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Computer Concepts Chapter Two: Computer Hardware A Guide to this Instructor’s Manual:
We have designed this Instructor’s Manual to supplement and enhance your teaching experience through classroom activities and a cohesive chapter summary. This document is organized chronologically, using the same heading in blue that you see in the textbook. Under each heading you will find (in order): Lecture Notes that summarize the section, Figures and Boxes found in the section (if any), Teacher Tips, Classroom Activities, and Lab Activities. Pay special attention to teaching tips, and activities geared towards quizzing your students, enhancing their critical thinking skills, and encouraging experimentation within the software. In addition to this Instructor’s Manual, our Instructor’s Resources CD also contains PowerPoint Presentations, Test Banks, and other supplements to aid in your teaching experience.
For your students:
Our latest online feature, CourseCasts, is a library of weekly podcasts designed to keep your students up to date with the latest in technology news. Direct your students to http://coursecasts.course.com, where they can download the most recent CourseCast onto their mp3 player. Ken Baldauf, host of CourseCasts, is a faculty member of the Florida State University Computer Science Department where he is responsible for teaching technology classes to thousands of FSU students each year. Ken is an expert in the latest technology and sorts through and aggregates the most pertinent news and information for CourseCasts so your students can spend their time enjoying technology, rather than trying to figure it out. Open or close your lecture with a discussion based on the latest CourseCast.
Table of Contents Chapter Objectives Section A: Personal Computer Basics Section B: Microprocessors and Memory Section C: Storage Devices Section D: Input and Output Devices Section E: Hardware Security Glossary of Key Terms
2 2 4 8 10 13 16
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Chapter Objectives Students will have mastered the material in Chapter Two when they can: Label the main components of a Use criteria such as versatility, personal computer system durability, capacity, access time, and List the advantages and disadvantages transfer rate to compare storage of various desktop and portable technologies computer form factors Explain the factors that might help a Describe the target markets for home, shopper decide whether to purchase a media, game, and small business LCD or plasma display device computers Compare and contrast the technologies List important factors to consider and applications for ink jet, laser, and when shopping for a new computer dot matrix printers Explain how upgrades and mods fit Describe the components of a into a computer purchase decision computer’s expansion bus, including List the factors that affect various types of expansion slots and microprocessor performance cables Explain how RAM works and how it Explain the hardware compatibility differs from disk storage considerations, device drivers, and List facts about RAM that are procedures involved in installing a important to computer buyers and peripheral device owners List ways you can protect your Describe the differences between computer system hardware from theft magnetic, optical, and solid state and damage storage
SECTION A: PERSONAL COMPUTER BASICS Personal Computer Systems LECTURE NOTES Review the components of a PC. If possible, take students on a tour of the building to look at different kinds of setups, including PCs with oversize monitors used by people with visual impairment or by graphic designers. Examine CDs and DVDs. Compare the usability of each. Talk about the differences between ROM, recordable, rerecordable CDs and DVDs. Talk about Blu-ray DVDs. TEACHER TIP Review ads for computers. Bring in copies of, or have students bring, computer ads from magazines or stores such as Best Buy. Review the computer components discussed in the ad. This reinforces the terminology. FIGURES Figure 2-1 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Assign a Project: Have students look around the classroom and make a list of all of the peripheral devices they see. 2. Quick Quiz: 1. The term ______ designates input, output, and storage equipment that might be added to a computer system. (Answer: peripheral device.) 2. True/False: The term personal computer system has only one meaning. (Answer: False.) Desktop and Portable Computers LECTURE NOTES Present students with a variety of professions or other scenarios, and ask them which computer design from Figures 2-2 and 2-3 is a good match. Discuss the role that cost plays in the selection of a type of computer. Explain that tablet and handheld computers do not use the same sorts of input, processing, output, and storage components that traditional desktop computers use. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of portable components vs. their corresponding components in a desktop computer. TEACHER TIP Make sure students understand that notebook computers, tablet computers, and ultra-mobile PCs are all types of portable computers. FIGURES Figure 2-2, Figure 2-3
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Class Discussion: Have students come up with scenarios for which each type of computer is best suited. Be sure to cover desktop computers, portable computers, notebook computers, tablet computers, and ultra-mobile PCs.
