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Chapter 2: Name Resolution and DNS TRUE/FALSE 1. To locate domain controllers that are running Active Directory or a server that is running a given service, client computers can query DNS and retrieve the addresses of one or more servers running the requested service. ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: 39

2. Windows 2003 attempts to resolve a name using NetBIOS first, and then DNS. ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: 41

3. By default, when a computer needs to resolve a NetBIOS name to an IP address, it sends a broadcast to the entire network. ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: 43

4. FQDNs are case sensitive. ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: 45

5. A single DNS server can hold all of the RRs used on the Internet. ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: 51

6. A primary DNS server and an authoritative DNS server are the same. ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: 53

7. DNS servers resolve hostnames to IP addresses. ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: 61

8. There is a one-to-many relationship between Active Directory domains and DNS domains. ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: 66

9. The DNS server components can be installed separately. ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: 68

10. The Microsoft DNS server that ships with all versions of the Windows Server 2003 family can handle a large workload. ANS: T MULTIPLE CHOICE

PTS: 1

REF: 67


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1. A(n) ____ contains the information needed to contact a remote system on an IP network. a. domain name c. port b. IP address d. URL ANS: B

PTS: 1

2. NetBIOS has been replaced by the ____. a. DNS b. DNSP ANS: A

PTS: 1

REF: 40 c. LDAP d. WAP REF: 40

3. The Domain Name System started with Windows ____. a. 4.0 c. 2000 b. 98 d. 2003 ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: 40

4. A NetBIOS name is a(n) ____-character name. a. 8 c. 32 b. 16 d. 64 ANS: B

PTS: 1

REF: 41

5. Which of the following letters in the NetBIOS name is reserved to describe a particular service or functionality? a. 13 c. 15 b. 14 d. 16 ANS: D

PTS: 1

REF: 41

6. In a NetBIOS name, the reserved character is typically expressed as a hexadecimal number surrounded by ____ at the end of the name. a. commas c. curly brackets b. slashes d. angle brackets ANS: D

PTS: 1

7. All NetBIOS names are in one big “____.” a. flat b. namespace ANS: D

PTS: 1

REF: 41 c. pond d. pool REF: 42

8. In order for NetBIOS to work on top of TCP/IP, ____ is used. a. TCP/BT c. NetBT b. BIOS/TCP d. NetTCP ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: 42

9. Different physical networks separated by a(n) ____ would be unable to resolve each other’s NetBIOS names. a. firewall c. WINS b. router d. DNS


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ANS: B

PTS: 1

10. DNS resolves ____s. a. WINS b. FQDN ANS: B

REF: 43 c. IETF d. TLD

PTS: 1

REF: 45

11. All possible FQDNs are contained in what is sometimes called the ____. a. Active Directory c. FQDN namespace b. forest root domain d. DNS namespace ANS: D

PTS: 1

REF: 45

12. An FQDN is restricted to ____ bytes for the host name. a. 16 c. 63 b. 32 d. 64 ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: 45

13. An FQDN is restricted to ____ bytes for the entire FQDN including the trailing period. a. 32 c. 64 b. 63 d. 255 ANS: D

PTS: 1

REF: 45

14. Each country has been assigned a two-letter ____. a. root domain c. SLD b. TLD d. CLD ANS: B

PTS: 1

REF: 48

15. The ccTLD abbreviation for each country is assigned by the ____. a. ARPA c. IANA b. DARPA d. ISO ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: 48

16. Which of the following domains is used to provide reverse lookup services? a. ccTLD c. .arpa b. gTLD d. rsTLD ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: 48

17. The most common DNS server software used on the Internet is called ____. a. SOA c. BIND b. Zone d. RR ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: 51

18. A DNS server with a read-write copy of the zone is called a(n) ____ name server. a. primary c. root b. secondary d. top ANS: A

PTS: 1

REF: 52


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19. DNS servers with read-only copies of the zone are called ____ name servers. a. primary c. root b. secondary d. top ANS: B

PTS: 1

REF: 52

20. Information about the current version of the zone is stored in the ____ resource record and is kept in all copies of the zone. a. TLD c. SOA b. SLD d. BIND ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: 53

21. ____ authority is a general term used to describe a situation in which a machine that is supposed to be authoritative isn’t, or a machine that isn’t supposed to be authoritative thinks it is. a. Slow c. Small b. Weak d. Poor ANS: B

PTS: 1

REF: 61

22. Active Directory domains use the same namespace as ____. a. LAN c. DNS b. SMTP d. LDAP ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: 66

23. If the DNS server does not support ____, then an administrator must make the entries manually. a. NS c. DDNS b. DNS d. NSDD ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: 66

24. In the BIND product, version ____ is the oldest tested and supported version. a. 4.9 c. 5.1.3. b. 4.9.7 d. 5.1.3.7 ANS: B

PTS: 1

REF: 67

25. In the BIND product, version ____ or newer is recommended. a. 4.2.2 c. 9.2.2 b. 8.2.2 d. 10.2.2 ANS: B

PTS: 1

REF: 67

26. With the ____ family, zone data can be stored in an application partition. a. Windows Server 98 c. Windows Server 2000 b. Windows Server NT d. Windows Server 2003 ANS: D

