Problems of Illness and Health Care 2. Social and environmental causes include poverty, history of abuse or other severe emotional trauma can also affect individuals’ vulnerability to mental illness and mental health problems. a. Iodine deficiency, common in poor countries, is believed to be the single most common preventable cause of mental retardation and brain damage. b. War within and between countries also contributes to mental illness: experts predict that 16% of service members serving in Iraq and Afghanistan will develop post-traumatic stress disorder. c. Depression, which can be caused by biochemical conditions, can also stem from cultural conditions, such as radical shifts in technology, changes in family and societal supports and networks and the commercialization of existence. 3. It may be safe to conclude that the causes of most mental disorders lie in some combination of genetic, biological, and environmental factors.
VI. SOCIAL FACTORS AND LIFESTYLE BEHAVIORS ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTH AND ILLNESS A. Globalization 1. Broadly defined as the growing economic, political, and social interconnectedness among societies throughout the world, globalization has eroded the boundaries that separate societies, creating a “global village.” 2. Globalization has both positive and negative effects. a. Positive: globalized communications enhances the capacity to monitor and report on outbreaks of disease, disseminate guidelines for controlling and treating disease, share scientific knowledge and research findings. b. Negative: aspects of globalization have been linked to health problems. 3. Effects of increased travel on health a. Increased business travel and tourism have encouraged the spread of disease, such as West Nile virus. (1) The West Nile virus first appeared in the U.S. in 1999 and has spread to all 48 contiguous states. (2) Before 1999, the West Nile virus had never before been found in the U.S. (3) The most likely explanation of how the virus got to the U.S. is that it was introduced by an infected bird that was imported or an infected human returning from a country where the virus is common. b. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) was first diagnosed in South China in 2002. (1) Within months of diagnosis it spread to 29 countries. (2) It has infected thousands of individuals and killed more than 800. 4. Effects of increased trade and transnational corporations on health a. Increased transportation of goods by air, sea, and land contributes to pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels. b. The expansion of international trade of harmful products, such as tobacco, alcohol, and fast foods, is associated with a rise in cancer, heart disease, stroke and diabetes. c. Transnational corporations set up shop in developing countries to take advantage of low wages and lax environmental and labor regulations. (1) Workers are often exposed to harmful working conditions that increase the risk of illness, injury, and mental anguish. (a) Workers often suffer exposure to toxic substances, lack safety equipment, are denied bathroom breaks (which leads to bladder infections)
Published on Jan 13, 2017
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