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Judge and Langdon Connections: A World History Chapter 2: Early Societies of West Asia and North Africa, to 500 B.C.E. Lecture Outline I. Early West Asian Societies From its beginnings around 9000 B.C.E., farming spread in West Asia, leading to ever more complex societies that developed into towns. A. Early Mesopotamia: The City-States of Sumer 1. Emergence of towns and cities in Mesopotamia 2. Conflict and connections between Sumerian city-states 3. Sumerian religion and worldview; The Epic of Gilgamesh Read the document Excerpts from the Epic of Gilgamesh on 4. Commerce, innovation, and cuneiform B. Akkadian Connections and the Spread of Sumerian Culture 1. Sargon of Akkad 2. Conquest and the spread of culture C. Babylonian Society and Hammurabi’s Code Read the document Sumerian Law Code: The Code of Lipit-Ishtar on 1. Hammurabi’s law code View the image Hammurabi Receives His Law Code from the Gods on 2. Social regulation 3. Law and gender 4. Central control D. Indo-European Migrations 1. Language and culture 2. Migration routes E. The Hittite Connection Read the document Hittite Law Code: Excerpts from the Code of the Nesilim on 1. The Hittites 2. Hittite technology and innovations 3. Hittite government and policies Watch Video Lectures: Ironworks in Africa on F. Later Mesopotamia: Assyrians and Chaldeans 1. The Assyrians 2. Chaldean and Median conquest II. Early Northeast African Societies Between 10,000 and 5000 B.C.E., North Africa was covered by grasslands, and was home to herding and farming societies. From 5000 B.C.E., the grasslands retreated, and populations concentrated near the Nile River. Watch the video Geography and Civilization: Egypt and Mesopotamia–Impact of Agriculture? on A. Egyptian Culture and Society

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Full file at Watch the video Who Were the Ancient Egyptians? on 1. The Nile 2. Egypt and Mesopotamia compared 3. Religion and worldview Read the document Workings of Ma’at: “The Tale of the Eloquent Peasant” on View the image Scene from the Egyptian Afterlife on 4. Writing and other innovations 5. Egyptian society Read the document Papyrus of Ani, Egyptian Book of the Dead on B. The Kingdoms of Egypt 1. Three kingdoms, 31 dynasties 2. The Archaic Period 3. The Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdoms 4. The Egyptian empire C. Nubian Culture and the Kingdoms of Kush 1. Egypt and Nubia 2. The Kingdom of Kush D. The Kingdom and Culture of Meroë 1. Meroë in regional context III. West Asia and North Africa: The Phoenician Connection The Phoenicians were instrumental in making the Mediterranean a commercial region, aided by a common writing system. Read the document Mission to Byblos: The Report of Wenamun on A. The Phoenician Commercial Empire 1. The Phoenicians and the Mediterranean world 2. The Phoenician alphabet 3. Carthage IV. The Israelites and Their God The religion of the Hebrews was influential in the development of three major world religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. A. The Children of Israel Read the document Two Accounts of an Egyptian Famine (2600s B.C.E.) on 1. The Bible 2. The Israelites in Palestine B. The Kingdoms of Israel 1. The formation of the kingdom 2. Split into Judah and Israel 3. Dispersion and exile C. The God of Israel 1. The God of the Jews 2. Jewish monotheism

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Chapter Summary The civilizations of West Asia grew up around the settled agricultural communities of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Villages grew into towns. Towns grew into cities, the most influential of which were the city-states of Sumer. Through conflicts and connections, these city-states developed a unique Sumerian culture. Conquest by the Akkadians facilitated the consolidation and spread of that culture. Subsequent conquerors (including the Babylonians, the IndoEuropean Hittites, and the Assyrians) added their own cultural, political, and social contributions. Egyptian civilization was made possible by the Nile River. The towns and villages along the Nile coalesced into small kingdoms that were eventually organized into the Egyptian empire. Egyptian society seems to have been more stable than that of Mesopotamia and its worldview more optimistic. Egyptian life focused on family, farming, and the cycles of the Nile. The political history of ancient Egypt can be divided into major eras distinguished by three great “kingdoms,” with long periods of stability interrupted periodically by intermediate periods. South of Egypt, the Nubians created a number of important states, including the Kingdoms of Kush and Meroë. The commercial maritime empire of the Phoenicians connected West Asia with North Africa and the western Mediterranean. The Phoenician alphabet was a major contribution to written communication. One of the many commercial centers established by the Phoenicians – Carthage – came to dominate the Western Mediterranean. The Hebrews developed a monotheistic faith that would serve as the basis for some of the world’s most influential religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The Hebrews developed a vision of the divine that was different than that of their neighbors.

