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Online Instructor’s Manual to Accompany

Justice Administration

Kenneth J. Peak Prepared by Ellen Cohn

Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Columbus, Ohio


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__________________________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2010 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Prentice Hall™ is a trademark of Pearson Education, Inc. Pearson® is a registered trademark of Pearson plc Prentice Hall® is a registered trademark of Pearson Education, Inc. Instructors of classes using Peak, Justice Administration, may reproduce material from the instructor’s manual for classroom use. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN-13: 978-0-13-515439-7 ISBN-10: 0-13-515439-1


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CHAPTER 1 The Study and Scope of Justice Administration CHAPTER OUTLINE Key Terms and Concepts Learning Objectives Why Study Justice Administration? Purpose of the Book and Key Terms Organization of the Book A True System of Justice? A Criminal Justice Process? A Criminal Justice Network? A Criminal Justice Nonsystem? Or a True Criminal Justice System? The Foundations of Justice and Administration: Legal and Historical Bases The Consensus-versus-Conflict Debate Crime Control through Due Process Public-Sector versus Private-Sector Administration Planned Change and Policymaking in Justice Administration Planning Interventions Force-field Analysis Summary Questions for Review Related Web Sites Notes

KEY TERMS              

Administration Conflict model Consensus model Criminal justice network Criminal justice nonsystem Criminal justice process Due process Force-field analysis Manager Planned change Policymaking Social contract Supervisor System fragmentation

LEARNING OBJECTIVES


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After reading this chapter, the student will:  learn the concepts of administration, manager, and supervisor  understand and be able to distinguish among criminal justice process, network, and nonsystem  understand system fragmentation and how it affects the amount and type of crime  be familiar with consensus and conflict theorists and their theories  understand the two goals of the American criminal justice system  be able to distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards and how they relate to the criminal justice system

CHAPTER SUMMARY Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the textbook and to the topic of justice administration. It explains the concepts of administration, manager, and supervisor, as they will be used in the text, and outlines the organization of the book. The chapter then moves on to a discussion of whether the various organizations involved in criminal justice constitute a true system. As each component does not engage in coordinated planning, communication and relationships among and between components are often difficult. Some consider it to be a process rather than a system, although considerable fragmentation exists among the various components of the process. Others suggest it is a network, which is based on several key, yet erroneous assumptions, and is probably not a just network in the eyes of the poor, various minority groups, or victims. Others argue that the components make up a nonsystem which do not function harmoniously and is not sufficiently efficient to create fear of punishment or command respect for values. They also are concerned over system fragmentation, which contributes to the dysfunction of the criminal justice system. The section concludes by pointing out that all of these perspectives are grounded in truth but that the justice system may still constitute a true system. A number of questions relating to the foundations of justice and administration need to be addressed. One is the debate between consensus and conflict. The systems approach is part of the consensus model; however, the conflict model provides an alterative approach. A second is the debate between the crime control model, which values the arrest and conviction of offenders, and the due process model, which emphasizes individual rights. The conceptual framework for the text is a model of crime control through due process. Both public and private sector employees derive personal satisfaction from their work. However, the way in which they arrive at these positive feelings, and how they are rewarded for their efforts, may be extremely different: private sector businesses may use extrinsic rewards to motivate and reward employees but public sector employees must be motivated by intrinsic rewards. Justice system administrators must attempt to understand the personalities, needs, and motivations of their employees and attempt to meet those needs and provide motivation to the extent possible.


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Criminal justice systems are frequently engaged in continuous planned change. The most complex and comprehensive approach is to create a policy, although making crime policy generally is a rough process. Force-field analysis is a technique for identifying sources of resistance to and support for change. The three steps in a force-field analysis are outlined and discussed.

