those mineral structures are called ________. 32) ______ A) bimorphs B) amorphous C) isotopes D) polymorphs

Minerals like diamond and graphite exist because of ________. 33) ______ A) the law of polymorphism

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B) the metamorphism of coal C) different physical and chemical conditions or environments within the earth D) amorphous crystallization

A transition from one mineral structure to another is called a ________.

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34) ______ A) geomorphology B) crystallization C) sublimation D) phase change

The internal crystalline structure of minerals determines ________.

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35) ______ A) external crystal forms or faces B) hardness C) density D) cleavage or fracture E) all of the above

Which of the following describes the light reflecting characteristics of a mineral? 36) ______ A) lustre

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B) fluorescence C) virtual absorption D) streak

The quality of light reflected from a mineral surface is called ________.

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37) ______ A) translucency B) lustre C) reflectance D) polish

The true colour of a mineral as seen in its powdered form is called it's ________.

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38) ______ A) streak B) birefringence C) iridescence D)


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chatoyancy 3 A mineral's hardness is determined by the number and the strength of chemical bonds, but how is it actually determined?

39) ______ A) By whether or not it cleaves. B) By weighing it on a Mohs scale. C) By its resistance to scratching or abrasion by other materials of known hardness. D) By looking at its streak.

What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature?

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40) ______ A) diamond B) silicate C) native gold D) muscovite

Which minerals that make up the Mohs scale are harder than a glass plate? 41) ______ A) beryl, garnet, tourmaline B) feldspar, quartz, topaz, corundum, diamond C) calcite, fluorite, apatite

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D) gypsum and talc

Which minerals that make up the Mohs scale are softer than your fingernail?

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42) ______ A) feldspar, quartz, topaz, corundum, diamond B) beryl, garnet, tourmaline C) gypsum and talc D) calcite, fluorite, apatite

Which minerals that make up the Mohs scale are softer than a glass plate but harder than your fingernail?

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43) ______ A) gypsum and talc B) feldspar, quartz, topaz, corundum, diamond C) beryl, garnet, tourmaline D) calcite, fluorite, apatite

Which one of the following minerals has the greatest hardness on the Mohs hardness scale?

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44) ______ A) calcite B) topaz C) gypsum D)


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feldspar

The property of ________ is controlled by planes of few or weak bonds within the mineral structure.

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45) ______ A) well formed crystal faces B) bondage C) cleavage D) absorbency

The strong tendency of certain minerals to break along smooth, parallel planes is known as ________.

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46) ______ A) crystal form B) streak C) flat busted D) cleavage

Which one of the following describes a mineral's response to mechanical impact? 47) ______ A) lustre

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B) cleavage C) crystal form D) streak 4 Cleavage is determined by ________ and ________ well formed planes of weakness in a stressed mineral structure 48) ______ A) the iridescence, shape of B) the twinning, separation of C) the hardness, thickness of D) the number, angles between

The tendency for a mineral like quartz to break in a smoothly curved manner is termed ________.

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49) ______ A) spherical cleavage B) conchoidal fracture C) elliptical breakage D) anomalous cleavage


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50) ________ is the ratio of a mass of mineral to a volume of water of equal weight. 50) ______ A) Specific gravity B) Wet weight C) Absolute mass D) Characteristic volume

Minerals like native gold or galena have high specific gravities because ________.

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51) ______ A) they both lack any cleavage B) they contain heavy elements and have tight packing C) both are very strong and hard D) they are too dense for any water or air to fit into their structures 5 A cubic centimetre of quartz, olivine, and gold weigh 2.5, 3.0, and 19.8 grams respectively. This indicates that ________. 52) ______ A) olivine and quartz powders are harder than metallic gold B) gold is six to seven times harder than olivine and quartz C) gold and olivine are silicates, quartz is elemental silicon D) gold has a higher specific gravity than quartz and olivine

Which of the following has the highest specific gravity?

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53) ______ A) wood B) quartz C) water D) gold

Which mineral is easily soluble in water at room temperature conditions?

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54) ______ A) halite B) olivine C) diamond D) talc 5 Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool, dilute hydrochloric acid to produce visible bubbles of carbon dioxide gas? 55) ______ A) quartz B)


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calcite C) plagioclase D) dolomite

Which of the following will react readily with acids such as hydrochloric?

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56) ______ A) quartz B) calcite C) talc D) diamond

What element is the most abundant in the Earth's crust by weight?

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57) ______ A) sodium B) carbon C) oxygen D)


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chlorine

The eight most abundant elements in the Earth's crust by weight are: ________.

