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Appendix I: Labor Unions and Collective Bargaining TRUE/FALSE 1. A craft union consists of workers who possess the same skill or are in the same profession. ANS: T

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-3

OBJ: 1

2. A labor union is a group of workers who have organized to work together to achieve common job-related goals, such as higher wages, better working conditions, and greater job security. ANS: T

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-3

OBJ: 1

3. Union members are most likely to become involved in union activities through their local union. ANS: T

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-3

OBJ: 1

4. The Major League Baseball Players’ and the National Football League Players’ associations are both examples of industrial unions. ANS: F

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-3

OBJ: 1

5. Although they help organize new local unions and provide locals with leadership training, national unions generally take a “hands-off” approach when it comes to the actual process of negotiating a labor contract. ANS: F

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-3

OBJ: 1

6. The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO) provides a high profile national voice for the labor movement and lobbies Congress in support of pro-labor legislation. ANS: T

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 1

7. The passage of the Wagner Act led to a tremendous surge in union membership in the late 1930s. ANS: T

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

8. Under a closed shop arrangement, unions are not permitted, and an employer can fire any workers who attempt to organize or join a union. ANS: F

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

9. In states that have passed right-to-work laws, workers cannot be required to join a union in order to keep their job. ANS: T

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2


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10. The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 contained many pro-union provisions, including a recognition that closed shops are legal in any state that has not enacted a right-to-work law. ANS: F

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

11. An open shop is an employment arrangement in which a firm can hire nonunion workers, but these workers must join the union within a specified time period to keep their jobs. ANS: F

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

12. Employment at will defines an employment agreement between the employer and employee as a completely voluntary relationship in which either party is free to terminate at any time for any reason. ANS: T

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 2

13. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (also known as the Wagner Act) made it illegal for employers to discriminate against union members. It also required employers to recognize certified unions and to bargain with these unions in good faith. ANS: T

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

14. Under a union shop arrangement, an employer agrees only to hire workers who already belong to a union. ANS: F

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

15. Frank Meadows has never been a member of a union. However, the company that hired him operates under a union shop arrangement, and Frank’s job is one covered under the union contract. Frank will have to join the union within a specified time period if he wants to keep his job. ANS: T

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

16. A minimills manufacturing company has both management and nonmanagement jobs at the Phoenix location. Since Phoenix, Arizona, is a right-to-work state, the manufacturer must operate under a closed shop arrangement. ANS: F

DIF: LL3

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

17. Rita Groh is a union leader in Wisconsin who is concerned with the problems unions have recruiting members and raising funds. She has just heard that a bill has been introduced in Wisconsin’s state legislature that calls for the passage of a right-to-work law. This information is likely to make Rita very happy because such laws make it easier to get workers to join unions. ANS: F

DIF: LL3

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

18. Arbitration is a process in which a neutral third party has the authority to resolve a dispute by rendering a binding decision. ANS: T

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-7

OBJ: 3


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19. Distributive bargaining is the traditional adversarial approach to collective bargaining. ANS: T

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-6

OBJ: 3

20. In interest-based collective bargaining, the two sides explore the issues in depth and work together to find mutually acceptable solutions with a goal of creating a “win-win” outcome. ANS: T

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-6

OBJ: 3

21. A lockout is a work stoppage initiated by workers when they see that the company will not agree to their demands. ANS: F

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-6

OBJ: 3

22. As a labor tactic, a boycott occurs when a union and its supporters refuse to do business with an employer during a labor dispute. ANS: T

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-7

OBJ: 3

23. Picketing is a legal union tactic during a labor dispute as long as it is peaceful and the picketers don’t prevent people who don’t support the union’s position from entering the business. ANS: T

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-7

OBJ: 3

24. The first step in most grievance procedures is to hire an arbitrator to organize and oversee the grievance process. ANS: F

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-7

OBJ: 3

25. Jeff Riddle is a member of his union’s collective bargaining team, and Sharon Banion is on the management’s bargaining team. As part of the negotiating process, Jeff and Sharon are working together to find ways to provide workers with more flexible work schedules and improve worker productivity. They hope to combine these two goals to create a win-win solution that can be incorporated into the new labor contract. This approach suggests that the two sides are using a tactic known as distributive bargaining. ANS: F

DIF: LL3

REF: Page A1-6

OBJ: 3

26. Union workers tend to earn higher wages and receive better benefits than nonunion workers performing similar jobs. ANS: T

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-8

OBJ: 4

27. In recent years, many American employers have become increasingly aggressive in their use of antiunion tactics. ANS: T

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-9

OBJ: 4

28. Labor contracts and grievance procedures provide due process to workers who are fired or punished for arbitrary reasons. ANS: T

