Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-understanding-social-problems-6th-editionmooneyChapter 2 (b) Physical brutality is frequently used as a mechanism of control on the production floor of the factory (2) Transnational corporations are responsible for high levels of pollution and environmental degradation, which negatively impacts the health of entire populations. (3) The movement of factories out of the United States to other countries has resulted in significant losses of U.S. jobs in manufacturing and the textile and apparel industry, and unemployment contributes to mental and physical illness. 5. Effects of international free trade agreements on health a. The World Trade Organization (WTO) and regional trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) establish rules aimed to increased international trade. b. These trade rules supercede member countries’ laws and regulations, including those governing public health, if those laws or regulations represent a barrier to trade. (1) The Methanex Corporation of Canada produces methanol, a gas additive. (a) When the state of California banned the use of MTBE because of its link to cancer, the Methanex Corporation initiated an approximately $1 billion lawsuit against the United States, claiming that California’s ban of MTBE violates Chapter 11 of NAFTA. (b) After a 5-year battle, a closed tribunal sided with California, causing supporters of NAFTA to say that U.S. trade agreements do not encroach on governments’ right to enforce health and environmental regulations. (2) Other companies have succeeded in suing governments under NAFTA rules: in 2000, U.S. Metaclad sued Mexico for $16 million because Mexico stopped the company from reopening a toxic waste dump that would contaminate people and the environment. c. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) mandates that all WTO member countries implement intellectual property rules that provide 20-year monopoly control over patented items, including medications. (1) TRIPS limits the availability of generic drugs, thus contributing to higher drug costs. (2) TRIPS affects access to medications for life-threatening diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, in low-income countries. B. Social Class and Poverty 1. Poverty is associated with malnutrition, indoor air pollution, hazardous working conditions, lack of access to medical care, and unsafe water and sanitation. 2. Half of the urban population in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean suffers from one or more diseases linked to inadequate water and sanitation. 3. The percentage of Americans reporting fair or poor health is considerably higher among persons living below the poverty line as for those with incomes at least twice the poverty threshold. a. In the U.S., poverty is associated with higher rates of health-risk behaviors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, being overweight, and physical inactivity. b. The poor in the U.S. are also exposed to more environmental health hazards. c. The poor in the U.S. have unequal access to and use of medical care. d. Members of the lower class tend to experience higher levels of stress and have fewer resources to cope with it—stress has been linked to a variety of physical and mental health problems, including high blood pressure, cancer, chronic fatigue, and substance abuse.
Published on Jan 13, 2017
solution manual understanding social problems 6th edition mooney. Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-understanding-soci...