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58) ______ A) Pb, Mo, Ag, Pt, Au, Ni, Cr, Zr B) C, K, N, P, S, Sc, Ti,V C) O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg D) Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, F, H, Li, U

Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earth's crust?

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59) ______ A) silicates B) sulphides C) carbonates D) chlorides

All silicate minerals contain which two elements? 60) ______ A) iron, silicon

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B) silicon, oxygen C) silicon, sodium D) oxygen, carbon

Chrysotile, crocidolite, and amosite are different mineralogic forms of what industrial commodity?

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61) ______ A) metallic sulphide ores B) Portland cement C) gemstones D) asbestos

Which of the following diseases has been linked directly to prolonged inhalation of asbestos dust?

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62) ______ A) muscular dystrophy B) lung cancer C) glaucoma D) diabetes 6


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The ion at the centre of a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron is surrounded by ________. 63) ______ A) 4 sodium ions B) 6 oxygen ions C) 6 sodium ions D) 4 oxygen ions

Which response describes the geometric attributes of a tetrahedron?

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64) ______ A) 6 plane faces, each a rectangle, 4 edges, and 8 corners B) 4 plane faces, each an equilateral triangle, 6 edges, and 4 corners C) 8 plane faces, each an equilateral triangle, 12 edges, and 6 corners D) 6 plane faces, each a square, 12 edges, and 8 corners

Which group of silicates has the most sharing of corner oxygen atoms? 65) ______ A) sheet like mica B) framework like feldspar C) nesosilicates (single tetrahedra) like olivine D) single chain like pyroxene E) double chain like amphibole

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Aluminum ions have what charge in most rock-forming minerals?

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66) ______ A) 2+ B) 4+ C) 3+ D) 4-

Which element forms the strongest bonds with oxygen, based on its size and charge?

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67) ______ A) aluminum B) calcium C) potassium D) iron E) silicon 6 + +2 Which common group of rock forming minerals has simultaneous double substitution of Na for Ca and Si+4 for Al+3 in its structure and chemical formula?


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68) ______ A) carbonates B) plagioclase feldspars C) micas D) pyroxenes

In feldspars, what element can be thought of as substituting for silicon in the tetrahedral ionic sites?

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69) ______ A) carbon B) potassium C) aluminum D) sodium

Plagioclase feldspars contain significant, variable percentages of which elements?

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70) ______ A) calcium and magnesium B) sodium and sulphur C) iron and magnesium


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D) sodium and calcium

Which of the following minerals are silicates?

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71) ______ A) anhydrite, gypsum, and barite B) halite, fluorite, and sylvite C) hematite, magnetite, and corundum D) calcite, aragonite, and dolomite E) muscovite, hornblende, and plagioclase

Which common rock forming minerals exhibit cleavage planes at nearly 90°?

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72) ______ A) amphiboles like hornblende B) feldspars like plagioclase and orthoclase C) pyroxenes like augite D) micas like muscovite and biotite E) both B and C are correct

Which common rock forming minerals exhibit cleavage planes at nearly 60° /120°?

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73) ______ A) feldspars like plagioclase and orthoclase B) micas like muscovite and biotite


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C) amphiboles like hornblende D) pyroxenes like augite

Which of the following is a single-chain, ferromagnesian silicate mineral?

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74) ______ A) mica B) clay C) pyroxene D) olivine

Hornblende and the other amphiboles have what type of silicate structure?

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75) ______ A) metallic B) 3-D framework C) double chains D) sheet

Which common rock forming minerals exhibit a perfect single basal cleavage? 76)

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______ A) amphiboles like hornblende B) feldspars like plagioclase and orthoclase C) micas like muscovite and biotite D) pyroxenes like augite

Which of the following best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates?

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77) ______ A) They are dark and have a Mohs hardness greater than 7. B) They contain magnetite and ferroite and crystallize early in Bowen's reaction series. C) They contain iron and magnetite, are black in colour, and they have metallic lustres. D) They are mostly dark, heavy, and rich in the elements manganese and ferron. E) They are high temperature black to dark-green minerals containing iron and magnesium and they readily alter by chemical weathering.

All ferromagnesian minerals contain which two elements?

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78) ______ A) iron, magnesium B) calcium, sodium C) iron, potassium D) chlorine, silicon


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Ferromagnesian minerals generally exhibit which of the following properties?