Home, Media, Game, and Small Business Systems LECTURE NOTES Review the designations for personal computer systems. Students who are not gamers may be surprised to learn that this constituency is the target audience for some of the most cutting-edge computers made today. FIGURES Figure 2-4, Figure 2-5, Figure 2-6 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Class discussion: Present a listing of the categories of computers and ask students what kind(s) of system(s) they own and/or use. Tally the results and present in a table. 2. Quick Quiz: 1. True/False: A home computer system offers a hardware platform with super-charged support for most computer applications. (Answer: False.) 2. True/False: Some of the most cutting-edge computers are designed for gaming. (Answer: True.)
Buying Computer System Components LECTURE NOTES This section urges students to use what they have learned when buying a computer. Students should consider their budget and how they plan to use the computer. Discuss upgrading a computer and the costs, difficulty, and accessibility. Go over Macintosh vs. PC vs. Linux. Emphasize which system your students will use for class assignments. Be sure to mention that these product lines include similar input, output, and peripheral devices. Also add that software is often platform-specific, and while you can now install Windows on a Mac and run Windows software on it, software written for a Macintosh computer is unlikely to run on a PC. FIGURES Figure 2-7, Figure 2-8, Figure 2-9, Figure 2-10 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Class Discussion: Present a version of the table in Figure 2-8 (or a similar list of usage plans) with the purchase recommendations omitted, and ask students to fill in the recommendations based on how the purchaser intends to use the computer. 2. Quick Quiz: 1. A(n) ______ is a custom, hand-built modification to a computer system component. (Answer: mod.) 2. True/False: A computer priced higher than US$2,000 is the computer equivalent of a four-door sedan because a majority of buyers select computers at this price point. (Answer: False.)
3. Which of the following weighs 2 pounds and lacks a physical keyboard? a. ultra-mobile PC b. notebook computer c. tablet computer d. gaming PC (Answer: A.)
SECTION B: MICROPROCESSORS AND MEMORY Microprocessor Basics LECTURE NOTES This section gives students information they will need when they want to compare microprocessors. Discuss the variables that differentiate performance: clock speed, word size, cache levels and capacity, and instruction set complexity. Discuss how performance is measured. Review the difference between serial and parallel processing, and discuss pipelining. Discuss how multi-core processors and HyperThreading technology improve the performance of microprocessors. Review the different chipmakers and their processor families. Pass around a processor chip. FIGURES Figure 2-11, Figure 2-12, Figure 2-13
TEACHER TIP Ask students to think up situations that illustrate serial and parallel processing. Use the pizza oven example on page 69 in the chapter to begin the discussion. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Assign a Project: Have students write a paragraph comparing and contrasting serial and parallel processing. 2. Classroom discussion: Distribute three ads. Have students compare processors (clock speed, FSB speed, cache memory, number of cores). 3. Quick Quiz: 1. Using a technology called ________, a processor can begin executing an instruction before it completes the previous instruction. (Answer: pipelining.) 2. A single microprocessor that contains circuitry for more than one processing unit is called a(n) _________. (Answer: multi-core processor.)
LAB ACTIVITY The New Perspectives Lab “Benchmarking” on page 110 deals with issues that relate to this section of the textbook. You might want to go through the lab during class time if you have a computer with a projection device. Or, assign this lab for students to do on their own.
Today’s Microprocessors LECTURE NOTES Review how to determine which microprocessor is best for students’ PCs. Explain the factors that students should consider. TEACHER TIP Inform students of the type of microprocessors in classroom computers and explain why those are wellsuited to the computers’ uses. FIGURES Figure 2-14 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Class Discussion: Ask students how they would determine which microprocessor is best for their PCs. What factors will they consider? What activities do they use their computers for and how will those uses affect their requirements? 2. Quick Quiz: 1. _______ is a technique for increasing the speed of a computer component. (Answer: Overclocking.) 2. True/False: There is no risk involved in overclocking. (Answer: False.)
