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Contents Instructor Manual PART 1: ANTICIPATING CHANGE Chapter 1 Organization Development and Reinventing the Organization Chapter 2 Organization Renewal: The Challenge of Change Chapter 3 Changing the Culture

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PART 2: UNDERSTANDING THE OD PROCESS Chapter 4 Role and Style of the OD Practitioner Chapter 5 The Diagnostic Process

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Chapter 6 Overcoming Resistance to Change

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PART 3: DEVELOPING EXCELLENCE IN INDIVIDUALS Chapter 7 Process Intervention Skills

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Chapter 8 OD Intervention Strategies

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Chapter 9 Employee Empowerment and Interpersonal Interventions

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PART 4: DEVELOPING HIGH PERFORMANCE IN TEAMS Chapter 10 Team Development Interventions

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Chapter 11 Intergroup Development Interventions Chapter 12 Goal Setting for Effective Organizations Chapter 13 Work Team Development

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PART 5: DEVELOPING SUCCESS IN ORGANIZATIONS Chapter 14 High-Performing Systems and the Learning Organization Chapter 15 Organization Transformation and Strategic Change Chapter 16 The Challenge and the Future for Organizations

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Test Bank PART 1: ANTICIPATING CHANGE Chapter 1 Organization Development and Reinventing the Organization Chapter 2 Organization Renewal: The Challenge of Change

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Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-experiential-approach-to-organizationdevelopment-7th-edition-brown Chapter 3 Changing the Culture

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PART 2: UNDERSTANDING THE OD PROCESS Chapter 4 Role and Style of the OD Practitioner Chapter 5 The Diagnostic Process

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Chapter 6 Overcoming Resistance to Change

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PART 3: DEVELOPING EXCELLENCE IN INDIVIDUALS Chapter 7 Process Intervention Skills

334

Chapter 8 OD Intervention Strategies

342

Chapter 9 Employee Empowerment and Interpersonal Interventions

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PART 4: DEVELOPING HIGH PERFORMANCE IN TEAMS Chapter 10 Team Development Interventions

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Chapter 11 Intergroup Development Interventions Chapter 12 Goal Setting for Effective Organizations Chapter 13 Work Team Development

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PART 5: DEVELOPING SUCCESS IN ORGANIZATIONS Chapter 14 High-Performing Systems and the Learning Organization Chapter 15 Organization Transformation and Strategic Change Chapter 16 The Challenge and the Future for Organizations

Transparency Masters

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PREFACE This Instructor’s Manual is designed to allow flexibility in the use of An Experiential Approach to Organization Development, 7 th edition. Since the needs of instructors vary greatly, the detailed structure and guidance of this manual will provide adequate support for those of you who are using the experiential method for the first time. Others of you will prefer to use your own teaching techniques. This manual provides opportunities for flexibility and improvisation for all instructors. Each of the units has been designed and tested in a two and one-half hour time period; however, each unit may be expanded or contracted to meet individual needs and requirements. This Instructor’s Manual is designed to follow the 16 chapters in the text. It contains lecture notes, hints and suggestions for running the simulations, additional resources, answers for cases, test questions, and transparency masters.

Introduction to the Instructor’s Manual An Experiential Approach to Organization Development was written as a text for courses in organization development taught in colleges and universities within schools of management and administration. The text can also be used as a training manual by organizations with OD programs. It was designed specifically to provide a broad conceptual framework appropriate for the study of change in all types of complex organizations. There is a wide variation among courses in organization development but, in most institutions, this course comes toward the end of the student’s course work. A large number of prerequisites have not been assumed for this course, as it is our goal to make this text appropriate for most programs offered by various institutions. It is desirable for the student to have a background in the behavioral sciences, management, and the functional areas of business. However, we have found most students, even without all those specific courses, have a sufficient background to cope with the course material. Furthermore, students from outside the business school—such as those in education, public administration, psychology, and sociology—generally have satisfactory backgrounds via other similar courses. We have found that these students have little difficulty with the text and they frequently bring new insights and ideas to the class from their disciplinary areas, which add significantly to the discussions.