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79) ______ A) dark colour, specific gravity higher than quartz B) one perfect cleavage, colourless C) nonmetallic lustre, light colour D) a light colour, metallic lustre

Which of the following minerals is a ferromagnesian silicate?

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80) ______ A) quartz B) muscovite C) orthoclase D) hornblende

Hornblende and the other amphiboles have what type of silicate structure?

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81) ______ A) sheet B) metallic C) 3-D framework


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D) double chains

What is the name of dark-coloured mica?

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82) ______ A) quartz B) olivine C) biotite D) calcite 8 Garnet, a common hard metamorphic mineral used for abrasives, has an internal crystal structure most similar to which other silicate mineral? 83) ______ A) biotite B) olivine C) plagioclase feldspar D) augite

Which one of the following is a sodium and calcium feldspar with twinning striations? 84)

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______ A) orthoclase B) sanidine C) plagioclase D) microcline 8 Small, parallel grooves (twinning striations) are visible on cleavage surfaces and characteristic of which mineral? 85) ______ A) plagioclase feldspar B) olivine C) quartz D) hornblende 8 The only sure way to identify a plagioclase feldspar from a potassium feldspar on large enough specimen to see with the naked eye is to ________. 86) ______ A) compare their colours, plagioclase is always darker B) measure their exact cleavage angles, plagioclases have 120° C) find multiple parallel twinning striations on the perfect cleavage face D) find wormy exsolution lamellae going obliquely across the cleavages


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87) Which mineral is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO 2)? 87) ______ A) calcite B) olivine C) quartz D) diamond

Why doesn't quartz have any cleavages, only fractures?

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88) ______ A) All of the metallic cations form strong webs between the silicate chains. B) All oxygens are shared between strongly bonded silicons in a 3-D framework. C) It has strong helical chains in three perpendicular directions. D) It is made of pure silicon which is very strong.

Which of the following minerals is a silicate?

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89) ______ A) hematite B) halite C)


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calcite D) muscovite

Which common silicate mineral was used as window glass in the Middle Ages?

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90) ______ A) quartz B) halite C) muscovite D) calcite

Which of the following minerals is in the mineral group known as mica?

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91) ______ A) olivine B) orthoclase C) augite D) muscovite

Which of the following is not a rock-forming silicate mineral?

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92) ______ A) calcite B) orthoclase C) garnet D) quartz

Which of the following silicate minerals have 3-dimensional framework structures?

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93) ______ A) hornblende and olivine B) micas and gypsum C) quartz and halite D) feldspars and quartz

In silicate minerals, cleavages occur ________.

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94) ______ A) in random directions, unrelated to the silicate framework B) across the dominant silicate structures C) in between the dominant silicate structural units 9


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Which one of the following mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate structure? 95) ______ A) pyroxenes B) clays C) carbonates D) feldspars 9 Most ________ minerals are microscopic crystals of sheet silicates that form by the chemical weathering or hydrothermal alteration of feldspars, pyroxenes, amphiboles and micas. 96) ______ A) clay B) carbonate C) salt D) hydroxide

Which one of the following is a typical product of chemical weathering of other silicates? 97) ______ A) ferromagnesians

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B) clays C) micas D) feldspars

The principal ore of mercury is ________.

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98) ______ A) sylvite B) cinnabar C) anhydrite D) galena

The two main calcium sulphate minerals, anhydrite and gypsum are used to ________.

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99) ______ A) extract the metal Ca B) spread directly on soils as a fertilizer C) make plaster and wallboard D) make cement 1


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Which mineral is used to make drilling muds denser to prevent blowouts? 100) _____ A) pyrite B) halite C) barite D) galena

The main use for most diamond, corundum and garnet is ________.

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101) _____ A) industrial abrasives B) gemstones of the semiprecious variety C) semiconductors for the electronics industry D) fillers in industrial products like paint and pharmaceuticals

The main use of bauxite is ________. 102) _____ A) the ore of aluminum B) a food additive C) acid production for batteries D) a pigment for paints E) the ore of copper

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These non-silicate minerals are found predominantly in sedimentary rocks.

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103) _____ A) feldspar, fluorite, and malachite B) amphibole, clays, and quartz C) calcite, gypsum, and halite D) graphite, chromite, and ilmenite

The two main calcium sulphate minerals, anhydrite and gypsum are used to ________.

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104) _____ A) spread directly on soils as a fertilizer B) make plaster and wallboard C) make cement D) extract the metal Ca

Ruby and sapphire are red and blue forms of the mineral ________.

