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Full file at 2 (2) The Miss HIV Stigma Free beauty pageant, first held in Botswana in 2002, where more than one-third of adults are infected with HIV, combats the stigma by showing that HIV-infected individuals need not be ashamed and that with treatment they can lead productive lives. e. Fighting anti-gay prejudice and discrimination is also important in efforts to support the well-being of individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. (1) In Africa, where about one-half of the nations have laws that criminalize same-sex behavior, fear of arrest drives gay African further underground, making them more difficult to reach for HIV interventions. (2) Fear of arrest prevents people from attending meetings or socializing in locations where their sexual identities become suspect. 5. Needle Exchange Programs a. Injection drug use accounts for most HIV cases in China, Russia, Iran, Afghanistan, Nepal, the Baltic states, and all of Central Asia as well as much of Southeast Asia and South America. b. To reduce transmission of HIV among injection drug users, their sex partners, and their children, some countries and U.S. communities have established needle exchange programs, which provide new, sterile syringes in exchange for used, contaminated syringes (1) Many needle exchange programs provide drug users with a referral to drug counseling and treatment, HIV testing and screening for other sexually transmissible diseases, hepatitis vaccinations, and condoms. (2) Needle exchange has been endorsed as an effective means of HIV prevention by the American Medical Association, the American Public Health Association, and the World Health Organization. (3) Needle-exchange programs also protect public health by providing safe disposal or potentially infectious syringes. c. Availability (1) In Canada, sterile injection equipment is available in pharmacies and needle exchange programs. (2) In the U.S., most states prohibit the sale of sterile needles without a prescription. (3) In 2004, 184 needle exchange programs were operating in 36 states, but less than half received public funding from local and/or state government. (4) The United States is the only country in the world to explicitly ban the use of federal funds for needle exchange. d. The great irony in HIV/AIDS prevention is that we know how to prevent HIV transmission and it is neither technically difficult nor expensive. (1) Most HIV transmission can be stopped by the widespread use of condoms and clean needles. (2) Implementing these strategies, however, conflicts with religious and cultural beliefs and threatens the political power structure. 6. Financial and Medical Aid to Developing Countries a. Life-extending treatment for individuals infected with HIV is not affordable for many people in the developing world. (1) Only 20 percent of the people who need HIV/AIDS drugs have access to them. (2) Fewer than 10 percent of HIV-positive pregnant women are getting antiretroviral therapy that could not only extend their lives but also reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to their babies.


Solution manual understanding social problems 6th edition mooney  

solution manual understanding social problems 6th edition mooney. Full file at