Random Access Memory LECTURE NOTES Use the chalkboard analogy to explain RAM. Explain that the computer uses RAM as a temporary storage area. It copies things to RAM while waiting to use them. You can write a mathematical equation on the board, and solve it. Then you can erase the equation and write a poem on the chalkboard. The chalkboard holds whatever you are working on at the moment. It can be erased and used again, just as RAM is cleared and reused. You can extend this analogy by mentioning that you could also write instructions that students must follow to complete an assignment (analogous to programs in RAM). Discuss the role of the capacitor as it relates to a bit of RAM. Cover the difference between RAM and hard disk storage. Stress that RAM is temporary storage, and hard disk space is permanent storage. Anything stored in RAM goes away when the computer is turned off (or if you exit from a program). Anything stored on a hard disk is stored there permanently, unless you delete it. Stress that RAM has very limited capacity. Compare to hard drive capacity. Discuss virtual memory as a way to artificially extend RAM. Mention that Vista has a feature called ReadyBoost which allows users to use flash memory (like a USB flash drive or an SD card) rather than the hard drive to provide space for virtual memory.
Cover SDRAM vs. RDRAM. You can return to the computer ads to determine the current standard sizes for SDRAM and RDRAM. Define the terms memory module and DIMM. Pass around a DIMM.
FIGURES Figure 2-15, Figure 2-16, Figure 2-17, Figure 2-18, Figure 2-19 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Assign a Project: Have students write a paragraph comparing and contrasting RAM and hard-disk storage. 2. Classroom Demonstration: Demonstrate RAM bits and bytes with clear cups and colored water. To explain a bit, use a cup as a capacitor (bit) and illustrate a 0 and a 1 – full (representing a 1) and empty (representing a 0). Group 8 cups (bits) together to form a byte. Fill some and leave others empty. Discuss how the pattern relates to a character value via ASCII coding scheme.
Read-Only Memory LECTURE NOTES Compare RAM and ROM. Explain that RAM chips are usually configured on a small circuit board called a memory module (such as a DIMM) and hold data only when the computer is receiving power. That’s why RAM chips are considered volatile. In contrast, ROM contains “hard-wired” instructions called the ROM BIOS, which are a critical part of the boot process. Some people compare the ROM BIOS to a car’s starter motor. The computer must receive its startup instructions from somewhere—that’s the job of ROM. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Class Discussion: Ask students how ROM differs from RAM and note the differences on a whiteboard. 2. Quick Quiz: 1. The instructions for loading the operating system into RAM when a computer boots up are stored in _______. (Answer: ROM BIOS.) 2. True/False: Most of today’s computers use SDRAM. (Answer: True.)
EEPROM LECTURE NOTES Clearly distinguish between the kinds of data stored in EEPROM to the kinds stored in ROM. On a running demonstration computer, run the setup program to show the kinds of settings EEPROM contains. Point out the types of problems you can solve by using the EEPROM setup program. Compare the different types of memory. Use the table below. Memory
Role in Computing
Holds data before and after
Types of Data Stored Documents,
Perm or Temp Storage Temporary storage
it is processed ROM
Contains instructions to help a computer prepare for processing tasks Updates information about the hardware on your computer Allows the computer to use disk storage to simulate RAM
program instructions Boot instructions
System configuration information Documents, program instructions
FIGURES ď‚ˇ Figure 2-20 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Group Activity: Have the students work in teams to design the computer system of their dreams. Have them begin by finding three software packages on the Internet and recording the system requirements. Using this information, determine the processor speed and amount of RAM needed by the ideal system to run the software. They should also decide on the capacity of the hard drive. For variety, assign each group a budget amount. Students can use computer ads or the Internet to research the costs of their choices. 2. Quick Quiz: 1. With ____ processing, the processor must complete all steps in the instruction cycle before it begins to execute the next instruction. (Answer: serial.) 2. True/False: RAM is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating system. (Answer: True.) 3. A computer stores its basic hardware settings in __________. a. ROM b. RAM c. RIMM d. EEPROM (Answer: D.) LAB ACTIVITY Send students to a manufacturerâ€™s Web site, such as the Dell or Gateway site. Within a processor family, have them compare at least three different processors. Can they draw any conclusions about the relationship between processor speed and price of the computer system?
