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CHAPTER 2 TEST BANK Multiple Choice 1. Murder, rape, robbery and assault are which of the following type of crime? a. white collar crime b. street crime * (30) c. torts d. misdemeanors 2. When the thirteen American colonies were settled by immigrants from Great Britain, which of the following (in addition to religious beliefs) were the earliest penal codes based on? a. tort law b. Ben Franklin’s memoirs c. English common law * (30) d. Native American law 3. After the American Revolution and the adoption of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, how were crimes conceptualized? a. as hostile acts directed against the authority of the government * (31) b. as acts that instilled public fear c. as acts that cost the new taxpayers money d. all of the above 4. After the American Revolution, addressing the suffering of individuals in criminal matters was: a. foundational to the nation’s system of justice. b. deemed to be less important than dealing with the symbolic threat to the social order posed by lawbreakers. * (31) c. required of the judge in every criminal case. d. addressed under civil law. 5. After the American Revolution, the powers and responsibilities formerly exercised by crime victims were taken over by whom? a. victim’s families b. the public at large c. public prosecutors * (31) d. public defense attorneys


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6. For much of America’s penal history, which of the following was not a primary goal? a. deterring crime through punishment b. rehabilitating transgressors through treatment c. protecting society by incapacitating dangerous persons in prisons or through executions d. ensuring the restoration of crime victims’ financial, emotional, and physical health * (31) 7. Which of the following difficulties is caused by the fact that victims often differ in terms of their age, sex, race, social class, political orientation, and many other important characteristics? a. It is difficult to get some victims to understand how to protect themselves. b. It is difficult to organize victims into a political force. * (32) c. It is difficult to get victims to testify in court. d. It is difficult to get them to file claims for restitution. 8. Which of the following was an outcome of the law-and-order movement? a. It raised concerns about the plight of victims of street crimes of violence and theft. * (32) b. It raised the concern of the public about the amount of tax dollars that were being spent on law enforcement. c. It raised concerns about the Constitutional rights of offenders. d. It raised concerns that offenders were afraid to have victims in the courtroom during trial. 9. The ongoing struggle by victimized groups for respect and support from the general public is often referred to as which of the following? a. attention contests b. victimization contests c. stigma contests * (39) d. ranking contests 10. Who typically begins the rediscovery process by bringing attention to a particular problem? a. courts and judges b. police agencies c. visitors from other countries d. activists * (40)


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11. “Stephanie’s Law” made it a felony to: a. secretly videotape someone where there is an expectation of privacy. * (36) b. work among children if you have a record of violent crime. c. possess or create drawings or cartoons that depict crime against children. d. fail to disclose your status as a registered sex offender when applying for a job. 12. How many stages does the sequential model proposed in the text for examining the development of victim’s movements have? a. one stage b. two stages c. three stages d. four stages * (39-43) 13. Which stage in the sequential model of rediscovering victims involves the process of typification of victim categories and identifying classic cases? a. Stage 1 * (40) b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 d. Stage 4 14. Which stage of the sequential process of rediscovering victims involves the emergence of an opposition and development of resistance to further change? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 * (42) d. Stage 4 15. Which group is identified as a classic example of a Stage 2 success in the rediscovery process? a. Parents of Murdered Children b. MADD * (41) c. National Coalition Against Domestic Violence d. SADD 16. The most common argument made by opponents in Stage 3 of the rediscovery process is which of the following? a. We have not gone far enough in protecting victims. b. We have gone too far in protecting victims. * (42) c. Victims are not defined correctly. d. The Victims’ Movement has been exaggerated by advocate groups.


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17. Which of the following groups has been instrumental in helping to “rediscover” victims? a. business b. media * (40-43) c. police d. legislature 18. What is one negative effect of the attention victims receive from business? a. businesses tap an underserved population b. businesses may over-protect victims c. commercial exploitation * (38) d. publicity often worsens a problem 19. Stage 3 of the victim rediscovery process is marked by which of the following? a. the emergence of positive role models for victims b. a change in legislature c. the emergence of opposition to the victims movement * (42) d. the emergence of compromise by those involved 20. Victimologists can make their most valuable contributions during which of the following stages of the rediscovery process? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Stage 3 d. Stage 4 * (43) 21. Most of the cases of workplace violence across the country involve which of the following? a. theft, embezzlement and extortion b. vandalism, criminal mischief and gun violations c. robberies, assaults and harassment * (43) d. all of the above 22. Which of the following laws regulates background checks for employees? a. Lee-Anne’s Law b. Megan’s Law c. Kathy’s Law * (36) d. Jenna’s Law 23. Which of the following laws prohibits incarcerated fathers who killed their spouse from demanding visitation rights with their children? a. Lee-Anne’s Law * (36) b. Megan’s Law c. Kathy’s Law d. Jenna’s Law


