Page 1

Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

Chapter 02 Adapting Your Message to Your Audience True / False Questions

1. Knowing your audience is critical to the success of any message. True False

2. The first step in analyzing your audience is to determine ways to reach them. True False

3. You must reach the auxiliary audience to fulfill the purpose of your message since they decide whether to accept your recommendations or act on your ideas. True False

4. Watchdog audiences must be handled very carefully because they can stop a message. True False

5. A gatekeeper has the power to stop a message and may prevent the primary audience from ever seeing it. True False

6. An auxiliary audience includes "read-only" people who will not actually have to act on a message. True False

7. Audiences are well defined, so it is not possible for a single person to be part of two audiences. True False

2-1


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

8. The founders of the successful Internet business RealClearPolitics.com advise other entrepreneurs to focus on the broadest base of customers possible in order to reach large numbers of people. True False

9. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator categorizes people on four dimensions: introvertextravert, sensing-intuitive, thinking-feeling, and perceiving-judging. True False

10. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator identifies ways that people differ. True False

11. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, extraverted people get their energy from within. True False

12. Introverts would be more likely to become focused and energized during quiet moments of meditation than during large group interactions. True False

13. The Thinking-Feeling dichotomy on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator measures the way an individual makes decisions. True False

14. The Judging-Perceiving dichotomy on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator measures the way an individual prefers to take in information. True False

2-2


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

15. You will be most persuasive if you play to your audience's weaknesses and vulnerabilities. True False

16. Generalization is appropriate when you must appeal to a large group of people with one message. True False

17. In organizational situations in which the audience includes members of a group instead of just one individual, the best approach is to focus on the differences among the group members. True False

18. Business writers do not have to be concerned with literacy levels because people who read business messages have above-average reading and comprehension skills. True False

19. A research study mentioned in the chapter found that many U.S. adults have belowaverage reading skills. Fortunately, this finding does not pose much of a challenge for business writers since these are not the types of people who read business documents. True False

20. Demographic characteristics are too general and subjective to be relevant in audience analysis. True False

21. Demographic characteristics are measurements of the different attitudes that people in an audience have. True False

2-3


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

22. Religion, education level, and income are examples of demographic characteristics of a population. True False

23. All the demographic information that can possibly be obtained should be carefully considered when analyzing a group of individuals. True False

24. Psychographic characteristics are quantitative aspects of an individual that involve objective measurement. True False

25. Even if you know very little about your audience, you will find it easy to select and organize information that they think is important and that appeals to them. True False

26. Knowing what your audience finds important allows you to choose information and approaches that the audience will find persuasive. True False

27. Messages that are consistent with an organization's culture have very little chance of succeeding. True False

28. Company A has several levels of management, and it is important that employees communicate only with their immediate supervisors if they have a problem. Company B's president has an open-door policy and encourages employees at all levels to drop in any time they have something on their minds. It is apparent that these two companies have different organizational cultures. True False

2-4


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

29. A discourse community is a group of people who share assumptions about what topics to discuss and how to discuss them. True False

30. The values statement on a company's Web site reveals much more about a company's culture than how employees actually behave. True False

31. A company's Web site and policy manuals are valuable sources of information about a company's corporate culture. True False

32. To get an immediate response, it is more effective to use a written channel than an oral one. True False

33. An oral channel is more appropriate than a written one for delivering messages that contain many specific details important to the audience. True False

34. A written message is more effective than an oral one when one of the goals is to minimize undesirable emotions. True False

35. Video conferencing that connects people around the world has eliminated the need for face-to-face meetings. True False

2-5


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

36. The political environment of an organization can impact an audience's reaction to your message. True False

37. As long as a message is clearly stated, audiences will respond to it the same way regardless of who is delivering the message. True False

38. The process of audience analysis involves relying on a list of standard questions that is asked about all audiences, in all situations, for all purposes. True False

39. Using acronyms when communicating with those outside your unit is appropriate because it keeps messages short and to the point. True False

40. Put good news first when describing the benefits of what you have to say to an audience. True False

41. Good writers maintain one consistent style and approach for all audiences. True False

42. A message that would typically be written indirectly should be organized using a direct structure if this is what the reader prefers. True False

2-6


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

43. Documents that will be used outside of an office environment should be prepared on large sheets of paper on which there should be very little white space. True False

44. Negative messages should include audience benefits. True False

45. Research shows that the most highly satisfied employees are the ones who have many extrinsic motivators available to them on the job. True False

46. "If your suggestion for improving company procedures is implemented, you will receive a $1,000 bonus!" This sentence is an example of an extrinsic motivator. True False

47. Polly wrote a report that solved a problem in her department. She felt good about having used her writing and technical skills successfully and therefore decided to volunteer for a committee working on a different problem. In this case, Polly's motivation was intrinsic. True False

48. Pride in a job well done, satisfaction with assuming additional responsibility on the job, and an annual bonus for high-level performance are all examples of intrinsic motivators. True False

49. "You can use your creativity to design a system that works well for your own departments' needs." This sentence is an example of an intrinsic motivator. True False

2-7


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

50. Explaining a benefit to an audience is particularly easy if the audience has never thought of the benefit before. True False

51. To develop the best possible reader benefits for a message, you should brainstorm as many benefits as you can and then pick those that you can develop most effectively. True False

52. Thorough explanations of every feature of a product or policy are primarily what motivate an audience to purchase it. True False

53. When it is not possible to meet all of your audiences' needs, meet the needs of the gatekeepers and primary audience first. True False

54. When multiple audiences of your document have different and competing needs, it is advisable to provide an overview or executive summary for readers who just want the main points. True False

55. When you write to multiple audiences, you should address those with the least amount of understanding and involvement to determine level of detail, organization, level of formality, and use of technical terms and theory. True False

Multiple Choice Questions

2-8


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

56. The primary audience for your message is made up of A. decision makers or opinion molders in an organization. B. everyone who receives it. C. individuals with the highest status in an organization. D. people who represent the opinions or attitudes of the majority.

57. Who is the primary audience for a company that cans and markets pet food? A. Suppliers of the food products B. Veterinarians and animal hospitals C. Pet owners D. Dogs and cats

58. You are a technical writer in a large company who is working on a training manual to help new users learn the company's computer system. Employees will use your manual in training seminars taught by your company's trainers. The manual will also serve as an on-the-job reference later. Both of the system analysts who designed the computer system and the trainers will comment on your draft. The trainers would be classified as what kind of audience for your manual? A. Watchdog B. Gatekeeper C. Primary D. Secondary

59. Which of the following is not a gatekeeper? A. A receptionist for a small business who opens the mail and then date-time stamps each piece before passing it on to its owner B. An account executive who approves a marketing plan before it is submitted to the client C. A program director at the National Science Foundation who screens all grant applications to ensure conformity to the application criteria before forwarding them to the review board D. The HR director of a large university who screens all internal applicants for eligibility before sending applications to the interviewers for a specific position

2-9


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

60. Which audience has political, social, or economic power, pays close attention to the transaction between you and the primary audience, and may base future actions on its evaluation of your message? A. Auxillary audience B. Watchdog audience C. Gatekeeper D. Secondary audience

61. Carlos Diaz works in the collections department, and he is very successful at writing professional, effective letters to customers whose accounts are overdue. The human resources department asks to use copies of some of his letters in a training course for new employees to show good practices for written documents. These trainees are A. the primary audience B. gatekeepers C. a watchdog audience D. a secondary audience

