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Table of Contents – Instructor’s Resource Manual Topic

Page

Preface

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Chapter 1 – How the Brain Gives Rise to the Mind Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Artificial Intelligence Action Potentials The Limbic System Placebo Effects Featured Classroom Activity Brain Functions Annotated List of Additional Resources A Brief History: How We Got Here Understanding the Mind: The Form of Theories of Cognition The Cognitive Brain Studying Cognition Handout 1a Handout 1b Handout 1c Handout 1d Handout 1e Handout 1f Handout 1g Chapter 2 – Perception Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Color versus Black and White (Light and Dark) Vision Different Types of Agnosia Figure/Ground Parsing Cues for Depth Perception Featured Classroom Activity Effects of Top-down Processing and Schemas Annotated List of Additional Resources What it Means to Perceive How it Works: The Case of Visual Perception Building from the Bottom-Up: From Features to Objects Achieving Visual Recognition: Have I Seen You Before? Interpreting from the Top-Down: What You Know Guides What You See In Models and Brains: The Interactive Nature of Perception

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1 1 4 5 7 9 10 11 12 12 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23 23 25 27 29 31 33 33 34 35 35 36


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-cognitive-psychology-1st-edition-smith Handout 2a Handout 2b Handout 2c Handout 2d

38 39 40 41

Chapter 3 – Attention Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Artificial Attention Deficit (hyperactivity) Disorder Signal Detection Theory: Attention Mechanisms Automaticity Divided Attention Featured Classroom Activity Automatic Processing Annotated List of Additional Resources The Nature and Roles of Attention Explaining Attention: Information–Processing Theories Looking to the Brain Competition: A Single Explanatory Framework for Attention? Handout 3a Handout 3b Chapter 4 – Representation and Knowledge in Long-Term Memory Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Analogue Representations in Mental Imagery Mental Rotation Schemas Association Areas of the Brain Featured Classroom Activity Categorization as a Memory Tool Annotated List of Additional Resources The Roles of Knowledge in Cognition Representations and Their Formats Form Representation to Category Knowledge Structures in Category Knowledge Category Domains and Organization Handout 4a Chapter 5 – Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Learning Theories Explicit and Implicit Types of Long-term Memory Forgetting: Infantile Amnesia Episodic Memory: Source and Flashbulb Memories

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43 43 46 47 48 50 51 54 56 57 57 58 59 59 61 62 63 64 66 66 67 68 69 71 73 74 76 77 78


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-cognitive-psychology-1st-edition-smith Featured Classroom Activity Reconstructive Memory Annotated List of Additional Resources The Nature of Long-Term Memory Encoding: How Episodic Memories are Formed Retrieval: How We Recall the Past from Episodic Memory The Encoding was Successful, But I still Can’t Remember Nondeclarative Memory Systems Handout 5a

80 82 85 86 88 89 90

Chapter 6 – Working Memory Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Levels of Processing Mnemonic Devices Structures of the Brain and Memory Dual-coding Featured Classroom Activity The Serial Position Curve Annotated List of Additional Resources Using Working Memory From Primary Memory to Working Memory: A Brief History Understanding the Working Memory Model How Working Memory Works Current Directions Handout 6a Chapter 7 – Executive Processes Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Frontal Lobe Damage and Disorders Phineas Gage Stimulus-Response Compatibility Monitoring and Executive Processes Featured Classroom Activity Monitoring Working Memory Annotated List of Additional Resources The Frontal Lobe Connection Frontal Damage and the Frontal Hypothesis Executive Attention Switching Attention Inhibition of Response Sequencing Monitoring Handout 7a Handout 7b

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91 91 93 95 96 97 99 101 103 104 105 107 109 109 111 113 114 115 117 119 119 121 122 122 123 124 125


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-cognitive-psychology-1st-edition-smith Handout 7c Handout 7d Handout 7e Handout 7f

126 127 128 129

Chapter 8 – Emotion and Cognition Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Emotion and Automatic Processes Observational Learning Mood-Congruent Memory Effect Six Basic Emotions Featured Classroom Activity Six Basic Emotions Annotated List of Additional Resources The Connection Defining Emotion Manipulating and Measuring Emotion Emotional Learning: Acquiring Evaluations Emotion and Declarative Memory Emotion, Attention, and Perception Handout 8a Chapter 9 – Decision Making Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Heuristics as Biases Alternative: Multiattribute Decision Making Risk Framing Effects Featured Classroom Activity Risky Decisions Annotated List of Additional Resources The Nature of a Decision Rational Decision Making: The Expected Utility Model Neural Bases of Expected Utility Calculations Human Decision Making and The Expected Utility Model: How Close a Fit? Complex, Uncertain Decision Making Handout 9a Chapter 10 – Problem Solving and Reasoning Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Impediments to Problem Solving Problem Solving Strategies