Organization of this Instructor’s Manual This manual is based upon experience in teaching courses in organization development and should prove to be a comprehensive aid in using An Experiential Approach to Organization Development, 7th edition. It is designed to share our ideas and experiences with you, the instructor. Each chapter in this Instructor’s Manual is divided into the following sections: 

Learning Objectives – The specific learning objectives from the text are reproduced for that chapter. The learning objectives are worded to be specific and measurable.

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Student Premeeting Preparation – The preparations that a student should perform before coming to class are listed. These are the same Premeeting Preparations that are in the textbook. The list of preparations assumes that you will be using all the simulations and the case for that chapter. Since it is unlikely that you will have enough time for your class to use all the experiential material, you may want to modify the Student Premeeting Preparations to reflect the specific activities you have planned for that chapter and class period. For example, if you are not going to use a simulation or case in that chapter, then you can announce the student preparations the preceding class period.

Instructor Preparation and Materials – This is a reminder of special materials and preparations that that you will need to make. The list is normally centered around the simulations. For example, if an answer sheet to a simulation problem needs to be reproduced to hand out in class, a reminder will be given in this section.

Lecture Outline – This section is a detailed outline of the text material for the chapter. As the Instructor’s Manual is available online in Word format, you will be able to modify this outline to fit your needs. Power Point lecture outlines are also available online and these may be printed and used as teaching notes or used with a computer to give a lecture.

Review Questions – The answers to the Review Questions that are in the textbook are provided. Students may be assigned a question in advance or called upon in class to report their answers.

Key Words and Concepts – Brief definitions are given to the Key Words and Concepts that are in the textbook. The Key Words and Concepts appear in the textbook material in boldface type.

Additional Resources – This section varies from one chapter to another but typically includes a book that is particularly helpful in providing more information for the chapter. Additional simulations are provided in a format that you can easily reproduce for your class. Some chapters have a film that you may want to use. The films are “Hollywood” type films such as 12 Angry Men and you will probably want to have a list of discussion questions ready for your students. It is advisable to preview the film prior to using it in class to make sure it is appropriate to your class. A good source of information on films including their purchase is from http://imdb.com/. Most of the films are available in VHS and DVD format.

Simulation Procedures – This sections lists student premeeting preparations, special materials that you will need to bring to class, hints for running a simulation, discussion questions, answers to a simulation if required with an answer sheet that is ready to be reproduced for your students, a time summary, and a place for you to make notes for future reference.

Case Teaching Notes – Material is provided to streamline your case preparation time. You will likely want to add to this outline.

Student Preparations for the Next Chapter – So that you can easily see what students need to do for the next chapter, a list is provided. This coordinates with the Premeeting Preparation that is in the textbook and Instructor’s Manual for the next chapter.


Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-experiential-approach-to-organizationdevelopment-7th-edition-brown Following the above material is the test bank organized by chapters. The test questions are true false, multiple choice, and essay. Each question has the answer and is crossed referenced to the page number in the textbook. The answer is in parenthesis at the end of each question. Lastly, near the end of this manual are overhead transparency masters. This material is the figures and tables from the textbook. The lecture outline in each chapter includes references to the transparencies so that you may use an overhead projector at the appropriate time.