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW 1. Do the three justice components (police, courts, and corrections) constitute a true system or are they more appropriately described as a process or a true nonsystem? Defend your response. 2. What are the legal and historical bases for a justice system and its administration in the United States? Why is the conflict-versus-consensus debate important? 3. What are some of the substantive ways in which public-sector and privatesector administration are similar? How are they dissimilar? 4. What elements of planned change must the justice administrator be familiar with in order to ensure that change is effected rationally and successfully? 5. Which method, a rational process or just muddling through, appears to be used in criminal justice policymaking today? Which method is probably best, given real-world realities? Explain your response

ADDITIONAL CHAPTER TEACHING SUGGESTIONS Attitudes towards the Criminal Justice System in the U.S. Consider discussing how the general public views the problem of crime in the U.S. and the American criminal justice system. Data from a number of national public opinion polls are available online, as is information from the Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics. Explain how attitudes and opinions may be affected and distorted by the news and entertainment media. The news media tends to focus extensively on crime, as stories about crime and the criminal justice system generate high ratings. The overemphasis on crime-related issues may give viewers an inflated impression of the true nature of the crime problem in the U.S. This is exacerbated by the proliferation of crime-related television programs, both dramas and so-called “reality TV,� and by the increasing presence of crime in books, movies, video games, and the internet. The line between fiction and reality has become blurred for many people. Class Discussion on the Crime Control versus Due Process Models of Criminal Justice The text discusses two primary goals of American criminal justice: the need to enforce the law and maintain order and the need to protect people from injustice. Consider facilitating a discussion regarding these two goals. Key issues for debate could include:


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   

Which of the two goals is currently the primary focus of American criminal justice and why? Do you think the current situation is appropriate? Consider debating the relative importance of the two goals. Could the two goals be met simultaneously? Is Frank Schmalleger’s concept of crime control through due process realistic and possible?

Class Discussion on the Importance of Studying Administration Ask students to list their goals as future (or current) criminal justice employees. Discuss the importance of studying administration in the achievement of these goals.

ADDITIONAL INDEPENDENT STUDENT ACTIVITIES 1.

2.

3.

Have students contact criminal justice practitioners and academic and obtain their opinions about the following issues  Do we have a true “system” of justice?  What is the extent to which a professional rapport exists between practitioners in the local justice system?  How well do cases seem to flow through the system?  To what extent do they believe that human and financial resources are distributed equitably among agencies? Have students interview executives in both the private and public sector in order to ascertain differences in such areas as personnel (e.g., hiring and firing, rewards, discipline, and gratification), policies and procedures, and budgeting. Have students interview city and/or county managers and criminal justice administrators to determine how criminal justice policy actually is made.

RELATED WEB SITES 360 Degrees: Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System http://www.360degrees.org British Journal of Criminology––Crime Control and Due Process http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/38/4/611 Bureau of Justice Statistics http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs Crime Spider––A Crime and Justice Search Engine http://crimespider.com Crime Theory http://crimetheory.com


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Justice Administration Commission www.justiceadmin.org MegaLinks in Criminal Justice http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) http://www.ncjrs.org Office for Victims of Crime http://ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc Talk Justice http://talkjustice.com Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) http://fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm U.S. Department of Justice http://www.usdoj.gov


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CHAPTER 2 Organization and Administration: Principles and Practices CHAPTER OUTLINE Key Terms and Concepts Learning Objectives Introduction Defining Organizations The Evolution of Organizational Theory Scientific Management Human Relations Management Systems Management Bureaucratic Management Organizational Inputs/Outputs Organizational Structure Primary Principles Span of Control and Unity of Command Communication within the Organization Import and Consequence Definition and Characteristics Communicating in Police Organizations: Consequences, Jargon, and the Grapevine Oral and Written Communication Other Barriers to Effective Communication Cultural Cues Primary Leadership Theories What Is Leadership? Trait Theory Style Theory Situational Leadership The Managerial Grid Characteristics and Skills of America’s Best Leaders “Good in Their Skin” Katz’s Three Skills Motivating Employees The Hawthorne Studies Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs McGregor’s Theory X/Theory Y Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Expectancy and Contingency Theories Gamers, Tattoos, and Attitudes? Generation X,Y and Next Employees Born in an Different World Implications for the Criminal Justice Workplace Case Study Summary Questions for Review