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105) _____ A) diamond B) corundum


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C) turquoise D) emerald 1 The term precious gem is reserved for stones of the following types: ________, that are prized for their: rarity, beauty, durability and size. Everything else is considered semi-precious. 106) _____ A) diamonds, garnets, moonstones, onyx, and peridots B) diamonds, emeralds, rubies, sapphires, and fire opals C) alexandrite, cats-eye, jade, topaz, and zircon D) agates, alaska black diamonds, carborundum, chrysoberyls, and spinels

Emeralds and aquamarines are gem quality single crystals of the more ordinary mineral ________.

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107) _____ A) augite B) epidote C) olivine D) beryl

Amethyst, chalcedony, and citrine are gem varieties of this common mineral. 108)

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_____ A) quartz B) topaz C) alexandrite D) corundum TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. Rocks are aggregates of one or more minerals.

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109) _____

Coal is a rock formed mostly from fine grained carbon minerals.

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110) _____

All atoms of the same element have the same atomic number.

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111) _____

Electrically neutral atoms have equal numbers of electrons and protons.

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112) _____

Most of the elements in the periodic table are metals. 113) _____

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114) Positive ions are atoms that have gained electrons during a chemical reaction. 114) _____

Isotopes of the same element have the same mass number.

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115) _____

In the compound sodium chloride, the negative ions are chlorine.

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116) _____

Graphite and diamond have the same chemical composition and different crystalline structures.

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117) _____

Diamond and quartz are both minerals composed of a single element.

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118) _____

Graphite is used as a natural abrasive.

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119) _____

Mineral lustre is broadly classified as either metallic or opaque.

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120) _____

Colour is one of the most diagnostic properties of minerals.

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121) _____

Diamond is the hardest mineral; calcite is the softest known mineral.

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122) _____

Rock-forming silicate minerals have higher specific gravities than water.

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123) _____ 1 Micas like muscovite and biotite have flexible cleavage flakes that will bend, and when the strain is taken off they relax back to their original position and shape. 124) _____

Pyrrhotite (iron monosulfide) is the only mineral to exhibit natural magnetism.

1

125) _____ 1 When treated with hydrochloric acid, powdered carbonate minerals release bubbles as a fizz of odorless carbon dioxide but sulphide minerals like pyrite release hydrogen sulphide (stinky rotten egg gas). 126) _____

Optically transparent calcite exhibits the special property of "double refraction".

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127) _____

In a silicon-oxygen structural unit, silicon atoms occupy corners of a tetrahedron. 128)

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_____

Oxygen ions are larger in size than silicon ions.

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129) _____ 1 As silicate tetrahedra link together in larger units, more oxygens are shared and the size of the negative charge per silicon decreases. 130) _____ 1 -2 Compared to the 1.4 angstrom size of the oxide (O ) anion, most common metallic cations are double to triple that size. 131) _____

Ferromagnesian silicate minerals contain some magnesium and/or iron.

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132) _____

The micas, biotite and muscovite, both exhibit one direction of cleavage.

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133) _____

Orthoclase and plagioclase feldspars have quite different forms of cleavage.

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134) _____

Nonmetallic minerals like quartz and gypsum have no industrial uses. 135) _____

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1

Calcite and dolomite are both carbonate minerals. 136) _____

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Calcite and halite react with dilute acids to evolve carbon dioxide. 137) _____

1 Trace impurities of chromium make corundum into ruby, while traces of titanium and iron make it into a sapphire. 138) _____ SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 1 Rocks are aggregates of one or more what? 139) ____________

What major characteristic differentiates minerals from natural glasses?

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140) ____________ 1 What is the smallest particle of matter that exhibits and defines the distinctive chemical characteristics of the individual elements? 141) ____________

The massive but tiny central core region of an atom is called the what? 142) ____________

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143) In atoms, which electrons are involved in chemical bonding? 143) ____________

A compound is a stable chemical substance composed of two or more what?

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144) ____________ 1 Diamonds are hard because all carbon atoms are held together by equally strong ________ bonds arranged in a face centred cubic structure. 145) ____________ 1 What is the dominant form of chemical bonding exhibited by minerals such as native gold, native copper and copper-rich sulphides? 146) ____________

Graphite has (weak, strong) bonds within its layers but (weak, strong) bonds between its layers.

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147) ____________

What is the chemical composition of graphite and diamond?

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148) ____________

What physical property denotes the colour of a powdered mineral?

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149) ____________ 1


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The Mohs scale is a relative measure of which physical property of minerals? 150) ____________ 1 The physical property denoting a mineral's tendency to crack along parallel, planar surfaces is known as what? 151) ____________

What is the hardest mineral known?

