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MODULE 2 The Management Process Everyone becomes a manager someday Module Objectives Module Two begins to explore the fundamental notions of what a manager actually does, the requirements for a manager, and the expectations. Both the benefits and challenges are discussed. It may be worthwhile to have the class reflect at the outset on a person for whom they may have already worked or played sports that they believe was a good manager. Then perhaps ask students to describe some of their traits and leave for further reinforcement and discussion as you present Module 2. The objectives of Module 2 may be summarized as: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

To describe the varying types and levels of managers To convey how managers are measured for effectiveness To define accountability, especially in the face of changing and multiple expectations To describe the intensity and stress of managing To explain the four key functions of managers: Plan, Organize, Lead, and Control To describe managers in terms of skills as well as roles enacted

Module Outline 2.1 What does it mean to be a manager? 

Managers are persons who directly supervise, support, and help activate work efforts to achieve the performance goals of individuals, teams, or even an organization as a whole.

Organizations have different types and levels of managers  Figure 2.1 depicts an organization as a series of “layers,” each of which represents different levels of work and managerial responsibilities  First-line manager is someone who leads a group of people who perform nonmanagerial duties.  Common titles are department head, team leader, supervisor  Middle Managers are persons in charge of relatively large departments or divisions consisting of several smaller work units or teams  Usually supervise several first-line managers

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Full file at  Examples are clinic directors in hospitals, plant managers, and regional sales managers in businesses  Top managers are responsible for the performance of the organization as a whole.  Chief Executive Officer (CEO), President, Vice Presidents  Expected to be alert to trends in the external environment, recognize problems and opportunities, and to lead the organization to long-term success  Best are strategic thinkers , can communicate well, and keep organization members focused on important objectives  See Pacesetters feature on John Byrne, CEO of Fast Company  Board of Directors  Responsible for Corporate Governance (see Module 1)is the active oversight of the affairs of the organization and the performance of its top management  The CEO or President typically reports to the Board of Directors , who are responsible for the hiring, firing and compensation of senior executives  In Nonprofit organizations, may be called the Board of Trustees 

Accountability is a cornerstone of Managerial Performance  Describes the requirement of one person to answer to a higher authority for performance achieved in hi or her area of work responsibility  Accountability flows upward in organizations  Managers are also dependent on others to do the required work

Effective managers strive for both performance and satisfaction  Quality of Work Life (QWL) is integral to managers being a success  QWL includes respect and valued employees, fair pay, safe working conditions, learning and growth opportunities, and pride in the workplace  Not limited to unskilled labor; engineers, accountants, scientists as low as one-fifth the cost of an equivalent U.S. worker

Managers must meet multiple and changing expectations  Managers today often referred to as “coaches” or “coordinators”.  See Figure 2.2 –an upside-down pyramid depicting a new mindset for managers acting as coaches; the organization exists to serve its customers.

2.1 Reflect/React Suggested Answers 1) Each of us will be “managers” in several ways beyond work lives: managing our career; volunteer organizations; households; sports teams; daily priorities etc. 2) Quality of work life connects directly to employee satisfaction and productivity and customer satisfaction. If employee morale is poor and/or if employees are not viewed as individuals with unique goals and concerns, this will impact current sales and profitability; it will also impact retention, and the attendant costs to replace experienced employees is quite high.

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Full file at 3) The upside down view emphasizes the importance of customers and employees who serve those customers. That pyramid view of an organization mirrors reality better than the notion that CEOs alone drive success. 2.2 What Do Managers Do? 

Managerial Work is Often Intense and Demanding  Henry Mintzberg describes daily managerial work in this manner in The Nature of Managerial Work  See inset box with the key elements of managers

Managers Plan, Organize, Lead and Control  Four functions in the management process-see Figure 2.3  The Management Process-planning, organizing, leading and controlling  All managers in any organization are responsible for doing each of these functions well  Planning is the process of setting performance objectives and determining what actions should be taken to accomplish them  Organizing is the process of assigning tasks, allocating resources, and coordinating the activities of individuals and groups  Leading is the process of arousing people’s enthusiasm to work hard and inspiring their efforts to fulfill plans and accomplish objectives  Controlling is the process of measuring work performance, comparing results to objectives, and taking corrective action as needed