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Related Web Sites Notes

KEY TERMS                            

Administrative theory Autocratic leader Bureaucracy Communication Consciously coordinated Democratic leader Digital gaming and tattooing Generations X,Y, and Next Grapevine Hawthorne effect Humanistic school Inputs/outputs Laissez-faire leader Leadership Maintenance and hygiene factors Managerial grid McGregor’s Theory X/Theory Y Motivational factors Organization Organizational theory POSDCORB Relatively identifiable boundary Scientific management Situational leadership Span of control Style theory Trait theory Unity of command

LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, the student will:  be able to define organizations and be familiar with their elements  know the evolution of organizational theory, including scientific, human relations, systems, and bureaucratic management  understand the major components of organizational structure, such as span of control and unity of command  comprehend the primary leadership theories and skills, including the characteristics and skills of America’s best leaders  be familiar with the components of communication, including its process, barriers, role, cultural cues, and the uniqueness of communication within police organizations


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 know the kind of world and related challenges and organizational implications of persons of three younger generations who are now in, or will soon be entering, the workplace  understand the impact of the socialization, lifestyle, and personal appearance of the three younger generations now entering the workplace  describe the rights and interests––and legal aspects––concerning both employees and employers regarding employees’ personal appearance at the workplace

CHAPTER SUMMARY Chapter examines organizations and the employees in them, discussing how they should be managed and motivated. It begins by formally defining the term organization as “a consciously coordinated social entity, with a relative identifiable boundary, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals” and reviews four main types of formal organizations. The history and evolution of organizational theory is reviewed. The history of management has been divided into three approaches and time periods. The first is the scientific management period (1900-1940). Frederick W. Taylor, the father of scientific management, focused on ways of increasing employee productivity and created many elements of today’s formal administrative structure. The POSDCORB philosophy was developed by Luther Gulick during this period as well. However, the application of scientific management to criminal justice agencies was heavily criticized. The second period is the human relations management period (1930-1970), which began as people began to recognize the negative effects of scientific management on workers. This period emphasized employee-centered supervision instead of production-centered. However, this approach also had limitations. The third period is the systems management period (1965-present), which combines features of both earlier approaches and is designed to bring the individual and the organization together. A fourth approach is also proposed, that of bureaucratic management. Criminal justice agencies are bureaucratic organizations. Another way to view organizations is as systems that take inputs, process them, and produce outputs. Organizations have a written or unwritten structure. There are several key principles that must be considered in building an organizational structure. Two of these are span of control, which considers how many subordinates one individual can effectively supervise, and unity of command, which refers to placing only one supervisor in control of a situation or employee. Communication within a criminal justice organization is vital, particularly because of the nature of the information that is processed by practitioners. The various elements that compose the communication process, including encoding, transmission, medium, reception, decoding, and feedback, are reviewed and defined. Communication may be downward, upward, or horizontal within an organization. Police officers have their own jargon, dialect, and slang they use when communicating internally. They also use codes and a phonetic alphabet during radio communications. The “grapevine” may negatively impact communication. Criminal justice organizations rely


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heavily on written communications, particularly with respect to rules, policies, and procedures. Other barriers to effective communication are also discussed. Nonverbal cues may create difficulties in the criminal justice system if they are misinterpreted, as these cues differ among different cultures The term leadership is defined and a number of primary leadership theories are considered in this chapter. Trait theory is based on the notion that good leaders have certain character traits lacked by poor leaders. Style theory states that leaders must have a sense of both the task to be accomplished and the environment in which their employees work. It emphasizes the adoption of a single managerial style and offers three styles from which to choose. Situational leadership theory, on the other hand, recognizes the complexity of the workplace setting and suggests that the best way to lead may vary with the situation. A managerial grid has been developed using two variables (focus on task and focus on relationships) and presenting five leadership styles based on concern for output (production) and concern for people. One survey of America’s best leaders found that they are “good in their skin.” This means that they know who they are and do not feel a need to impress or please others. Robert Katz identified three essential skills leaders should possess: technical, human, and conceptual. These skills can be taught, suggesting that good administrators are not born but can be trained. A number of theories have attempted to explain employee motivation. The Hawthorne effect found that employees’ behavior may be altered if they know they are being studied (or that management cares about them). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs shows that before higher needs such as self-fulfillment and self-actualization can be satisfied, base or lower needs such as survival, safety, and social needs must first be satisfied. McGregor’s theories of democratic management suggest that behind every managerial decision or action are assumptions about human behavior and that there are two basic sets of assumptions, which he designated as Theory X (found in managers holding traditional views of direction and control) and Theory Y (found in managers taking the opposite view). Herzberg isolated two key factors found in all jobs: maintenance/hygiene factors, which are those elements in the work environment that meet the worker’s hedonistic need to avoid pain, and motivational factors, which provide intrinsic satisfaction and provide an incentive to workers. Expectancy theory suggests that employees will do what their managers or organizations want if several conditions hold true. The “nine C’s” of expectancy theory are presented. Contingency theory was developed somewhat later and attempted to determine the fit between organizational characteristics and tasks and individual motivations. This theory suggests that people performing highly structured and organized tasks do better in Theory X organizations while those performing unstructured and uncertain tasks perform better under a Theory Y approach. The chapter then shifts to a discussion of the four younger generations who are or will soon enter the workforce: Generation X (born between 19651975), Generation Y (born between 1976-1980), the Next Generation (born between 1990 and 1995), and the Millenials or Generation 2.0. They share certain key characteristics, including growing up in a more violent, multicultural, structured, and patriotic world. They grew up with computers,


