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Chapter 2 Europe Chapter Overview European influences dominate studies of world regional geography in the twenty-first century. Other ideas that originated in Europe and diffused across the world include democracy, colonialism, imperialism, and capitalism, the scientific method, nationalism, fascism, communism, and socialism. European discoveries and interactions abroad stimulated interest in scientific and technological advancement at home. New technologies included movable type for the printing press, the microscope, telescope, steam engine, railroad, internal combustion engine, automobile, radio, antibiotics, orbital satellite, and the digital computer. As many Europeans used their technologies to explore and gain more material wealth from abroad, they also used their technology to transform Europe’s natural environments. The Earth was mined for coal and ore and then drilled for oil. These activities improved the standard of living and created new landscapes, although some had negative environmental impacts. For better or for worse, over the last 500 years, many Europeans used their local ideas to shape the modern global economy, structure the world’s political system, and spread their culture throughout the world. Although many Europeans are cooperating both economically and politically more than previously, Europe is as culturally diverse as ever. Chapter Outline Multicultural Modern Europe Chapter Themes I. European Influences II. Distinctive Physical Geography A. Geologic Variety B. Long Coastlines and Navigable Rivers C. Temperate Climates D. Forests, Fertile Soils, and Marine Resources E. Environmental Impacts 1. Impacts of Industrialization 2. Global Environmental Action III. Distinctive Human Geography A. Cultural Diversity 1. Patterns of Language 2. Patterns of Religion B. Aging Populations 1. Dynamics 2. Densities C. Urban Pressures 1. Global City-Regions D. Evolving Politics 1. Modern Countries: Nation-States 2. Nationalism and World Wars 3. Europe Since 1945 E. Global Economics

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Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-essentials-of-world-regional-geography-2nd-edition-white

1. Capitalism and Imperialism 2. Industrial Revolution F. Growing Economies 1. Sophisticated Manufacturing Industries 2. Energy Sources 3. Service Industries 4. Agriculture 5. Tourism IV. Geographic Diversity A. Subregion: Western Europe 1. German Reunification B. Subregion: Northern Europe C. Subregion: Mediterranean Europe 1. Mediterranean Sea D. Subregion: East Central Europe 1. “Yugoslavia� V. Contemporary Geographic Issues A. Political Changes: European Union (EU) 1. Devolution within European Countries B. Multicultural Societies 1. Women, Power, and Social Positions 2. Human Rights 3. Refugees and Asylum Seekers 4. Immigration and Evolving Identities Geography at Work: Responding to Climate Change Themes/Perspectives for General Discussions 1. How has acid deposition affected the environment in the Alps and Scandinavia? 2. How are the separations between language and religion in Europe linked? 3. What are the similarities and differences between the Basques, the Palestinians and the Kurds? 4. How important is recycling in Europe to the extent that the laws support and enforce it? 5. How has Global Warming affected European coastal cities? 6. What role does immigration play in Europe in restructuring policy with each European country? 7. How has reunification of Germany affected the notion of nationalism throughout the rest of Europe? 8. Is the European Union ready to embrace a wave of Muslim influence if Turkey is allowed to become a member of the EU? Key Terms and Concepts acid deposition agglomeration economies agribusiness Benelux Black Triangle Christianity

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colonialism communism concentration continental temperate climate decolonization deindustrialization democratic centralism devolution estuary ethnic cleansing European Union extensification fjord genocide gentrification geographic inertia guest worker imperialism Industrial Revolution intensification irredentism loess market gardening (truck farming) nation-state nation-state ideal North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) oceanic temperate climate planned economy producer goods producer services productive capacity productivity separatism specialization state state socialism subtropical winter rain (Mediterranean) climate supranationalism Check the News – Current events that you might want to explore for your lecture, or have students explore on their own, from www.theworld.org The World Radio program by PRI www.npr.org National Public Radio

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Full file at http://testbank360.eu/solution-manual-essentials-of-world-regional-geography-2nd-edition-white

www.bbc.com British Broadcasting Company www.pri.org Public Radio International www.csmonitor.com Christian Science Monitor is a daily newspaper published Monday through Friday. www.nytimes.com New York Times Newspaper www.iht.com International Herald Tribune World News, Analysis, and Global Opinion www.economist.com The Economist Magazine www.Eastwestcenter.org Building an Asian Pacific Community www.iwpr.net International War and Peace Report. Suggestions for Further Reading “A Survey of the EU’s Eastern Borders” The Economist June 25, 2005 special insert, 16 pp. Altman, Franz Lothar 1995 “Eastern European Enlargement: Issues for Eastern Europe.” The Woodrow Wilson Center, East European Studies Meeting Report (NovemberDecember; summarized by P.B. Smith) Aslund, Anders 2001 Building Capitalism: The Transformation of the Former Soviet Bloc New York: Cambridge University Press Baldersheim, Harold, & Stahlberg Kroster, eds. 1999. Nordic Region-Building in a European Perspective Brookfield VT: Ashgate Bernstein, Richard. “An Aging Europe May Find Itself on the Sidelines” New York Times June 29, 2003 “Blossoming Landscapes: Germany’s Depressed East” The Economist May 26, 2007, 5657 Butlin, Robin A & Dodgson R. A. 1999 An Historical Geography of Europe New York: Oxford University Press Grove, Alfred T. & Rackham, Oliver 2001 The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History New Haven, CT: Yale University Press Hogan, M. J. 1987 The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947-1952 New York: Columbia University Press Hunter, Shireen T. ed. 2002 Islam, Europe’s Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape Westport, CT: Praeger Jordan, Terry G. 1996. The European Culture Area: A Systematic Geography. 3rd ed. New York: Harper Collins Livi-Bacci, Massimo 2000 The Population of Europe Malden, Mass: Blackwell, trans. Carl Ispen “Poverty in Eastern Europe: The Land That Time Forgot” The Economist, September 23, 2000, 27-30

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