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Problems of Illness and Health Care e. Asian Americans typically have high levels of health. (1) This is due in large part to the fact that they have the highest levels of income and education of any racial or ethnic U.S. minority group. (2) Traditional Asian diets, which include lots of fish and vegetables, may also account for their higher levels of health. 3. Socioeconomic differences between racial and ethnic groups are largely responsible for racial and ethnic differences in health status. a. Racial and ethnic minorities are less likely to have insurance coverage. (1) Hispanic individuals are most likely to be uninsured (32.7%), followed by American Indian/Alaskan Natives (31.4%), Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders (21.7%), blacks (19.4%), Asians (16.1%), and non-Hispanic whites (10.7%). (2) Compared to the insured, the uninsured are less likely to get timely and routine care and are more likely to be hospitalized for preventable conditions. b. Minorities are more likely to live and work in environments where they are exposed to hazards such as toxic chemicals, dust, and fumes. c. Discrimination contributes to poorer health by restricting access to quality public education, housing, and health care. (1) A study at 658 U.S. hospitals found that black patients were much less likely than white patients to get basic diagnostic tests, clot-busting drugs, or angioplasties. (2) In a study of racial disparities in rates of undergoing nine different surgical procedures, whites had higher rates than blacks for all nine surgical procedures; by 2001, the racial differences narrowed significantly for only one of the nine procedures, remained unchanged for three of the procedures and increased significantly for five of the nine procedures. 4. Race, Ethnicity, and Mental Health a. Medical sociologist, William Cockerham, reported in 2005 that almost all of the data and research that currently record differences in mental disorder between races show there is little or no significant difference in general between whites and members of racial minority groups. b. Differences that do exist are often associated more with social class than with race and ethnicity. c. Some studies suggest that minorities have a higher risk for mental disorders, such as anxiety and depression, in part because of racism and discrimination, which adversely affect physical and mental health—in 2004, Hispanics were more likely to have experienced serious psychological distress during the past 30 days than blacks and whites. d. Minorities also have less access to mental health services, are less likely to receive needed mental health services, often receive lower quality mental health care, and are underrepresented in mental health research. F. Family and Household Factors 1. Married people have better health. a. A study found that married people who live only with their spouse or with spouse and children had the best physical and mental health, whereas single women living with children had the lowest measures of health. b. Other studies show that married adults are healthier and have lower levels of depression and anxiety compared to adults who are single, divorced, cohabiting, or widowed. c. Two explanations for the association between marital status and health are the selection and causation theories. (1) The selection theory suggests that healthy individuals are more likely to marry and to stay married. (2) The causation theory says that better health among married individuals results from the economic advantages of marriage and from the emotional support provided by most marriages—the sense of being cared about, loved, and valued.


Solution manual understanding social problems 6th edition mooney  

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