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131 131 134 136 137 138 140 141 142 143 145 147 149 151 151 154 156 157 159 160 161 163 163 166 167 169 170 171


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-cognitive-psychology-1st-edition-smith Insight Probability and Problem Solving Featured Classroom Activity Nine-dot Problem Annotated List of Additional Resources The Nature of Problem Solving Analogical Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning Handout 10a Handout 10b

174 175 177 178 182 182 183 186 187

Chapter 11 – Motor Cognition and Mental Simulation Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Mental Rotation Apraxia Mirror Neurons Biological Motion Featured Classroom Activity Mental Rotation Annotated List of Additional Resources The Nature of Motor Cognition Mental Simulation and the Motor System Imitation Biological Motion Handout 11a Handout 11b Chapter 12 – Language Chapter Learning Objectives Class Lecture Leads Bilingualism Language Production Errors Aphasia and Language Development of Language Featured Classroom Activity Figurative Speech and Idioms Annotated List of Additional Resources The Nature of Language Processes of Language Comprehension Processes of Language Production Language, Thought, and Bilingualism Handout 12a Handout 12b

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189 189 191 192 193 196 197 200 203 206 208 211 213 213 215 216 218 220 222 226 229 231 233 236


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Table of Contents – Test Bank Topic

Page

Chapter 1: How the Brain Gives Rise to the Mind

239

Chapter 2: Perception

267

Chapter 3: Attention

291

Chapter 4: Representation and Knowledge in Long-Term Memory

317

Chapter 5: Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory

337

Chapter 6: Working Memory

359

Chapter 7: Executive Processes

379

Chapter 8: Emotion and Cognition

399

Chapter 9: Decision Making

417

Chapter 10: Problem Solving and Reasoning

437

Chapter 11: Motor Cognition and Mental Simulation

457

Chapter 12: Language

477

Appendix: Total Assessment Guides

497

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Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-cognitive-psychology-1st-edition-smith

Preface This Instructor’s Resource Manual is designed to accompany Cognitive Psychology, First Edition, by Edward E. Smith and Stephen M. Kosslyn. This manual has the student in mind in its design, content, and approach, while facilitating ease of usage for the instructor. This package includes all materials, including supplementary materials, needed to facilitate insightful discussions and creative classroom activities related to topics covered in the text.

Organization: The organization of the Instructor’s Resource Manual is by textbook chapter. Each chapter in the manual has five parts: Chapter Learning Objectives, Class Lecture Leads, Featured Classroom Activity, Annotated List of Resources, and Handouts for the Featured Classroom Activity. Chapter Learning Objectives Each chapter in the manual begins with a list of Chapter Learning Objectives. These learning objectives are key points, terms, and/or ideas that the student should comprehend as they read the chapter. They mark the most important concepts of each chapter. Page numbers, where the concepts can be found, are listed after each objective in parentheses. Class Lecture Leads Each chapter in the manual includes four Class Lecture Leads. These lecture leads are intended to reinforce, and in many cases, be supplementary to topics covered within the text chapter. Because the instructor already has many of the text concepts at his or her disposal, the class lecture leads are intended to add or build upon many of the textbook ideas. They are short and concise summaries of four topics per chapter, meant to provide “leads” for the instructor to prepare lectures. Featured Classroom Activity One classroom activity per chapter is presented. Each activity is related to text topics. Any materials required for the activity (handouts, as well as answer keys) are provided at the end of each chapter section, listed as Handouts. Guidelines and instructions for each activity are provided, enabling instructors to carry out activites in class without much extra preparation required. Annotated List of Resources At the end of each chapter section of the manual, a complete list of resources is provided. These resources are in addition to textbook references and should provide extra support for textbook topics and concepts. They are organized by Readings (related books and journal articles), Online Resources (websites that provide extra information or activities),

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Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-cognitive-psychology-1st-edition-smith Video (any videos related to textbook material), and Experimental/Interactive (online/disk demonstrations or experiments). Readings include materials from Current Directions in Cognitive Science, Readings from the American Psychological Society (2005), edited by Barbara Spellman and Daniel Willingham. Videos include resources from the Prentice Hall Video Library, Films for the Humanities and Sciences, Psychology edition. Finally, experimental/interactive resources include Live! Psych Simulations on disk. All other references cited are seminal pieces or from contemporary sources, and will provide a wide range of theories and experiences to supplement the course text. In conclusion, the Instructor’s Resource Manual is a valuable addendum to the Smith and Kosslyn Cognitive Psychology text. It provides many additional resources that enhance key topics discussed within the text. It is a self-contained toolkit, designed for the instructor to assist in preparing lectures, classroom activities, and discussion. Melissa S. Terlecki, PhD.