62. Which of the following people would be an example of an auxiliary audience? A. A company vice president who routinely reads minutes of departmental meetings just to stay informed, even though he has no direct role in these meetings B. A customer group who will decide whether or not to purchase your product based upon your sales presentation C. An attorney who uses company documents as evidence of the organization's culture and practices D. A supervisor who reviews requests for employee transfers to other departments and who sends only those requests she approves on to the president's office

63. Carol Edwards is applying for a position in the marketing department of a local corporation. Although Shawn McMann is the director of this department, she has been instructed to send her resume and other documents to Jeff Cohen, manager of the human resources department. Jeff screens all applications before sending those of qualified candidates on to appropriate department heads. Jeff is A. the primary audience B. a gatekeeper C. a watchdog D. an auxiliary audience

2-10


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

64. The ability to put yourself in someone else's shoes and to feel with that other person is A. common sense B. professionalism C. audience analysis D. empathy

65. Which of the following methods is not a useful way of analyzing an individual who is your audience? A. Rely on what you already know about this individual through your previous experiences with him/her. B. Assume this individual thinks the same way as someone else you know who is in a similar position. C. Talk to other people who know this individual. D. Observe this individual firsthand.

66. Audience analysis is relatively easy when you are communicating with A. large groups of people. B. strangers. C. mailing list customers. D. an immediate supervisor.

67. Which one of the following is not a dimension of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator? A. Introvert-extrovert B. Sensing-intuitive C. Perceiving-judging D. Channeling-formatting

68. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, people who are the judging type A. like solving problems and being creative and are often impatient with details. B. are comfortable making quick decisions and like to come to closure so they can move on to something else. C. are very aware of other people and their feelings, are sympathetic, and like harmony. D. like to think on their feet, are energized by people, and would rather talk than write.

2-11


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

69. Suzanne Anthony tends to act on the spur of the moment and is comfortable adapting to changing situations. She also likes to consider all of her options and not rush in making a decision. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, she qualifies as which type? A. perceiving B. judging C. thinking D. intuitive

70. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, a person would not be both a A. a feeling and a judging type B. a thinking and an introverted type C. a sensing and an intuition type D. an extroverted and a perceiving type

71. Decisions can be made based on the logical consequences of a choice or action OR on the impact on people. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which dichotomy measures the way an individual makes decisions in this context? A. thinking-feeling B. judging-perceiving C. extravert-introvert D. sensing-intuition

72. Which of the following is not measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator? A. personality types B. stylistic preferences that people tend to have C. demographic facts about people D. the ways people differ

73. Many organizational situations involve an audience that consists of a group of people. Which is an appropriate approach to analyzing this type of audience? A. Rely on the fact that generalizations are true for all members of a group. B. Disregard demographic information to avoid stereotyping people. C. Avoid making any generalizations at all since group members are individuals. D. Identify things that the members of the group have in common.

2-12


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

74. When preparing a message for a large, diverse audience, you must A. request audience participation. B. include multiple visual aids. C. look for common denominators that tie members of the group together. D. compose an e-mail informing the audience of your timeline.

75. Which of the following is an example of demographic data? A. Moral values B. Age C. Social security number D. Interests

76. Demographic characteristics are measurable features that can be counted objectively and include all of the following except A. education level. B. gender. C. religion. D. personality.

77. Which of the following does not involve a demographic characteristic of an audience that is being addressed at a conference presentation? A. Approximately 40% of the attendees are opposed to the economic stimulus package. B. Over 70% the group members are scientists with Ph.D. degrees. C. At least 20% of the audience members are nearing retirement age. D. Nearly 35% of the participants are from Asian backgrounds.

78. Psychographic characteristics include all of the following except A. goals. B. beliefs. C. values. D. income level.

2-13


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

79. Which of the following demonstrates a psychographic characteristic of an individual? A. An employee is highly motivated to perform because he has the freedom to do things his own way. B. A 64-year-old woman is now interested in learning about Medicare benefits. C. A woman who was just promoted to president of a major corporation is contacted by a professional financial advisor. D. An African American male auditions for the lead role in a documentary about Martin Luther King.

80. Which of the following is not an advantage of using psychographic information? A. It shows what the audience finds important. B. It offers objective, measurable data about the audience. C. It helps a communicator choose the best appeal for the audience. D. It is less expensive than interviews.

81. Which of the following facts would NOT reveal information about an organization's culture? A. The employee manual is detailed, continuously updated, and relied upon extensively to run the company. B. The company gives 10% of its after-tax income to a community beautification program. C. The company philosophy is grounded in Biblical principles. D. The company president will be retiring in four years.

82. In an organization that values equality and individualism, you might find all of the following except A. a strict chain of command that must be followed. B. an environment that allows you to write contact the CEO directly. C. that the Vice President of Sales & Marketing treats you as a colleague. D. that your own ideas can be voiced and are acknowledged by senior management.

2-14


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

83. If you wanted to analyze an organization's culture, you would do so by asking all of the following questions except: A. Is the organization tall or flat? B. What does the work space look like? C. What activities do employees engage in after work? D. Is diversity or homogeneity preferred?

84. Which of the following is the typical relationship between discourse communities and organizations? A. There are several organizations in a single discourse community. B. There are several discourse communities in a single organization. C. Each organization has a single discourse community. D. Each discourse community has a single organization.

85. Which of the following would not be related to a discourse community in a factory? A. Extensive evidence and documentation is required to convince a manager to deviate from a company routine. B. Certain topics should not be brought up in the presence upper management. C. Supervisors have an open-door policy that encourages workers to stop in and chat. D. Additional funding has been allocated for the research and development of more energyefficient manufacturing.

86. Which of the following is an example that would relate to a discourse community? A. There are many levels of management between the company president and the production employees in a manufacturing business. B. Since there are numerous geographical locations, it is common for committee business to be discussed via e-mail or by using company discussion boards. C. The higher-level managers have the largest offices on the top floor of the building. D. Production workers receive monetary rewards for new ideas that save money or time.

2-15


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

87. Which of the following is not an example of how an organization reveals its culture nonverbally? A. Since there are numerous geographical locations, it is common for committee business to be discussed via e-mail or by using company discussion boards. B. There are many levels of management between the company president and the production employees in a manufacturing business. C. The higher-level managers have the largest offices on the top floor of the building. D. Production workers receive monetary rewards for new ideas that save money or time.

88. An oral message is preferable to a written one when you want to A. present many specific details. B. minimize undesirable emotions. C. resolve conflicts and build consensus. D. present extensive and complex data.

89. A written message is preferable to an oral one for all of the following except A. presenting extensive or complex financial data. B. discussing many specific details of a law, policy, or procedure. C. minimizing undesirable emotions. D. getting an immediate response.

90. Which medium for delivering news to the public is currently on the decline in terms of popularity? A. Blogs B. Printed newspapers C. Chatrooms D. Podcasts

91. Video conferencing A. has eliminated the need for face-to-face meetings among people in different geographic locations. B. is still too expensive to be feasible for most businesses. C. is inconvenient because of extensive hardware requirements. D. simultaneously connects workers and clients around the world.

2-16


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

92. When an audience feels your message is unimportant to them, you should A. use threatening language to show the seriousness of the matter. B. make any action requested as easy as possible to accomplish. C. avoid imposing deadlines for action. D. make the message long and detailed so perhaps something will catch their attention.

