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4.

GATHERING REQUIREMENTS

CASE STUDIES

The four case studies that are offered in the book, start from chapter 4 and continue through chapter 16 wherever applicable. The solutions are provided by answering chapter-end questions under EXERCISES. In the process of answering the questions, we provide some additional information and pointers for the instructor. Each case study can result in an extensive set of information. Not every component of this set, however, is relevant to the goal of development, but this fact should not be considered as a nuisance or a waste of time. Rather, identifying relevant data is, by itself, a crucial part of developing an effective information system. The very first step towards finding a solution to the case is to sift through our findings to identify those that help us to fulfill the following tasks:  Create an “owner’s view” for the narrative. Use Figure 4.7 (“An Owner’s View of Patient Treatment”) as your guideline.

 Identify the users of the system.  What are the major functions and their related tasks?  Is any information missing? If you were gathering data, what additional information would you like to have?

 Complete the requirements list. To reach an agreement on what relevant information are, you can follow any of the three approaches below:  Ask students to read a case and discuss it in the class. Allow students to debate the case. They might identify some of the missing information and come up with some valid assumptions. When the discussion is over, students should have a common understanding of what the case is about and what it is that they are required to do. This approach allows students to think analytically and be able to distinguish between white noise and important data. It also makes it easier on the instructor to deal with the usual complaints “I did not see it that way”, “I did not get it”, “I made my own assumptions,” and so on.

 Assign the task as a group project and instruct each group to identify useful information. Then, ask the groups to present their results while other groups either agree or challenge their findings. Again, by the end of the session, an agreement should be reached.

 Assign the task as an individual project. Examine the list of useful data provided by students, choose the best ones, let the student present them to the class and get feedback from the rest of the class to come to an agreement.

Following any of these approaches, you may get a different list of input data that would result in solutions different from what we have offered. Nonetheless, our solutions should provide one sample for what the answers should look like. OBJECT-ORIENTED SYSTEM ANALYSIS & DESIGN

 Students usually demand one correct answer to any question. As a result, class discussions might become counter-productive as each group or individual focuses on the (real or perceived) shortcoming of other viewpoints. As we have tried to point out throughout the book, “one correct answer” to any problem posed by system development (or indeed any product development) is very unlikely. The most likely situation is the one in which we have to weigh the pros and cons of several solutions and select one depending on a varying number of factors (including one’s preferences). Selecting one solution over others does not necessarily mean that the unselected solutions are wrong. It would not be easy to convince students that system development is not physics or mathematics where a proposition is either true or false (or unknown, perhaps). They might do their best to push the instructor into a corner by various means such as “… but what are the best practices in the industry?” So here, and everywhere, by “agreement” we do not mean “unanimity” but understanding the merits or shortcomings of various proposed solutions. In real system development, they will be more successful by adopting a flexible approach rather than sticking to their guns.


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Also note that the degrees of specificity for the cases differ. Case 1, The Sportz Magazine, is more fully developed than case 3, The Pizza Shop. This is to allow the instructor to decide the level of student involvement in the actual solution to the case.

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1. The Sportz Magazine.  Create an “owner’s view” for the narrative. Use Figure 4-7 as your guideline.

 Identify the users of the system.

Note to Instructor: Users can be classified into two broad types: business

users and information system users. (They may overlap, of course: the same user might play more than one role—as we shall see below) It might be useful to ask students to discuss the difference and identify business users versus information system users. 

Business Users

 Contributors: Writers, athletes, physicians, nutritionists, vendors  Advertising Staff: Those who promote the magazine through advertising  Professional Staff: Those who work with contributors  Subscribers : Individual and corporate entities who renew through mail or on the phone

Information System Users

 Subscribers : Individual and corporate subscribers who renew online  Administrative Staff: Clerks who record information about subscribers and contributors

 Subscription Staff : Those who process subscriptions for subscribers and contributors

 Accountants: Those managing payments and discounts

 What are the major functions and their related tasks?

Note to Instructor: At this early stage of development, the functions are

defined in very general terms. As we continue with each case, we will refine functions and the tasks required to accomplish each function. For the time being, the major functions and their related tasks for this case are as follows:

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Manage Contributors:

 Record personal and professional information on new contributors.  Maintain personal and professional information on current contributors.  Classify contributors.  Assign support/contact staff to contributor.  Track staff/ contributor collaboration.  Verify contribution status. 

Manage Subscriptions:

 Record personal information on new subscribers—individual or corporate.  Maintain personal information on current subscribers  Assign subscription type.  Manage promotional subscriptions.  Assign discount for corporate subscribers.  Renew subscriptions. 