The Experiential Learning Model The experiential approach is not intended to give textbook answers to problems but rather it is aimed at providing insights into the consequences of certain behaviors in different situations. Its primary goal is to stimulate individual interest and motivation and increase the understanding of associated conceptual and theoretical knowledge. The experiential learning model provides an opportunity for the participants to gain meaningful knowledge from firsthand experience. This approach creates a framework for getting and using feedback about the participants’ management style and behavior so that they may become more proficient. The simulations provide for both content and process learning about the task itself and how interaction takes place. In the experiential approach, the participants learn by utilizing feedback on their own behavior and by increasing their awareness of the process part of group problem solving. A primary objective is learning “how to learn” from experience. Experiential learning is based upon learning by doing rather than by rote memorization. This approach places major responsibility upon the learner and involves an active rather than a passive role. Working as a practitioner to an organization is the ideal way to acquire change agent skills and this text is designed to be used in that capacity. It is usually the exception when a class of undergraduate or even graduate students is allowed access to an organization in the role of an OD practitioner. Consequently, behavioral simulations are provided for each of the basic stages of the OD process. The basic experiential learning model involves four related steps: (See the following figure.) 1. Gaining conceptual knowledge and theories – reading about OD concepts and theories and doing pre-class preparation. 2. Activity in a behavioral simulation – problem solving, making decisions, and communicating; that is, practicing the concept and theories. 3. Analysis of activity – analyzing, critiquing, and discussing the way problems were solved and comparing the results of different approaches. 4. Connecting the theory and activity with prior on-the-job or life situations – writing a short analysis of each activity connecting the learning, reflecting upon the results, and generalizing into the future.

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Gaining Conceptual Knowledge and Theories The reading material provides a basic set of concepts and theories about the OD process. This is a starting point for the development of practitioner skills and styles. Additional readings may be assigned when appropriate. Activity in a Behavioral Simulation Behavioral simulations are provided where the participant is able to experiment with, practice, and develop new skills and approaches. Our goal in designing this text was to create a learning environment in which participants have the opportunity to explore their own behavior and feelings toward themselves and others as well as to sharpen diagnostic and problem-solving skills. The immediate reaction to problem situations is to fall back upon older ways of behavior which have been effective in the past. In this way, the anxiety of trying to find new behaviors is often avoided. In the behavioral simulations, problems, which must be acted upon, are faced and resolved and feedback is given on the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of behaviors. The latter method allows the participant to experiment with new or different styles and skills. Analysis of Activity Learning results from an analysis of the consequences of various actions during the simulation. In the analysis of an activity, we investigate how we went about solving a certain problem and how effective or ineffective the results were. We try to determine the results a given action produces, how these results compare with alternative actions, and what unintended consequences may be associated with a given course of action. The analysis attempts to define and clarify the differences between where you are now and where you would like to be. Connecting the Theory and Activity with Prior On-The-Job or Life Situations Finally, we use this experience to analyze past efforts and as a guide to future experience. To accomplish this, we have found the Change Analysis (CA) to be an effective learning tool. The CA is a short typewritten paper of two to three pages in length written just after the simulation is completed. Its contents include: 

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An analysis of theoretical concepts from the reading and how this relates to the simulation or to past experiences. (But not a restatement of text material.)


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An analysis of one’s reactions, feelings, and observations during the behavioral simulation. (How did I feel during the simulation?)

Relation of the class experience to some past or possible future situation. (How does this tie in with my own experience?)

Note: The CA must be an analysis; that is, it examines meaning and relationships and is not a set of minutes. It should include gut feelings, emotional reactions, etc., to change. Although students in general have an aversion to writing papers, we have found in class evaluations that the students consistently feel that the CA is an essential learning element. We usually deal openly with this issue in the first class meeting and most classes have elected to use the CA; however, it is optional.

The Learning Experience of a Class Meeting Session It has been our experience that several factors enhance learning. First, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of completing premeeting preparation material and of the interdependence of class members in experiential learning. If several class members are unprepared, it slows the learning process and frequently the informality and shared responsibility is tested by a laxity of preparation. We have also found it helpful to have a brief premeeting discussion or “lecturette” and to highlight the key material; otherwise the task or content element of the simulation may overshadow the chapter material. Finally, time is always provided for the analysis, critique, and sharing of what happened in the simulation and determination of what aspects of the simulation can be extrapolated to other situations. The learning experience of a class session (for 50- and 75-minute classes, the session may be thought of as the time needed to cover a chapter) should include the following five phases: 1. The introduction. The instructor presents a brief introduction explaining the objectives, procedures, and concepts of the chapter. 2. The team activity. The class breaks into groups of four to six members to carry out the simulation. 3. A comparison of results. The overall results or outcomes are shared among the various groups. 4. The process analysis. The participants and instructor discuss the implications of the simulation. Here the instructor focuses upon how the groups functioned. The instructor helps participants to become more aware of their own processes, to identify problems, and to generate their problem solutions. 5. Conclusion. The instructor and participants reflect upon the learning from the simulation in a brief review and analysis of key parts to tie it all together.

