Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-human-relations-12th-edition-dubrin CHAPTER 1 A FRAMEWORK FOR INTERPERSONAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT The first chapter sets the stage for improving interpersonal relations in organizations by presenting a framework for interpersonal skill development and training. Students who follow this framework seriously will increase the probability of enhancing their interpersonal relations in the workplace through the use of this text and its accompanying course. CHAPTER OUTLINE AND LECTURE NOTES Effective interpersonal relations must be combined with technical knowledge and good work habits to achieve success in any job involving interaction with people. Many people are held back from promotions and pay raises, and even lose their jobs, because of poor relationships with people. Interpersonal skills are also important because they enable people to connect with others, thereby being more successful in business. I.
PLAN OF THE BOOK A three-part strategy is presented for achieving interpersonal effectiveness. First, key concepts are presented. Second, the reader receives behavioral guidelines. Third, the reader does exercises such as self-quizzes, skill-builders, and analyzes cases. Much of the book is about interpersonal skill training, the teaching of skills in dealing with others so they can be put into practice. Interpersonal skills are sometimes referred to as soft skills, whereas technical skills are referred to as hard skills. Soft-skills training is more important than ever as organizations realize that a combination of human effort and technology is needed to produce results. Executive coach Marshall Goldsmith reminds us that building relationships with people is important for all workers, including the CEO.
A MODEL FOR IMPROVING INTERPERSONAL SKILLS A five-part model is presented for acquiring and improving interpersonal skills. A. Goal or Desired State of Affairs. The goal helps provide motivation and makes it possible to exercise the selfdiscipline necessary to follow through on your plans. Fine Points about Goal Setting. Key points about setting effective goals are as follows: (1) State each goal as a positive statement. (2) Formulate specific goals. (3) Formulate concise goals. (4) Set realistic goals as well as stretch goals. (5) Set goals for different time periods. B. Assessing Reality The person needs to assess how far away he or she is from reaching the goal. Soliciting feedback from others about distance from the goal is helpful. C. An Action Plan Copyright ÂŠ 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 1
Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-human-relations-12th-edition-dubrin Actions must be taken to improve interpersonal relations. An action plan is a series of steps to achieve a goal. Implementing the plan requires selfdiscipline. D. Feedback on Actions The person obtains feedback on the consequences of his or her actions. Shortand long-term measures of effectiveness are important. E. Frequent Practice For the new skill to be long lasting it must be integrated into the person's usual way of conducting himself or herself. After a skill is programmed into a person's repertoire, it becomes a habit. III.
IDENTIFICATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS People are the most likely to develop new skills when they feel the need for change. A specific area in which a person needs to change is referred to as a developmental need. To improve interpersonal skills, we must first be aware of how we are perceived by people who interact with us. Self-analysis, thinking through past feedback, and soliciting new feedback are helpful in identifying developmental needs. Feedback from performance evaluations is useful also. A. Universal Needs for Improving Interpersonal Relations Some areas for skill improvement in interpersonal relations are found among managerial, professional, technical, and sales personnel. A universal training need is an area for improvement common to most people. The text is organized around universal needs, as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
Understanding individual differences Self-esteem and self-confidence Interpersonal communication Behaving appropriately when using digital devices. Developing teamwork skills Group problem solving Cross-cultural relations Resolving conflicts with others Becoming an effective leader Motivating others Helping others develop and grow. Positive political skills Customer service skills Enhancing ethical behavior Stress management and personal productivity Job search and career management skills
DEVELOPING INTERPERSONAL SKILLS ON THE JOB Copyright ÂŠ 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2
Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-human-relations-12th-edition-dubrin Opportunities exist in the workplace for developing interpersonal skills that can be a valuable supplement to more formal training. A. Informal Learning Informal learning is the acquisition of knowledge and skills that takes place naturally outside of a structured learning environment. Nearly one-half of respondents to a survey said that informal learning is occurring to a high or veryhigh extent in their organizations. Learning interpersonal skills informally can take place though such means as observing a coworker, manager, or team leader deal with a situation. A trend in business is for employees to integrate formal classroom learning with informal learning. Formal and informal learning of interpersonal skills are useful supplements to each other. B. Specific Developmental Experiences Certain workplace experiences are particularly suited to interpersonal skill development. These experiences are (1) unfamiliar responsibilities, (2) proving yourself, (3) problems with employees, (4) influencing others without authority, and (5) having a difficult manager. The general point to be derived from these scenarios is that certain on-the-job challenges require a high level of interpersonal skill. ANSWERS TO QUESTIOS FOR DISCUSSION AND REVIEW 1.