SECTION C: STORAGE DEVICES Storage Basics LECTURE NOTES Compare storage technology types: magnetic, optical and flash memory. Show examples within each type. Discuss the pros and cons of each kind of storage medium. Discuss the projected lifetimes of different storage technologies. Cover adding storage capabilities to a computer. Discuss internal and external drive bays. If possible, show the empty drive bays on the computer in your classroom. Review the problems posed by increasingly sophisticated storage devices and the rapid migration through technologies. You can easily read a book that was printed a hundred years ago, but probably can’t access the text stored on a 5¼-inch floppy disk. TEACHER TIP Make sure students understand that storage mediums and storage devices are different things. A storage medium is the disk, tape, CD, DVD, paper, or other substance that contains data. A storage device is the mechanical apparatus that records and retrieves data from a storage medium. FIGURES Figure 2-21 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Quick Quiz: 1. ____ is the average time it takes a computer to locate and read data on the storage medium. (Answer: Access time.) 2. True/False: Storage capacity is directly related to storage density. (Answer: True.)
Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology LECTURE NOTES Use Figure 2-22 to illustrate how a computer stores data on magnetic media. Explain that magnetic storage devices are susceptible to corruption by dust, liquid, and magnets. If possible, bring in an open hard drive to show students the internal workings, including the drive spindle and hard disk platter. Why are hard disks so popular? Ask students where they would store the data on their laptops, if the laptop had no hard disk. Review the different types of hard disk controllers – specifically, EIDE, DMA, Ultra ATA, and SCSI. What does a tape backup system look like? Bring a variety of tape cartridges to class. Cover the advantages and disadvantages of magnetic tape vs. removable disks as backup media. FIGURES Figure 2-22, Figure 2-23, Figure 2-24, Figure 2-25 TEACHER TIP
Will 3½-inch floppy disks become obsolete? Most data transmission now takes place electronically, over networks and over the Internet. Many new computers are sold without floppy drives. Can students think of reasons why they still might want to use a floppy disk? CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Class Discussion: Ask students to come up with scenarios in which each type of storage device (hard disk drive, second hard disk drive, floppy disk, tape drive) is most appropriate. 2. Quick Quiz: 1. Hard disk and tape storage can be classified as ______________. (Answer: magnetic storage.) 2. True/False: Hard disk storage is the preferred type of main storage for most computer systems. (Answer: True.)
CD and DVD Technology LECTURE NOTES Explain how optical storage works. Figure 2-26 shows the pits on an optical storage device like a compact disc. Explain that a pit represents a 0 and land is used to represent 1. If possible, disassemble a CD or DVD drive and point out the tracking mechanism, laser lens, drive spindle, and laser pickup assembly. Otherwise, use Figure 2-27. Review the differences between CDs and DVDs. Discuss the storage capacities of CDs versus DVDs and high density DVDs. Discuss the difference between recordable and rerecordable optical discs. Discuss newer optical discs – specifically Blu-ray. Use pages 81-83 to discuss the meaning of CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, CD-R, Blu-ray, etc. Use the chart on p. 83 to compare and contrast optical devices. TEACHER TIP You might want to pass around a CD and a DVD to make the point that the two technologies look extremely similar. FIGURES Figure 2-26, Figure 2-27, Figure 2-28, Figure 2-29 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Assign a Project: Have students go to the Internet to research competing optical standards (like – R/RW versus +R/RW DVDs or HD-DVD versus Blu-ray DVDs). 2. Class Discussion: Have students write a paragraph comparing and contrasting ROM, R, and RW. 2. Class Discussion: Using the table in Figure 2-29 as a guide, have students discuss what type of CD or DVD drive they need. Why?
Solid State Storage LECTURE NOTES Explain how solid state storage works. Explain that solid state storage is very reliable, and needs very little power to run, but storage capacity is limited.
Do students know whether they have used any solid state storage devices? They may not know that cell phones and digital cameras use solid state storage technology. Review the advantages of this kind of technology, including portability and price.
FIGURES Figure 2-30, Figure 2-31, Figure 2-32 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Class Discussion: Using a whiteboard, ask students to list different devices that use solid state storage. Tally the number of students who own each type of device. Discuss how solid state storage has led to the creation of, or evolution of, many of these devices. 2. Quick Quiz: 1. ______________ is a technology that stores data in erasable, rewritable circuitry. (Answer: Solid state storage.) 2. True/False: Once data is stored, it is non-volatile. (Answer: True.) 3. A(n) ____ is a device that reads and writes data on solid state storage. (Answer: card reader.)