93. When you must write to someone who has negative feelings about your organization, your position, or you personally, you should A. use arrogant or condescending language to gain control of the audience. B. offer your opinion as to how you and the reader can create goodwill from this point forward. C. avoid mentioning any reader benefits. D. use a positive emphasis to counteract the natural tendency to sound defensive.

94. Providing an audience with some background information on a topic before delivering the main message is an example of responding to which audience analysis question? A. What positive aspects can you emphasize? B. How will the audience use the document? C. How will the audience initially react to the message? D. How much information does the audience need?

95. Developing logic and suggesting reader benefits is least essential when you are writing to someone who A. has had a negative experience with you in the past. B. disagrees with your position. C. is neutral about the message you are delivering. D. does not think very highly of the organization that you represent.

2-17


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

96. Which is an appropriate sentence when the audience must think of background or old information to appreciate your points? A. As you know, the company had a 25% increase in utilities costs last year. B. Let's see who remembers what we talked about at the last meeting regarding the company's utilities costs. C. You may not recall that utilities costs for this company rose 25% last year. D. The company's utilities costs were up 25% last year.

97. If an audience is opposed to what you have to say or resistant to a change you are suggesting, a good approach is to A. be as ambiguous as possible to avoid offending the members of the audience. B. begin the message with something both you and the audience can agree upon. C. try to convince the audience that your solution is perfect and that there are no other alternatives. D. deliver all aspects and details about the message at once to get it all out in the open.

98. You are asking a reader to do something physically difficult. Which of the following is least likely to achieve your goals? A. Break actions into a list, so that the reader can check off each step as it is completed. B. Show how the reader will benefit when the action is completed. C. Ask for the smallest action that will satisfy your purposes. D. Call the reader frequently to ensure that he or she has understood your request.

99. Tara Houser e-mails a colleague, Dan Brothers, to suggest that he be the lead writer in preparing a comprehensive business plan for the company. The task will be rather timeconsuming. Tara tells Dan that "the President will certainly be impressed with whoever heads up this project", which is persuasive because A. the company will be able to secure additional financing once it has a business plan. B. the President will be able to use the document to communicate expansion plans to stockholders. C. Dan will gain key leadership experience that will work in his favor when he applies for his promotion. D. Dan can help out his colleague so she does not have to take on this additional responsibility herself.

2-18


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

100. Harry Elliott, Marketing Manager for Mountaineer Lodge, is sending out a written survey to former guests in order to gather information about customer satisfaction levels with the property's various services. He realizes that his audience is busy and that they may not see his survey as a priority. Which of the following would most likely discourage people from completing and returning the survey? A. Asking respondents to reply within one to two weeks B. Listing a limited number of statements that respondents rank on a scale of one to five C. Including a self-addressed, postage-paid envelope that respondents can use to return the surveys D. Asking numerous open-ended essay-type questions and give respondents several blank pages to use to write their feedback

101. Although it is important to consider an audience's expectations, it is not appropriate to A. refer to a reader by her first name even if it is her preference. B. use a direct style of organization for a persuasive message for a reader who prefers this structure. C. omit critical information for a reader who wants only short documents. D. write in a friendly, informal style tone in a business document.

102. Samantha conducts a three-day training session for new employees. One participant writes on the evaluation form at the end of the session, "You told us you were a feminist, but I thought you were very professional." This comment shows that the participant A. does not yet understand the organization's corporate culture. B. sees the term "feminist" as something undesirable. C. thinks that the session would have been better if a man had conducted it. D. has never heard the term "feminist" before.

2-19


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

103. You're writing a memo recommending that Maria Rodriquez be promoted. Maria has been passed over for several promotions although her qualifications were stronger than those of the men (in each case) who received the promotion. You believe the failure to promote Maria is unfair and perhaps even evidence of discrimination. Should you use the word "discrimination" in your memo? A. Yes, because only "telling like it is" can be persuasive in business. B. Yes, because your superiors must face the truth before they can change their behavior. C. No, because "discrimination" is likely to alienate your readers and make them less likely to accept your recommendation. D. No, because business memos should not jump to conclusions.

104. If a document will be a detailed guide or if it contains instructions, you must do all of the following except A. check to be sure that all steps are in chronological order. B. number steps or provide check-off boxes so that readers can easily see what steps they've completed. C. group steps into five to seven sub-processes if there are many individual steps. D. present all the details in lengthy paragraphs so that the readers get all the information they need.

105. The question "What's in it for me?" when writing a business message relates to A. audience benefits. B. the level of formality. C. the hierarchy of needs. D. a description of the features of a product or policy.

106. An example of an intrinsic motivator would be A. earning a sales commission. B. being rewarded with a trip to the Bahamas. C. feeling a sense of pride for completing a job ahead of schedule. D. receiving high scores on a performance evaluation.

2-20


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

107. Which audience benefit does not use the you-attitude? A. We are offering discounts of up to 40% this week! B. You will receive 25% off just for using your store credit card. C. Your application will be complete as soon as you send your references. D. Your premier status enables you to purchase the sale items before the general public.

108. Which is appropriate for a message that addresses multiple audiences with different needs? A. Use personal pronouns to ensure that all members of the audience have the same interpretation. B. If the document will go to both internal and external audiences, use a slightly less formal style. C. Put background and explanatory information under separate headings. D. In the body of the document, provide enough detail and explanation for those in the audience who are least knowledgeable.

Fill in the Blank Questions

109. You must reach the _____ audience to fulfill your purposes in any message. ________________________________________

110. An individual in an audience who has the power to stop your message rather than sending it on to other audiences is called a _____. ________________________________________

111. An individual or group in an audience who has political, social, or economic power but does not have the power to stop the message and will not act directly on it is called a _____. ________________________________________

2-21


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

112. Those asked to implement your ideas after they've been approved are classified as a _____ audience. ________________________________________

113. The ability to put yourself in someone else's shoes and to feel with that person is called _____. ________________________________________

114. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the _____ dichotomy measures the way an individual makes decisions. ________________________________________

115. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the _____ dichotomy measures the way an individual prefers to take in information. ________________________________________

116. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, _____ types like to live in a planned, orderly way, seeking closure. ________________________________________

117. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, _____ types are energized by interacting with other people. ________________________________________

118. _____ characteristics are measurable features that can be counted objectively, such as age, sex, race, education level, and income. ________________________________________

2-22


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

119. _____ is necessary when you must appeal to a large group of people with one message. ________________________________________

120. _____ characteristics are qualitative rather than quantitative, such as values, beliefs, goals, and lifestyles. ________________________________________

121. The _____ of an organization is its values, attitudes, and philosophies. ________________________________________

122. A _____ is a group of people who share assumptions about what channels, formats, and styles to use for communication, what topics to discuss and how to discuss them, and what constitutes evidence. ________________________________________

123. A communication _____ is the means by which you convey or message. ________________________________________

124. The gains or advantages that the audience gets by using your services, buying your products, following your policies, or adopting your ideas are called audience ____. ________________________________________

125. ____ messages do not use audience benefits. ________________________________________

126. _____ motivators come automatically from using a product or doing something. ________________________________________

2-23


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

127. The prospect of receiving a commission of $2,500 on a sale is an _____ motivator. ________________________________________

128. A style of writing that presents benefits from the audience's perspective is called the ____ attitude. ________________________________________

129. Features alone rarely motivate readers. Instead, link the feature to the audience's _____ and provide details to make the benefit vivid. ________________________________________

Short Answer Questions

130. List three guidelines for analyzing an organization's discourse community.

131. Identify guidelines for analyzing an organization's culture.

2-24


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

132. List three things that a written message makes it easier to do than an oral message.

133. List five things that an oral message makes it easier to do than a written message.

134. Identify the six questions that provide a framework for audience analysis.

135. List three strategies to address a reader who sees your message as unimportant.

2-25


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

136. When some of your information is new to an audience, what techniques can be effective?

137. Identify three tactics to try if your audience will oppose what you have to say.

138. It is considered best to avoid hot buttons or "red flag" words that may create an immediate negative response. List four words that carry emotional charges for many readers:

139. List four techniques that you should use when your document is a detailed guide or contains instructions.

2-26


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

140. List three techniques that you can use to increase the feeling of solidarity in a reader with whom you have common experiences, interests, goals, and values.

