Issuu on Google+

Full file at

Solutions – Chapter 2 Ethical and Societal Issues Fighting Global Poverty with Information Systems Discussion Questions 1. The World Bank is empowering its clients with the information systems they need locally to participate in the global economy. This will improve their ability to repay loans. 2. Language and cultural differences are only some of the challenges that the World Bank will face. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Student responses may vary. Some may want to consider investment projects. 2. Answers may vary.

Information Systems @ Work Grand & Toy Seeks Competitive Advantage by Tracking Key Performance Indicators Discussion Questions 1. Revenue, return on investment (ROI), overhead, and operational costs. 2. Student responses will vary. If the system is used as a complement to its business intelligence systems, Grand & Toy may be able to maintain it competitive advantage. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Responses will vary. Some students may opt for discerning patterns and trends in data collected. 2. It is important for the company to have the ability to capture and provide access to data.

Full file at

Review Questions 1. A value chain is a series (chain) of events that includes inbound logistics, warehouse and storage, production, finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service. 2. Supply chain management (SCM) helps determine what supplies are required for the value chain, what quantities are needed to meet customer demand, how the supplies should be processed (manufactured) into finished goods and services, and how the shipment of supplies and products to customers should be scheduled, monitored, and controlled. 3. An information system can indirectly add value by summarizing the feedback from value-added processes for use by management and other organizational employees. The monitoring and control capabilities of an IS are excellent support features. A more contemporary view of the IS function holds that this system is an integral part of the value-adding processes and is key to providing input collection, product transformation, and output creation. In this way, an IS system can become a direct, strategic tool used to accomplish organizational goals and objectives. 4. Reengineering is the radical redesign of business processes, organizational structures, information systems, and values of the organization to achieve a breakthrough in business results. Sometimes called process redesign, reengineering can reduce product delivery time, increase product and service quality, enhance customer satisfaction, and increase revenues and profits through challenging the fundamental assumptions of how a business process is done. Reengineering involves strong, broad actions to achieve major goals and is often driven by outsiders or upper management. Information system changes can be key components of reengineering. Another change mechanism, continuous improvement, is routine action taken to constantly and incrementally improve specific tasks. Workers direct this effort and rely on the outputs of an information system to assist in measurement. 5. User satisfaction is what a user thinks and feels about a product and its quality. 6. Reengineering is radical redesign of business processes, organizational structures, information systems, and values of the organization to achieve a breakthrough in business results. Continuous improvement is constantly seeking ways to improve business processes to add value to products and services. 7. Technology diffusion measures how widely technology is spread throughout an organization. Technology infusion looks at the extent to which technology is deeply integrated into an area or department.

Full file at

8. Quality is the ability of a product or service to meet or exceed the expectations of a customer. The intent of management to create quality goods or services is often operationalized through a commitment to a total quality management (TQM) approach to business. This means a collection of approaches, tools, and techniques are used throughout the firm to foster higher levels of quality. Key components in this approach are recognition of customer needs, employee empowerment, having a vision for quality, and developing a reward system. 9. Organizational change is the process used by both profit and nonprofit organizations to plan, implement, and handle change. Organizational learning is a concept by which organizations adapt to new conditions or alter their practices over time. 10. The following table summarizes the basic organizational structures: Organizational Structure



Major department heads report to a president or top-level manager


Lower-level employees are empowered to make decisions and solve problems without needing permission from mid-level managers


Centered on major products or services


Centered on teams or work groups


Incorporates a combination of several structures

11. The change model has three basic components--unfreezing, moving, and refreezing. Unfreezing is the process of ceasing old habits and creating a climate receptive to change. Moving is learning new behaviors. Refreezing is the process of making the new behaviors a normal, accepted part of the job.



Refreezin g

12. Downsizing is the planned reduction of a workforce used to reduce costs. It is sometimes called rightsizing. Outsourcing, on the other hand, is contracting with outside professional services to meet business needs. This means that organizational resources are focused on the primary business activity. Professionals handle secondary functions with more expertise in a particular area. In theory, the workforce is not reduced but instead reallocated.

