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The following is a brief overview of Fayol’s 14 principles of management. (1) Division of Labor: Workers should be specialized, but should also be given more job duties to perform or should assume more responsibility for work outcomes. (2) Authority and Responsibility: Beyond formal authority, this includes informal authority derived from personal expertise, knowledge, and morals. (3) Unity of Command: An employee should receive orders from only one superior, rather than from two or more, which safeguards against inefficiency and overlap. (4) Line of Authority: The line of authority is the chain of managers in an organization from the top to the bottom. The number of levels should be limited to help ensure timely and flexible reactions to problems, and to facilitate communication. (5) Centralization: This is the degree that authority is located at the top of the organizational hierarchy. (6) Unity of direction: Management should have one plan of action to guide managers and workers as they use organizational resources—a single overall guiding plan and organizational strategy. (7) Equity: Equity is a combination of justice and respect toward employees. This is a primary concern for many managers who work with diverse workforces. (8) Order: Managers achieve order by ensuring that every employee finds a position in the organization that provides the organization with the greatest benefit while providing employees with the greatest career opportunities to satisfy their own needs. Order also addresses the need for organizational charts to clarify employee position and promotion opportunities, and career planning (9) Initiative: This principle involves encouraging employees to be creative and innovative in their work, which leads to progress and innovation. (10) Discipline: This is the need for obedience, energy, application, and outward marks of respect for a superior’s authority from employees. Discipline results in respectful relations between organizational members and reflects the quality of an organization’s leadership. (11) Remuneration of Personnel: This refers to the reward systems, which should be equitable for employees and the organization. The system should encourage productivity by rewarding well-directed effort, and it should be resistant to abuse. It should be uniformly applied to all employees. (12) Stability of tenure of personnel: This is the concept of long-term, but not necessarily lifetime, employment. (13) Subordination of individual interest to general interest: The interests of the organization as a whole must take precedence over the interests of any one individual or group. (14) Esprit de corps: A shared feeling of comradeship, enthusiasm, or devotion to a common cause, such as the organization, is important for a successful management effort. 9. Visit various local organizations in your community and identify those that seem to operate with a Theory X or a Theory Y approach to management. (Note to the instructor: Student answers will vary. The following is a brief overview of the Theory X and Theory Y approach to management.)

Solution manual contemporary management 7th edition jones  

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