Student Evaluation and Grades The issue of evaluation in a course of this type poses some special problems. Since you are working similar to that of OD practitioner and the class is the client, it becomes difficult to use traditional exams as a means of evaluation. On the other hand, a practitioner or any manager is never completely free from evaluation, because they are

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Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-experiential-approach-to-organizationdevelopment-7th-edition-brown often judged on the achievement of certain objectives. As there is a shared responsibility for achieving certain learning objectives, both you and the participants should share in the evaluation process. While exams may be used in this course, we have had the best results with a management-by-objectives type of approach based upon the following: 

Point credit for coming to class prepared. This assumes that a person who comes prepared learns something even though it may not be measurable. Secondly, this person contributes to the learning of others.

Team problem solving. Team processes as well as the improvement in the process activity and resulting output may be evaluated. A set number of points are given for team participation.

The Change Analysis. The participant receives X points for each competed Change Analysis (CA). Because the CA provides a means of integrating the learning experience with theory, it is in effect a free form mini-exam. Normally, a participant only has to do ten or twelve out of the sixteen possible units to gain full credit.

Case analysis. The cases provide an opportunity for the participants to “put it all together,” to bring their knowledge of OD to bear upon a problem situation, and a chance to monitor their own progress and compare skills to those of their fellow participants.

Exams. True-false, multiple choice, and essay questions are included in this manual for instructors who prefer to use exams. Rarely do we give exams in the classes we teach. Typically, it seems the exams use class time that could be devoted to other activities. Occasionally we will have a class that gets lax in reading the text material and a brief five minute quiz at the beginning of the class helps to “motivate” some students. But we never surprise the class with a quiz or test.

Review questions. The review questions at the end of each chapter serve three purposes: (1) for class discussion, (2) for individual and group assignments, and (3) for examination. We do not use all of the questions for each chapter. There is frequently some overlap and it is desirable to select those which seem most appropriate. In each chapter in the manual we present illustrative examples of answers to these questions. Our purpose is not to provide the only appropriate answer but rather to share some of our ideas regarding possible answers.

Using these methods of evaluation, the participants set their own learning objectives. They know how many points are needed for a given grade and are given feedback constantly on individual progress during the course. We have found that this system has the following advantages:

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The participant sets his/her own learning goals and the emphasis is upon personal development and growth.

The participant knows from the beginning just what one needs to do to achieve a desired grade.

The participant knows exactly where he/she stands at each point in the semester or quarter by comparing actual performance to the desired level.