Full file at

13. Organizations employ various strategies to achieve a competitive advantage. Among these are the forming of alliances with other companies, developing a niche market, maintaining competitive costs, and creating product differentiation. 14. Five common justifications for the implementation of an IS include tangible savings, intangible savings, legal requirements, modernization, and use as a pilot project. 15. Productivity is a measure of the output achieved divided by the input required (Productivity [in percent] = [Output/Input] X 100). Companies can best use productivity measurements by well-managing, training, and motivating employees to use the IS in a way that delivers measurable gains in output. 16. On-demand computing, also called on-demand business and utility computing, involves rapidly responding to an organization’s varying workflow. On-demand computing is an advantage to organizations because instead of the business purchasing hardware, software, and database systems, the organization only pays a fee for the systems it needs at peak times. The approach can save money because the organization does not pay for systems that it doesn’t routinely need. On-demand computing also allows the organization’s IS staff to concentrate on more-strategic issues. 17. The total cost of ownership (TCO) is a measurement of the total cost of owning computer equipment including desktop computers, networks, and large computers. 18. The role of the chief information officer (CIO) is to employ an IS department’s equipment and personnel to help the organization attain its goals.

Discussion Questions 1. Firms are seeing widespread growth in positions related to the Internet. Among these are Webmaster (manages Web site related issues), network specialists, hardware and Webserver specialists, marketing and e-commerce specialists, programmers, graphic artists, and content developers. 2. One possible answer: Raw materials Inbound logistics Warehouse and storage Process control system

Used CDs from students Prepaid shipping envelopes Storage room/containers and inventory system Ability to provide quotes to buyers and sellers of CDs and process payments

Full file at

Customer service Marketing and sales Retrieval system Outbound logistics

Phone/email support and ordering, tracking of orders Marketing plan Ability to locate CDs in inventory for outbound shipping Ability to send/track CDs sold

3. Student answers will vary based on their career choice. 4. In addition to reducing costs or increasing revenues, a virtual organizational structure can provide an extra level of security. Virtual organizational structures allow work to be separated from location and time. Work can be done anywhere, anytime. Virtual organizational structures allow collaborative work, in which managers and employees can effectively work in groups, even those composed of members from around the world. Many companies are now dispersing employees and using a virtual structure in case of a terrorist attack or a disaster. 5. The user satisfaction with the registration program could be measured by providing surveys to the students asking what their expectations are in the program or if they have any issues or concerns regarding the program in place. The college could offer a place for comments to be placed. User satisfaction could also be measured by how many calls the college receives with questions regarding the registration program, informing the school what the main issues are regarding the program. If the college receives numerous calls regarding the same issue, the program may be redesigned with greater ease to the student. Important features may include listing all of the courses available to students, their descriptions, what specific major requirements they satisfy, prerequisites, the capacity for each class, and how many students have already registered for a given class. That way students will be aware of which courses best suit them for their desired major and how quickly a course fills up. 6. The purpose of this question is to encourage students to think about what the forces in Porter’s model translate to in the real world. The following table provides guidelines and sample responses for the discussion. A company called New Wave Multimedia Desktop Computer Corporation was selected to illustrate the analysis. Company: New Wave Multimedia Desktop Computer Corp. Competitive Force

Strategic Plan’s Counter to Competitive Force

Rivalry among existing competitors

Develop new products and new looks to standard products

Threat of new entrants

Develop strategic alliances with software/hardware producers to dissuade new

Full file at

startup companies Threat of substitute products

Differentiate product line so that fewer substitutes are available: integrate high end speakers, monitors, audio and video components into computer system

Bargaining power of buyers

Develop high quality service reputation and maintain buyer profiles: make buyers desire a relationship with this corporation through high levels of trust and support

Bargaining power of suppliers

Develop long term relationships with suppliers and integrate inventory systems with information technology

7. A strategy which may serve New Wave Multimedia Desktop Computer Corporation well is the development of a niche market. This would help them build and protect their spot as a leading vendor of high-end multimedia computer systems. Students will respond to the discussion with a wide variety of responses. The best approach might be to encourage them to think in terms of strategic alliances, niche markets, competitive cost approaches, and product differentiation used either alone or in combination to protect the ‘turf’ of their example corporation. 8. The following table highlights points of the discussion: Method

Definiti on





Output/I nput Return on investm ent Net present value Increase in profits Sales in relation to market

Over time periods

Easy to measure

Narrow and limited in value

Additional profits due to IS

Easy to quantify


NPV Earning Growth Market Share

Misses intangibles

Value added by IS Easy to quantify

Requires some estimation

To monitor profits Easy to obtain

Doesn't tell the 'why'

To monitor presence in market

Easy to obtain

Doesn't tell the 'why' and is affected by external factors very strongly.

