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Problems of Illness and Health Care b. A 2005 report suggests that over the next 50 years, obesity will shorten the average U.S. life expectancy by at least 2 to 5 years, reversing the mostly steady increase in life expectancy that has occurred over the past two centuries. 4. Incidence, Prevalence, and Trends in the United States a. Adults (1) The percentage of overweight (but not obese) adults has remained steady at 32-34 percent since the 1960s, but during that same period, the percentage of obese adults has jumped from 13 percent to 34 percent. (2) About 2/3 of U.S. adults are either overweight or obese. (3) The highest rate of obesity (51%) is among non-Hispanic black women. b. Youth (1) The percentage of overweight adolescents ages 12-19 has more than tripled since the 1970s, from 5 percent to 17 percent. (2) The percentage of overweight children ages 6-11 more than doubled since the 1970s, from 7 percent to 19 percent. B. Social and lifestyle causes: patterns of food consumption and physical activity 1. Physical activity a. U.S. adults (1) National survey data show that less than one-third of U.S. adults engage in regular leisure-time physical activity (defined as moderate activity for 30 minutes or more at least 5 times a week or vigorous activity for 20 minutes at least 3 times a week). (2) One in five U.S. adults report that they do not engage in any physical activity. b. U.S. youth (1) More than one-third of youth in grades 9-12 do not engage in regular vigorous physical activity. (2) Only one-third of high school students participate in daily physical education classes at school. 2. Food consumption a. Americans are increasingly eating out at fast food and other restaurants where foods tend to contain more sugars and fats than foods consumed at home. (1) In 1970, Americans spent 1/3 of their food dollars on food away from home; this amount grew to 39% in 1980, 45% in 1990, and 47% in 2001. (2) A national study revealed that young adults ages 18-27 consumed fast food on average 2.5 times per week. b. Fast food consumption is strongly associated with weight gain and insulin resistance, thus, increasing obesity and Type 2 diabetes. c. Consumption of snack foods and sugary soft drinks has also increased. (1) Among children ages 6 to 11 years, consumption of chips, crackers, popcorn, and/or pretzels tripled from the mid 1970s to the mid 1990s. (2) Consumption of soft drinks doubled during the same period. d. This changing pattern of food consumption, known as the nutrition transition, is contributing to a rapid rise in obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide. C. Cultural attitudes also play a role in obesity 1. In Black American culture, a “full physique” is considered an ideal body type: Black women with more than ample hips and plenty of “junk in the trunk” are considered attractive. 2. Black women who are thin are criticized for being underweight. D. Obesity is also related to socioeconomic status. 1. In less developed countries, poverty is associated with undernutrition and starvation.


Solution manual understanding social problems 6th edition mooney  

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