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Chapter 1 – How the Brain Gives Rise to the Mind Chapter Learning Objectives:            

Explain what cognitive psychology is (pp. 2-3). Explain who was involved in the early evolution of cognitive psychology, from philosophy to introspection to behaviorism (pp. 3-7). Understand how and why the cognitive movement was predicated upon computers (pp. 7-11). Explain what mental representation and mental processing are (pp. 11-13). Understand what the structure-process trade-off is, including the difference between serial and parallel processing (pp. 13-15). Identify the structures of cognitive brain; from the most basic parts of the neuron to the structure of the nervous system, the lobes of the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures (pp. 17-24). Compare the different types of neurons (sensory neurons, motor neurons, interneurons, glial cells) (p. 17). Understand how dissociations and associations are critical for studying cognition (pp. 25-26). Identify the different behavioral methods of measurement (p. 27). Identify the different correlational neuroimaging techniques and their spatial and temporal resolutions (p. 30). Identify what causal neural methods are available and how they work (pp. 36-40). Compare computer simulation, process, and neural-network models (pp. 40-43).

Class Lecture Leads: Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence is a field that involves an attempt to mimic human cognition in computers with artificial systems. Because computers must be programmed and cannot originate the processing of information on their own, it is remarkable that researchers can create systems that produce the same “output” as humans. Today’s computers have applications across a wide range of problem solving; from nuclear war to everyday

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problems such as balancing a checkbook. Innovations of artificial intelligence actually began quite some time ago with very rudimentary theories and functions. Many ancient Greek myths involved uses of mechanical toys and models, which were constructed to mimic real human behavior. In the 13th century, “talking heads” or puppets were created for the pleasure of entertainment. More importantly, and more like modern-day computers and calculators, the invention of the printing press with moveable type was invented in the 15th century. Around the same time, clocks were being produced and later, even extended the craft with the inclusion of movable figurines that were set into motion with the hour. Their movements were to mimic human behavior. During the 17th century, Pascal created the first mechanical calculator (1642) and Leibniz enhanced the machine to include multiplication and division (1673). Although the 18th century was focused on the further creation of mechanical toys, Charles Babbage and colleague Ada Byron brought us the first rudimentary computer, which was actually the first programmable calculator. The 20th century brought many publications of theories of artificial intelligence, with many prophesizing the future of a mechanized and computerized world (Newell, 1977). The 20th century also brought the first mention of the “robot” (1923). During this time, researchers were beginning to ask if human and artificial intelligence were truly the same. Alan Turing (1950) was one of the first to test whether artificial intelligence was as “intelligent” as human intelligence. His experiment was designed to discover whether a human could distinguish between the performance of a computer and a human. A human interrogator could ask a respondent (either a computer or a human, whose identity was hidden) any question he or she wished, and based on either the computer’s or the

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human’s response, the interrogator had to decide if the answer was given by the computer or by the human. This answer was, and still is not easily solved. Variations of the Turing test continue to be formulated today (see Searle, 1980, among others), and arguments as to whether or not human intelligence is distinct linger on. More recent programs dedicated to artificial intelligence involving the simulation of expertise have proven superior (such as the 1997 chess match between IBM program “Deep Blue” and world champion Gary Kasparov, which ended in Kasparov’s defeat). However, several caveats must still be considered when evaluating the differences and similarities between human and artificial intelligence. First, we must consider the concept of serial versus parallel processing. Humans can efficiently handle the simultaneous processing of several different streams of information, known as parallel processing. It is widely accepted that computers can only handle information (instructions) in a serial fashion (one-at-a-time bits of information), no matter how rapid. However, more recent models that incorporate several networks can process more than one feed simultaneously. Second, some argue that although computers can process symbolic information, they lack intuition or insight; a problem-solving skill that may be distinctly human. Often, intuition or insight comes to us outside of awareness; we cannot explicitly detail how we encountered a solution to a problem, yet we arrive at it. Some argue that because computers need to be programmed for every possible step in a process, they cannot generate solutions that would be novel or intuitive. Can computers go beyond the information given, as humans can? New technologies are breaking the boundaries everyday, and perhaps human and artificial intelligence are becoming closer and closer to being indistinguishable.