Storage Wrap-up LECTURE NOTES What does an internal drive bay look like? An external drive bay? Use the demonstration computer to show students both types of drive bays. Otherwise, use Figure 2-33. FIGURES Figure 2-33, Figure 2-34 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Group Activity: Continuing with the project of designing their dream computer system, ask students in each group to decide what kind of optical storage device they need, using the chart in Figure 2-29. Ask them to explain their choice. 2. Quick Quiz: 1. When a hard disk’s read-write head runs into a dust particle or other contaminant on the disk, it can cause a(n) ______________. (Answer: head crash.) 2. True/False: A computer’s DVD drive can read discs that contain computer data as well as discs that contain DVD movies. (Answer: True.) 3. ____ access is the ability of a device to “jump” directly to the requested data. a. Sequential b. Random c. Flash d. Transfer (Answer: B.)
SECTION D: INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES Basic Input Devices LECTURE NOTES Stress that input devices allow users to communicate with the computer system by allowing them to enter data, instructions and information. List as many different kinds of input devices as you can. Record the list on a chalkboard or on a whiteboard. While students will certainly name a keyboard, they may not realize that a joystick and a microphone also qualify as input devices. Discuss the input device used in a tablet computer and in other, less traditional, computer systems. Show examples of devices. If possible, bring in as many examples of input devices as you can. Ask your computer lab for old keyboards, mice, trackballs, etc. FIGURES Figure 2-35, Figure 2-36, Figure 2-37 TEACHER TIP Input devices can be designed for specialized tasks. Ask students to come up with examples of other kinds of input devices that are not standard with office computers. For example, a supermarket scanner is an input device. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Group Activity: Divide the class into two groups and challenge each group to make a list of all of the input devices they can think of. Which group came up with more examples? Which were the most unusual? LAB ACTIVITY Refer students to the New Perspectives Web site for a Student Edition Lab called “Using Input Devices.”
Display Devices LECTURE NOTES Review the definition of an output device. Note that output devices allow the computer system to communicate with the user. Discuss how a display device is a type of output device. Review the different kinds of monitors. If possible, show a standard CRT, and then compare it to an LCD and a plasma screen. If your school doesn’t have these kinds of monitors available, use pictures from computer ads or the Internet. Discuss how CRTs are ‘old technology’ and explain why. Discuss how CRT devices are not ecofriendly. Go over the role of the graphics card. Without the proper graphics card, a monitor is useless. In a demonstration computer, point out the graphics card and how it connects to the display device. FIGURES Figure 2-38, Figure 2-39, Figure 2-40, Figure 2-41
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Class Discussion: Have students identify the type of display device(s) used in the classroom. What types of display devices do they have at home or work? 2. Assign a Project: Have students research how to dispose of old CRT devices (eGarbage, eWaste, technotrash) safely. Have them visit vendor Websites, like Dell.com, Apple.com or Gateway.com, to see if they have disposal programs. 2. Quick Quiz: 1. A(n) ________ display device uses the same sort of glass tube as a television. (Answer: CRT.) 2. True/False: Dot pitch is a measure of image clarity. (Answer: True.) 3. ____ technology creates an on-screen image by illuminating miniature colored fluorescent lights arrayed in a panel-like screen. a. CRT b. Plasma screen c. LCD d. None of the above (Answer: B.)