141. List three strategies to employ when writing a document that will serve as a general reference.

142. Identify four characteristics of good audience benefits.

143. Why are intrinsic motivators more effective than extrinsic motivators if you want to effect long-term change?

2-27


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

144. List three situations in which you need to provide more detail and evidence that there will be a reader benefit, even though the logic of your document is sound.

145. Why is it important for reader benefits to be phrased in you-attitude?

146. List three steps to take when audience benefits are hard to identify or develop.

Essay Questions

2-28


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

147. Many business and administrative messages go not to a single person but to a larger audience. Often different members of the audience have different needs, and when it's not possible to effectively meet everyone's needs, the best advice is to meet the needs of gatekeepers and decision makers first. The text details four issues to attend to when faced with this challenge, they are: content and choice of details, organization of the document, level of formality, and the use of technical terms and theory. Provide advice for a writer working within these parameters. What should the writer be incorporating into his or her document as guided by the four stated issues?

148. Jeff decided to attend a professional writing seminar held at his local community college. As a new manager, he found himself having to write more and more on the job, and he felt the need to polish his skills. It was taking him way too long to complete even the most routine correspondence. Everything was going along fine until the instructor began discussing audience analysis. Jeff became confused. "I understand that you should have a firm grasp of your purposes before writing," he said, "but I don't quite follow you on the benefits of doing the same thing with audience. Sure, if you re writing to a person that you actually KNOW, I can see the value; but in my work I usually write to people I've never met and probably never will. I'm not sure all this would be worth my time--I spend too much time on writing as it is. Anyway, wouldn't I just be guessing?" Jeff brings up an important point. Can you effectively analyze your audience if you're writing to someone you've never met? Drawing on the principles outlined in your text and perhaps your own experience, discuss ways that audience analysis techniques might be applied to Jeff's situation and what the results of not analyzing his audience might be. Use specific examples that illustrate the general points you make.

Chapter 02 Adapting Your Message to Your Audience Answer Key

2-29


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker True / False Questions

1. (p. 30) Knowing your audience is critical to the success of any message. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

2. (p. 30) The first step in analyzing your audience is to determine ways to reach them. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

3. (p. 30-31) You must reach the auxiliary audience to fulfill the purpose of your message since they decide whether to accept your recommendations or act on your ideas. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

4. (p. 31) Watchdog audiences must be handled very carefully because they can stop a message. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-30


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

5. (p. 30) A gatekeeper has the power to stop a message and may prevent the primary audience from ever seeing it. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

6. (p. 31) An auxiliary audience includes "read-only" people who will not actually have to act on a message. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

7. (p. 31) Audiences are well defined, so it is not possible for a single person to be part of two audiences. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

8. (p. 31) The founders of the successful Internet business RealClearPolitics.com advise other entrepreneurs to focus on the broadest base of customers possible in order to reach large numbers of people. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-31


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

9. (p. 31) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator categorizes people on four dimensions: introvertextravert, sensing-intuitive, thinking-feeling, and perceiving-judging. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

10. (p. 31-32) The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator identifies ways that people differ. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

11. (p. 31) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, extraverted people get their energy from within. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

12. (p. 31) Introverts would be more likely to become focused and energized during quiet moments of meditation than during large group interactions. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

2-32


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

13. (p. 32) The Thinking-Feeling dichotomy on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator measures the way an individual makes decisions. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

14. (p. 31-32) The Judging-Perceiving dichotomy on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator measures the way an individual prefers to take in information. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

15. (p. 32) You will be most persuasive if you play to your audience's weaknesses and vulnerabilities. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

16. (p. 32) Generalization is appropriate when you must appeal to a large group of people with one message. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-33


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

17. (p. 32) In organizational situations in which the audience includes members of a group instead of just one individual, the best approach is to focus on the differences among the group members. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

18. (p. 32) Business writers do not have to be concerned with literacy levels because people who read business messages have above-average reading and comprehension skills. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

19. (p. 32) A research study mentioned in the chapter found that many U.S. adults have belowaverage reading skills. Fortunately, this finding does not pose much of a challenge for business writers since these are not the types of people who read business documents. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

20. (p. 33) Demographic characteristics are too general and subjective to be relevant in audience analysis. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-34


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

21. (p. 33) Demographic characteristics are measurements of the different attitudes that people in an audience have. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

22. (p. 33) Religion, education level, and income are examples of demographic characteristics of a population. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

23. (p. 33) All the demographic information that can possibly be obtained should be carefully considered when analyzing a group of individuals. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

24. (p. 34) Psychographic characteristics are quantitative aspects of an individual that involve objective measurement. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-35


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

25. (p. 35) Even if you know very little about your audience, you will find it easy to select and organize information that they think is important and that appeals to them. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

26. (p. 35) Knowing what your audience finds important allows you to choose information and approaches that the audience will find persuasive. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

27. (p. 35-36) Messages that are consistent with an organization's culture have very little chance of succeeding. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

28. (p. 35-36) Company A has several levels of management, and it is important that employees communicate only with their immediate supervisors if they have a problem. Company B's president has an open-door policy and encourages employees at all levels to drop in any time they have something on their minds. It is apparent that these two companies have different organizational cultures. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

2-36


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

29. (p. 36) A discourse community is a group of people who share assumptions about what topics to discuss and how to discuss them. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

30. (p. 35-36) The values statement on a company's Web site reveals much more about a company's culture than how employees actually behave. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

31. (p. 35-36) A company's Web site and policy manuals are valuable sources of information about a company's corporate culture. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

32. (p. 36-37) To get an immediate response, it is more effective to use a written channel than an oral one. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-2

2-37


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

33. (p. 36-37) An oral channel is more appropriate than a written one for delivering messages that contain many specific details important to the audience. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-2

34. (p. 36-37) A written message is more effective than an oral one when one of the goals is to minimize undesirable emotions. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-2

35. (p. 38) Video conferencing that connects people around the world has eliminated the need for face-to-face meetings. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-2

36. (p. 39) The political environment of an organization can impact an audience's reaction to your message. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

2-38


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

37. (p. 40-41) As long as a message is clearly stated, audiences will respond to it the same way regardless of who is delivering the message. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

38. (p. 39-44) The process of audience analysis involves relying on a list of standard questions that is asked about all audiences, in all situations, for all purposes. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

39. (p. 41) Using acronyms when communicating with those outside your unit is appropriate because it keeps messages short and to the point. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

40. (p. 42) Put good news first when describing the benefits of what you have to say to an audience. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

2-39


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

41. (p. 43) Good writers maintain one consistent style and approach for all audiences. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

