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Full file at 2 4. Morality Rates Among Infants and Children a. Infant Mortality (1) The infant mortality rate, the number of deaths of live-born infants under 1 year of age per 1,000 live births (in any given year), provides an important measure of the health of a population. (a) In 2005, infant mortality rates ranged from an average of 97 in least developed nations to an average of 5 in industrialized nations. (b) In 2005, the U.S. infant mortality rate was 6 and 34 countries had infant mortality rates lower than that of the U.S. (2) One of the major causes of infant death worldwide is diarrhea, resulting from poor water quality and sanitation. b. Under-5 Mortality Rate: rate of deaths of children under age 5 (1) Under-5 mortality rates range from an average of 153 in least developed nations to an average of 6 in industrialized nations. (2) A major contributing factor to deaths of infants and children is undernutrition. (a) In the developing world, one in four children under age 5 is underweight. (b) For these nutritionally deprived children, common childhood ailments such as diarrhea and respiratory infections can be fatal. 5. Maternal Mortality Rates a. Maternal mortality rate, a measure of deaths that result from complications associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and unsafe abortion, also provides a sensitive indicator of the health status of a population. (1) Maternal mortality is the leading cause of death and disability for women age 15 to 49 in developing countries. (2) The three most common causes of maternal death are hemorrhage, infection, and complications related to unsafe abortion. b. Cross-national comparisons (1) Rates of maternal mortality show a greater disparity between rich and poor countries than any of the other societal health measures: only 1% occur in high-income countries. (2) Women’s lifetime risk of dying from pregnancy or childbirth is highest in sub-Saharan Africa, where 1 in 16 women dies of pregnancy-related causes, compared to 1 in 4,000 in developed countries. c. Factors contributing to high maternal mortality rates in less developed countries (1) Poor quality and inaccessible health care: most women give birth without assistance of trained personnel. (2) Malnutrition and poor sanitation (3) Higher rates of pregnancy and childbearing at early ages (4) Lack of access to family planning services and/or lack of support of male partners to use contraceptive methods such as condoms, frequently resulting in unsafe abortions. C. Patterns of Burden of Disease 1. Provides an indicator of the overall burden of disease on a population through a single unit of measurement that combines not only the number of deaths but also the impact of premature death and disability on a population. a. This comprehensive measure, the disability-adjusted life year (DALY), reflects years of life lost to premature death and years lived with a disability. b. 1 DALY is equal to 1 lost year of health life 2. Leading causes a. Worldwide, tobacco is the leading cause of burden of disease.


Solution manual understanding social problems 6th edition mooney  

solution manual understanding social problems 6th edition mooney. Full file at

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