Printers LECTURE NOTES Explain that printers produce physical output – hard copy. Explain that there are vast assortments of printers available. If you have more than one type of printer available in your computer lab, demonstrate to students the difference in print quality and speed provided by each. Discuss multifunctional printers. These have gained popularity in the printer market. Discuss with students the benefits and drawbacks of buying one piece of equipment to carry out multiple tasks (e.g., you can only carry out one function at a time). Review with students the most common functions carried out by multifunctional printers: printing, copying, faxing, and scanning. Point out that as with single-function printers, the quality and reliability of these multifunctional printers varies greatly depending on manufacturer and purchase price. On a Windows computer, show students how to install a new printer using the Printers window in the Control Panel. FIGURES Figure 2-42, Figure 2-43, Figure 2-44, Figure 2-45 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Assign a Project: Have students continue to build their dream computer system by choosing a printer. Have them compare and contrast 3 or 4 printers according to print method, price, resolution, memory, etc. etc. and ask them to pick one for their system. 2. Class Discussion: What types of printers do students have experience with? What are the pros and cons of each type? 3. Quick Quiz:
1. Display device image clarity is measured in ________. (Answer: dot pitch.) 2. True/False: An expansion port is a small circuit board that provides a computer with the ability to control a storage device, an input device, or an output device. (Answer: False.) 3. The printer used for “back-office” applications is a(n) ____________ printer. a. ink jet b. dot matrix c. laser d. thermal transfer (Answer: B.)
TEACHER TIP If possible, take a tour of your building, looking for specialized types of printers. Visit a local copy shop, or encourage students to do so on their own, and be on the lookout for different sorts of printers.
Installing Peripheral Devices LECTURE NOTES Discuss the role of expansion buses. Expansion buses are like roadways that connect peripheral devices to the system board and important components installed on it (like the processor and memory modules). The peripherals gain access to the expansion buses by attaching to ports/connectors, often via cables. These ports might be built into the system case or part of an expansion card. Demonstrate how to install an expansion card into an expansion slot on the system board. Use Figure 2-48 for reference. Discuss and demonstrate how to then connect a peripheral device to an expansion card, or let students do it themselves on demonstration computers. Go over the different kinds of expansion slots. A practical point about computer I/O is that current microcomputers have expansion slots of different types: PCI, PCI Express (PCIe) and AGP. To add devices to a computer system, expansion cards are plugged into these slots. However, each card is built for only one type of slot. Users must know the type of card and the type of slot that is available. Introduce Plug and Play technology. Discuss the evolution of this technology. Find examples of devices that use this technology. Explain that because expansion cards do not fit in the compact case of a notebook computer, peripheral devices are often connected directly into USB or Firewire ports on the notebook computer itself. You may choose to also discuss expanding notebook computer capabilities using PCMCIA cards if the computer has a PCMCIA slot. Note that a PCMCIA slot can accept more than one card (usually 1-2). Go over the different kinds of ports/connectors. Students find this very confusing. Use Figures 2-49 and 2-50 to show some of the different kinds of connectors that are available, or try to bring in some samples. FIGURES
Figure 2-46, Figure 2-47, Figure 2-48, Figure 2-49, Figure 2-50 TEACHER TIP Show students that in most cases it is difficult to accidentally use the wrong kind of connector, because the wrong kind just will not fit onto the port. You may also want to show adapter devices that allow you to make connections to cables that do not match open ports. CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Group Activity: Divide students into groups. Have them examine computers in the various classrooms and labs in your building to determine the most common types of ports/connectors found on current computers. Also ask them to list the type(s) of devices connected to each.
SECTION E: HARDWARE SECURITY Anti-theft Devices LECTURE NOTES Review the tips for preventing theft. Ask students to come up with other suggestions besides those listed in Figure 2-51. TEACHER TIP If possible, point out anti-theft devices used in the classroom and allow students to inspect them. FIGURES Figure 2-51, Figure 2-52, Figure 2-53 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Class Discussion: What security measures do students currently take to protect their computers? What measures does the school take?
Surge Protection and Battery Backup LECTURE NOTES If possible, show a surge strip to the students. Emphasize that not all power strips provide surge suppressor protection, and that students should review their own equipment to find out if their computers are protected. FIGURES Figure 2-54, Figure 2-55 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Quick Quiz: 1. A(n) ________ is a sudden increase or spike in electrical energy. (Answer: power surge.) 2. True/False: A UPS provides only surge protection. (Answer: False.)
Basic Maintenance LECTURE NOTES Discuss with students the suggestions listed in Figure 2-58. How many of these steps do students take regularly? Do the students appreciate the importance, for example, of antivirus and spyware definitions, or of regular backups? TEACHER TIP If possible, pass around a can of compressed air and have students use it to clean their keyboards. Do they notice a difference after using it? FIGURES Figure 2-56, Figure 2-57, Figure 2-58 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Class Discussion: What are students’ current maintenance routines? How are classroom computers taken care of?