PTS: 1

27. What zones are stored in Active Directory? a. Active Directory root zones b. Active Directory primary zones

REF: 67 c. Active Directory secondary zones d. Active Directory integrated zones


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ANS: D

PTS: 1

REF: 67

28. The root name servers are configured to perform only ____ queries. a. iterative c. primary b. recursive d. secondary ANS: A

PTS: 1

REF: 58

29. Which of the following special characters can the NetBIOS name contain? a. \ c. * b. ! d. + ANS: B

PTS: 1

REF: 41

30. A NetBIOS name can contain which of the following special characters? a. # c. “ b. | d. ? ANS: A

PTS: 1

REF: 41

31. A NetBIOS name can contain which of the following special characters? a. $ c. , b. ; d. < ANS: A

PTS: 1

REF: 41

32. Which of the following is a valid value for the last character in a NetBIOS name? a. < < > c. <1C> b. < > > d. <256> ANS: C

PTS: 1

REF: 41

33. The operation of DNS is defined by a set of documents collected by the ____. a. IETF c. FQDN b. WWW d. RR ANS: A

PTS: 1

REF: 47

34. After the root domain, the next level of categorization is a(n) ____. a. SLD c. NLD b. TLD d. PLD ANS: B

PTS: 1

REF: 47

35. Which ccTLD abbreviation is issued for Canada? a. .ca c. .CAN b. .can d. .canada ANS: A

PTS: 1

REF: 48

COMPLETION 1. Name ____________________ is the process of resolving a human-friendly name into a number that a computer can use to contact another computer on a network.


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ANS: resolution PTS: 1

REF: 40

2. NetBIOS stands for Network ____________________ Input Output System. ANS: Basic PTS: 1

REF: 40

3. A network ____________________ is a message destined for all computers on a given network. ANS: broadcast PTS: 1

REF: 42

4. DNS can be used to provide reverse ____________________ services. ANS: lookup PTS: 1

REF: 45

5. The entire DNS namespace is represented by a single period (.) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; which is called the ____________________ domain. ANS: root PTS: 1

REF: 47

6. A(n) ____________________ normally includes all the RRs for a subdomain. ANS: zone PTS: 1

REF: 50

7. To avoid ____________________ errors, plan carefully and document the configuration of all servers involved. ANS: delegation PTS: 1

REF: 60

8. By default, the primary DNS ____________________ is first appended to the hostname and the resulting FQDN is sent to the DNS server for resolution. ANS: suffix PTS: 1

REF: 62

9. ____________________ records are created to assist clients in the Kerberos authentication process.


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ANS: SRV service locator Service locator PTS: 1

REF: 66

10. Zones stored in Active Directory are called Active Directory ____________________ zones. ANS: integrated PTS: 1

REF: 67

MATCHING Match each term with the correct statement below. a. zone transfer f. b. .arpa g. c. NetBIOS h. d. WINS i. e. Resource Record j. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

SRV record â&#x20AC;&#x153;flatâ&#x20AC;? namespace IP address A record MX record

7. 8. 9. 10.

Session layer protocol that provides name resolution and session management between computers a database with which all the computers on a network register their Net-BIOS names address and routing parameter area each piece of DNS information, such as the address for a particular host zone information transferred from a primary DNS server to a secondary DNS server allows clients to locate a domain controller in a particular domain, or a domain controller in a particular site in a particular domain directs e-mail to the correct server records the IP address of a host is used to determine on which network a particular computer is located all names are at the same level

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS: ANS:

C D B E A F J I H G

PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS: PTS:

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

SHORT ANSWER 1. How can you resolve NetBIOS names?

REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF: REF:

42 43 48 50 53 | 78 66 | 77 50 | 77 50 | 77 40 42


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ANS: The simplest way for a computer to resolve a NetBIOS name to an IP address is to send a network broadcast, which is a message destined for all computers on a given network. The broadcast message includes the NetBIOS name a computer is looking for, the type of service (represented by the 16th character), and the IP address of the computer sending the broadcast, such that the computer with the requested NetBIOS name can respond to the request. If a computer with a matching NetBIOS name and service type receives the broadcast message, it responds directly to the computer that sent the broadcast message with its IP address. PTS: 1

REF: 42

2. Describe the FQDN structure. ANS: An FQDN is actually made up of two parts: a hostname such as www or hostABC, and a DNS domain suffix such as microsoft.com or supercorp.net. All possible FQDNs are contained in what is sometimes called the DNS namespace. An FQDN can consist of letters, numbers, and the hyphen (-). In addition, FQDNs can also contain periods (.), but only as a separator between the different levels in the FQDN. An FQDN is restricted to 63 bytes for the host name and each domain level, which are referred to as labels and 255 bytes for the entire FQDN including the trailing period. Each label in an FQDN must begin and end with either a letter or a number. FQDNs are not case sensitive. PTS: 1