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Action Potentials An action potential is what occurs as neurons, cells of the nervous system, pass information along throughout the body. Neurons are electrically charged, and change their charge as information is passed along. At rest, before information is passed through the neuron, the neuron has a negative charge (inside the cell). This is because the cell’s membrane, or outer covering, has selective permeability. At rest, positively charged potassium ions (K+) can flow freely from inside to outside of the cell, but negatively charged chloride (Cl-) and positively charged sodium (Na+) ions have a harder time passing through. Negatively charged proteins inside the cell cannot exit or pass through the neuron’s membrane. At rest, there are more sodium ions outside the neuron and more potassium ions inside (along with the more negative charge because of the stationary proteins). If a message comes along (which is transmitted through a chemical called a neurotransmitter), this resting charge is changed. If the chemical is excitatory, depolarization occurs and the message is sent along, but if the chemical is inhibitory, then the message is not sent along (hyperpolarization). Either way, the change in the charge of the neuron due to excitation would have to be strong enough to reach the neuron’s threshold, which is an individual, minimal level for excitation. The action potential follows an “all-or-none law,” where the neuron either fires (sends the information along) or it doesn’t, and the strength of the firing is the same each time, as long as its threshold has been reached. It fires only if the stimulation causes enough sodium ions to enter the neuron. Let’s assume that an excitatory neurotransmitter has been passed to a neuron, and the neuron’s threshold has been reached. During this process of depolarization, positively

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charged sodium ions rush into the neuron. This temporarily changes the charge of the cell from being more negative to more positive (and signals the sending of the neurotransmitter along to the next adjacent neuron). Next, potassium ions rush out, which restores the charge of the neuron (repolarization). This process is a chain-reaction of sorts, as it occurs up and down the length of the neuron’s membrane. This process is also known as the “sodium-potassium pump.� There is a short period where the neuron cannot respond to incoming signals (about 2 ms), and this is called the refractory period because the neuron needs time to restore back to its originally, negatively charged resting state. Hyperpolarization occurs when the incoming signal is inhibitory and causes the inside of the neuron to become even more negatively charged, and thus prohibiting the action potential from occurring (and the message being passed through the neurotransmitter toward the next neuron). Action potentials occur all throughout the body in billions of neurons in order to send information from the external world to the internal world and back again. Action potentials are critical for the functioning of the nervous system.

The Limbic System The limbic system, which was once believed to only regulate emotion, includes structures that serve many other functions. Generally speaking, the limbic system commands cognitions and behaviors necessary for human survival, which include controlling emotion and emotional responses, mood, motivation, pain and pleasure sensations, and some aspects of memory. The limbic system is also responsible for two behaviors exhibited by all mammals; the caring and nursing of females towards their offspring, and playful mood. And although the expression of emotion may differ by

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culture, it appears that some emotions are universal, including happiness, anger, fear, surprise, sadness, and disgust. Several theories have been postulated that explain how we experience emotion. The James-Lange theory of emotion (1890) stated that an emotion-invoking stimulus first elicits a body’s physiological response to the arousal, which then in turn leads to a cognitive appraisal of emotion. Later theories by Cannon-Bard (1927) implied that physiological responses are accompanied by one’s emotional experience, simultaneously. Finally, Schacter (1962) proposed a two-factor theory, which stated that a stimulus causes physiological arousal and our creation of a cognitive label for the arousal (e.g., “I am afraid”), which in turn elicits the expression of emotion. Debate continues as to whether or not physiological responses precede cognition and whether cognition precedes emotion, however, it appears that the ability of any theory to explain the experience of emotion depends on the complexity of the emotional response, which varies by type of emotion and individual. Once again, the limbic system is not just about emotion; there are many structures that may be considered part of the limbic system that contribute to the various functions necessary for our survival. The biggest contributing structures include: the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, fornix, hypothalamus, cingulate gyrus, prefrontal lobe, and portions of the brainstem. The amygdala is known as the emotional hub of the brain. It mediates and controls affective activities in the brain (including fear and aggression), and is also related to the expression of mood. The hippocampus is involved in the formation of new memories; specifically part of the process of transforming information from shortterm to long-term memory. Emotional memories are recalled better. The thalamus is