Full file at

Customer Awareness / Satisfaction

Total Cost of Ownership

Custome Customer selfr survey report data

Surveys are easy to use

Costs of IS operatio n

Meaningful, does limit itself to hardware or software

To learn sum total of all system costs

Collecting data may be tough and self-report surveys are sometimes suspect Hard to determine, misses intangibles

9. The characteristics of the CIO would include virtue, courage, loyalty, honesty, and leadership.

Problem-Solving Exercises 1. Student answers will vary based on their chosen industry and firms. 2. Initial spreadsheet with ROI: Year 1 Increased Revenue Cost Savings Depreciation Initial Expense


Profit ROI

$ 0%

Year 2 -

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

$ 100.00 $ 150.00 $ 200.00 $ 250.00

$ - $ 50.00 $ 50.00 $ 50.00 $ 50.00 $ - $ 75.00 $ 75.00 $ 75.00 $ 75.00 $ 500.00 -

$ 75.00 $ 200.00 $ 375.00 $ 600.00 15% 40% 75% 120%

All amounts in thousands. Additional revenue and cost savings model. Year 1 Increased Revenue Cost Savings Depreciation Initial Expense

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

$ 50.00 $ 100.00 $ 150.00 $ 200.00 $ 250.00 $ 25.00 $ 50.00 $ 50.00 $ 50.00 $ 50.00 $ - $ 75.00 $ 75.00 $ 75.00 $ 75.00 $ 500.00

Full file at

Profit ROI

$ 75.00 $ 150.00 $ 275.00 $ 450.00 $ 675.00 15% 30% 55% 90% 135%

All amounts in thousands. 3. A possible CIO job description could be the following. The CIO should employ an IS department’s equipment and personnel in a manner that will help the organization attain its goals. The CIO will be concerned with the overall needs of the organization. He or she is responsible for corporate-wide policy, planning, management, and acquisition of information systems. The student should then create a presentation in a graphics program, such as Microsoft PowerPoint, on the requirements of the new CIO.

Team Activities 1. Students should conduct an interview to determine the company’s supply chain. 2. Students should research a firm that has achieved a competitive advantage and write a brief report describing how the firm was able to achieve its competitive advantage.

Web Exercises 1. Students could research companies listed in Chapter 1 and Chapter 2. Below are a few of the company Web sites mentioned:       2. Students should search the Internet for user satisfaction and write a brief report describing their findings.

Career Exercises 1. Students should describe which organizational structure or structures are likely to be used and how computers and information systems can help them communicate and work with others in this structure for the career of your choice.

Full file at

2. Students should describe the quality of the products and services offered by five companies best for their career and decide if the best companies are always the ones with the highest quality products and services?

Case Studies Case 1: Customer Service Drives Information Systems at Volvo Cars Belgium Discussion Questions 1. Student responses will vary. 2. The system allows Volvo Cars Belgium to easily collect sales and service data and perhaps, customer reviews and complaints. This allows the company to address problems immediately and improve performance. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Student answers will vary. A customer management system could be considered. That is, an information system that is used to attract and manage leads/customers through pre and post sales activities. 2. The auto dealer could determine the criteria on which it would base customer satisfaction and then, through your Web site, ask customers to rate performance. Case 2: CIO Plays Important Role at J&J Philippines Discussion Questions 1. Student responses will vary. Technology is now being used to support business innovation. To that end, an organization’s ability to link its customers, suppliers and partners into an "organizational ecosystem," giving it the ability to track customer demand and connect it to supply, will definitely provide a competitive advantage. 2. A CIO with a larger budget would be able to invest in a more innovative information system. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Emphasize the need for innovation and provide a cost/benefit analysis. 2. Student responses will vary. As the Philippines is considered a technologicallyyoung environment, there will be the need for education.

Full file at

Questions for Web Case Whitmann Price Consulting: Addressing the Needs of the Organization Discussion Questions 1. Although, notebook PCs have faster processing speeds, more memory, and larger storage capacity than handheld PCs, they are larger, heavier PCs which may be harder to travel with than handheld PCs. It will take longer to access information on Notebook PCs waiting for the PC to load, where as, this is not an issue with handheld PCs. Handheld PCs can perform all of the tasks as notebook PCs but in a smaller more convenient size. 2. The effectiveness and efficiency of Whitmann Price would improve by allowing communication between Whitmann Price professionals to be free flowing and allowing Whitmann Price professionals to have access to communication and information systems outside the office, allowing them to deliver services on the road. 3. Building a list of requirements through interviews with stakeholders is important because providing value to a stakeholder—customer, supplier, manager, shareholder, or employee—is the primary goal of any organization. Critical Thinking Questions 1. Although each unit has specific requirements, some unique, it should be possible to come up with a solution that suits everyone. If Josh and Sandra have their own software engineers develop the software for a certain device, they could customize the software to their specifications. 2. It would be more practical to have one device for all business units instead of a different device for each to ensure the compatibility of devices between units.

Solution manual principles of information systems 9th edition stair