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-8

OBJ: 4


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29. After a period of decline from the early 1980s through the mid-1990s, union membership in the private sector has grown significantly since the late 1990s. ANS: F

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-9

OBJ: 4

MULTIPLE CHOICE 30. A ________________ is a group of workers who have organized in order to pursue common work-related goals, such as better wages and benefits, safer working conditions, and greater job security. a) b) c) d)

labor federation labor union cooperative labor collective

ANS: B

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-3

OBJ: 1

31. A(n) __________ is a union composed of workers who share the same skill or work in the same profession. a) b) c) d)

craft union concentric union industrial union pure union

ANS: A

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-3

OBJ: 1

32. A(n)_______________ is a union composed of workers employed in the same industry. a) b) c) d)

labor federation diversified union industrial union democratic union

ANS: C

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-3

OBJ: 1

33. The ____________ is the level at which most members interact with their union. a) b) c) d)

local union labor collective labor cooperative regional labor council

ANS: A

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-3

OBJ: 1

34. The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America and the National Football League Players’ Association are examples of a) industrial unions. b) union shops. c) labor unions.


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d) craft unions. ANS: D

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-3

OBJ: 1

35. The __________________ is a federation of national unions that provides the U.S. labor movement with a high profile national voice. a) b) c) d)

American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations Knights of Labor National Association for the Representation of Working Americans The International Brotherhood of Workers and Craftsmen

ANS: A

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 1

36. _______________ provide services to their local unions, including legal advice and leadership training, and also provide assistance to locals during collective bargaining. a) b) c) d)

Labor guilds Union cooperatives National unions Labor action committees

ANS: C

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 1

37. Which of the following activities would the AFL-CIO be most likely to perform? a) b) c) d)

participate directly in local collective bargaining negotiations. encourage more states to enact right-to-work laws. lobby members of the U.S. Congress in support of pro-labor legislation. The AFL-CIO would be involved in all of the activities in this list.

ANS: C

DIF: LL3

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 1

38. The ___________ established the first federal minimum wage of 25 cents per hour. a) b) c) d)

National Labor Relations Act of 1935 Freedom from Poverty Act of 1932 Adequate Compensation Act of 1946 Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938

ANS: D

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 2

39. Which of the following laws guaranteed rank-and-file union members the right to participate in union meetings and required unions to have regularly scheduled secret ballot elections of officers? a) b) c) d)

Wagner Act. Fair Labor Standards Act. Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act. Norris-LaGuardia Act.

ANS: C

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 2

40. A(n) ___________ is an employment arrangement that requires the employer to hire only workers who already belong to the union.


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a) b) c) d)

open shop closed shop union shop craft union

ANS: B

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

41. A(n) __________ is an employment arrangement in which a company may hire nonunion workers, but all workers represented by the union must become union members within a specified time period to keep their jobs. a) b) c) d)

union shop industrial shop open shop closed union

ANS: A

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

42. The __________ did not declare the union shop illegal, but it did allow each state to enact a right-to-work law that made union shops illegal within its borders. a) b) c) d)

Fair Labor Standards Act Wagner Act Landrum-Griffin Act Taft-Hartley Act

ANS: D

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 2

43. ____________ made it illegal for employers to discriminate based on union membership and established the National Labor Relations Board to investigate unfair labor practices. This act also established a voting procedure for workers to certify a union as their bargaining agent. a) b) c) d)

The Wagner Act The Fair Labor Standards Act The Taft-Hartley Act The Norris-LaGuardia Act

ANS: A

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 2

44. The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act) contained all of the following provisions, EXCEPT that it a) b) c) d)

made it illegal for employers to discriminate based on union membership. allowed states to pass right-to-work laws. establish a voting procedure for workers to certify a union. required employers to negotiate in good faith with certified unions.

ANS: B

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 2

45. The most important pro-union labor law enacted during the 1930s was the Page ____________, also known as the _______.


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a) b) c) d)

Labor-Management Relations Act; Taft-Hartley Act Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act; Landrum-Griffin Act Fair Labor Standards Act; Employment at Will Act National Labor Relations Act; the Wagner Act

ANS: D

DIF: LL2

REF: A1-5

OBJ: 2

46. Which of the following employment arrangements is most likely to result in the “free rider” problem for a union? a) b) c) d)

open shop. closed shop. union shop. restricted shop.