Elicit Subscriptions:

 Maintain Web site for subscription applications.  Create inserts (for Sportz and other magazines) for potential subscribers.  Launch promotional campaigns for subscriptions to the Sportz magazine. 

Operations:

 Ensure that copies are sent to subscribers.  Track delivery and investigate problems and/or subscriber complaints. 

Subscription Accounting:

 Manage receivables for corporate subscribers.  Calculate discounts.  Validate credit cards.  Process payments.

 Is any information missing? If you were gathering data, what additional information would you like to have?

The following are sample from suggestions by actual students:  Billing system is not complete. Can the subscriber request to be billed and pay later?

 What about electronic transfers and Web payments such as PayPal?  How about providing options for the subscriber to automatically renew at the end of the subscription period (unless the subscriber actively cancels the subscription after receiving a note or an e-mail)?

 Provide a way for users to order back issues of the magazine.  Secure all sensitive user information using appropriate encryption or other technologies (a design issue, but with important business consequences).

 Information on advertising and promotions is incomplete. In the next revision of requirements we must find more. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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Note to Instructor: This is a good time to give students an opportunity to use

their creativity and come up with ideas that may enhance the case. You may ask them to conduct a Web search for one or two magazine Web sites and get ideas for new observations. The following suggestions come from actual students: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How many times the subscriber has renewed in the past? What was the subscriber most interested in? What if there are any outstanding unpaid invoices? Did the subscriber apply for the renewal or did the subscriber receive a notice? Investigate how important the role of advertising has been.

 Complete the requirements list.

Note to Instructor: Again, you can encourage students to do their own

research and come up with additional ideas. The following are from students: 1.

2.

3. 4.

Create a billing cycle for sending invoices to Subscribers. Corporate subscribers receive a 5 to 10 percent discount (depending on the number of copies). Create a renewal notification cycle. Subscribers would receive three notifications in the two month period leading to the expiration of the subscription. Allow first-time subscribers to cancel their subscriptions for a full refund after receiving the first copy. Another promotional idea: give 6 months free to any subscriber that pays for three full years of subscription.

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2. The Car Dealership.  Create an “owner’s view” for the narrative. Use Figure 4-7 as your guideline.

 Identify the users of the system.  Sales Staff  Administrative Staff

 What are the major functions and their related tasks? 

Customer Relations & Support:

 Record customer information.  Provide after-sale support. 

Salesperson Management:

 Record & update salesperson information.  Record sales per salesperson.  Calculate commissions. 

Sales:

 ”Pitch” cars to customers.  Help customers to find cars.  Manage financing.  Finalize car sales.  Process payments. 

Matchmaking Cars to Customers:

 Search in-house inventory for cars that match customer requirements.  Search inventories of other dealerships in the network. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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 Find if the desired car can be acquired from the manufacturer. 

In-House Inventory:

 Track existing inventory of new and used cars.  Record detail data about cars.  Preemptive ordering of popular cars.  Provide access to other dealers in the network. 

Network Inventory:

 Access inventories of other dealerships in the network.

 Is any information missing? If you were gathering data, what additional information would you like to have?

Note to Instructor: Like the previous case, this is an opportunity for

input from students—and they can become very creative. A lively discussion may take place when students present their work and make their suggestions. Allow other students to comment on these suggestions.

 Complete the requirements list. Answers will differ. This is another opportunity to make students think and improve the case.

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3. The Pizza Shop.  Create an “owner’s view” for the narrative. Use Figure 4-7 as your guideline.

 Identify the users of the system.  Kitchen staff  Sales staff  Customer

 What are the major functions and their related tasks? 

Product Management:

 Select and formulate dishes prepared and sold by the shop (including side dishes, extras, toppings, and so on).

 Price the products.  Prepare menus—printed or for presentation online.  Select dishes that would be offered for holidays or special occasions (on request within a practical timeframe).

 Manage inventory of raw material required for dishes offered by the shop.  Provide the kitchen with clear recipes and instructions for preparing dishes.  Enforce quality control on the food prepared by the kitchen. 

Online Ordering:

 Present customers with an online menu from which they can choose available dishes (including toppings, side dishes, and so on) for pickup or delivery. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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 Allow customer to select delivery or pickup.  Allow customer to choose method of payment (cash or credit card).  If the method of payment is credit card, provide the customer with a secure method to pay by credit card.

 Future: allow business customers to open an account for their orders. The orders are paid by issuing statements to the business customer. Note: This functionality should also allow for offline ordering, e.g.; by phone.

 Provide the customer with feedback for estimated time of delivery or pickup. Note: The customer should have the ability to order in advance, such as for a few hours or days in the future.