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152) ____________ 1 Most glasses and some minerals exhibit a type of fracture characterized by nested and curved, crack surfaces. What term describes this property? 153) ____________ 1 What are the two most abundant elements, which by themselves account for approximately 75% by weight of the Earth's crust? 154) ____________

What ferromagnesian silicate mineral is named for its green colour?

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155) ____________ 1 Parallel, straight, linear imperfections visible on the cleavage surfaces of plagioclase feldspar are called what? 156) ____________ 1 What mineral group forms by the breakdown and weathering of rock-forming silicate minerals and are important


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constituents of soils? 157) ____________ Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option which does not fit the pattern.

A) electron

B) atom

C) proton

D) neutron

B) streak

C) lustre

D) cleavage

B) olivine

C) feldspar

D) calcite

B) quartz

C) amphibole

D) pyroxene

B) calcite

C) gypsum

D) halite

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158) ____________

A) hardness

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159) ____________

A) quartz

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160) ____________

A) olivine

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161) ____________

A) galena

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162) ____________ ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in Chapter 2 to answer the question(s) below. 163) Overall, the physical properties of minerals provide a reliable means to identify common minerals. However, certain properties can exhibit a range of characteristics or values making them less useful for identification purposes. Choose three physical properties that might vary considerably between samples of the same mineral and explain why such variability would exist.


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164) Based on the brief discussion of chemistry and chemical bonding in Chapter 2, why do minerals rarely exhibit pure chemical compositions (100% always the same chemical composition)? 165) Considering the composition and structure of Earth discussed in Chapter 1, do you think all of the possible silicate (and even mineral) structures have been identified by scientists? Discuss why or why not. Also, does this same reasoning apply to all possible chemical elements of Earth? SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 1 Label the various parts of an atom in the diagram below.

166) ____________

What type of chemical bonding is shown in the diagram below?

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a) covalent b) ionic c) metallic d) hybrid 167) ____________

For each illustration below, note the number of cleavage directions.

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a) 168)

b)

c)

____________

Fill in the table below on silicate minerals.

169) ____________

1)

E 2) E 3) D 4) C 5) A 6) D 7) B 8)

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A 9) B 10) B 11) C 12) B 13) B 14) C 15) C 16) D 17) C 18) A 19) D 20) B 21) A 22) D 23) B 24) D 25) B 26) A 27) B 28) A 29) D 30) D 31) D 32) D 33) C


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34) D 35) E 36) A 37) B 38) A 39) C 40) A 41) B 42) C 43) D 44) B 45) C 46) D 47) B 48) D 49) B 50) A 51) B 52) D 53) D 54) A 55) B 56) B 57) C 58) C 59)


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A 60) B 61) D 62) B 63) D 64) B 65) B 66) C 67) E 68) B 69) C 70) D 71) E 72) E 73) C 74) C 75) C 76) C 77) E 78) A 79) A 80) D 81) D 82) C 83) B 84) C


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85) A 86) C 87) C 88) B 89) D 90) C 91) D 92) A 93) D 94) C 95) B 96) A 97) B 98) B 99) C 100) C 101) A 102) A 103) C 104) B 105) B 106) B 107) D 108) A 109) TRUE 110)


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FALSE 111) TRUE 112) TRUE 113) TRUE 114) FALSE 115) FALSE 116) TRUE 117) TRUE 118) FALSE 119) FALSE 120) FALSE 121) FALSE 122) FALSE 123) TRUE 124) TRUE 125) FALSE 126) TRUE 127) TRUE 128) FALSE 129) TRUE 130) TRUE 131) FALSE 132) TRUE 133) TRUE 134) FALSE 135) FALSE


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136) TRUE 137) FALSE 138) TRUE 139) minerals 140) internal arrangement of atoms 141) atom 142) nucleus 143) valence 144) elements 145) covalent 146) metallic 147) strong, weak 148) carbon 149) streak 150) hardness 151) cleavage 152) diamond 153) conchoidal 154) oxygen, silicon 155) olivine 156) striations 157) clays 158) atom 159) lustre 160) calcite 161)


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quartz 162) galena 163) 164) 165) 166) See figure 2.4A 167) b) ionic 168) a) 3 b) 3 c) 4 169) a) none b) slightly more than 3:1 c) pyroxene groupaugite d) slightly less than 3:1 e) amphibole grouphornblende f) two planes at 60 and 120 degrees


Test bank earth 2nd edition tarbuck