A friend of yours says, “I’m such a great techie that I don’t have to worry about interpersonal skills.” What advice do you have for your technique friend? You might advise your friend that he or she could be dismissing too readily the importance of interpersonal skills for technical people. Managers of technical people will often point out that interpersonal skills are important for highly technical people because these people have to work with others to perform their work. Also, technical workers often have to explain their work to less technicallyoriented people, as when being called in to solve a technical problem. Another reason for the importance of interpersonal skills for technical people is that being promoted to a supervisory position requires some interpersonal skill.
2. In your opinion, do supervisors of entry-level workers rely more on soft skills or hard skills to accomplish their work? Supervisors of entry-level workers rely more on soft skills to accomplish their work because they spend so much time motivating, training, encouraging and disciplining workers. Nevertheless, hard skills such as preparing budgets and technical problem solving are also important for supervisors of entry-level workers. Supervisors of yesteryear focused more on the technical side of work, such as showing workers how to perform a task, and establishing work schedules.
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Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-human-relations-12th-edition-dubrin 3. Identify a developmental need related to interpersonal relations of the current president of the United States. How did you reach this conclusion about the president? In some instances, a student’s political biases will deter from his or her ability to make an objective assessment of the president. A careful observation of a (no specific president in mind) president’s interpersonal skill might indicate such problems as room for improvement in face-to-face communication skill, difficulty in resolving conflict, or a poorly developed sense of humor. Data for reaching conclusions about the president’s developmental needs might be derived from watching news show or reading news reports. Editorial comments about the president from the same types of sources would be helpful also. 4.
Why are interpersonal skills quite important for job seekers where there is a shortage of good jobs open in their field? When there is an oversupply of applicants in comparison to positions available, employers tend to be more selective. Part of this selectivity includes searching for applicants who have a good balance between technical skills and interpersonal (or soft) skills. In order to impress these prospective employers, the candidate must demonstrate strong soft skills as well as hard skills.
5. How does a person know if the feedback he or she receives from another person is accurate? A major factor in measuring the accuracy of feedback is corroboration. If several informed individuals point to the same developmental need for an individual, he or she should take it seriously. Intuition is also an important consideration. If the feedback "feels" right, it is most likely accurate. 6. How could doing a thorough job with Self-Assessment Quiz 1-1 have a major impact on a person’s career? Doing thorough job with Self-Assessment Quiz 1-1 might get a person started on the path of overcoming a developmental need that could be a career retardant. Suppose after doing Self-Assessment Quiz 1-1, the person was reminded that he or she is poor at criticizing others (Statement 14). Furthermore, the same person develops and implements an effective action plan. As a result, the person would have a better chance of succeeding as a manager. 7. A statement frequently made in business is, “If you are obnoxious, you need to be very talented to succeed.” How does this conclusion relate to the learning of interpersonal skills? The conclusion that obnoxious people need to be very talented to succeed ties in directly with the importance of learning interpersonal skills. The point is Copyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 4
Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-human-relations-12th-edition-dubrin that unless a person has exceptional talent, such as technical skills, people will demand good interpersonal skills in order to accept that person. Others will be more tolerant of obnoxious behavior if the obnoxious person is super-talented. 8. Based on what you have learned so far in this book, and your own intuition, how would you respond to the statement, “You can’t learn how to get along with people from reading a book”? The model presented in this book indicates that you can learn ideas for getting along with people from a book, but you must also obtain feedback on how well you have acquired the skills, and practice the new skills. 9. Give an example of a skill you might have learned informally at any point in your life. Students cite excellent examples of informal learning, including both hard skills and soft skills. One student explained how he learned to become a butcher by observing experienced butchers. A number of students also write that they learned how to tie their shoes through modeling. Dealing with customer complaints is another skill set many people have learned through informal learning. 10.