42. (p. 43) A message that would typically be written indirectly should be organized using a direct structure if this is what the reader prefers. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

43. (p. 44) Documents that will be used outside of an office environment should be prepared on large sheets of paper on which there should be very little white space. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-3

44. (p. 45) Negative messages should include audience benefits. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-4

2-40


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

45. (p. 45-46) Research shows that the most highly satisfied employees are the ones who have many extrinsic motivators available to them on the job. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-4

46. (p. 45-46) "If your suggestion for improving company procedures is implemented, you will receive a $1,000 bonus!" This sentence is an example of an extrinsic motivator. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-4

47. (p. 45-46) Polly wrote a report that solved a problem in her department. She felt good about having used her writing and technical skills successfully and therefore decided to volunteer for a committee working on a different problem. In this case, Polly's motivation was intrinsic. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-4

48. (p. 45-46) Pride in a job well done, satisfaction with assuming additional responsibility on the job, and an annual bonus for high-level performance are all examples of intrinsic motivators. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-4

2-41


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

49. (p. 45-46) "You can use your creativity to design a system that works well for your own departments' needs." This sentence is an example of an intrinsic motivator. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-4

50. (p. 46) Explaining a benefit to an audience is particularly easy if the audience has never thought of the benefit before. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-4

51. (p. 47) To develop the best possible reader benefits for a message, you should brainstorm as many benefits as you can and then pick those that you can develop most effectively. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-4

52. (p. 49) Thorough explanations of every feature of a product or policy are primarily what motivate an audience to purchase it. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-4

2-42


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

53. (p. 51) When it is not possible to meet all of your audiences' needs, meet the needs of the gatekeepers and primary audience first. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-4

54. (p. 51) When multiple audiences of your document have different and competing needs, it is advisable to provide an overview or executive summary for readers who just want the main points. TRUE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-4

55. (p. 51) When you write to multiple audiences, you should address those with the least amount of understanding and involvement to determine level of detail, organization, level of formality, and use of technical terms and theory. FALSE

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-4

Multiple Choice Questions

2-43


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

56. (p. 30) The primary audience for your message is made up of A. decision makers or opinion molders in an organization. B. everyone who receives it. C. individuals with the highest status in an organization. D. people who represent the opinions or attitudes of the majority.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

57. (p. 30) Who is the primary audience for a company that cans and markets pet food? A. Suppliers of the food products B. Veterinarians and animal hospitals C. Pet owners D. Dogs and cats

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

58. (p. 30) You are a technical writer in a large company who is working on a training manual to help new users learn the company's computer system. Employees will use your manual in training seminars taught by your company's trainers. The manual will also serve as an on-thejob reference later. Both of the system analysts who designed the computer system and the trainers will comment on your draft. The trainers would be classified as what kind of audience for your manual? A. Watchdog B. Gatekeeper C. Primary D. Secondary

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

2-44


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

59. (p. 30) Which of the following is not a gatekeeper? A. A receptionist for a small business who opens the mail and then date-time stamps each piece before passing it on to its owner B. An account executive who approves a marketing plan before it is submitted to the client C. A program director at the National Science Foundation who screens all grant applications to ensure conformity to the application criteria before forwarding them to the review board D. The HR director of a large university who screens all internal applicants for eligibility before sending applications to the interviewers for a specific position

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

60. (p. 31) Which audience has political, social, or economic power, pays close attention to the transaction between you and the primary audience, and may base future actions on its evaluation of your message? A. Auxillary audience B. Watchdog audience C. Gatekeeper D. Secondary audience

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

61. (p. 30) Carlos Diaz works in the collections department, and he is very successful at writing professional, effective letters to customers whose accounts are overdue. The human resources department asks to use copies of some of his letters in a training course for new employees to show good practices for written documents. These trainees are A. the primary audience B. gatekeepers C. a watchdog audience D. a secondary audience

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-45


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

62. (p. 31) Which of the following people would be an example of an auxiliary audience? A. A company vice president who routinely reads minutes of departmental meetings just to stay informed, even though he has no direct role in these meetings B. A customer group who will decide whether or not to purchase your product based upon your sales presentation C. An attorney who uses company documents as evidence of the organization's culture and practices D. A supervisor who reviews requests for employee transfers to other departments and who sends only those requests she approves on to the president's office

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

63. (p. 30) Carol Edwards is applying for a position in the marketing department of a local corporation. Although Shawn McMann is the director of this department, she has been instructed to send her resume and other documents to Jeff Cohen, manager of the human resources department. Jeff screens all applications before sending those of qualified candidates on to appropriate department heads. Jeff is A. the primary audience B. a gatekeeper C. a watchdog D. an auxiliary audience

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

64. (p. 31) The ability to put yourself in someone else's shoes and to feel with that other person is A. common sense B. professionalism C. audience analysis D. empathy

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-46


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

65. (p. 31) Which of the following methods is not a useful way of analyzing an individual who is your audience? A. Rely on what you already know about this individual through your previous experiences with him/her. B. Assume this individual thinks the same way as someone else you know who is in a similar position. C. Talk to other people who know this individual. D. Observe this individual firsthand.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

66. (p. 32) Audience analysis is relatively easy when you are communicating with A. large groups of people. B. strangers. C. mailing list customers. D. an immediate supervisor.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

67. (p. 31) Which one of the following is not a dimension of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator? A. Introvert-extrovert B. Sensing-intuitive C. Perceiving-judging D. Channeling-formatting

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

2-47


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

68. (p. 33) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, people who are the judging type A. like solving problems and being creative and are often impatient with details. B. are comfortable making quick decisions and like to come to closure so they can move on to something else. C. are very aware of other people and their feelings, are sympathetic, and like harmony. D. like to think on their feet, are energized by people, and would rather talk than write.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

69. (p. 33) Suzanne Anthony tends to act on the spur of the moment and is comfortable adapting to changing situations. She also likes to consider all of her options and not rush in making a decision. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, she qualifies as which type? A. perceiving B. judging C. thinking D. intuitive

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

70. (p. 31-33) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, a person would not be both a A. a feeling and a judging type B. a thinking and an introverted type C. a sensing and an intuition type D. an extroverted and a perceiving type

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-48


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

71. (p. 31-33) Decisions can be made based on the logical consequences of a choice or action OR on the impact on people. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, which dichotomy measures the way an individual makes decisions in this context? A. thinking-feeling B. judging-perceiving C. extravert-introvert D. sensing-intuition

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

72. (p. 31-33) Which of the following is not measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator? A. personality types B. stylistic preferences that people tend to have C. demographic facts about people D. the ways people differ

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

73. (p. 32-33) Many organizational situations involve an audience that consists of a group of people. Which is an appropriate approach to analyzing this type of audience? A. Rely on the fact that generalizations are true for all members of a group. B. Disregard demographic information to avoid stereotyping people. C. Avoid making any generalizations at all since group members are individuals. D. Identify things that the members of the group have in common.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-49


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

74. (p. 32) When preparing a message for a large, diverse audience, you must A. request audience participation. B. include multiple visual aids. C. look for common denominators that tie members of the group together. D. compose an e-mail informing the audience of your timeline.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

75. (p. 33) Which of the following is an example of demographic data? A. Moral values B. Age C. Social security number D. Interests

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

76. (p. 33) Demographic characteristics are measurable features that can be counted objectively and include all of the following except A. education level. B. gender. C. religion. D. personality.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