Learning Objectives 1. What were the main features and achievements of the early West Asian societies? 2. What were the main features and achievements of the early Northeast African societies? 3. What was the nature and impact of the connections created by Phoenicians? 4. How and why did the Israelites have such an enduring impact?

Discussion Questions 1. Can the Epic of Gilgamesh be used as an historical source? 2. What role did writing play in the development of the economy, political systems, and culture of Mesopotamia 3. What does the code of Hammurabi tell us about Mesopotamian society? 4. What were the key aspects of Egyptian religion? 5. What was the basis of Egyptian power in North Africa? 6. Did the Phoenicians create a trading empire? 7. What led to the formation of the kingdom of Israel? What led to its collapse?

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Full file at 8. What were the key characteristics of Hebrew monotheism? What relationship did the Hebrews posit between themselves and their God?

Connections Early Sumerian city-states connect and conflict with each other. Often in conflict with each other, the city-states were nevertheless tied by a shared culture, and through commerce (See page 23.) The development of writing creates both internal and external connections. While used as a tool for rulers, writing also ultimately promoted connections between cultures. (See page 25.) The Akkadians create new connections through conquest. As conquerors, the Akkadians adopted and spread Sumerian culture. (See page 25.) The Indo-Europeans connect regions by the spread of their language and culture. As they migrated through already-settled lands, the Indo-European peoples created an overlay of language and culture that united a large region (See page 28.) The Hittites create new connections between West Asia and Africa. As conquerors, the Hittites were also influential in forging strong links between Mesopotamian and Egyptian culture. (See page 28.) The Assyrians Empire connects a huge region under one ruler. The Assyrians brought under their rule formerly independent regions, bringing the regions from Northeast Africa to the Iranian Plateau into closer contact (See page 30.) The Egyptian Middle Kingdom rulers increase connections with other cultures. Both through increased trade and through conquest, rulers such as Ramses strengthen ties between Egypt and West Asia. (See page 37.) Nubians and Egyptians form commercial and cultural connections. Egyptian rulers often sent caravans and armies to trade and fight with the Nubian kingdoms. (See page 38.) The Phoenicians create a region closely connected by trade. Trading throughout the Mediterranean, the Phoenicians demonstrated that strong international connections might be created without conquest. (See page 40.)

My History Lab Connections Reinforce what is covered in this chapter with the many documents, images, maps, review tools, and videos available at Page numbers below refer to the textbook. Read the Document Excerpts from The Epic of Gilgamesh, p. 24 Sumerian Law Code: The Code of Lipit-Ishtar, p. 26 Hittite Law Code: Excerpts from The Code of the Nesilim, p. 29 Workings of Ma’at: “The Tale of the Eloquent Peasant,” p. 34 8 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

Full file at Papyrus of Ani, Egyptian Book of the Dead, p. 35 Mission to Byblos: The Report of Wenamun, p. 39 Two Accounts of an Egyptian Famine (2600s B.C.E.), p. 41 View the Image Hammurabi Receives His Law Code from the Gods, p. 28 Scene from the Egyptian Afterlife, p. 34 The Pyramids at Giza, p.37 Watch the Video Geography and Civilization: Egypt and Mesopotamia–Impact of Agriculture?, p. 32 Video Lectures: Ironworks in Africa, p. 30 Who Were the Ancient Egyptians? p. 32 Agriculture in Africa, p. 32 African vs. World History, p. 40

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