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known as the “relay station” of the brain, and along with the fornix is involved in connecting impulses and pathways between the various structures of the limbic system. The hypothalamus is responsible for motivation of behavior, especially primordial behaviors necessary for survival (i.e., sex drive, hunger, thirst). The cingulate gyrus coordinates smells and sights with past emotion-laden memories. Recent research shows the cingulate to also participate in the emotional reaction to pain and aggressive behavior. The prefrontal lobe, though involved in many cognitive functions, integrates the experience of emotion and emotional expression. It communicates in a bidirectional fashion with many other structures of the limbic system. Finally, several structures located in the brainstem (including the ventral tegmental area, reticular formation, and locus coeruleus) are involved in regulating circadian rhythm, alerting mechanisms, and pleasurable sensations (similar to what is experienced as an “orgasm”). Altogether, these many structures of the limbic system contribute to our daily functioning and survival, including the human experience of emotion.

Placebo Effects The placebo effect, which is known to be a part of much psychological and clinical research, is known as a physiological, cognitive, or behavioral response to an inert substance. Theories state that because individuals believe to be part of a treatment, even if they are given none or are part of an inactive condition, they often elicit a change in response. This change can be favorable; for example, a decrease in pain with a placebo thought to be a pain reducer. This change can also be unfavorable (also known as a “nocebo”); for example, complaints of negative side-effects thought to be due to a placebo. For placebos to work, they must be as identical to treatment conditions as

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possible. Patients or participants must believe they are receiving an effective treatment. However, placebo effects even occur when individuals know they are, or have a chance of, receiving a placebo. The goal in clinical research is for the “true” treatment to have greater effects than the placebo treatment. What is also necessary in clinical research is to have a doubleblind procedure accompany placebo trials. Double-blind refers to the fact that neither the patient nor the doctor, or researcher, know who or what condition is receiving the true treatment and which is receiving the placebo. Obviously, expectancy effects are what, in part, allows placebo effects to occur, and reducing expectancy in all parties of research would minimize the effects of confounds. It becomes difficult to separate the effects of placebos from true changes in response. Other confounding factors include spontaneous improvement or deterioration, natural fluctuation in symptomology, suggestibility and expectancy effects, and the “good subject” bias. The good subject bias refers to research participants wanting to impress their doctors or researchers by doing what is good, or expected and being a good “subject.” If they know a treatment is supposed to have a given effect, patients or participants want to be seen as “good” or “typical,” and often claim that a treatment is working, even if it is not. Many adults have learned the appropriate response to medical intervention. Thus, cognitive effects on our health and behavior are strong, and in fact, can be stronger than any biological method of treatment. Newer models of research are seeking to identify indicators that may help predict strength of placebo effects in individuals, such as personality traits and behavioral factors.

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Featured Classroom Activity: Brain Functions Students are to describe how each of the various structures of the brain, that are identified in Chapter 1, might contribute to some everyday functions we perform. There are 18 structures to be identified for this activity that include: sensory neurons, motor neurons, sympathetic nervous system, parasympathetic nervous system, corpus callosum, occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, nucleus accumbens, reticular formation, pons, and cerebellum. The five everyday activities/functions include: (1) waking up and getting out of bed, (2) driving a car, (3) watching TV, (4) listening to music that makes you sad (evokes memories of a past relationship), and (5) learning to ride a bike. These examples are meant to be general and can be expanded upon by students. Students should be encouraged to be as creative as possible (while not outside the realm of plausibility) in explaining how the various structures might contribute to each/any of the five functions. The instructor has several options for using this activity in class. Each student can complete the handout (see Handout 1, versions a through g) for homework for each of the five everyday functions (version a), or each row of students in the classroom can be assigned one of the five functions, and then could discuss as a class (versions b-f). Finally, each student could be assigned a “structure� and each could discuss in class how these individual structures contribute to one of the functions. Structures could be listed on individual strips of paper and chosen randomly from a hat, basket, etc. (version g). These activities may depend on how many students are in the class.