2-50


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

77. (p. 33) Which of the following does not involve a demographic characteristic of an audience that is being addressed at a conference presentation? A. Approximately 40% of the attendees are opposed to the economic stimulus package. B. Over 70% the group members are scientists with Ph.D. degrees. C. At least 20% of the audience members are nearing retirement age. D. Nearly 35% of the participants are from Asian backgrounds.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

78. (p. 34) Psychographic characteristics include all of the following except A. goals. B. beliefs. C. values. D. income level.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

79. (p. 34-35) Which of the following demonstrates a psychographic characteristic of an individual? A. An employee is highly motivated to perform because he has the freedom to do things his own way. B. A 64-year-old woman is now interested in learning about Medicare benefits. C. A woman who was just promoted to president of a major corporation is contacted by a professional financial advisor. D. An African American male auditions for the lead role in a documentary about Martin Luther King.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

2-51


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

80. (p. 34-35) Which of the following is not an advantage of using psychographic information? A. It shows what the audience finds important. B. It offers objective, measurable data about the audience. C. It helps a communicator choose the best appeal for the audience. D. It is less expensive than interviews.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

81. (p. 35-36) Which of the following facts would NOT reveal information about an organization's culture? A. The employee manual is detailed, continuously updated, and relied upon extensively to run the company. B. The company gives 10% of its after-tax income to a community beautification program. C. The company philosophy is grounded in Biblical principles. D. The company president will be retiring in four years.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

82. (p. 35-36) In an organization that values equality and individualism, you might find all of the following except A. a strict chain of command that must be followed. B. an environment that allows you to write contact the CEO directly. C. that the Vice President of Sales & Marketing treats you as a colleague. D. that your own ideas can be voiced and are acknowledged by senior management.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-52


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

83. (p. 36) If you wanted to analyze an organization's culture, you would do so by asking all of the following questions except: A. Is the organization tall or flat? B. What does the work space look like? C. What activities do employees engage in after work? D. Is diversity or homogeneity preferred?

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

84. (p. 36) Which of the following is the typical relationship between discourse communities and organizations? A. There are several organizations in a single discourse community. B. There are several discourse communities in a single organization. C. Each organization has a single discourse community. D. Each discourse community has a single organization.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

85. (p. 36) Which of the following would not be related to a discourse community in a factory? A. Extensive evidence and documentation is required to convince a manager to deviate from a company routine. B. Certain topics should not be brought up in the presence upper management. C. Supervisors have an open-door policy that encourages workers to stop in and chat. D. Additional funding has been allocated for the research and development of more energyefficient manufacturing.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

2-53


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

86. (p. 36) Which of the following is an example that would relate to a discourse community? A. There are many levels of management between the company president and the production employees in a manufacturing business. B. Since there are numerous geographical locations, it is common for committee business to be discussed via e-mail or by using company discussion boards. C. The higher-level managers have the largest offices on the top floor of the building. D. Production workers receive monetary rewards for new ideas that save money or time.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

87. (p. 36) Which of the following is not an example of how an organization reveals its culture nonverbally? A. Since there are numerous geographical locations, it is common for committee business to be discussed via e-mail or by using company discussion boards. B. There are many levels of management between the company president and the production employees in a manufacturing business. C. The higher-level managers have the largest offices on the top floor of the building. D. Production workers receive monetary rewards for new ideas that save money or time.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

88. (p. 36-37) An oral message is preferable to a written one when you want to A. present many specific details. B. minimize undesirable emotions. C. resolve conflicts and build consensus. D. present extensive and complex data.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-2

2-54


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

89. (p. 36-37) A written message is preferable to an oral one for all of the following except A. presenting extensive or complex financial data. B. discussing many specific details of a law, policy, or procedure. C. minimizing undesirable emotions. D. getting an immediate response.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-2

90. (p. 37) Which medium for delivering news to the public is currently on the decline in terms of popularity? A. Blogs B. Printed newspapers C. Chatrooms D. Podcasts

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-2

91. (p. 38) Video conferencing A. has eliminated the need for face-to-face meetings among people in different geographic locations. B. is still too expensive to be feasible for most businesses. C. is inconvenient because of extensive hardware requirements. D. simultaneously connects workers and clients around the world.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-2

2-55


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

92. (p. 40) When an audience feels your message is unimportant to them, you should A. use threatening language to show the seriousness of the matter. B. make any action requested as easy as possible to accomplish. C. avoid imposing deadlines for action. D. make the message long and detailed so perhaps something will catch their attention.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

93. (p. 40-41) When you must write to someone who has negative feelings about your organization, your position, or you personally, you should A. use arrogant or condescending language to gain control of the audience. B. offer your opinion as to how you and the reader can create goodwill from this point forward. C. avoid mentioning any reader benefits. D. use a positive emphasis to counteract the natural tendency to sound defensive.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

94. (p. 41) Providing an audience with some background information on a topic before delivering the main message is an example of responding to which audience analysis question? A. What positive aspects can you emphasize? B. How will the audience use the document? C. How will the audience initially react to the message? D. How much information does the audience need?

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

2-56


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

95. (p. 40-41) Developing logic and suggesting reader benefits is least essential when you are writing to someone who A. has had a negative experience with you in the past. B. disagrees with your position. C. is neutral about the message you are delivering. D. does not think very highly of the organization that you represent.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-3

96. (p. 41) Which is an appropriate sentence when the audience must think of background or old information to appreciate your points? A. As you know, the company had a 25% increase in utilities costs last year. B. Let's see who remembers what we talked about at the last meeting regarding the company's utilities costs. C. You may not recall that utilities costs for this company rose 25% last year. D. The company's utilities costs were up 25% last year.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

97. (p. 42) If an audience is opposed to what you have to say or resistant to a change you are suggesting, a good approach is to A. be as ambiguous as possible to avoid offending the members of the audience. B. begin the message with something both you and the audience can agree upon. C. try to convince the audience that your solution is perfect and that there are no other alternatives. D. deliver all aspects and details about the message at once to get it all out in the open.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

2-57


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

98. (p. 42) You are asking a reader to do something physically difficult. Which of the following is least likely to achieve your goals? A. Break actions into a list, so that the reader can check off each step as it is completed. B. Show how the reader will benefit when the action is completed. C. Ask for the smallest action that will satisfy your purposes. D. Call the reader frequently to ensure that he or she has understood your request.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

99. (p. 45) Tara Houser e-mails a colleague, Dan Brothers, to suggest that he be the lead writer in preparing a comprehensive business plan for the company. The task will be rather timeconsuming. Tara tells Dan that "the President will certainly be impressed with whoever heads up this project", which is persuasive because A. the company will be able to secure additional financing once it has a business plan. B. the President will be able to use the document to communicate expansion plans to stockholders. C. Dan will gain key leadership experience that will work in his favor when he applies for his promotion. D. Dan can help out his colleague so she does not have to take on this additional responsibility herself.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

2-58


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

100. (p. 42) Harry Elliott, Marketing Manager for Mountaineer Lodge, is sending out a written survey to former guests in order to gather information about customer satisfaction levels with the property's various services. He realizes that his audience is busy and that they may not see his survey as a priority. Which of the following would most likely discourage people from completing and returning the survey? A. Asking respondents to reply within one to two weeks B. Listing a limited number of statements that respondents rank on a scale of one to five C. Including a self-addressed, postage-paid envelope that respondents can use to return the surveys D. Asking numerous open-ended essay-type questions and give respondents several blank pages to use to write their feedback