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are more likely to have tattoos and/or body piercings, play video games, enjoy more complex television programs, and basically grew up in a more intellectually demanding culture. The implications of these features on the workplace are discussed in detail.

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

Define organization. What is its function and structure? Explain the evolution of organizational theory, including scientific, human relations, systems, and bureaucratic management theories. Define span of control and unity of command. Explain the characteristics and skills of America’s best leaders. What did Katz say are the three most important general qualities in leaders? What does communication mean? What is its importance in organizations? Explain cultural cues, the nature and uniqueness of police communications, and some of the major barriers to effective communication. Objectively assess what kind of leader you would likely be (if it is helpful, use the managerial grid). Is it an effective style? What are some of the possible advantages and disadvantages of that style? What kind of world did the X, Y, and Next generations grow up in, and what advantages and challenges do those persons pose in the criminal justice workplace? In criminal justice, what are the policy and legal implications of the younger generations’ penchant for tattoos and a generally nontraditional appearance?

ADDITIONAL CHAPTER TEACHING SUGGESTIONS Guest Speakers Consider inviting a criminal justice administrator to speak to the class about his or her view of effective leadership styles and employee motivation, the challenges posed by having employees of diverse races and ages in the workplace, the problems and benefits resulting from communication in general (and the grapevine in specific), and some of the other matters covered in this chapter. Other potential guest speakers could include an organizational theorist, a communications specialist, or a specialist in employee motivation. Class Discussion on the Younger Generations in Law Enforcement Many, if not all, members of the class will fall into one of the four younger generations discussed in the text. Facilitate a discussion regarding the differences among these groups and the differences in how they view the workplace.


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ADDITIONAL INDEPENDENT STUDENT ACTIVITIES 1.

2.

The chapter includes a case study, Targeting Tattoos. This may be assigned as an individual or group project. Consider having the students (or groups of students) prepare a 5-minute presentation to the class. After all presentations are complete, facilitate a discussion of the issue with the entire class Students can visit the human resources office of a local law enforcement agency to learn about policies relating to employee appearance issues, such as tattoos and piercings.

RELATED WEB SITES Criminal Justice Management Council http://www.co.la-crosse.wi.us/Minutes%20and %20Agendas/HmPgsSpecial/CJMC.htm Criminal Justice Management Institute http://cjmi.com Embassy of the United States: Strengthening Criminal Justice Management in Foreign Countries http://phnompenh.usembassy.gov/ilea.html GOVNET: Criminal Justice management Corporate Information http://www.govnet.co.uk/corporate/cjm.htm JUSTINFO: The Newsletter of the National Criminal Justice Reference Service http://www.theiacp.org National Center for Policy Analysis http://ncpa.org/pi/crime/crime71.html National Institute of Justice International Center http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij Policy Action Network http://movingideas.org Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics http://www.albany.edu/sourcebook


Solution manual justice administration 6th edition ken peak