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Annotated List of Additional Resources: (by text chapter section) (1) A Brief History: How We Got Here Readings: Greenwood, J. (1999). Understanding the “cognitive revolution� in psychology. Journal of the History of Behavioral Sciences, 35, 1-22. (Explains the cognitive revolution in psychology). Johnson, D. & Erneling, C. (Eds.) (1997). The future of the cognitive revolution. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. (Current and future issues revolving around the cognitive revolution). Proctor, R. & Vu, K.P. (2006). The cognitive revolution at age 50: Has the promise of the human information processing approach been fulfilled? International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 21, 253-284. (Evaluates the cognitive revolution and information processing approaches to understanding psychology). Tracy, J., Robins, R., & Gosling, S. (2004). Tracking trends in psychological science: An empirical analysis of the history of psychology. In T. Dalton & R. Evans (Eds.), The life cycle of psychological ideas: Understanding prominence and the dynamics of intellectual change (pp. 105-130). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. (Reviews extensive literature and empirical evidence for the change in psychology). Online resources: www.elvers.udayton.edu/history/welcome.htm (List of figureheads by name/date, categories and trivia of the history of psychology; maintained by the University of Dayton, Ohio). www.dialogical.net/psychology/notables.html (History of psychology virtual library with many resources; maintained by the Psychology Worldwide Web Virtual Library). http://shp.yorku.ca/ (Links to resources by the Society for the History of Psychology, Division 26 of the American Psychological Association, maintained by the APA). www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psychweb/history.htm (History of Psychology Archives; links to resources and biographies; maintained by Muskingum College).

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(2) Understanding the Mind: The Form of Theories of Cognition Readings: Blaha, L., Johnson, S., & Townsend, J. (2007). An information processing investigation of hierarchical form perception: Evidence for parallel processing. Visual Cognition, 15, 73-77. (Provides empirical evidence for parallel visual search). Inui, K., Okamoto, H., Miki, K., Gunji, A., & Kakigi, R. (2006). Serial and parallel processing in the human auditory cortex: A magnetoencephalographic study. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 18-30. (Reviews empirical evidence for serial and parallel processing of auditory information). Moore, C. & Wolfe, J. (2001). Getting beyond the serial/parallel debate in visual research: A hybrid approach. In K. Shapiro (Ed.), The limits of attention: Temporal constraints in human information processing (pp. 178-198). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. (Reviews both serial and parallel debates in reference to visual processing, and proposes a compromise between both models). Rabinowitz, M. & Goldberg, N. (1995). Evaluating the structure-process hypothesis. In F. Weinert & W. Schneider (Eds.), Memory performance and competencies: Issues in growth and development (pp. 225-242). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (Reviews the structure-process tradeoff). Rogers, T. & McClelland, J. (2006). Semantic cognition: A parallel distributed processing approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Connectionist modeling of semantic information). Online Resources: www.psychology.org/links/Paradigms_and_Theories/Cognition/ (Provides links to various paradigms and theories in cognition). Video: “Mind Talk: The brain’s new story” (59 minutes, color). Prentice Hall Video Library; Films for the Humanities and Sciences Videos, #8554. (This video discusses the social and moral impact of brain research and whether computers can model human abilities. Is human cognition unique?).

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(3) The Cognitive Brain Online Resources: www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/cases/caseM/case.htm (The Whole Brain Atlas – Top 100 Brain Structures; includes real brain photos. Copyright Johnson & Becker, 1995-1999). http://Brainmaps.org (Interactive, zoomable, high-resolution digital brain atlas and virtual microscope). Experimental/Interactive: Live!Psych Simulations: Biological Psychology. Simulations: Neurons and neural impulses, Chemical Messengers and their effects, Major brain structures and functions, and Hemispheric specialization (These interactive displays allow students to explore and review the biology of the nervous system and brain structures, as well as the lateralization of the two brain hemispheres). Experiments: Hemispheric specialization (This lab allows students to test whether of not contralateral representations and hemispheric representation exists within the brain by recording performance on a visual and verbal task, meant to be processed by separate halves of the brain).