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

101. (p. 43) Although it is important to consider an audience's expectations, it is not appropriate to A. refer to a reader by her first name even if it is her preference. B. use a direct style of organization for a persuasive message for a reader who prefers this structure. C. omit critical information for a reader who wants only short documents. D. write in a friendly, informal style tone in a business document.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

2-59


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

102. (p. 43) Samantha conducts a three-day training session for new employees. One participant writes on the evaluation form at the end of the session, "You told us you were a feminist, but I thought you were very professional." This comment shows that the participant A. does not yet understand the organization's corporate culture. B. sees the term "feminist" as something undesirable. C. thinks that the session would have been better if a man had conducted it. D. has never heard the term "feminist" before.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

103. (p. 43) You're writing a memo recommending that Maria Rodriquez be promoted. Maria has been passed over for several promotions although her qualifications were stronger than those of the men (in each case) who received the promotion. You believe the failure to promote Maria is unfair and perhaps even evidence of discrimination. Should you use the word "discrimination" in your memo? A. Yes, because only "telling like it is" can be persuasive in business. B. Yes, because your superiors must face the truth before they can change their behavior. C. No, because "discrimination" is likely to alienate your readers and make them less likely to accept your recommendation. D. No, because business memos should not jump to conclusions.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

2-60


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

104. (p. 43) If a document will be a detailed guide or if it contains instructions, you must do all of the following except A. check to be sure that all steps are in chronological order. B. number steps or provide check-off boxes so that readers can easily see what steps they've completed. C. group steps into five to seven sub-processes if there are many individual steps. D. present all the details in lengthy paragraphs so that the readers get all the information they need.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

105. (p. 45) The question "What's in it for me?" when writing a business message relates to A. audience benefits. B. the level of formality. C. the hierarchy of needs. D. a description of the features of a product or policy.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-4

106. (p. 45) An example of an intrinsic motivator would be A. earning a sales commission. B. being rewarded with a trip to the Bahamas. C. feeling a sense of pride for completing a job ahead of schedule. D. receiving high scores on a performance evaluation.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-4

2-61


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

107. (p. 45) Which audience benefit does not use the you-attitude? A. We are offering discounts of up to 40% this week! B. You will receive 25% off just for using your store credit card. C. Your application will be complete as soon as you send your references. D. Your premier status enables you to purchase the sale items before the general public.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-4

108. (p. 51) Which is appropriate for a message that addresses multiple audiences with different needs? A. Use personal pronouns to ensure that all members of the audience have the same interpretation. B. If the document will go to both internal and external audiences, use a slightly less formal style. C. Put background and explanatory information under separate headings. D. In the body of the document, provide enough detail and explanation for those in the audience who are least knowledgeable.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-4

Fill in the Blank Questions

109. (p. 30) You must reach the _____ audience to fulfill your purposes in any message. primary

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-62


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

110. (p. 30) An individual in an audience who has the power to stop your message rather than sending it on to other audiences is called a _____. gatekeeper

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

111. (p. 31) An individual or group in an audience who has political, social, or economic power but does not have the power to stop the message and will not act directly on it is called a _____. watchdog

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

112. (p. 30) Those asked to implement your ideas after they've been approved are classified as a _____ audience. secondary

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

113. (p. 31) The ability to put yourself in someone else's shoes and to feel with that person is called _____. empathy

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-63


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

114. (p. 32) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the _____ dichotomy measures the way an individual makes decisions. thinking-feeling

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

115. (p. 31) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the _____ dichotomy measures the way an individual prefers to take in information. sensing-intuition

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

116. (p. 32) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, _____ types like to live in a planned, orderly way, seeking closure. judging

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

117. (p. 31) According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, _____ types are energized by interacting with other people. extraverted

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

2-64


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

118. (p. 33) _____ characteristics are measurable features that can be counted objectively, such as age, sex, race, education level, and income. Demographic

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

119. (p. 32) _____ is necessary when you must appeal to a large group of people with one message. Generalization

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

120. (p. 34) _____ characteristics are qualitative rather than quantitative, such as values, beliefs, goals, and lifestyles. Psychographic

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

121. (p. 35-36) The _____ of an organization is its values, attitudes, and philosophies. culture

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-1

2-65


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

122. (p. 36) A _____ is a group of people who share assumptions about what channels, formats, and styles to use for communication, what topics to discuss and how to discuss them, and what constitutes evidence. discourse community

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-1

123. (p. 36) A communication _____ is the means by which you convey or message. channel

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-2

124. (p. 45) The gains or advantages that the audience gets by using your services, buying your products, following your policies, or adopting your ideas are called audience ____. benefits

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-4

125. (p. 45) ____ messages do not use audience benefits. Negative

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-4

2-66


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

126. (p. 45) _____ motivators come automatically from using a product or doing something. Intrinsic

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-4

127. (p. 45) The prospect of receiving a commission of $2,500 on a sale is an _____ motivator. extrinsic

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-4

128. (p. 47) A style of writing that presents benefits from the audience's perspective is called the ____ attitude. you

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-4

129. (p. 48) Features alone rarely motivate readers. Instead, link the feature to the audience's _____ and provide details to make the benefit vivid. needs

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Easy Learning Objective: 02-4

Short Answer Questions

2-67


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

130. (p. 36) List three guidelines for analyzing an organization's discourse community. To analyze an organization's discourse community, ask the following questions: What channels, formats, and styles are preferred for communication? What do people talk about? What kind of and how much evidence is needed to be convincing?

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Analysis Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

131. (p. 35-36) Identify guidelines for analyzing an organization's culture. You can begin to analyze an organization's culture by asking the following questions: Is the organization flat or tall? How do people get ahead? Does the organization value diversity or homogeneity? How important are friendship and sociability? How formal are behavior, language, and dress? What are the organization's goals?

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Analysis Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-1

132. (p. 36-37) List three things that a written message makes it easier to do than an oral message. Answers include presenting extensive or complex financial data; presenting many specific details of a law, policy, or procedure; minimizing undesirable emotions.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective: 02-3

2-68


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

133. (p. 36-37) List five things that an oral message makes it easier to do than a written message. Answers include using emotion to help persuade the audience; focusing the audience's attention on a specific point; answering questions, resolving conflicts, or building consensus; modifying a proposal that may not be acceptable in its original form; and getting immediate action or response.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

134. (p. 40-44) Identify the six questions that provide a framework for audience analysis. 1. What will the audience's initial reaction be to the message? 2. How much information does the audience need? 3. What obstacles must you overcome? 4. What positive aspects can you emphasize? 5. What expectations does the audience have about the appropriate language or format for messages? 6. How will the audience use the document?