Give an example of how a small-business owner needs good soft skills to survive. An example of a small-business owner of a basic business whose survival could be dependent on soft skills would be a hair-salon operator. The competition is heavy in the hair salon business, with most neighborhoods having more salons than needed to meet consumer demand. The salon operators who establish good interpersonal relationships with their customers are more likely to get repeat business—an obvious truth that is supported by research cited in Chapter 14 in relation to customer service. ANSWERS TO CASE QUESTIONS
Tyler Likes Tyler This introductory case to the book, illustrates an interpersonal skill problem most students have encountered—the self-absorbed coworker who does not make an effort to listen carefully to others. 1. What developmental needs does Tyler appear to have? Tyler’s major developmental need is to overcome a self-absorption that blocks his ability to listen to others. Another key developmental need is to become more selfCopyright © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 5
Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-human-relations-12th-edition-dubrin aware, or sensitive to the feedback stemming from the reaction of others toward him. 2. To what extent do you think that Isabella and Noah were being rude toward Tyler? It appears that Isabella and Noah were being slightly rude toward Tyler because they exited their interaction with Tyler. Both Isabella and Noah were countering gross rudeness with lesser rudeness. 3. What would you recommend that Tyler do to obtain feedback on his needs for development? Tyler has already obtained feedback on his needs for development by the way in which Isabella and Noah exited their interactions with him. Tyler should be encouraged to observe how people react toward their conversations with him as a form of feedback. It would take considerable courage, but Tyler might ask a few coworkers how he could improve his interactions with them. Betty Lou Sets Some Goals This short case illustrates a scenario that takes place regularly in thousands of workplaces —goal setting that could stand refinement. 1. If you were Garth, what would you tell Betty Lou about her goals without hurting her feelings? Garth might tell Betty Lou that all her goals have good intent but that she needs to work on refining them so they will more likely be translated into action. Garth might also tell Betty Lou that her goals would all help the company if they were achieved. 2. What suggestions can you offer Betty Lou to improve her goal statement? Betty Lou will do well to follow the guidelines for goal setting outlined in Figure 1-3. A good starting point would be to direct Betty Lou to be more specific in terms of what she hopes to achieve. Such questions could include the following: What is the end state of being a great brand? What do you mean by “getting in good” with more buyers? What do you mean by getting Pasta Mucho “all over Facebook and Twitter”? 3. How might interpersonal skills contribute to Betty Lou attaining her goals? Attaining Betty Lou’s will require considerable interpersonal skill. Becoming an
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Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-human-relations-12th-edition-dubrin outstanding marketing executive requires a high-level of interpersonal skill. “Getting in good with buyers” also implies that Betty Lou is adept at working well with people. COMMENTS ABOUT QUIZZES AND EXERCISES Skill-Building Exercise 1-1: Applying the Model for Improving Interpersonal Skills This exercise helps emphasize a point that must be repeated often—for many people improving an interpersonal skill takes a lot of hard work. Going through all six steps is important to enhance the possibility that development will take place. Identification of developmental needs is an essential first step, and I have found students tend to be open rather than defensive about looking for ways to improve interpersonal skills. Self-Assessment Quiz 1-1: What Are Your Developmental Needs? This exercise is placed first in the text because it sets the stage for serious thinking about personal development in the interpersonal sphere. One approach to this exercise is to request each student to present one developmental need and action plan to the class. After the presentations are complete, students are asked to interpret what they heard. My experience has been that students often ask the instructor to identify his or her most pressing developmental need. So be prepared! Interpersonal Skills Role-Play (for Case 1-1): Tyler Wants to Improve His Interpersonal Skills As an introductory role play to the course, this scenario has promise. Tyler must overcome the potential barrier of Isabella and Noah thinking that he probably is looking for another opportunity to talk about himself. Isabella and Noah can demonstrate good interpersonal skills by offering Tyler honest feedback and he interacts with coworkers.
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