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inflexible. D. Fayol's Principles of Management: Henri Fayol identified 14 principles that he believed to be essential to increasing the efficiency of the management process. See Table 2.1 1. Division of Labor: Fayol advocated allowing workers to taken on more job duties to perform and assume more responsibility for work outcomes. 2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

TEXT REFERENCE MANAGEMENT INSIGHT Authority and Responsibility: Fayol went Peters and Waterman’s Excellent beyond Weber’s formal authority to include Companies the informal authority derived from In the early 1980s, Peters and personal expertise, knowledge, and ability Waterman identified 62 organizations to lead. that they considered to be the best performing organizations in the U.S. Unity of Command: The principle of unity By investigating why these 62 of command specifies that an employee companies perform better than their should receive orders from only one rivals, they uncovered three sets of superior. related principles. First, they found that top managers of successful companies Line of Authority: The line of authority is create principles and guidelines that the chain of managers in an organization emphasize managerial autonomy and from the top to the bottom. It is important entrepreneurship, encourage initiative, to allow managers at middle to interact and stimulate risk taking. Second, they with managers at similar levels in other found that managers of excellent departments to speed decision making. organizations create one central plan that puts organizational goals at center Centralization: Centralization refers to the stage. Third, excellent companies degree that authority is located at the top of establish a division of work and a the organizational hierarchy. division of authority and responsibility that will motivate employees to Unity of Direction: There is also a need for subordinate their individual interests to unity of direction, which involves the common interest. formation of one plan of action to guide (Box in text on page 55.) managers and workers as they use organizational resources. An organization without a single overall plan becomes inefficient and ineffective.

7. Equity: A central principle is the need to treat employees with equity. Fayol felt equity resulted from the combination of respect and justice. 8. Order: Order meant ensuring that every employee finds a position in the

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