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Analysis Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

135. (p. 40) List three strategies to address a reader who sees your message as unimportant. Answers include using a subject line or first paragraph that convinces readers that your message is important and relevant; making the action as easy as possible; suggesting a realistic deadline for action; keeping the message as short as possible since people are more likely to delay reading long documents.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

2-69


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

136. (p. 41) When some of your information is new to an audience, what techniques can be effective? Answers include making a special effort to be clear, by defining terms, explaining concepts, and using examples; linking new information to old information that the reader already knows; using paragraphs and headings to break up new information into related chunks, so that the information is easier to digest; testing a draft of your document with your audience to see if they can understand and use what you've written.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

137. (p. 41) Identify three tactics to try if your audience will oppose what you have to say. Answers include starting your message with any areas of agreement or common ground that you share with your reader; making a special effort to be clear and unambiguous: making a special effort to avoid inflammatory statements; limiting your statement or request, postponing parts of your message to later if possible; showing that your solution is the best one currently available even if it isn't perfect.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

138. (p. 43) It is considered best to avoid hot buttons or "red flag" words that may create an immediate negative response. List four words that carry emotional charges for many readers: Any four of the following would be acceptable: criminal un-American feminist fundamentalist liberal

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-4

2-70


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

139. (p. 44) List four techniques that you should use when your document is a detailed guide or contains instructions. Answers include checking to be sure that all steps are in chronological order; numbering steps or providing check-off boxes so that readers can easily see which steps they've completed; grouping steps into five to seven sub-processes if there are many individual steps; and putting any warning at the beginning of the document and then repeating them before the specific step to which they apply.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

140. (p. 44) List three techniques that you can use to increase the feeling of solidarity in a reader with whom you have common experiences, interests, goals, and values. Answers include using a vivid anecdote to remind the reader of what you share; making a special effort to make your writing style friendly and informal; using a salutation and close that remind readers of their membership in this formal or informal group.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

141. (p. 44) List three strategies to employ when writing a document that will serve as a general reference. Answers include using a subject line to aid in filing and retrieval; using headings within the document so readers can skim it; giving the office as well as the person to contact so that the reader can get in touch with the appropriate person some time from now; spell out details that may be obvious now but might be forgotten in the near future.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-3

2-71


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

142. (p. 45-47) Identify four characteristics of good audience benefits. Good audience benefits meet the following criteria: (1) They are adapted to the audience; (2) they are based on intrinsic as well as extrinsic motivators; (3) they are supported by clear logic and are explained in adequate detail; and (4) they are phrased in you-attitude.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-4

143. (p. 45) Why are intrinsic motivators more effective than extrinsic motivators if you want to effect long-term change? Intrinsic motivators or benefits are better than extrinsic motivators for two reasons: (1) There just aren't enough extrinsic benefits for everything you want people to do. (2) Research shows that extrinsic benefits may actually make people less satisfied with the products they buy or the procedures they follow.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-4

144. (p. 46) List three situations in which you need to provide more detail and evidence that there will be a reader benefit, even though the logic of your document is sound. Answers include that the reader may not have thought of the benefit before; the benefit depends on the difference between the long run and the short run; and the reader will be hard to persuade, and you need detail to make the benefit vivid and emotionally convincing.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-4

2-72


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

145. (p. 47) Why is it important for reader benefits to be phrased in you-attitude? If reader benefits aren't in you-attitude, they'll sound selfish and won't be as effective as they could be. It doesn't matter how you phrase reader benefits while you're brainstorming and developing them, but in your final draft, check to be sure that you've used you-attitude.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-4

146. (p. 48-49) List three steps to take when audience benefits are hard to identify or develop. Identify the feelings, fears, and needs that may motivate your audience. 2. Identify the objective features of your product or policy that could meet the needs you've identified. 3. Show how the audience can meet their needs with the features of the policy or product.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Comprehension Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-4

2-73


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker Essay Questions

147. (p. 50-51) Many business and administrative messages go not to a single person but to a larger audience. Often different members of the audience have different needs, and when it's not possible to effectively meet everyone's needs, the best advice is to meet the needs of gatekeepers and decision makers first. The text details four issues to attend to when faced with this challenge, they are: content and choice of details, organization of the document, level of formality, and the use of technical terms and theory. Provide advice for a writer working within these parameters. What should the writer be incorporating into his or her document as guided by the four stated issues? Answers will vary, but each should include an element of the following: Content and choice of details: 1. Provide an overview or an executive summary for readers who want just the main points. 2. In the body of the document, provide enough detail for decision makers and for anyone else who would veto your proposal. 3. If the decision makers don't need details that other audiences will want, provide those details in appendixes - statistical tabulations, earlier reports, and so forth. Organizing the document: 1. Use headings and a table of contents so readers can turn to the portions that interest them. 2. Organize your message based on the decision maker's attitudes toward it. Level of formality: 1. Avoid personal pronouns. You ceases to have a specific meaning when several different audiences use a document. 2. If both internal and external audiences will use a document, use a slightly more formal style than you would in an internal document. 3. Use a more formal style when you write to an international audience. Use of technical terms and theory: 1. In the body of the document, assume the degree of knowledge that decision makers will have. 2. Put background information and theory under separate headings. Then readers can use the headings and the table of contents to read or skip these sections, as their knowledge dictates. 3. If decision makers will have more knowledge than other audiences, provide a glossary of terms. Early in the document, let readers know that the glossary exists.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-4

2-74


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

148. (p. 40-44) Jeff decided to attend a professional writing seminar held at his local community college. As a new manager, he found himself having to write more and more on the job, and he felt the need to polish his skills. It was taking him way too long to complete even the most routine correspondence. Everything was going along fine until the instructor began discussing audience analysis. Jeff became confused. "I understand that you should have a firm grasp of your purposes before writing," he said, "but I don't quite follow you on the benefits of doing the same thing with audience. Sure, if you re writing to a person that you actually KNOW, I can see the value; but in my work I usually write to people I've never met and probably never will. I'm not sure all this would be worth my time--I spend too much time on writing as it is. Anyway, wouldn't I just be guessing?" Jeff brings up an important point. Can you effectively analyze your audience if you're writing to someone you've never met? Drawing on the principles outlined in your text and perhaps your own experience, discuss ways that audience analysis techniques might be applied to Jeff's situation and what the results of not analyzing his audience might be. Use specific examples that illustrate the general points you make.

2-75


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-administrative-communication-9th-edition-locker

Answers will vary considerably, particularly if students do draw on their own experiences in writing. But even so, good answers should refer specifically to several of the six questions for audience analysis outlined in the text. Any discussion that does so and shows an understanding of how to apply the principles should be basically acceptable. There are two angles in particular that students may want to address. The problem contains one important hint: twice it refers to Jeff's feeling that he's spending too much time on his writing. Someone in that position would naturally be reluctant to do something that looks like it will take him even more time. Students could point out that though formal audience analysis may slow him down at first, eventually it will become almost second nature to him. Audience analysis can have the additional advantage of making his messages more effective, thereby saving time in the long run: he'll be able to spend less time clearing up misunderstandings or writing additional letters. Second, students could emphasize that when Jeff is writing to someone he's never met he should focus on those things he DOES know about the situation or can easily figure out. For example, if he's turning down a client's request, common sense will tell him the answer to the first question, how will the audience react: Obviously the client would rather have his or her request fulfilled. Just knowing whether a reader's reaction will be generally positive or negative could help him decide what details to stress and what pattern of organization to use. Or, if he wants to convince a client to spend a lot of money, he can probably figure out the obstacles he'll have to overcome. In most cases, at least, Jeff will also be able to determine how a document is likely to be used, which will give him insight into how the document should be designed and whether or not he's likely to be writing to multiple audiences. In summary, one of the unexpected benefits of formally analyzing your audience is that you find out you know much more than you thought you did. That alone can give people much more confidence about their writing.

AACSB: Communication Bloom's: Application Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective: 02-4

2-76

Test bank business and administrative communication 9th edition locker  

test bank business and administrative communication 9th edition locker. Full file at http://testbank360.eu/test-bank-business-and-admin...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you