ANS: A

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

47. Workers at the Twin Rivers Assembly Plant recently voted in favor of certifying a union to represent them. The company that operates the plant has refused to recognize the union and won’t bargain with it. This approach by the company is a) completely legal but unethical. b) both legal and ethical because the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act allows all firms to operate under an open shop arrangement. c) a violation of the Landrum-Griffin Act. d) a violation of the Wagner Act. ANS: D

DIF: LL3

REF: Page A1-4

OBJ: 2

48. Critics of right-to-work laws believe that they allow workers to receive the benefits of union representation without paying union dues, thus depriving the union of the ability to raise the money it needs to effectively represent workers. This problem is referred to as the _____________ problem. a) b) c) d)

“no pay, no way” free rider beggar thy neighbor second-class representation

ANS: B

DIF: LL3

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

49. Kyle Woolery just joined a company that has a union that will represent him. The company operates under an open shop arrangement. This suggests that Kyle a) will soon have to join the union in order to keep his job. b) may join the union if he wishes, but he cannot be required to do so. c) must already belong to the union because he could not have been hired otherwise. d) doesn’t have to join the union, but he will be required to pay union dues. ANS: B

DIF: LL3

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 2

50. ___________ is the process by which representatives of labor and management attempt to negotiate a mutually acceptable labor agreement.


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a) b) c) d)

Collective bargaining Unilateral bargaining Representational bargaining Arbitration bargaining

ANS: A

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-5

OBJ: 3

51. A(n) ________ is a complaint made by a worker accusing the employer of violating the terms of a collective bargaining agreement. a) b) c) d)

arbitration appeal notification mediation grievance

ANS: D

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-7

OBJ: 3

52. _____________ involves workers walking and carrying signs near the entrance of an establishment with which they have a dispute in order to publicize their position and concerns. a) b) c) d)

Striking Picketing Blocking-out Boycotting

ANS: B

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-7

OBJ: 3

53. Under federal laws governing the process of collective bargaining, topics dealing with wages, benefits, and working conditions are a) completely off limits, because these are determined by the application of federal laws rather than by negotiation. b) mandatory subjects of bargaining, meaning that if either side makes a proposal about one of these topics, the other cannot legally refuse to discuss it. c) negotiated only under the direction and supervision of a third party known as an arbitrator. d) permissible topics of bargaining, meaning that the two sides are free to bargain about these subjects if they wish, but neither side can be required to do so. ANS: B OBJ: 3

DIF: LL2

REF: Pages A1-5 to A1-6

54. In the collective bargaining process, the two parties are free to bargain over_______________ subjects of bargaining if they wish, but neither side can be required to do so. a) b) c) d)

secondary suggested statutory permissible

ANS: D

DIF: LL2

REF: A1-6

OBJ: 3


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55. _________ involves bringing in an outsider who attempts to help the two sides reach an agreement, while _________ involves bringing in an outsider with the authority to impose a binding settlement on both parties. a) b) c) d)

Collective bargaining; distributive bargaining Distributive bargaining; interest-based bargaining Mediation; arbitration Arbitration; mediation

ANS: C

DIF: LL2

REF: A1-7

OBJ: 3

56. Jeff Biddle is a member of his union’s collective bargaining team, and Bailey Sharp is on the management’s bargaining team. As part of the negotiating process, Jeff and Bailey are working together to find solutions to some difficult issues involving the health care benefits the company offers employees. They hope to create a win-win solution that can be incorporated into the new labor contract. This approach suggests that the collective bargaining process is taking an approach known as a) b) c) d)

distributive bargaining. mediated bargaining. interest-based bargaining. Waiver of Independence Negotiating (WIN).

ANS: C

DIF: LL3

REF: Page A1-6

OBJ: 3

57. The union representing hourly workers at the Hilltown Auto Plant is gearing up for negotiations. The negotiating team is working on a list of demands. They intend to use whatever tactics are necessary to get the company to accept these demands. For its part, the management team plans to push hard to get the union to give up many of its benefits in order to cut costs. The attitudes of the two sides suggest this negotiating process will be an example of a) b) c) d)

binding arbitration. distributive bargaining. interest-based bargaining. the jawboning method of bargaining.

ANS: B

DIF: LL3

REF: Page A1-6

OBJ: 3

58. A comparison of wages and benefits of unionized workers with those of nonunion workers with similar qualifications and performing similar jobs suggests that a) b) c) d)

nonunion workers have both higher wages and better benefits. union workers have higher wages but nonunion workers have better benefits. nonunion workers have higher wages but union workers have better benefits. union workers tend to have both higher wages and better benefits.