Troubleshooting and Repair LECTURE NOTES Students have probably heard of the black screen of death. Survey students about their experience with the BSoD. If possible, step through one of the troubleshooters like the one shown in Figure 2-60 so students can see how the answer to each question drives the next panel in this resource. FIGURES Figure 2-59, Figure 2-60, Figure 2-61 CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES 1. Group Activity: Each group should decide 2 to 3 kinds of additional hardware security it needs as part of designing their ideal computer system. List them in order of importance. 2. Quick Quiz: 1. ________ is a limited version of the Windows operating system that allows you to use your mouse, monitor, and keyboard, but no other peripherals. (Answer: Safe Mode.) 2. True/False: Manufacturers advise against the use of battery backup for printers because it is not economical. (Answer: True.) 3. All of the following are valid tips for regular computer maintenance EXCEPT ____________. a. Scan your computer for viruses once a week. b. Run utilities that ensure peak performance for your hard drive. c. Keep spyware definitions updated. d. Delete your browser’s history/cache files daily to free up space for temporary files. (Answer: D.)
Glossary of Key Terms
Access time, 77 AGP, 96 Benchmarks, 69 Black screen of death, 103 Blu-ray, 81 BD-R, 83 BD-RE, 83 BD-ROM, 83 Cache, 68 Capacitors, 72 Card reader, 84 CD, 81 CD-DA, 82 CD-R, 83 CD-ROM, 83 CD-RW, 83 CISC, 69 Color depth, 91 CRT, 90 Data bus, 95 Data transfer rate, 77 Desktop computer, 58 Dot matrix printer, 92 Dot pitch, 90 Double layer DVD, 81 Drive bays, 86 Dual-channel architecture, 73 Duplex printer, 93 Duty cycle, 93 DVD, 81 DVD+R, 83 DVD+RW, 83 DVD-R, 83 DVD-ROM, 83 DVD-RW, 83 DVD-Video, 82 EEPROM, 74 Expansion bus, 95 Expansion card, 95 Expansion port, 96 Expansion slot, 95 Floppy disk, 80 Form factor, 58 Front side bus, 68
Gigahertz, 67 Graphics card, 91 Graphics processing unit, 91 Hard disk controller, 79 Hard disk drive, 78 Hard disk platter, 78 Head crash, 80 Home computer system, 60 Hyper-Threading Technology, 69 HyperTransport, 68 Ink jet printer, 92 ISA, 96 Joystick, 89 Lands, 81 Laser printer, 92 LCD, 90 Level 1 cache, 68 Level 2 cache, 68 Linux platform, 64 Mac platform, 64 Magnetic storage, 78 Media center PC, 60 Megahertz, 67 Microprocessor clock, 67 Mod, 65 Mouse, 88 Multi-core processor, 69 Nanosecond, 73 Non-volatile, 84 Notebook computer, 59 Optical storage, 81 Overclocking, 70 Parallel processing, 69 PC platform, 64 PCI, 96 Peripheral device, 56 Pipelining, 69 Pits, 81 Pixels, 90 Plasma screen, 90 Plug and Play, 96 Pointing device, 88 Pointing stick, 89 Portable computer, 59
PostScript, 94 Power surge, 99 Printer Control Language, 94 RAM, 71 Random access, 77 Read-only technology, 82 Read-write head, 78 Recordable technology, 82 Refresh rate, 90 Resolution, 91 Rewritable technology, 82 RISC, 69 ROM BIOS, 73 ROM, 73 Safe Mode, 105 Sequential access, 77 Serial processing, 69 Solid state storage, 84 Storage density, 77 Storage device, 76 Storage medium, 76 Surge strip, 100 SVGA, 91
Top of Document
SXGA, 91 System unit, 57 Tablet computer, 59 Tape drive, 80 Touch screen, 89 Trackball, 89 Trackpad, 89 U3 drive, 85 Ultra-mobile PC, 59 UPS, 100 USB, 94 USB flash drive, 85 UXGA, 91 VGA, 91 Viewable image size, 90 Viewing angle width, 90 Virtual memory, 72 Volatile, 72 Word size, 68 WQXGA, 91 WUXGA, 91 XGA 91