(4) Studying Cognition Readings: Chang, N., Feldman, J., & Narayanan, S. (2005). Structured connectionist models of language, cognition, and action. In A. Cangelois, G. Bugmann, R. Borisyuk (Eds.), Modeling language, cognition and action: Proceedings from the Ninth Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop: Vol. 13 (pp. 57-67). River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing Co. (Presents connectionist models for various types of information processing, especially language). Daelemans, W. & de Smedt, K. (1996). Computational modeling in artificial intelligence. In T. Dijkstra & K. de Smedt (Eds.), Computational psycholinguistics: AI and connectionist models of human language processing (pp. 24-48). Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis. (Reviews how connectionist models apply to artificial intelligence). Fenwick, P. (2000). Current methods of investigation in neuroscience. In M. Velmans (Ed.), Investigating phenomenal consciousness: New methodologies and maps. Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company. (Gives overview of MRI, fMRI, PET, SPET, MEG, and EEG neuroimaging techniques). Frith, C. (2006). The value of brain imaging in the study of development and its 12


disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 979-982. (Reviews a series of studies that highlight normal and abnormal brain development using modern brain imaging techniques). Fuchs, T. (2006). Ethical issues in neuroscience. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19, 600607. (Discusses neuroethics and current techniques to map the brain). Hobbs, A. (1999). Mapping variation in brain structure and function: Implications for rehabilitation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14, 616-621. (Discusses the variability in structure and function of the brain). Insel, T. (2006). Translational research in the decade of discovery. Hormones and Behavior, 50, 504-505. (Reviews current techniques and improvements in neuroimaging). Miller, G. & Keller, J. (2005). Psychology and neuroscience: Making peace. In B. Spellman & D. Willingham (Eds.), Readings from the American Psychological Society: Current Directions in Cognitive Science (pp.155-161). Saddle River, NJ: Pearson: Prentice Hall. (Discusses the reductionistic relationship that has existed between psychology and biology. This reading suggests a separate, yet complimentary relationship between the two). Nopoulos, P. & Andreasen, N. (1999). Gender differences in neuroimaging findings. In E. Leibenluft (Ed.), Gender differences in mood and anxiety disorders: From bench to bedside. (pp. 1-30). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. (Reviews gender differences in the brain). Posner, M., Petersen, S. Fox, P., & Raichle, M. (1988). Localization of cognitive operations in the human brain. Science, 240, 1627-1630. (Provides evidence for and discussion of the localization of some cognitive functions). Posner, M. & Rothbart, M. (2007). Relating brain and mind. In M. Posner & M. Rothbart (Eds.), Educating the human brain (pp. 25-53). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. (Reviews studies involving neuroimaging techniques in explaining psychology). Roser, M. & Gazzaniga, M. (2005). Automatic brain – Interpretive minds. In B. Spellman & D. Willingham (Eds.), Readings from the American Psychological Society: Current Directions in Cognitive Science (pp.155-161). Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. (Suggests the integration of cognitive processes and conscious interpretation. Research should focus on identifying underlying patterns of neural activity and conscious awareness in order to delineate neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive processes). Said, K., Newton-Smith, W., Viale, R., & Wilkes, K. (Eds.) (1990). Modeling the mind.

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New York, NY: Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press. (Provides a collection of papers reflecting on models of cognition). Various Authors (2003). Special Issue on Double-dissociations. Cortex, 39. Online Resources: www.foresight.org/conference/MNT8/Papers/Flitman/index.html (Visuals or various brain neuroimaging techniques. Copyright Stephen Flitman, MD, Foresight Institute). Video: “Mind over matter: Advances in brain research” (47 minutes, color). Prentice Hall Video Library; Films for the Humanities and Sciences Videos, #9061. (This video explores meanings of consciousness and even contemplates socially interactive machines). “The brain” (20 minutes, color). Prentice Hall Video Library; Films for the Humanities and Sciences Videos, #5988. (This video presents current neuroimaging techniques which help to understand the underlying biology of the brain. Specific brain structures and neurology are reviewed).

Handout 1a

Cognitive Psychology, 1/e

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Name____________________________________________Date___________________ Identify how each of the following brain structures might be involved in each of the following five, everyday functions (you may need a separate sheet of paper): (1) waking up and getting out of bed, (2) driving a car, (3) watching TV, (4) listening to music that makes you sad (evokes memories of a past relationship), and (5) learning to ride a bike.

sensory neurons

__________________________________________

motor neurons

__________________________________________

sympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

parasympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

corpus callosum

__________________________________________

occipital lobe

__________________________________________

temporal lobe

__________________________________________

parietal lobe

__________________________________________

frontal lobe

__________________________________________

thalamus

__________________________________________

hypothalamus

__________________________________________

hippocampus

__________________________________________

amygdala

__________________________________________

basal ganglia

__________________________________________

nucleus accumbens

__________________________________________

reticular formation

__________________________________________

pons

__________________________________________

cerebellum Handout 1b

__________________________________________ Cognitive Psychology, 1/e

15


Name____________________________________________Date___________________ Identify how each of the following brain structures might be involved in the following everyday function (you may need a separate sheet of paper): waking up and getting out of bed. sensory neurons