ANS: D

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-9

OBJ: 4

59. In recent years union membership has been a) growing rapidly in both the private and public (government) sector. b) growing in many areas of the public sector but declining in most parts of the


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private sector. c) declining in the public sector but growing strongly in the private sector. d) declining at a rapid rate in both the public and private sectors. ANS: B

DIF: LL1

REF: Page A1-9

OBJ: 4

60. Labor contract terms and grievance procedures provide ______ to workers who are fired or punished for arbitrary reasons. a) b) c) d)

due process lockout opportunities mediation security

ANS: A

DIF: LL2

REF: A1-8

OBJ: 4

61. Recently seven national unions withdrew from the AFL-CIO because they were discouraged by the AFL-CIO’s inability to increase union membership. They formed a new national labor federation known as a) b) c) d)

The New Union. Change to Win. Workers United for Labor Progress. the U.S. Federation of Labor.

ANS: B

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-9

OBJ: 4

62. A comparison of union membership in the private sector with union membership in the public sector shows that a) the percentage of workers belonging to unions is virtually identical in the two sectors. b) a much higher percentage of workers in the private sector belongs to unions. c) a much higher percentage of workers in the public sector belongs to unions. d) while a slightly greater percentage of workers in the private sector currently belongs to unions, public sector unions are growing at a much faster rate. ANS: C

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-9

OBJ: 4

63. Studies concerning the impact of unions on labor productivity have a) b) c) d)

clearly shown that unions reduce labor productivity. clearly shown that unions improve labor productivity. yielded mixed evidence about the impact unions have on labor productivity. suggested that unions actually have little or no impact on labor productivity.

ANS: C

DIF: LL2

REF: Page A1-8

OBJ: 4

ESSAY 64. What is a labor union? What are the two basic ways that unions can be organized? Compare and contrast local unions with national unions and the AFL-CIO. ANS:


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A labor union is a group of workers who have organized in order to pursue common jobrelated objectives, such as better wages and benefits, safer working conditions, and greater job security. Unions can be organized either as craft unions, which consist of members who share the same skill or profession, or as industrial unions, which consist of workers in the same industry. The most basic unit of a union is the local union. This is the level at which most members have an opportunity to get directly involved in union activities. Most locals belong to a national (or international) union. National unions assist locals by providing services, such as leadership training and legal advice. They also help with the organization of new locals, support the efforts of existing locals to increase membership, and at times take an active role in the collective bargaining process. Many national unions belong to the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). This organization is not a union itself but rather a federation of national unions. The AFL-CIO is the national voice for the labor movement. It represents American workers at international labor conferences, is active in efforts to increase union membership, encourages political activism among members, and lobbies Congress in support of pro-union legislation. DIF: LL3

OBJ: 1

65. Illustrate the evolution of labor law by citing the specific provisions of one key law passed during the Depression and one law passed after World War II. ANS: Until the 1930s, there were no federal laws that dealt specifically with the rights of workers to organize unions or the way unions could carry out their functions. During the Great Depression of 1930s, several pro-labor laws were enacted. The three main pro-labor laws passed during this period were the:

Norris-LaGuardia Act of 1932, which recognized that workers have a legal right to organize and made it harder for companies to get injunctions against peaceful union tactics.

National Labor Relations Act of 1935, often called the Wagner Act, which was the most pro-labor law of the Depression years. It prevented employers from discriminating against union members, established an election procedure for certifying unions as the bargaining agent for a group of workers, and required employers to recognize and bargain with certified unions. It also established the National Labor Relations Board to investigate charges of unfair labor practices.

Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, which didn’t specifically address unions, but it supported causes that unions favored. For example, it established the first federal minimum wage (25 cents per hour) and required overtime pay for workers who worked more than 40 hours per week.


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The Wagner Act and other pro-labor legislation led to a tremendous surge in union membership in the late 1930s and early 1940s. Immediately after World War II, several major unions organized strikes that threatened to disrupt the nation’s economy. This led to concerns that unions were becoming too powerful. Congress reacted to these concerns by passing legislation. Two of the major acts passed during this period were the:

Labor-Management Relations Act of 1947, more commonly called the Taft-Hartley Act. This act sought to limit the power of unions. It identified several unfair labor practices by unions and declared them illegal. It also allowed workers to vote to decertify a union that represented them. It made closed shops (in which employers could only hire workers who already belonged to a union) illegal. Taft-Hartley didn’t declare union shops (in which all workers had to join the union within a specified time in order to keep their jobs) illegal across the nation, but it did allow individual states to pass rightto-work laws that made union shops illegal within their borders.

Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959, which contained provisions designed to make unions more democratic and to reduce corruption in union leadership. For example, it guaranteed the right of rank-and-file union members to attend and participate in union meetings and to vote in regularly scheduled secret ballot elections of union officers. It also required unions to file annual financial reports. Finally, it barred convicted felons and members of the Communist Party from holding union office.