Managers Enact Informational, Interpersonal, and Decisional Roles Performance  The four management functions are not performed step-by-step  Mintzberg identified three sets of roles that he believed all good managers enact successfully  Through these roles, the manager fulfills the four functions  Informational roles focus on the giving, receiving, and analyzing of information  Interpersonal roles reflect interaction with people inside and outside the work unit  Decisional roles involve using information to make decisions to solve problems or address opportunities

Managers Pursue Agendas and Engage in Networking  Agenda setting is used by managers to develop action priorities; these agendas may be incomplete and loosely connected in the beginning  Networking is the building, maintenance, and use of positive relationships with other people, ideally those who may be useful someday  Networks create the opportunity through which many agenda items an be fulfilled  Most managers maintain extensive networks not only with their own organization, but also with customers, suppliers, and community representatives

Managers Use a Variety of Technical, Human, and Conceptual Skills

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Full file at  Technical skill is the ability to use a special proficiency or expertise to perform particular tasks  Examples are accountants, engineers, systems analysts, etc  Technical skills are very important at career entry levels  Human skill is the ability to work well with others  High self awareness, capacity for empathy, trusting, and enthusiasm with others  Emotional Intelligence (EI) (described by Daniel Goleman) is the ability to manage ourselves and our relationships effectively  See the inset summarizing the five facets of EI  Conceptual skill is the ability to think critically and analytically; the capacity to break down problems into smaller parts, see the relations between the parts and recognize the implications of any one problem for others  Conceptual skills actually grow in importance as one moves up to higher management responsibilities 

Managers Learn from Experience  Lifelong learning-the process of continuously learning from our daily experiences and opportunities

2.2 Reflect/React Suggested Answers 1) The world is becoming more complex and more technologically connected globally. In order to compete, organizations and individuals can no longer partition their lives into 40 hour work weeks from “8-5.” The paradox of improving speed of communications is that it makes our lives less separable from our “jobs.” Having a blackberry, cell phone, and computer means 24/7/365 availability. How many phone calls did one make or receive just 10 years ago? Compare that to today and the frequency has grown dramatically. Even though such a world may entail more stress and log hours, it also provides more flexibility, freedom, and mobility. Moreover, in order to compete, one must accept such consequences or another person somewhere in the world that is more willing to do so, may take your position. 2) The Katz model indicates that in order to obtain a good entry position, it is imperative that my interpersonal skills and technical skills be outstanding. Human or interpersonal skills will remain high throughout my career, but it is important to acquire a strategic or “big picture “view of the organization, competitors, customers early to distinguish myself and ascend to the “top.” 3) We all know someone who has or had “great potential” who has somehow not been able to translate that potential into actuality because of personal issues, including poor discipline, losing one’s temper, ad many other reasons. Developing emotional intelligence and self awareness enables us to eliminate obstacles and create opportunities.

Teaching Notes Module 2

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Full file at In this section, ideas, exercises, and assignments are provided to assist you in integrating the concepts in Exploring Management for your students, especially the special features of the text. Management Tips: Review the “responsibilities of team leaders” in the inset box on page 18. Most students have been in a wide variety of teams. Break the class into pairs and ask each pair to consider the sports, academic, or work teams in which they have participated and to discuss the following (to share with the class in an open discussion after the pairs have completed their work, perhaps 15 minutes).  

Which teams worked well and why (relate their conclusions to those in the inset box)? Which did not and why?

Newsline The Newsline feature 2.1 for this Module is entitled “Days of the “Imperial” CEO Are Over. (Page 20).” At Deloitte, one of the world’s largest financial advisory firms, Bill Parrett’s (CEO) management style encourages discussion and even challenges to the CEO’s strategy. Ask students to complete the “Reflect” exercise following the Newsline. This exercise will work well as a take-home assignment or for distance learning. Here are a few questions for the class to consider and discuss:  

Have the class “pair up” and describe the culture or style they’d like to work in. Can they think of any company that they may have read about, or worked at, or local companies, that is similar to their ideal environment? If they were managing a firm with 120,000 employees and offices in 150 countries, how would they communicate with all those employees? Ask students to “map out” a typical month for such a CEO, together with the inherent limitations and benefits.

Pacesetters Jon Byrne, CEO of Fast Company, describes his job with a high degree of passion, using such words as “thrill” and “amazing things we have accomplished” and “a job that I love.” (See page 19 box inset). Questions for class discussion (or an assignment): 

Is such passion “infectious?” Have you ever worked for such a boss or manager? If so, what was the impact on the overall organization?