__________________________________________

motor neurons

__________________________________________

sympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

parasympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

corpus callosum

__________________________________________

occipital lobe

__________________________________________

temporal lobe

__________________________________________

parietal lobe

__________________________________________

frontal lobe

__________________________________________

thalamus

__________________________________________

hypothalamus

__________________________________________

hippocampus

__________________________________________

amygdala

__________________________________________

basal ganglia

__________________________________________

nucleus accumbens

__________________________________________

reticular formation

__________________________________________

pons

__________________________________________

cerebellum

__________________________________________

Handout 1c

Cognitive Psychology, 1/e

16


Name____________________________________________Date___________________ Identify how each of the following brain structures might be involved in the following everyday function (you may need a separate sheet of paper): driving a car. sensory neurons

__________________________________________

motor neurons

__________________________________________

sympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

parasympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

corpus callosum

__________________________________________

occipital lobe

__________________________________________

temporal lobe

__________________________________________

parietal lobe

__________________________________________

frontal lobe

__________________________________________

thalamus

__________________________________________

hypothalamus

__________________________________________

hippocampus

__________________________________________

amygdala

__________________________________________

basal ganglia

__________________________________________

nucleus accumbens

__________________________________________

reticular formation

__________________________________________

pons

__________________________________________

cerebellum

__________________________________________

Handout 1d

Cognitive Psychology, 1/e

17


Name____________________________________________Date___________________ Identify how each of the following brain structures might be involved in the following everyday function (you may need a separate sheet of paper): watching TV. sensory neurons

__________________________________________

motor neurons

__________________________________________

sympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

parasympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

corpus callosum

__________________________________________

occipital lobe

__________________________________________

temporal lobe

__________________________________________

parietal lobe

__________________________________________

frontal lobe

__________________________________________

thalamus

__________________________________________

hypothalamus

__________________________________________

hippocampus

__________________________________________

amygdala

__________________________________________

basal ganglia

__________________________________________

nucleus accumbens

__________________________________________

reticular formation

__________________________________________

pons

__________________________________________

cerebellum

__________________________________________

Handout 1e

Cognitive Psychology, 1/e

18


Name____________________________________________Date___________________ Identify how each of the following brain structures might be involved in the following everyday function (you may need a separate sheet of paper): listening to music that makes you sad (evokes memories of a past relationship). sensory neurons

__________________________________________

motor neurons

__________________________________________

sympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

parasympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

corpus callosum

__________________________________________

occipital lobe

__________________________________________

temporal lobe

__________________________________________

parietal lobe

__________________________________________

frontal lobe

__________________________________________

thalamus

__________________________________________

hypothalamus

__________________________________________

hippocampus

__________________________________________

amygdala

__________________________________________

basal ganglia

__________________________________________

nucleus accumbens

__________________________________________

reticular formation

__________________________________________

pons

__________________________________________

cerebellum

__________________________________________

Handout 1f

Cognitive Psychology, 1/e

19


Name____________________________________________Date___________________ Identify how each of the following brain structures might be involved in the following everyday function (you may need a separate sheet of paper): learning to ride a bike. sensory neurons

__________________________________________

motor neurons

__________________________________________

sympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

parasympathetic nervous system

__________________________________________

corpus callosum

__________________________________________

occipital lobe

__________________________________________

temporal lobe

__________________________________________

parietal lobe

__________________________________________

frontal lobe

__________________________________________

thalamus

__________________________________________

hypothalamus

__________________________________________

hippocampus

__________________________________________

amygdala

__________________________________________

basal ganglia

__________________________________________

nucleus accumbens

__________________________________________

reticular formation

__________________________________________

pons

__________________________________________

cerebellum

__________________________________________

Handout 1g

Cognitive Psychology, 1/e

20


(Each structure to be cut out in strips)

21


sensory neurons

motor neurons

sympathetic nervous system

parasympathetic nervous system

corpus callosum

occipital lobe

temporal lobe

parietal lobe

frontal lobe

thalamus

22


hypothalamus

hippocampus

amygdala

basal ganglia

nucleus accumbens

reticular formation

pons

cerebellum

23

Test bank cognitive psychology 1st edition smith  

test bank cognitive psychology 1st edition smith. Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-cognitive-psychology-1st-edition-smith

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