DIF: LL3

OBJ: 2

66. Explain how labor contracts are negotiated. Disagreements about documents as long and complex as labor contracts are not unusual. Name and describe the procedure workers can follow if they feel their employer has not lived up to the collective bargaining agreement. ANS: The process by which representatives of labor and employers attempt to negotiate a mutually acceptable labor agreement is called collective bargaining. There are two broad basic approaches to collective bargaining. In distributive bargaining, the process tends to be adversarial. The sides begin with predetermined positions and an initial set of demands. They then use persuasion, logic, and even threats to gain as much as they can. The other approach is called interest-based bargaining. In this approach, the two sides do not present initial demands. Instead, they raise issues and concerns and try to work together to develop mutually beneficial solutions. Negotiations sometimes break down. An impasse occurs when it becomes obvious that a settlement is not possible under current conditions. When an impasse is reached, a strike may be called by the union, which is a work stoppage initiated by a union. The employer may respond to the impasse with a work stoppage called a lockout. However, both sides may agree to either mediation or arbitration to try to settle their differences and reach agreement without resorting to such work stoppages. Mediators can only try to reduce tensions, make suggestions, and encourage the two sides to settle. If one or both sides reject the mediator’s efforts, then the process is likely to fail. In contrast, an arbitrator has the authority to render a binding decision. Arbitration is common in the public sector, but it’s rare in the private sector.


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When workers believe they have been unfairly treated under terms of the contract, they may file a grievance. Most labor agreements contain a formal grievance procedure that identifies a specific series of steps to be followed in settling a complaint. The first step normally involves informal discussions between the complaining worker and a supervisor, often with the involvement of a local union officer (usually called a union steward). If the two parties cannot resolve their differences informally, the next step often involves the worker’s putting the grievance in writing and discussing it with a manager above the supervisor’s level. Each successive step involves higher levels of management and union representation. The process continues until the parties settle the issue, the union drops the complaint, or the issue is submitted to arbitration. DIF: LL3

OBJ: 3

67. Explain the types of topics discussed in a collective bargaining process. ANS: There is no set list of topics that are always discussed during collective bargaining, but under federal labor law, certain subjects are mandatory subjects of bargaining. Mandatory topics are those that deal with wages and benefits, hours of work, and other terms directly related to working conditions. If one side makes a proposal covering one of these topics, the other side cannot legally refuse to discuss it. For instance, if the union proposes a pay raise or a more flexible work schedule, a refusal by management to engage in good faith discussions concerning these proposals would be an unfair labor practice. Unions and management sometimes want to discuss topics beyond the mandatory subjects. In general, as long as a topic doesn’t involve a violation of the law, these other topics are considered permissible subjects of bargaining. In other words, the two sides are free to bargain over them, but neither side can be required to do so. Proposals to engage in illegal activities—such as a proposal that would involve discrimination against older workers—aren’t permissible. DIF: LL3

OBJ: 3

68. Evaluate the impact unions have had on their members’ welfare and the economy as a whole, and explain the new challenges that today’s unions face. ANS: Most studies find that union workers earn higher wages and receive more benefits than nonunion workers with similar skills performing the same type of job. Union contracts and the grievance procedure also provide union members with more protection from arbitrary discipline (including firings) than nonunion workers enjoy. However, during recent years, such protections have not prevented heavily unionized segments of the economy from experiencing both temporary layoffs and permanent job losses more frequently than most other sectors of the economy. Those losses were due to economic downturns and increasing foreign competition. Many critics argue that unions undermine worker productivity by imposing rules and restrictions that reduce the ability of firms to innovate and that require employers to use more labor than necessary to produce goods and services. However, union supporters suggest that unions reduce worker turnover—and experienced workers tend to be more productive than newly hired workers. In addition, craft unions often require their members to undergo extensive training that greatly improves workers’ skills, thus improving productivity. Research on this topic has not yielded clear-cut evidence in support of either position.


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One of the major problems facing unions is the continuing decline in union membership in the private sector. There are several reasons for this decline. In part, it is due a change in the structure of the U.S. economy. The traditional manufacturing base of the U.S. economy (which has been a union stronghold) has declined in importance due to increased foreign competition. Manufacturing jobs have been offset by growth in high-tech occupations and in professional jobs; these workers don’t tend to join unions. Another reason for the decline in union membership has been the increased willingness of employers to use anti-union tactics to discourage union membership. The AFL-CIO and national unions have placed greater emphasis on organizing activities in recent years in an attempt to reverse this trend. But despite these efforts, union membership has continued to decline. DIF: LL3

OBJ: 4


Test bank busn 2nd edition kelly