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Consider Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs” and discuss at which level Byrne seems to be operating; what need is he fulfilling based on the Pacesetters feature?

Stay Informed The inset in module 2 provides the top reasons for leaving jobs. Here are some possible questions for discussion in class:  

What are the key differences between males and females? As an employer or manager, how could you use this information to improve your management style and/or your workplace to improve retention? Note that “money” or “pay” is not listed as a top reason by either gender. Is this surprising to you? How would you explain this finding and how might it relate to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory?

Self Assessment The assessment for this module is entitled “Learning Tendencies (page 29).” These assessment tools are intended to help students reflect on their own learning styles on their own strengths and weaknesses and areas where they can grow and develop. As students proceed through the entire text and course, they will acquire a broader knowledge of themselves. A worthwhile exercise is to ask students to maintain their scores on each assigned assessment and, as a special project, reflect and summarize their manager-readiness near the end of the quarter/semester, what they have learned about themselves, and how they plan to continue improving. Pathways for Module 2 Instructors may wish to assign online additional work to allow students an opportunity to strengthen their skills and/or understanding of concepts presented in the module. In order to retain student interest, these assignments may be varied between Skill Builder, Experiential Exercises, and Project under Pathways to WileyPLUS at the end of each Module. The case for this Module describes “Meg Whitman of e Bay: Cautious, Conservative, Capitalist.” Ms. Whitman style is described as “slow and steady.” E Bay has survived and prospered in a volatile “bubble-bursting era.” Yet she combines her interests in serving e Bay with external interests in other Boards of Directors and family life, including fly-fishing. Students should read this short case and answer a few questions as an assignment:

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Look at the inset on page 23 of module 2. Has Ms. Whitman’s balance a good strategy to help offset the long hours and stress of managerial work? How would you achieve such a balance? What other interests do you have that would balance your work life as a manager? Is “slow and steady” a desirable characteristic in managers in your view? Why or why not? Support your view with examples.

Possible further research for this case: Visit Yahoo Finance Enter the stock symbol EBAY in the small empty rectangle at the top of the page. Then, hit the “Go” button. 

Look in the lower right hand section of the page. Note that “publicly-traded” companies such as E Bay are required by the Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) to disclose the compensation of the five highest paid officers of the company. What was Ms. Whitman’s salary for the most recent fiscal year? Is this higher or lower than what you would expect for a company such as E Bay? CEOs and coaches of large sports teams are often paid what seem very high salaries. Are such salaries needed? Why, in your view, are they so high?

Suggested Team Exercises for Module 2 Emotional Intelligence Exercise Module 1 includes an inset listing five facets of EI. Break the class into teams of three or four and ask each group to collectively discuss these five facets. Ask them to list well known managers or celebrities who seem to possess some or all of the facets, and provide examples to share with the class. Also ask them to provide examples of the failure of well known managers or celebrities who lack one or more of the five facets. Upon completion of all teams, have each team (a volunteer from the team) discuss their examples. This will allow the class to learn collaboratively and recognize the values of EI. Conceptual Skill Exercise Module 2 includes a review of conceptual skills. This exercise is designed to have teams use conceptual skills to create ideas for a new business in the community Organize the class into teams of three or four students each. Ask each team to “create” a concept for a new business in the local community that serves a need or want they have observed (they should be prepared to support/explain this perceived need or want). They should be told that they

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Full file at can assume that they have the needed financing for a local business. It is useful to share with them an example such as the Geek Squad or a Starbucks, both of which first started as local companies in one community. Allow teams about 45 minutes for this exercise. The teams should report to the class their “concept” as well as a “name” for the business that is communicative and “catchy” (again, Geek Squad is an example, or perhaps Stub Hub, the on-line ticket broker.) The Instructor should summarize the concepts and names. Then the Instructor may want to pick “winners” of the “best concept” and “best name” based on his or her discretion and share the reasons with the class. Students enjoy this exercise and it allows them to see how valuable conceptual skills are. It adds interest and excitement to assign “bonus points” to teams that win, either as extra credit toward their grade or added points (example 3-5 points) on their upcoming test/exam.

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Solution manual exploring management 1st edition schermerhorn  

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