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Sequencing of Materials An Experiential Approach to Organization Development contains 16 chapters with simulation activities and cases making it adaptable to either the academic quarter (10 weeks) or the semester (16 weeks) system. In the quarter system some chapters will need to be combined or deleted. The simulations are set up to allow flexibility in the timing and suggested times are provided as a guide, allowing for differences between instructors and classes. An instructor may choose to place greater emphasis upon certain aspects more than other aspects. We have found that some simulations remain relatively constant from class to class, while others will vary. Also, one class may get deeply into a simulation, while others may not. Most of the simulations have been used successfully over several semesters and have been used in three different class formats: one weekly 3-hour session, two weekly 1 1/2-hour meetings, and three weekly 50-minute meetings. While the results have varied, in general, the longer sessions seem to be the best suited for this type of course. We prefer to teach this course under the semester system with 16 weekly sessions; however, we have also taught the course on a quarter system. In ten-week quarters, we usually assign one to two chapters per week. The students have the responsibility for reading and completing the pre-work for class activities. Class time is used to develop the concepts further rather than reviewing the book. If additional class hours are available, we use the time to have more student critiques rather than to increase the reading assignments. In addition to the text, we like to have students become familiar with some of the current literature in the field, which helps provide a sense of relevancy for the subject matter. We assign one or two articles, taken from current periodicals, for each chapter. In this way, the outside reading can be kept current and directly related to the text. We ask students to do research on some of the organizations mentioned in the text. The material in the boxed inserts in the text (OD in Practice and Our Changing World) can quickly change. Rather than use hypothetical businesses as examples, we have found that the real world examples used in the text provide more interest to students. We encourage our students to update the material and bring their findings to class. Business Week and Fortune magazines have good online databases with access to some of the material not requiring a paid subscription. Many libraries have access to Internet databases and these lend themselves well to doing searches on organizations and topics. We recognize that there is more material in the text than most instructors can cover in a semester. There will not be enough time each week if for every chapter you engage in a lecture, class discussion and questions, simulations, cases, outside readings, and periodically an exam. You will need to pick and choose activities that best fit your own style and the needs of your students. Think of this text as a resource manual that contains text material and a variety of learning activities. You may elect not to cover some simulations and cases, or give brief coverage to or even omit a chapter. You will need to use your own professional judgment to decide what is appropriate for your situation. Following are suggested course outlines for a 16-week semester and a 10-week quarter.

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Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-experiential-approach-to-organizationdevelopment-7th-edition-brown A Suggested Course Outline for a 16-Week Semester Week

Chapter

Topic

1

1

Organization Development and Reinventing the Organization

2

2

Organization Renewal: The Challenge of Change

3

3

Changing the Culture

4

4

Role and Style of the OD Practitioner

5

5

The Diagnostic Process

6

6

Overcoming Resistance to Change

7

7

Process Intervention Skills

8

8

OD Intervention Strategies

9

9

Employee Empowerment and Interpersonal Interventions

10

10

Team Development Interventions

11

11

Intergroup Development Interventions

12

12

Goal Setting for Effective Organizations

13

13

Work Team Development

14

14

High-Performing Systems and the Learning Organization

15

15

Organization Transformation and Strategic Change

16

16

The Challenge and the Future for Organizations

A Suggested Course Outline for a 10-Week Quarter Week

Chapter

Topic

1

1

Organization Development and Reinventing the Organization

2

2

Organization Renewal: The Challenge of Change

3

Changing the Culture

4

Role and Style of the OD Practitioner

5

The Diagnostic Process

6

Overcoming Resistance to Change

7

Process Intervention Skills

8

OD Intervention Strategies

9

Employee Empowerment and Interpersonal Interventions

6

10

Team Development Interventions

7

11

Intergroup Development Interventions

8

12

Goal Setting for Effective Organizations

13

Work Team Development

3 4 5

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14

High-Performing Systems and the Learning Organization

15

Organization Transformation and Strategic Change

16

The Challenge and the Future for Organizations

Resources Available On the Web Available on the Internet at www.prenhall.com/brownharvey are resources specifically for this book. You can download this Instructor’s Manual and the test bank in Word format. PowerPoint lecture presentations are also available for download. If you have the appropriate software, you will be able to edit all of these files and tailor them specifically for your needs. There is material also available at this web site for your students. If you need assistance in obtaining access (user name and password), contact your Prentice Hall representative.

Conclusion The experiential approach has been used by us in teaching organization development for over twenty years in colleges, universities, industry, and government. The success of the course and a high level of acceptance by students led to the development of the text. The purpose of this guide is to share with you our own experiences in using the text. The course structure has been made intentionally flexible to provide guidelines for supplementing your own unique knowledge and experience. Many of you will probably have a broad background in OD techniques and in using experiential learning, while others of you may be less familiar with the subject. The purpose of the Instructor’s Manual, then, is to share our own framework for teaching this course, to provide adequate structure and guidance for those who may want it, and to allow sufficient flexibility for individual experimentation and improvisation. This is not a static type of course but evolves with each different group of students. Experimentation and innovation are encouraged.

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Solution manual experiential approach to organization development 7th edition brown