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24. Which of the following laws mandates that community residents be notified of the arrival of formerly incarcerated sex offenders into their communities? a. Lee-Anne’s Law b. Megan’s Law * (35) c. Kathy’s Law d. Jenna’s Law 25. Which of the following laws requires convicts to serve lengthier sentences before becoming eligible for parole? a. Lee-Anne’s Law b. Megan’s Law c. Kathy’s Law d. Jenna’s Law * (35-36) True/False 1. Murder, rape, robbery, and assault are classified as street crimes. a. true * (30) b. false 2. When the thirteen American colonies were settled by immigrants from Great Britain, the earliest penal codes were based on Native American law. a. true b. false * (30) 3. After the American Revolution and the adoption of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, crimes were re-conceptualized as hostile acts directed against the authority of the government. a. true * (31) b. false 4. After the American Revolution, addressing the suffering of individuals in criminal matters was deemed to be less important than dealing with the symbolic threat to the social order posed by lawbreakers. a. true * (31) b. false 5. After the American Revolution, the powers and responsibilities formerly exercised by crime victims were taken over by public prosecutors. a. true * (31) b. false 6. Victims’ demands to be restored to financial, emotional, and physical health were eventually overshadowed by the goals of deterring crime through punishment and protecting society by incapacitating dangerous persons in prisons or through execution. a. true * (31) b. false


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7. One outcome of the law-and-order movement was that it raised concerns that offenders were being mistreated by police. a. true b. false * (32) 8. Competition between victimized groups for respect and support from the general public is known as stigma contests. a. true * (39) b. false 9. Moral entrepreneurs are those who lead campaigns to bring attention and win support for a particular victim-related cause. a. true * (40) b. false 10. The sequential model proposed in the text for examining the development of a victim’s movements is comprised of six stages. a. true b. false * (40-43) 11. In the sequential model of rediscovering victims, Stage 1 involves the process of typification for the category of victims by identifying classic cases. a. true * (40) b. false 12. In Stage 3 of the sequential process of rediscovering victims, an opposition and development of resistance to further change emerges. a. true * (42) b. false 13. MADD is a classic example of a Stage 2 success in the rediscovery process. a. true * (41) b. false 14. The most common argument made by opponents in Stage 3 of the rediscovery process is that the so-called victims are merely trying to become famous. a. true b. false * (42) 15. In addition to victim’s rights groups, the media has served in helping to “rediscover” crime victims. a. true * (40-43) b. false 16. Commercial exploitation is a major drawback to the attention injured parties are paid by business. a. true * (38) b. false 17. Stage 3 of the rediscovery process is marked by the emergence of role models for crime victims. a. true b. false * (42) 18. Victimologists can make their most valuable contributions during Stage 3 of the rediscovery process. a. true b. false * (43)


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19. Most of the cases of workplace violence across the country involve theft, embezzlement and extortion. a. true b. false * (43) 20. Kathy’s Law deals with regulating background checks for employees. a. true * (36) b. false 21. Jenna’s Law deals with prohibiting incarcerated fathers who killed their spouse from demanding visitation rights with their children. a. true b. false * (35-36) 22. Megan’s Law mandates that community residents be notified of the arrival of formerly incarcerated sex offenders into their communities. a. true * (35) b. false 23. Jenna’s Law requires convicts to serve lengthier sentences before becoming eligible for parole. a. true * (35-36) b. false 24. Road rage only occurs when a motorist intentionally injures another motorist. a. true b. false * (44) 25. The Bureau of Justice Statistics maintains a database of all fatalities that occur while an individual is in custody. a. true * (46) b. false Essay Questions 1.

Discuss how the importance of victims and their role in the criminal justice system has changed over time. Source: Pages 31-35

2.

Discuss the rediscovery of crime victims during the 1950s and early 1960s. Be sure to include a discussion on the impact of the various social movements of the time period. Source: Pages 32-35

3.

During the 1980s, elected officials engaged in the political process of enacting new laws named after specific individuals. How/why did this practice arise? What was significant about the individuals for whom legislation was named? Provide examples. Source: Pages 35-36


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4.

Outline and discuss the role of the news media concerning the victim’s plight. Provide both negative and positive aspects. Source: Pages 36-38

5.

The process of rediscovery usually unfolds through a series of steps and stages. Outline and discuss the sequential model proposed in the text. Use another “rediscovered” group as an example. Source: Pages 39-43


Test bank crime victims 7th edition andrew karmen