REF: 45

3. Describe the categorization levels of the FQDN. ANS: The entire DNS namespace is represented by a single period (.) â&#x20AC;&#x201D; which is called the root domain. The period is located at the end, or rightmost position of an FQDN, but is often not entered at all. There are many other TLDs, which are divided into two categories: country code TLDs (ccTLD) and generic TLDs (gTLD). Following the TLD is the second-level domain (SLD), which is a subdomain of a TLD. Once an FQDN is deeper than the third-level domain, any additional domains are referred to as just subdomains. PTS: 1

REF: 47

4. How are TLDs operated? ANS: Each TLD is operated by a registrar who collects and manages information from those who register in it, usually for a fee. If a network operator were to set up a DNS server and establish his own microsoft.com subdomain without regard to the registration process, the Domain Name System would be unable to function properly within that network. The rest of the world would carry on operations, but users of that DNS server would not be able to reach the Microsoft Web site correctly. In most cases, this is not desirable. However, it is one way to deliberately block access to certain sites (but only by name, not by IP address). It is also a way to create a private DNS structure that will not be exposed to any user or service outside a private network. For this reason, some DNS servers have information about fictitious TLDs or subdomains, such as .local or .private. However, all subdomains within a public TLD should be registered with that TLDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s registrar. In other words, a private DNS structure under .net, should be registered with the net TLD registrar. PTS: 1

REF: 49


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5. How is DNS organized? ANS: Each piece of DNS information, such as the address for a particular host, is called a Resource Record (RR). There are several types of RRs in the Domain Name System. The most common is an address (A) record that records the IP address of a host. Other important RR types include the mail exchanger (MX) record that directs e-mail to the correct server, the name server (NS) record, and start of authority (SOA) records. RRs are kept in either a text file or a database and are collected or grouped into DNS zones. A zone normally includes all the RRs for a subdomain, but a single zone could include a subdomain and any number of other subdomains within the same contiguous naming hierarchy. PTS: 1

REF: 50

6. Describe the most common errors related to DNS. ANS: Most errors occur in one of three areas: 1. Resource record errors — Resource record errors are greatly reduced by using modern software and graphical tools. Manual editing of resource records is an advanced skill and is not usually necessary. 2. Delegation errors — To avoid delegation errors, plan carefully and document the configuration of all servers involved. Make sure that any contractors used, such as ISPs and domain registrars, are well versed in DNS and understand how NS and SOA records are used. 3. Weak authorities — Weak authority is a general term used to describe a situation in which a machine that is supposed to be authoritative isn’t, or a machine that isn’t supposed to be authoritative thinks it is. PTS: 1

REF: 60-61

7. Describe SRV records. ANS: Active Directory clients make extensive use of a comparatively new type of RR called a service locator (SRV) record. An SRV record allows a client to send a DNS query specifying the type of service that it is looking for, and the DNS server will return the name of a computer providing that service. SRV records are created to allow clients to locate a domain controller in a particular domain, a domain controller in a particular site in a particular domain, the domain controller acting as the PDC Emulator for a particular domain, a Global Catalog server for a forest, or a particular domain controller based on its own unique identifier. SRV records are also created to assist clients in the Kerberos authentication process, the Kerberos password-changing process, and general Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) lookups. PTS: 1

REF: 66

8. Describe the process of delegation. ANS:


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When an SLD is registered, the registrar collects information about the person or organization registering the SLD. From a technical standpoint, the most important information gathered includes the names and IP addresses of at least two authoritative DNS servers that will answer queries about the new SLD. The registrar enters NS records into the TLD zone so that the TLD DNS servers can refer queries to the SLDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name servers. This is called delegation. PTS: 1

REF: 51

9. Describe types of queries that can be issued to a DNS server. ANS: There are two kinds of queries that can be issued to a DNS server: recursive and iterative (or nonrecursive). Recursive queries are the default, and indicate that the client wants the address resolved if at all possible, or an error if it cannot be resolved. The client does not want to ask any other DNS server, but wishes the DNS server to find an address, even if it has to ask another DNS server. Conversely, an iterative (or nonrecursive) query indicates that the client wants the DNS server to respond only with information from that particular DNS server. It expects a resolved address, an error, or a referral to another server. PTS: 1

REF: 53-54

10. How are hostnames and DNS suffixes resolved? ANS: DNS servers do not resolve hostnames to IP addresses â&#x20AC;&#x201D; they resolve FQDNs to IP addresses. If you try and submit a query to a DNS server for www, the server assumes you mean the top-level domain named www and will most likely return an error that the domain does not exist. If the name is less than 16 characters and contains characters that are valid for both DNS and NetBIOS names, it is impossible for Windows to determine if the name is a DNS or NetBIOS name. Because the default is to use DNS name resolution, DNS resolution is attempted first. In order to overcome this problem, Windows appends one or more DNS suffixes to the hostname. By default, the primary DNS suffix is first appended to the hostname and the resulting FQDN is sent to the DNS server for resolution. The primary DNS suffix is set by default to be the same as the DNS name of the domain the computer joins. PTS: 1

REF: 61-62


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