 Online system should inform sales (immediately) and kitchen (at the right time) of the order and its specifics.

Sales:

 Manage customer relations and every type of sales, whether online or not, for delivery or pickup or as in-house service.

 Manage coordination of orders with kitchen and delivery.  Record sales information detail—not only for serving customers, but also for use with business intelligence (BI) analysis reports.

 Record, organize, and handle customer complaints and/or suggestions.  Record, organize, and handle problems with customers, such as invalid credit cards, absence when food is delivered, bad attitude towards delivery personnel, and so on.

 Promote the pizza shop and its products through advertisement, community relations, and so on.

Food Preparation:

 Sequence the preparation correctly: orders should not necessarily be processed in the order that they are received as in-house service has less slack time than deliveries and some orders are for future time.

 Prepare and package food.  Coordinate action with sales and delivery.  Inform Product Management of raw material consumption to prevent oversupply or undersupply.

Delivery:

 Ensure that food is delivered at the right place at the right time.  If possible, plan and route multiple deliveries to maximize efficiency.  Instruct delivery staff if cash-upon-delivery is required. 

Payment Processing:

 Process credit card payments. Note: Explore the possibility of online payment processing, such as PayPal, for online orders—subject to the customer choice, as many online customers may not have such accounts or may not wish to use it.

 Accept and record cash payments against orders.  Accept and record (limited-time) promotional coupons that the store may issue.

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Sales Accounting:

 Newcomers to analysis tend to

 Provide regular—summary and detailed—profit and loss reports.

arrive at a conceptual model that overpopulates pizza shops to the level of a cruise ship. (We have experienced this firsthand, in class.)

 Provide business intelligence (BI) reports that would enable the business owner(s) to distinguish popular and unpopular products, cyclical customer preferences, and so on.

 Is any information missing? If you were gathering data, what additional information would you like to have?

Requirements for this case are not fully developed and the instructor and/or students are free to make changes and develop the case as they wish. An individual, small pizza shop may not have the wherewithal to create a full-feature information system by itself. Remind the students, however, that although the test case is one pizza shop, the goal is developing software that can be potentially purchased by many shops.

While differentiation of roles and the complexity of software to handle the business are quite legitimate, the student should be reminded (early and often) that pizza shops are usually very small operations and depend on a shoestring income. The challenge, therefore, is how to conceptualize a model that provides a very small team with the tools that it needs.

Let the students use their imaginations. What do they think about expanding the software to include supply chain and inventory? This is not within the strict scope of the case that we have outlined, but it would give them a chance to think outside the envelope. Any analyst is part business consultant as well.  Complete the requirements list. Answers will differ. This is another opportunity to make students think and improve the case.

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4. The Real Estate Agency.  Create an “owner’s view” for the narrative. Use Figure 4-7 as your guideline.

 Identify the users of the system:  Administrative staff  Sales staff  Buyers  Sellers

 What are the major functions and their related tasks? 

Asset Management:

 Record detailed information about properties available for sales.  Record price range acceptable to the seller.  Record seller preferences.  Track status of the asset: Has it been sold or has it gone off the market? Has its condition been improved or has it deteriorated? And so on.

 Acquire updated pictures (or perhaps video) to present to potential buyers. 

Sales:

 Search for assets: properties that the owners are ready (or can be persuaded) to sell.

 Promote the services of the agency through various means.  Record information about buyers. Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

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 Coordinate activities for the sales (including matchmaking, below).  Coordinate activities for financing, such as providing information to mortgage brokers.

 Coordinate final closing. 

Match Buyers & Sellers:

 Find preliminary matches between assets and what the buyer wants.  Provide potential buyers with information about assets in which they express interest.

 Provide potential buyers with visits to the property.  Help potential buyers with inspections.  Coordinate contact and negotiations between the seller and the buyer. 

Billing:

 Bill sellers for services rendered.  Record the contribution of salesperson(s) to the sale.  Track and collect bills. 

Agent Management:

 Track sales agent activities. (This overlaps with the item under “Billing” but from a different viewpoint.)

 Calculate and pay sales commissions.

 Is any information missing? If you were gathering data, what additional information would you like to have?

Information on service charges is missing:  Does the agency charge only the sellers? In this case, what are the terms?  Does the agency charge the buyers? If so, on what terms?

Students may suggest other missing information.  Complete the requirements list. Answers will differ. This is another opportunity to make students think and improve the case. Encourage students to look at online real-estate agencies, add features and requirements to the case and change the “user view” accordingly.

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Solution manual object oriented systems analysis and design 1st edition ashrafi  

solution manual object oriented systems analysis and design 1st edition ashrafi. Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-obj...

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